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1

Proof testing of an explosion containment vessel  

SciTech Connect

A steel containment vessel was fabricated and proof tested for use by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at their M-9 facility. The HY-100 steel vessel was designed to provide total containment for high explosives tests up to 22 lb (10 kg) of TNT equivalent. The vessel was fabricated from an 11.5-ft diameter cylindrical shell, 1.5 in thick, and 2:1 elliptical ends, 2 in thick. Prior to delivery and acceptance, three types of tests were required for proof testing the vessel: a hydrostatic pressure test, air leak tests, and two full design charge explosion tests. The hydrostatic pressure test provided an initial static check on the capacity of the vessel and functioning of the strain instrumentation. The pneumatic air leak tests were performed before, in between, and after the explosion tests. After three smaller preliminary charge tests, the full design charge weight explosion tests demonstrated that no yielding occurred in the vessel at its rated capacity. The blast pressures generated by the explosions and the dynamic response of the vessel were measured and recorded with 33 strain channels, 4 blast pressure channels, 2 gas pressure channels, and 3 displacement channels. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a short summary of the methodology used to predict the design blast loads, a brief description of the transducer locations and measurement systems, some of the hydrostatic test strain and stress results, examples of the explosion pressure and dynamic strain data, and some comparisons of the measured data with the design loads and stresses on the vessel.

Esparza, E.D. [Esparza (Edward D.), San Antonio, TX (United States); Stacy, H.; Wackerle, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-10-01

2

Probability of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure for a KWU PWR  

SciTech Connect

During postulated core meltdown accidents in light water reactors, there is a likelihood for an in-vessel steam explosion when the melt contacts the coolant in the lower plenum. The objective of the work described in this paper is to determine the conditional probability of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure for a Kraftwerk Union (KWU) pressurized water reactor (PWR). The energetics of the explosion depends on the mass of the molten fuel that mixes with the coolant and participates in the explosion and on the conversion of fuel thermal energy into mechanical work. The work can result in the generation of dynamic pressures that affect the lower head (and possibly lead to its failure), and it can cause acceleration of a slug (fuel and coolant material) upward that can affect the upper internal structures and vessel head and ultimately cause the failure of the upper head. If the upper head missile has sufficient energy, it can reach the containment shell and penetrate it. The analysis, must therefore, take into account all possible dissipation mechanisms.

Esmaili, H.; Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Zuchuat, O. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

1996-12-31

3

Uncertainty quantification of a containment vessel dynamic response subjected to high-explosive detonation impulse loading  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in cooperation with Southwest Research Institute, has been developing capabilities to provide reliability-based structural evaluation techniques for performing weapon component and system reliability assessments. The development and applications of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) is an important ingredient in the overall weapon reliability assessments. Focus, herein, is placed on the uncertainty quantification associated with the structural response of a containment vessel for high-explosive (HE) experiments. The probabilistic dynamic response of the vessel is evaluated through the coupling of the probabilistic code NESSUS with the non-linear structural dynamics code, DYNA-3D. The probabilistic model includes variations in geometry and mechanical properties, such as Young's Modulus, yield strength, and material flow characteristics. Finally, the probability of exceeding a specified strain limit, which is related to vessel failure, is determined.

Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.); Thacker, B. H. (Ben H.); Riha, D. S. (David S)

2002-01-01

4

Review of the current understanding of the potential for containment failure from in-vessel steam explosions  

SciTech Connect

A group of experts was convened to review the current understanding of the potential for containment failure from in-vessel steam explosions during core meltdown accidents in LWRs. The Steam Explosion Review Group (SERG) was requested to provide assessments of: (1) the conditional probability of containment failure due to a steam explosion, (2) a Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) report entitled ''An Uncertainty Study of PWR Steam Explosions,'' NUREG/CR-3369, (3) a SNL proposed steam explosion research program. This report summarizes the results of the deliberations of the review group. It also presents the detailed response of each individual member to each of the issues. The consensus of the SERG is that the occurrence of a steam explosion of sufficient energetics which could lead to alpha-mode containment failure has a low probability. The SERG members disagreed with the methodology used in NUREG/CR-3369 for the purpose of establishing the uncertainty in the probability of containment failure by a steam explosion. A consensus was reached among SERG members on the need for a continuing steam explosion research program which would improve our understanding of certain aspects of steam explosion phenomenology.

Not Available

1985-06-01

5

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2012-10-01

6

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2013-10-01

7

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2010-10-01

8

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2011-10-01

9

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2014-10-01

10

Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact  

SciTech Connect

Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber to impact by fragments from the largest explosive charge expected to be placed in these chambers (M426, 8 inch, chemical, 7 lbs Comp B) is evaluated. Numerical (CTH) and empirical (ConWep) codes are used to characterize the munition fragments, and assess the consequences of their impact and penetration on the walls of these vessels. Both pristine and corroded configurations of the munition have been considered, with and without liquid agent fill. When the munition burster charge detonates, munition case fragments impact and perforate the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel wall, resulting in extensive breakup of this inner chamber and the formation of additional fragments. These residual munition case and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to crater the Explosive Containment Chamber inner wall layer, with accompanying localized permanent deformation (bulging) of both the inner and outer chamber walls. The integrity of the Explosive Containment Chamber was retained under all of the APV / munition configurations considered in this study, with no evidence that primary (munition) or secondary (munition and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel) fragments will perforate the inner chamber wall. Limited analyses of munition detonation without the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel present indicate that some munition span fragments could form under those conditions that have sufficient mass and velocity to perforate the inner wall of the Explosive Containment Chamber.

Benham, R.A.; Fischer, S.H.; Kipp, M.E.; Martinez, R.R.

1999-02-01

11

Composite Vessels for Containment of Extreme Blast Loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A worldwide trend for explosives testing has been to replace open-air detonations with containment vessels, especially when any hazardous materials are involved. As part of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) effort to ensure the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been developing a high performance filament wound composite firing vessel

J Pastrnak; C Henning; W Grundler; V Switzer; R Hollaway; J Morrison; L Hagler; E Kokko; S Deteresa; B Hathcoat; E Dalder

2004-01-01

12

Composite Vessels for Containment of Extreme Blast Loadings  

SciTech Connect

A worldwide trend for explosives testing has been to replace open-air detonations with containment vessels, especially when any hazardous materials are involved. As part of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) effort to ensure the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been developing a high performance filament wound composite firing vessel that is nearly radiographically transparent. It was intended to contain a limited number of detonations of metal cased explosive assemblies in radiographic facilities such as the Advanced Hydrodynamic Facility (AHF) being studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory. A 2-meter diameter pressure vessel was designed to contain up to 35 kg (80 lb) of TNT equivalent explosive without leakage. Over the past 5 years a total of three half-scale (1 meter diameter) vessels have been constructed, and two of them were tested to 150% load with 8.2 kg (18-pound) spheres of C4 explosive. The low density and high specific strength advantages used in this composite vessel design may have other additional applications such as transporting sensitive explosives that could otherwise be moved only in very small quantities. Also, it could be used for highly portable, explosive containment systems for law enforcement.

Pastrnak, J; Henning, C; Grundler, W; Switzer, V; Hollaway, R; Morrison, J; Hagler, L; Kokko, E; Deteresa, S; Hathcoat, B; Dalder, E

2004-07-15

13

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2010-10-01

14

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2014-10-01

15

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2011-10-01

16

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

...2014-10-01 false Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine...

2014-10-01

17

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2013-10-01

18

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2012-10-01

19

Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal

C. E. Holcombe; D. G. Scott

1985-01-01

20

Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal

C. E. Holcombe; D. G. Scott

1984-01-01

21

33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive...or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the United States and in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1, Divisions...

2010-07-01

22

Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

1984-06-25

23

Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Donald G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

24

Residual Stress Measurements of Explosively Clad Cylindrical Pressure Vessels  

SciTech Connect

Tantalum refractory liners were explosively clad into cylindrical pressure vessels, some of which had been previously autofrettaged. Using explosive cladding, the refractory liner formed a metallurgical bond with the steel of the pressure vessel at a cost of induced strain. Two techniques were employed to determine the residual stress state of the clad steel cylinders: neutron diffraction and mechanical slitting. Neutron diffraction is typically nondestructive; however, due to attenuation along the beam path, the cylinders had to be sectioned into rings that were nominally 25 mm thick. Slitting is a destructive method, requiring the sectioning of the cylindrical samples. Both techniques provided triaxial stress data and useful information on the effects of explosive cladding. The stress profiles in the hoop and radial directions were similar for an autofrettaged, nonclad vessel and a clad, nonautofrettaged vessel. The stress profiles in the axial direction appeared to be different. Further, the data suggested that residual stresses from the autofrettage and explosive cladding processes were not additive, in part due to evidence of reverse yielding. The residual stress data are presented, compared and discussed.

Taylor, Douglas J [TPL, Inc; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Hill, M. R. [Hill Engineering; Meith, W. A. [Hill Engineering

2012-01-01

25

Explosive limits and its container factors of polybasic explosive mixture gas containing H 2 , CH 4 and CO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosive characteristics of polybasic explosive mixture gas are systematically researched. Over 28000 experimental data have\\u000a been obtained from 1278 effective experiments. The paper probes into the concentration explosive limits and the container\\u000a factors of polybasic explosive mixture gas which contains H2, CH4 and CO. It has worked out the sufficient and necessary condition for branch-chain explosion and the unified expression

Hu Yaoyuan; Zhou Bangzhi; Yang Yuanfa; Li Yong; Zhu Kaihan

2002-01-01

26

BWR ex-vessel steam explosion analysis with MC3D code  

SciTech Connect

A steam explosion may occur, during a severe reactor accident, when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. A strong enough steam explosion in a nuclear power plant could jeopardize the containment integrity and so lead to a direct release of radioactive material to the environment. To resolve the open issues in steam explosion understanding and modeling, the OECD program SERENA phase 2 was launched at the end of year 2007, focusing on reactor applications. To verify the progress made in the understanding and modeling of fuel coolant interaction key phenomena for reactor applications a reactor exercise has been performed. In this paper the BWR ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the MC3D code in conditions of the SERENA reactor exercise for the BWR case, is presented and discussed. The premixing simulations were performed with two different jet breakup modeling approaches and the explosion was triggered also at the expected most challenging time. For the most challenging case, at the cavity wall the highest calculated pressure was {approx}20 MPa and the highest pressure impulse was {approx}90 kPa.s. (authors)

Leskovar, M. [Josef Stefan Inst., Jamova cesta 39, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-07-01

27

Results of the Triggered TROI Steam Explosion Experiments with a Narrow Interaction Vessel  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the interaction vessel geometry has been studied on the energetics of a steam explosion in the TROI experiment. The interaction vessel was 30 cm in diameter (1-D geometry). Two types of corium composition were used as a melt. One was spontaneously non-explosive 80 : 20 corium (UO{sub 2} : ZrO{sub 2}) and the other was spontaneously explosive 70 : 30 eutectic corium. A test with 80 : 20 corium was carried out without an external triggering. Another test with 80 : 20 corium was also carried out with an external trigger. In addition, two tests with 70 : 30 corium were carried out with an external trigger. The external trigger was applied just before the contact between the melt and the bottom of the interaction vessel. This time was thought to be the triggering time of a spontaneous steam explosion. The external trigger was a chemical explosive of PETN 1.0 g. However, none of these tests led to steam explosions even with an external triggering. Since eutectic corium led to spontaneous or triggered steam explosions in a previous test using a 60 cm wide interaction vessel (3-D geometry), it is quite probable that a geometry effect of the interaction vessel could exist. The reason for no steam explosions in the narrow (1-D) interaction vessel is believed to be a relatively high void fraction in the vessel when compared with the 3-D vessel. Due to the high void fraction, a steam explosion could not propagate to the surroundings of the melt where the water was depleted. (authors)

Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Hong, S.H.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D. [Thermal-Hydraulics and Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong, Taejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

28

Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

Stinecipher, M.M.

1981-01-01

29

Substantiation of Thermodynamic Criteria of Explosion Safety in Process of Severe Accidents in Pressure Vessel Reactors  

E-print Network

The paper represents original development of thermodynamic criteria of occurrence conditions of steam-gas explosions in the process of severe accidents. The received results can be used for modelling of processes of severe accidents in pressure vessel reactors.

Skalozubov, V I; Jarovoj, S S; Kochnyeva, V Yu

2012-01-01

30

Substantiation of Thermodynamic Criteria of Explosion Safety in Process of Severe Accidents in Pressure Vessel Reactors  

E-print Network

The paper represents original development of thermodynamic criteria of occurrence conditions of steam-gas explosions in the process of severe accidents. The received results can be used for modelling of processes of severe accidents in pressure vessel reactors.

V. I. Skalozubov; V. N. Vashchenko; S. S. Jarovoj; V. Yu. Kochnyeva

2012-03-27

31

Welding the AT-400A Containment Vessel  

SciTech Connect

Early in 1994, the Department of Energy assigned Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility for designing and providing the welding system for the girth weld for the AT-400A containment vessel. (The AT-400A container is employed for the shipment and long-term storage of the nuclear weapon pits being returned from the nation's nuclear arsenal.) Mason Hanger Corporation's Pantex Plant was chosen to be the production facility. The project was successfully completed by providing and implementing a turnkey welding system and qualified welding procedure at the Pantex Plant. The welding system was transferred to Pantex and a pilot lot of 20 AT-400A containers with W48 pits was welded in August 1997. This document is intended to bring together the AT-400A welding system and product (girth weld) requirements and the activities conducted to meet those requirements. This document alone is not a complete compilation of the welding development activities but is meant to be a summary to be used with the applicable references.

Brandon, E.

1998-11-01

32

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2011-10-01

33

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2012-10-01

34

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 ...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and...containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a)...

2012-10-01

35

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2013-10-01

36

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

...2014-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2014-10-01

37

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

...containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 ...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and...containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a)...

2014-10-01

38

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2010-10-01

39

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 ...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and...containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a)...

2013-10-01

40

Explosion testing for the container venting system  

SciTech Connect

As part of the study of the hazards of inspecting nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site, the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Hanford Company have developed a container venting system to sample the gases that may be present in various metal drums and other containers. In support of this work, the US Bureau of Mines has studied the probability of ignition while drilling into drums and other containers that may contain flammable gas mixtures. The Westinghouse Hanford Company drilling procedure was simulated by tests conducted in the Bureau`s 8-liter chamber, using the same type of pneumatic drill that will be used at the Hanford Site. There were no ignitions of near-stoichiometric hydrogen-air or methane-air mixtures during the drilling tests. The temperatures of the drill bits and lids were measured by an infrared video camera during the drilling tests. These measured temperatures are significantly lower than the {approximately}500{degree}C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated hydrogen-air or the {approximately}600{degree}C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated methane-air. The temperatures are substantially lower than the 750{degree}C ignition temperature of hydrogen-air and 1,220{degree}C temperature of methane-air when heated by a 1-m-diameter wire.

Cashdollar, K.L.; Green, G.M.; Thomas, R.A. [Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States); Demiter, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-09-30

41

Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel  

DOEpatents

This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

Powell, J.G.

1993-11-16

42

Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel  

DOEpatents

This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

Powell, James G. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01

43

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on...offered for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials...transport vehicle is packed with Class 1 (explosive) materials...walls and floors are free from protrusions. (2) Structurally...

2010-10-01

44

Instrumentation and testing of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model  

SciTech Connect

Static overpressurization tests of two scale models of nuclear containment structures - a steel containment vessel (SCV) representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for pressurized water reactors (PWR) - are being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper discusses plans for instrumentation and testing of the PCCV model. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Hessheimer, M.F.; Pace, D.W.; Klamerus, E.W. [and others

1997-04-01

45

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical...REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical...DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or...

2012-07-01

46

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical...REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical...DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or...

2013-07-01

47

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical...REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical...DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or...

2010-07-01

48

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical...REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical...DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or...

2011-07-01

49

Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-16

50

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-06-15

51

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

1999-06-15

52

Simulation of impulse effects from explosive charges containing metal particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation of an explosive blast wave containing inert metal particles is investigated numerically using a robust two-phase\\u000a methodology with appropriate models to account for real gas behavior, inter-phase interactions, and inter-particle collisions\\u000a to study the problem of interest. A new two-phase Eulerian–Lagrangian formulation is proposed that can handle the dense nature\\u000a of the flow-field. The velocity and momentum profiles

K. Balakrishnan; D. V. Nance; S. Menon

2010-01-01

53

Emulsion explosives containing high concentrations of calcium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

A water-in-oil emulsion blasting agent is described having a discontinuous aqueous oxidizer salt solution phase which contains a calcium nitrate (CN) to ammonium nitrate (AN) weight ratio of 1.5 or greater, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid organic phase, an emulsifier, and, optionally, a density reducing agent. It is found that emulsion slurry blasting agents containing this relatively high amount of CN to AN have properties that conventional emulsion slurry explosives, those containing more AN than CN or solely AN, do not. Specifically, one property is that the high-CN emulsion blasting agents of the present composition can have much smaller critical diameters but yet pass the US DOT Blasting Agent tests. This result will be shown in the examples that follow. Thus, if AN is present as the principal oxidizer salt, emulsion explosives that have small critical diameters, and even those with relatively large critical diameters, generally are too sensitive to pass the Blasting Agent tests. If CN is the principal oxidizer, the emulsion blasting agents are less sensitive and more likely to pass the tests. This effect of CN has commercial significance. 10 claims.

Jessop, H.A.; Funk, A.G.

1982-10-26

54

DHCVIM: A direct heating containment vessel interactions module  

SciTech Connect

Models for prediction of direct containment heating phenomena as implemented in the DHCVIM computer module are described. The models were designed to treat thermal, chemical and hydrodynamic processes in the three regions of the Sandia National Laboratory Surtsey DCH test facility: the melt generator, cavity and vessel. The fundamental balance equations, along with constitutive relations are described. A combination of Eulerian treatment for the gas phase and Lagrangian treatment for the droplet phase is used in the modeling. Comparisons of calculations and DCH-1 test results are presented. Reasonable agreement is demonstrated for the vessel pressure rise, melt generator pressure decay and particle size distribution.

Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.K.

1987-01-01

55

DETONATION PROPERTIES OF EXPLOSIVES CONTAINING NANOMETRIC ALUMINUM POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanometric aluminum powder is known to react more rapidly than conventional, micron-size aluminum grades in propellant and explosive compositions. Defence Research and Development Canada - Valcartier (DRDC-V) and the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) are collaborating to assess the potential of nanometric aluminum powders in explosive compositions. Various plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) and TNT-based formulations have been developed to compare

Patrick Brousseau; Helen E. Dorsett; Matthew D. Cliff; C. John Anderson

56

An explosion of a CNG fuel vessel in an urban bus.  

PubMed

An investigation is presented of the explosion of a CNG (compressed natural gas) fuel vessel, called a liner, in an urban bus. The explosion happened at a gas station 10 min after filling was completed. There were no traces of soot and flames at the failed liner, which would be indicative of explosion by ignition of the gas. The filling process of the station was automatically monitored and recorded in a computer. There was no unusual record of the filling system that indicated excess pressure at the time of the accident. There were cracks on the liner that were initiated at the outer surface of the cylindrical shell located at a point 4 cm above the lower dome where cracks did not originate easily as a result of overload. Chemical analysis was performed on a specimen that was cut from the liner, and there was no peculiarity in the mix. Mechanical analysis was performed on the specimens and showed that the hardness was not in the specified range because of inadequate heat treatment of the metal. The hardness of the liner was strictly controlled in the manufacturing process. All the liners that were manufactured at the same period with the failed liner were recalled for examination. PMID:20141553

Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Seung-Won; Moon, Jung-Eun; Lee, Kyu-Jung

2010-03-01

57

The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within

Kane J. Fisher

2000-01-01

58

Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

1999-03-01

59

Round Robin Analyses of the Steel Containment Vessel Model  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. Several organizations from the US, Europe, and Asia were invited to participate in a Round Robin analysis to perform independent pretest predictions and posttest evaluations of the behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. Both pretest and posttest analysis results from all Round Robin participants were compared to the high pressure test data. This paper summarizes the Round Robin analysis activities and discusses the lessons learned from the collective effort.

Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Klamerus, E.W.; Luk, V.K.

1999-03-01

60

The Containment of Blast Effects from the Detonation of Small High Explosive Charges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A spherical containment device to be used for the safe transportation of high explosives was evaluated for its ability to suppress blast effects from internal explosive detonations of charge weights extending to 483 gms (17.03 oz.) of 50/50 pentolite expl...

W. F. Jackson

1981-01-01

61

15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.  

... (a) Vessels, locomotives, aircraft, rail cars, trucks, other vehicles, trailers, pallets...United States to ownership abroad. If a vessel, car, aircraft, locomotive, rail car, vehicle, or container, whether in...

2014-01-01

62

Modeling solid thermal explosion containment on reactor HNIW and HMX.  

PubMed

2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane (HNIW), also known as CL-20 and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), are highly energetic materials which have been popular in national defense industries for years. This study established the models of thermal decomposition and thermal explosion hazard for HNIW and HMX. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data were used for parameters determination of the thermokinetic models, and then these models were employed for simulation of thermal explosion in a 437L barrel reactor and a 24 kg cubic box package. Experimental results indicating the best storage conditions to avoid any violent runaway reaction of HNIW and HMX were also discovered. This study also developed an efficient procedure regarding creation of thermokinetics and assessment of thermal hazards of HNIW and HMX that could be applied to ensure safe storage conditions. PMID:20018444

Lin, Chun-Ping; Chang, Chang-Ping; Chou, Yu-Chuan; Chu, Yung-Chuan; Shu, Chi-Min

2010-04-15

63

The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within a Mound-designed calorimeter. In order to qualify the WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels for use at WETF, steps have been taken to ensure the appropriate design, adequate testing, quality in fabrication, and acceptable documentation.

Kane J. Fisher

2000-03-01

64

Experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX).  

SciTech Connect

The results of two series of experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. The first series of experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water while the second series employed 1.2-kg batches of zirconium-stainless steel mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite large, the explosion energies estimated from the experimental measurements were found to be small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available.

Cho, D. H.

1998-04-10

65

USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST  

SciTech Connect

Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

2011-06-03

66

The effect of corium composition and interaction vessel geometry on the prototypic steam explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of steam explosion experiments using molten material consisting of UO2 and ZrO2 mixture, which is called corium, to simulate a prototypic steam explosion in a nuclear reactor during a postulated severe accident. About 5–10kg of molten material with enough superheat was poured into a pool of water in a test section at room temperature to

Jin Ho Song; Jong Hwan Kim; Seong Wan Hong; Beong Tae Min; Hee Dong Kim

2006-01-01

67

Improving the adaptability in automated vessel scheduling in container ports using intelligent software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faster turnaround time of vessels and high berth productivity are paramount factors in container terminals for assuring competitive advantage in the shipping industry. An autonomous decision-making capability in the terminal is vital in achieving the required productivity. Vessel scheduling\\/berthing system in a container terminal is regarded as a very complex dynamic application in today’s business world. The Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Prasanna Lokuge; Damminda Alahakoon

2007-01-01

68

Detection of explosives, shielded nuclear materials and other hazardous substances in cargo containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosecond Neutron Analysis / Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) has been used to create devices for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. Explosives and other hazardous materials are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays form reactions of fast neutrons with the materials inside the container. Depending on the dimensions of the inspected containers, the detecting system consists of one or several detection modules, each of which contains a small neutron generator with built-in position sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. Array of several detectors of fast neutrons is used to detect neutrons from spontaneous and induced fission of nuclear materials. These neutrons can penetrate thick layers of lead shielding, which can be used to conceal gamma-radioactivity from nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 code was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Capability of the device to detect 1 kg of explosive imitator inside container filled with suitcases and other baggage items has been confirmed experimentally. First experiments with heavily shielded nuclear materials have been carried out.

Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Kalinin, Valery

2006-05-01

69

Calculation of Iodine Removal by Spray in LWRs Containment Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code MIRA-PB for predicting the iodine removal by containment spray in LOCA was prepared on the basis of MIRA-P\\/MIRA-B code developed in Battelle Columbus Laboratories. MIRA-PB considers behavior of inorganic iodine, organic iodide, and iodic aerosol and simultaneous removal by natural deposition, liquid-film absorption, spray washout, filtration and leakage to the environment. The iodine removal by the containment

Gunji NISHIO; Mitsugu TANAKA

1979-01-01

70

Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic

Caroline E. Burgess; James D. Woodyard; K. A. Rainwater; J. M. Lightfoot; B. R. Richardson

1998-01-01

71

Probabilistic assessment of a containment vessel's survivability to facilitate decision making and enhance quality assurance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a probabilistic approach for assessing the design and safety of an HSLA-100 Steel Confinement Vessel for particular types of detonations. Likelihood of failure for three different scenarios is considered. They are the likelihood a fragment, (1) penetrates half the containment vessel's thickness, (2) perforates through the containment vessel, and (3) perforates a secondary safety vessel given it's perforated the containment vessel. Uncertainties to be quantified include a fragment's geometry, orientation, and velocity. The governing equation for the likelihood of failure is the probability a large enough fragment exits, that it travels fast enough, and is in the proper orientation. The mathematical formulation of this probability expression is presented. The likelihood of failure is based on existing experimental evidence, theory, and expert judgment. Simulations are performed using Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling. The assessment model is used to verify and validate numerical predictions in the well-defined-well-documented, (WDWD) domain. Using Bayesian methods, confidence in numerical predictions is assessed within the WDWD domain so inferences beyond the domain can be made with confidence using only numerical analysis. The assessment model's influence diagram is evolved into a decision analysis model. Validation problems are presented to exercise the decision model.

Dolin, Ronald M.

2001-01-01

72

Response of a BWR Mark II containment vessel head to loads beyond the design basis  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the macro-deformations of the sealing surfaces between the removable drywell head and the conical shell of a Mark II containment vessel head during a severe accident is presented. This junction contains two continuous gaskets in a configuration classified as non-pressure seating. An examination of the behavior of this junction to pressure and thermal loadings is reported. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Kulak, R.F.; Ash, J.E.; Kennedy, J.M.; Hsieh, B.J.

1985-01-01

73

USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect

The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

Loftin, Bradley [Savannah River National Laboratory; Koenig, Richard [Savannah River National Laboratory

2013-08-08

74

Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs is that the 6CVS credits the inner O-ring seal as the containment boundary while the SRNL design credits the outer O-ring seal. Since the leak test must be done with the inner O-ring in place, the containment vessel does not have a pathway for getting the helium into the vessel during the leak test. The leak testing contractor was not able to get acceptable leak rates with the specified O-ring, but they were able to pass the leak test with a slightly larger O-ring. ANL asked the SRNL to duplicate the leak test vendor's method to determine the cause of the high leak rates. The SRNL testing showed that the helium leak indications were caused by residual helium left within the 6CVS Closure Assembly by the leak test technique, and by helium permeation through the Viton O-ring seals. After SRNL completed their tests, the leak testing contractor was able to measure acceptable leak rates by using the slightly larger O-ring size, by purging helium from the lid threads, and by being very quick in getting the bell jar under a full vacuum. This paper describes the leak test vendor's test technique, and other techniques that could be have been used to successfully leak test the 6CVS's.

Trapp, D.; Crow, G.

2011-06-06

75

Development of a nylon vessel for the containment of large liquid scintillators  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Borexino solar neutrino experiment will employ a large mass (300 ton) of liquid scintillator to detect neutrinos by observing the light emitted from recoil electrons following neutrino scattering. Requirements for the containment vessel include optical clarity, chemical resistance to the scintillator, low radioactivity, and mechanical strength. An amorphous nylon is being investigated which seems to satisfy the requirements. The status of the development of a 2m sphere for the Borexino counting test facility (CTF) will be presented.

Benziger, J.B.; Calaprice, F.P.; Vogelaar, R.B.

1993-10-01

76

Spatially offset hyperspectral stand-off Raman imaging for explosive detection inside containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stand-off Raman imaging system for the identification of explosive traces was modified for the analysis of substances in containers which are non-transparent to the human eye. This extends its application from trace detection of threat materials to the investigation of suspicious container content. Despite its limitation to containers that are opaque to the facilitated laser, the combination of Spatial Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) with stand-off Raman imaging allows to collect spectral data from a broad range of different spatial offsets simultaneously. This is a significant advantage over SORS with predefined offset, since the ideal offset is unknown prior to the measurement and depends on the container material as well as the sample content. Here the detection of sodium chlorate in a white plastic bottle is shown. A 532nm-laser (pulse length 5ns, repetition 50kHz) was focused to a diameter of 10mm at 10m. A 1500mm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with a 152.4mm diameter collected the scattered light. An edge filter removed inelastically scattered laser light and a liquid crystal tunable filter was used to select 0.25nm broad wavelength ranges between 480 and 720nm. The sample area of 50×50mm was imaged on 1024×1024 pixels of an ICCD camera. For the conducted experiments an ICCD gate time of 5ns was selected and 70?J-laser pulses were accumulated during 1s for each wavelength.

Zachhuber, Bernhard; Östmark, Henric; Carlsson, Torgny

2014-05-01

77

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

78

THE INVESTIGATION OF STABILIZATION OF SILICON SOL FOR WATER-CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing the durability of inorganic thickener for slurry explosives based on silica obtained by acid treatment of nepheline are briefly described. The results of the investigation into silicone sol stabilization are given. This investigation has allowed formulating the composition and working out the methods for obtaining modified silicon sol and improved slurry explosive on its basis. Illustr. -

Albert R. Alishkin; Victor A. Matveev; Dmitrii V. Mayorov; Victor I. Zaharov; Ekaterina A. Alishkina

79

Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions  

DOEpatents

An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

Tschritter, Kenneth L. (Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); DiBerardo, Raymond A. (Baltimore, MD)

2005-04-19

80

Coal-preparation baghouse protects against explosion damage  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in baghouse containment technology are reducing the risks when air and coal dust mixtures ignite and cause secondary explosions that were formerly vented. The cement industry was quick to adopt the new technology that resembles a circular pressure vessel able to withstand a 50-psi internal pressure and contain secondary explosions. Steps to minimize primary explosions include new standards for baghouse design and construction to eliminate components that cause sparks, electrical grounding, continuous dust removal, high air-to-cloth ratios, and pulse jet cleaning. Other considerations involving baghouse location, maintenance access, fire suppression, and rotary valve sizing can also reduce explosion risks. (DCK)

Not Available

1983-09-01

81

HALFTON: A high-explosive containment experiment in partially saturated tuff  

SciTech Connect

The HALFTON experiment explored the phenomena of high explosive detonations in 90% water-saturated tuff rock. The explosive source was a 453 kg TNT sphere which was grouted in a drift in G Tunnel, Nevada Test Site. Active gages measured stresses and motions in the range of 1.3 to 5.3 cavity radii and showed a peak stress decay as range raised to the {minus}2.77 power. Additional stress gages were fielded to investigate the gage inclusion problem.

Smith, C.W.

1996-03-01

82

Nuclear fusion driven by Coulomb explosion of homonuclear and heteronuclear deuterium- and tritium-containing clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionization and Coulomb explosion of homonuclear Dn and Tn (n=959-8007) and heteronuclear (D2O)n and (T2O)n (n=459-2171) clusters in very intense (I=5×1014-5×1018 W cm-2) laser fields is studied using classical dynamics simulations. The efficiency of the d+d and d+t nuclear fusion driven by the Coulomb explosion (NFDCE) is explored. The d+d NFDCE of (D2O)n heteronuclear clusters is enhanced by energetic

Isidore Last; Joshua Jortner

2001-01-01

83

Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

1993-07-01

84

Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

2002-02-25

85

Predicting runaway reaction in a solid explosive containing a single crack  

SciTech Connect

Mechanically damaged high explosive (HE) undergoing defiagration has recently been shown capable of generating combustion pressures and flame speeds dramatically in excess of those observed in undamaged HE. Flame penetration of HE cracks large enough to support the reaction zone serves to increase the burning surface area and the rate of gas production. Cracks confine the product gas, elevating the local pressure and reducing the reaction zone thickness such that the flame can enter smaller-width cracks. As the reaction zone decreases sufficiently to enter the smallest cracks, the flame surface area will grow appreciably, rapidly pressurizing the cracks. This runaway of pressure and burning area, termed combustion bootstrapping, can dramatically accelerate the combustion mode and in the most extreme cases may result in deflagration-to-detonation transition [3, 4]. The current study is intended to help predict the conditions required for the onset of reaction runaway in a narrow slot in HE. We review experiments [5] where flames were observed to propagate though a narrow slot (intended to simulate a well-formed crack) in high explosive at velocities up to 10 km/s, reaching pressures in excess of 1 kbar. Pressurization of the slot due to gas-dynamic choking is then used to predict the onset of runaway reaction. This model agrees with experimental pressure measurements of observed reaction runaway in slots.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

86

Chemical and explosives point detection through opaque containers using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a novel technique used to identify the chemical Raman signature of threat materials within a few seconds through common non-metallic containers, including those containers which may not yield to inspection by conventional backscatter Raman. In particular, some opaque plastic containers and coloured glass bottles can be difficult to analyze using conventional backscatter Raman because

Paul W. Loeffen; Guy Maskall; Stuart Bonthron; Matthew Bloomfield; Craig Tombling; Pavel Matousek

2011-01-01

87

Initiative for Explosives Detection  

E-print Network

Initiative for Explosives Detection Highly Concealed Bulk Explosives Detection This focus area emphasizes the detection of explosives or IEDs hidden in vehicles, buildings or various types of containers of highly concealed explosives include the development of enhanced energy sources, improved electronics

88

Chemical and explosives point detection through opaque containers using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a novel technique used to identify the chemical Raman signature of threat materials within a few seconds through common non-metallic containers, including those containers which may not yield to inspection by conventional backscatter Raman. In particular, some opaque plastic containers and coloured glass bottles can be difficult to analyze using conventional backscatter Raman because the signal from the contents is often overwhelmed by the much stronger Raman signal and/or fluorescence originating from the container itself. SORS overcomes these difficulties and generates clean Raman spectra from both the container and the contents with no prior knowledge of either. This is achieved by making two, or more, Raman measurements at various offsets between the collection and illumination areas, each containing different proportions of the fingerprint signals from the container and content materials. Using scaled subtraction, or multivariate statistical methods, the two orthogonal signals can be separated numerically, thereby providing a clean Raman spectrum of the contents without contamination from the container. Consequently, SORS promises to significantly improve threat detection capability and decrease the falsealarm rate compared with conventional Raman spectroscopy making it considerably more suitable as an alarm resolution methodology (e.g. at airports). In this paper, the technique and method are described and a study of offset value optimization is described illustrating the difference between one and two fixed spatial offsets. It is concluded that two fixed offsets yield an improvement in the SORS measurement which will help maximize the threat detection capability.

Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

2011-05-01

89

Proceedings of the seventh symposium on containment of underground nuclear explosions. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume 2 of two unclassified volumes of a meeting of workers at all levels in the science and technology of containment. Papers on containment and related geological, geophysical, engineering, chemical, and computational topics were included. Particular topics in this volume include: Low-yield test beds, modeling and residual stress, material properties, collapse phenomena and shock diagnostics, stemming practices and performance, geophysics, and geosciences and weapons destruction. Individual papers are indexed separately on the data base.

Olsen, C.W. [ed.

1993-12-31

90

Optically detonated explosive device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

91

Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test  

SciTech Connect

An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics-based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication-related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack, and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach, The Welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach, and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen-charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [BP-Amoco, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1999-08-01

92

Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test  

SciTech Connect

An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach; The welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Farmers Branch, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1996-12-01

93

Static-stress analysis of dual-axis safety vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8 ft diameter safety vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, is evaluated to determine its ability to contain the quasi-static residual pressure from a high explosive (HE) blast. The safety vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A smaller confinement vessel fits inside the safety vessel and contains the actual explosion, and the safety vessel functions as a second layer of containment in the unlikely case of a confinement vessel leak. The safety vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC107. Combined stresses that result from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared to the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzle components are adequately designed for a static pressure of 830 psi, plus the maximum expected external loads. Shell stresses at the 'shell to nozzle' interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 700 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 17,384 psi, which is significantly less than the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

Bultman, D. H.

1992-11-01

94

Updating the long-term creep strains in concrete containment vessels by using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation and polynomial chaos expansions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-dependent loss of prestress of cables in Nuclear Power Plant concrete inner containment buildings may affect the vessel leak-tightness and reduce its life extension. Thus, the assessment of the structural integrity of the containment vessel requires a correct estimation of the long-term creep strains. The article aims at computing and updating the evolution in time of a confidence interval

Marc Berveiller; Yann Le Pape; Bruno Sudret; Frédéric Perrin

2010-01-01

95

Updating the long-term creep strains in concrete containment vessels by using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation and polynomial chaos expansions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-dependent loss of prestress of cables in Nuclear Power Plant concrete inner containment buildings may affect the vessel leak-tightness and reduce its life extension. Thus, the assessment of the structural integrity of the containment vessel requires a correct estimation of the long-term creep strains. The article aims at computing and updating the evolution in time of a confidence interval

Marc Berveiller; Yann Le Pape; Bruno Sudret; Frédéric Perrin

2012-01-01

96

A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-08-01

97

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

98

Static-stress analysis of dual-axis confinement vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the static-pressure containment capability of a 6-ft-diameter, spherical vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, to be used for high-explosive (HE) containment. The confinement vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility (DARHT) being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sets of openings in the vessel are covered with x-ray transparent covers to allow radiographic imaging of an explosion as it occurs inside the vessel. The confinement vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC-107. Combined stresses resulting from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared with the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzles of the confinement vessel are adequately designed to safely contain the maximum residual pressure of 1675 psi that would result from an HE charge of 24.2 kg detonated in a vacuum. Shell stresses at the shell-to-nozzle interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 400 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 16,070 psi, which is less than half the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

Bultman, D. H.

1992-11-01

99

Initiation of explosive processes in hydrogen-containing gas mixtures by a multijet flow of detonation products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosive regimes initiated by interaction of a detonation wave with a permeable screen are studied experimentally. Possible\\u000a explosive regimes that may form behind the screen are found to be detonation, deflagration-to-detonation transition, quasisteady\\u000a system consisting of the shock wave and the flame front, and decaying shock wave with the flame lagging behind it. The effect\\u000a of the mixture sensitivity and

S. V. Khomik; S. P. Medvedev; B. E. Gel’fand

2010-01-01

100

Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series  

SciTech Connect

The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Phenomenology

1994-08-01

101

OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL DETONATION (BLAST) LOADING  

SciTech Connect

Spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels are often used to completely contain the effects of high explosions. These vessels generally fall into two categories. The first includes vessels designed for multiple use ([1]-[6]). Applications of such multiple-use vessels include testing of explosive components and bomb disposal. Because of the multiple-use requirement, response of the vessel is restricted to the elastic range. The second category consists of vessels designed for one-time use only ([7]-[9]). Vessels in this category are typically used to contain accidental explosions and are designed to efficiently utilize the significant plastic energy absorption capacity of ductile materials. Because these vessels may undergo large permanent plastic deformations, they may not be reusable. Ideally one would design a Containment Vessel according to some National or International Consensus Standard, such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Unfortunately, however, a number of issues preclude direct use of the ASME Code in its present form to the design of Containment Vessels. These issues are described in Section 2, along with a request for guidance from the PVRC as to a suitable path forward for developing appropriate ASME B&PV design guidance for Containment Vessels. Next, a discussion of the nature of impulsive loading as a result of an internal detonation of the high explosive within a Containment Vessel is described in Section 3. Ductile failure criteria utilized for LANL Containment Vessels are described in Section 4. Finally, brittle fracture criteria currently utilized by LANL are presented in Section 5. This memo is concluded with a brief summary of results and an appeal to PVRC to recommend and develop an appropriate path forward (Section 6). This path forward could be of a short-term specialized nature (e.g., Code Case) for specific guidance regarding design of the LANL Containment Vessels; a long-term development of a general design approach applicable to all Containment Vessels, including those at LANL; or a combination of the two. This memo supplements information provided in the viewgraphs of the Presentation by E.A. Rodriguez to be given to the PVRC at the May Meeting. The Presentation is entitled, ''Design Criteria for Internal Detonation (Blast) Loading''.

T. A. DUFFEY; E. A. RODRIGUEZ

2001-05-01

102

Nerve regeneration over a 25 mm gap in rat sciatic nerves using tubes containing blood vessels: the possibility of clinical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of including vessels in a tube used to promote nerve regeneration across\\u000a a gap. A tube containing sural vessels was designed in a rat model and interposed between the proximal and distal stumps of\\u000a a divided sciatic nerve, leaving a 25 mm gap. At 12 weeks, a few myelinated axons were

R. Kakinoki; N. Nishijima; Y. Ueba; M. Oka; T. Yamamuro; T. Nakamura

1997-01-01

103

Vapor explosions: A review of experiments for accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

A vapor explosion is a physical event in which a hot liquid (fuel) transfers its internal energy to a colder, more volatile liquid (coolant); thus the coolant vaporizes at high pressures and expands analyses work on its surroundings. In postulated severe accidents in current fission reactors, vapor explosions are considered if this molten {open_quotes}fuel{close_quotes} contacts residual water in-vessel or ex-vessel because these physical explosions have the potential to contribute to reactor vessel failure and possibly containment failure and release of radioactive fission products. Current safety analyses and probabilistic studies consider this process with the use of explosion models. Eventually these models must be compared with available experimental data to determine their validity. This study provides a comprehensive review of vapor explosion experiments for eventual use in such comparisons. Also, when there are insufficient data, experiments are suggested that can provide the needed information for future comparisons. This view may be useful for light-water-reactor as well as noncommercial reactor safety studies. 115 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Corradini, M.L.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

1991-07-01

104

PROBAD/DRACULA. Program System for the Design of Containers, Apparatures, and Pressure Parts of Steam Generators/Program System for the Construction of Pressure Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings contain the papers, presented at the seminar on CAD/CAM in chemical engineering. The aim of the meeting was to inform all the persons in the industry working in development and design of tanks, vessels and devices. The possibilities of s...

H. Breitenstein, V. Straus, H. Engels, J. Hiltawsky, K. Gronemann

1978-01-01

105

Partitioning effect on a dust explosion  

E-print Network

1 Partitioning effect on a dust explosion J.M. Pascaud Université d'Orléans 63, avenue de Lattre de explosion and the formation of overpressures inside a partitioned vessel. A calculation methodology of the explosion from one compartment to another adjacent compartment by the means of the hot flow through

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

First and second-type self-similar solutions of implosions and explosions containing ultra-relativistic shocks  

E-print Network

We derive self similar solutions for ultra-relativistic shock waves propagating into cold material of powerlaw density profile in radius rho ~ r^-k. We treat both implosions and explosions in three geometries: planar, cylindrical and spherical. For spherical explosions these are the first type solutions of Blandford and McKee for k5-sqrt(3/4). In addition we find new, hollow (with evacuated interior), first type solutions that may be applicable for 4first type solutions, hollow first type solutions, and then second type solutions is reminiscent of the non-relativistic sequence. However, while in the non relativistic case there is a range of k which corresponds to a ``gap'' - a range in $k$ with neither first nor second type solutions which separates the hollow first type solutions and the second type solutions, here there is an ``overlap'': a range of k for which current considerations allow for both hollow first and second type solutions. Further understanding is needed to determine which of the two solutions apply in this overlap regime. We provide similar exploration for the other geometries and for imploding configurations. Interestingly, we find a gap for imploding spherical shocks and exploding planar shocks and an overlap for imploding planar solutions. Cylindrical configurations have no hollow solutions and exhibit direct transition from first type to second type solutions, without a gap or an overlap region.

Re'em Sari

2005-05-09

107

Vapor explosion phenomena: Scaling considerations  

SciTech Connect

Past safety analyses considered the hazard from vapor explosions in a conservative manner where engineering judgment and conservative analyses were used to estimate the likelihood of nuclear reactor containment failure from explosion-induced missile generation [alpha-mode failure]. However, recent safety analyses may require less conservative methods to determine the hazard from vapor explosions; thus one may need to consider more detailed scaling of vapor explosion phenomena. This paper proposes particular scaling considerations for vapor explosions based on recent experimental results and that vapor explosions with prototypic reactor fuel material may be less of a hazard.

Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-08-01

108

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2013-10-01

109

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2014-10-01

110

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2012-10-01

111

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2010-10-01

112

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2011-10-01

113

THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

Sherburne, Carol [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Remediation, LLC; Osterberg, Paul [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Johnson, Tom [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Frawely, Thomas [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

2013-01-23

114

Time-sequenced X-ray Observation of a Thermal Explosion  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of a thermally-initiated explosion is studied using a multiple-image x-ray system. HMX-based PBX 9501 is used in this work, enabling direct comparison to recently-published data obtained with proton radiography [1]. Multiple x-ray images of the explosion are obtained with image spacing of ten microseconds or more. The explosion is simultaneously characterized with a high-speed camera using an interframe spacing of 11 {micro}s. X-ray and camera images were both initiated passively by signals from an embedded thermocouple array, as opposed to being actively triggered by a laser pulse or other external source. X-ray images show an accelerating reacting front within the explosive, and also show unreacted explosive at the time the containment vessel bursts. High-speed camera images show debris ejected from the vessel expanding at 800-2100 m/s in the first tens of {micro}s after the container wall failure. The effective center of the initiation volume is about 6 mm from the geometric center of the explosive.

Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Kercher, J R; Springer, H K; Henson, B F; Glascoe, E A; Greenwood, D W; Garza, R G; Wong, B M; Batteux, J D; Maienschein, J L

2009-08-03

115

New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suggested and tested were some mix explosives---powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)---for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30--70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

Andreevskikh, Leonid

2011-06-01

116

Insensitive explosive  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

1991-12-31

117

Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R

2012-01-19

118

Recent results from the Sandia steam-explosion program. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia steam explosion program involves experiments at small and intermediate scale, and modelling and analysis, including estimates for the failure probability of the reactor pressure vessel and the containment building. Recent intermediate scale results show that molten corium A + R is as explosive as the molten simulant iron-alumina, with an average kinetic energy conversion ratio of approximately 2%. In addition, several iron-alumina tests produced rapidly sequential double steam explosions in which it appeared that the first explosion enhanced the coarse mixing process. Results at small scale indicate that the maximum pressure-volume product (the net work output) from the steam explosion of a single melt droplet increased four to five times for a ten-fold increase in ambient pressure. With the initial assumption that contact between molten core and coolant will produce a steam explosion, and futher assuming that such contact occurs in-vessel in the lower plenum, a Monte Carlo technique was used to calculate failure probabilities for a typical PWR.

Evans, N.A.; Mitchell, D.E.; Nelson, L.S.; Corradini, M.L.

1982-01-01

119

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2010-07-01

120

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2014-07-01

121

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2013-07-01

122

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2011-07-01

123

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2012-07-01

124

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives#  

E-print Network

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives ###. At the edges of the explosive# D n ### is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive#containing systems. Key words# Detonation# Curvature e#ect# Edge interactions

Aslam, Tariq

125

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives  

E-print Network

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives(). At the edges of the explosive, Dn() is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive-containing systems. Key words: Detonation, Curvature eect, Edge interactions

Aslam, Tariq

126

29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...  

...plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive components (Order 1). 570.51 Section...plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive...

2014-07-01

127

Detection of Explosives via Photolytic Cleavage of Nitroesters and Nitramines  

E-print Network

The nitramine-containing explosive RDX and the nitroester-containing explosive PETN are shown to be susceptible to photofragmentation upon exposure to sunlight. Model compounds containing nitroester and nitramine moieties ...

Swager, Timothy Manning

128

An Orientation to Explosive Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

Harris, Betty W.

1987-01-01

129

Explosive Z Pinch  

E-print Network

We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann; Markus Schwarz

2006-04-20

130

Steam explosion research at Sandia  

SciTech Connect

Based upon current analysis of a specific PWR and experimental results, generation of large mass missiles by a steam explosion is unlikely, while small mass missiles, although more likely, probably would not pose a threat to the containment. The conservative upper bound probability of containment failure due directly to steam explosions is estimated to be no greater than 0.01 while the best estimate value is probably two orders of magnitude smaller.

Berman, M.; Corradini, M.L.; Mitchell, D.E.; Nelson, L.S.

1980-01-01

131

Supplement Analysis to the 1999 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Proposed Disposition of Certain Large Containment Vessels  

SciTech Connect

This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) (DOE 1999a) adequately addresses the environmental effects of introducing a proposed project for the clean-out and decontamination (DECON) of certain large containment vessels into the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA) 3, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. After undergoing the clean-out and DECON steps, the subject containment vessels would be disposed of at LANL's TA-54 low-level waste (LLW) disposal site or, as appropriate, at a DOE or commercial offsite permitted LLW-regulated landfill; after actinides were recovered from the DECON solution within the CMR Building, they would be moved to LANL's TA-55 Plutonium Facility and undergo subsequent processing at that facility for reuse. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement (EIS) when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are changed circumstances or new or changed information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 10211.314(c) of the DOE's regulations for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementation that states: ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis''. This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the proposed project action with the LANL operations capabilities evaluated in the 1999 SWEIS in support DOE's long-term hydrodynamic testing program at LANL, as well as the waste disposal capabilities evaluated in the SWEIS in support of LANL operations. It also provides an explanation of any differences between the proposed action and activities described in the SWEIS analysis. The SWEIS analyzed the impacts of performing plutonium (Pu) and actinide activities, including hydrodynamic testing support activity, at the Plutonium Facility and at the CMR Building.

N /A

2004-02-12

132

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

Germer, J.H.

1987-07-07

133

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.

1996-04-09

134

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

135

A new mosaic pattern in glioma vascularization: exogenous endothelial progenitor cells integrating into the vessels containing tumor-derived endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests that glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) transdifferentiating into vascular endothelial cells (ECs) possibly contributes to tumor resistance to antiangiogenic therapy. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), showing active migration and incorporation into neovasculature of glioma, may be a good vehicle for delivering genes to target GSCs transdifferentiation. Here, we found a new mosaic pattern that exogenous EPCs integrated into the vessels containing the tumor-derived ECs in C6 glioma rat model. Further, we evaluated the effect of these homing EPCs on C6 glioma cells transdifferentiation. The transdifferentiation frequency of C6 glioma cells and the expressions of key factors on GSCs transdifferentiation, i.e. HIF-1?, Notch1, and Flk1 in gliomas with or without EPCs transplantation showed no significant difference. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging could track the migration and incorporation of EPCs into glioma in vivo, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. The number of magnetically labeled EPCs estimated from T2 maps correlated well with direct measurements of labeled cell counts by flow cytometry. Taken together, our findings may provide a rational base for the future application of EPCs as a therapeutic and imaging probe to overcome antiangiogenic resistance for glioma and monitor the efficacy of this treatment. PMID:24722469

Wang, Shunan; Liu, Heng; Du, Xuesong; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Xue; Yang, Yizeng; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiguo

2014-01-01

136

The NICMOS detectors are mounted in a cryogenically cooled well inside of a dewar filled with solid Nitrogen. The cryogenic vessel contains a sparse matrix of an aluminum "sponge" into  

E-print Network

THE DEWAR The NICMOS detectors are mounted in a cryogenically cooled well inside of a dewar filled with solid Nitrogen. The cryogenic vessel contains a sparse matrix of an aluminum "sponge" into which liquid cooling is employed to two shields in the dewar to prolong the cryogen life. On­orbit, the cryogen

Schneider, Glenn

137

One-dimensional transient model for analyzing large-scale steam explosion experiments. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

In the unlikely event of a core meltdown accident, an important safety issue is the potential for steam explosions and their effects on the accident progression. Steam explosion phenomena can be divided into three stages: (a) mixing of the molten fuel and water; (b) triggering and spatial propagation of rapid fuel fragmentation through the fuel-coolant mixture; and (c) expansion of the steam against the surroundings. The consequences of such an expansion may be missile generation or static pressurization of the vessel or containment and fuel debris dispersal. This paper describes a recently developed one-dimensional, transient computer model which attempts to describe the triggering, propagation, and expansion of large-scale steam explosions.

Corradini, M.L.

1980-01-01

138

Population Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of experiments explore the effects of increased population growth on a population of Fast Plants. Through these inquiries, students will better understand the many substantial and pertinent issues surrounding human population explosion on Earth.These experiments can be adjusted toward middle, high school or post-secondary levels.

Program, The W.

139

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16

140

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22

141

A probability method of fracture mechanics analysis for HFIR vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary estimate is made on the dynamic strength of the HFIR pressure vessel to resist internal explosive pulses of hypothetical accidents. The effect of fluid-structure interaction and radiation embrittlement are both taken into consideration. The pressure pulse is applied at the center of the fluid volume enclosed within the vessel. The vessel is located within a pool of water.

Shih-Jung Chang

1993-01-01

142

Explosive Joining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

1989-01-01

143

Pressure evolution of ethylene-air explosions in enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peak explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are important safety parameters for assessing the hazard of a process and for design of vessels able to withstand an explosion or of their vents used as relief devices. Using ethylene-air with various fuel concentrations (4-10 vol% C2H4) as test mixture, the propagation of explosion in four closed vessels (a spherical vessel with central ignition and three cylindrical vessels with various L/D ratios, centrally or side ignited) has been studied at various initial pressures between 0.3-2.0 bar. In all cases, the peak pressures and the maximum rates of pressure rise were found to be linear functions on the total initial pressure, at constant fuel concentration. Examining several enclosures, the maximum values of explosion pressures and rates of pressure rise have been found for the spherical vessel. For the same initial conditions, the peak explosion pressure and maximum rates of pressure rise determined in cylindrical vessels decrease with the increase of L/D ratio. Asymmetric ignition, at vessel's bottom, induces important heat losses during flame propagation. This process is characterized by the lowest rates of pressure rise, as compared to propagation of flame ignited in the centre of the same vessel.

Movileanu, C.; Razus, D.; Giurcan, V.; Gosa, V.

2014-08-01

144

High-explosives press safety shield testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE Explosives Safety Manual requires shrapnel containment testing of high explosives pressing safety shields when pressing operations present the hazard of metal fragmentation. Los Alamos National Laboratory Group M-7 tested the three types of press shields now in use. Operator protection was demonstrated in all horizontal directions. However, minor modifications are needed on two shield styles to contain some

1990-01-01

145

78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nitroisobutametriol trinitrate]. Nitrate explosive mixtures. Nitrate sensitized with gelled nitroparaffin. Nitrated carbohydrate explosive. Nitrated glucoside explosive. Nitrated polyhydric alcohol explosives. Nitric acid and a nitro aromatic...

2013-10-28

146

Simulating Thermal Explosion of Octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based explosives: Model Comparison with Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The authors compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two octahydrotetranitrotetrazine (HMX)-based explosives, LX-04 and LX-10, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The present HMX modeling work shows very first violence calculations with thermal predictions associated with a confined thermal explosion test. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in larger scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 1 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase.

Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Nichols, A L; Tarver, C M

2006-02-07

147

Analysis of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of explosives is of major importance in several analytical fields:1. Forensic identification of explosives is a major problem in the criminalistic investigation of a bombing which involves connecting the type of explosive used with the suspect. The detection and identification of explosive residues in debris material constitutes a highly difficult task. The thermal instability of most explosives, along

Jehuda Yinon; John C. Hoffsommer

1977-01-01

148

Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition  

DOEpatents

A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

Wagner, Martin G. (Wilmington, DE)

1992-01-14

149

Pressure vessel flex joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

Kahn, Jon B. (inventor)

1992-01-01

150

Universe Explosions  

E-print Network

A scenario for a quantum big crunch to big bang transition is proposed. We first clarify the similarities between this transition and the final stages of black hole evaporation. The black hole and the universe are thought of as quantum states. The importance of an external observer for understanding the big crunch to big bang transition is emphasized. Then, relying on the similarities between the black hole and the universe, we propose that the transition should be described as an explosion that connects the contracting phase to the expanding one. The explosion occurs when entropy bounds are saturated, or equivalently when the states cease to be semiclassically (meta)stable. We discuss our scenario in three examples: collapsing dust, a brane universe falling into a bulk black hole in anti-de Sitter space, and a contracting universe filled with a negative cosmological constant and a small amount of matter. We briefly discuss the late time observables that may carry some information about the state of the universe before the transition.

Ram Brustein; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld

2012-09-24

151

Threat localization in QR explosive detection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of explosives for the purpose of aviation security is an important task for preventing terrorism acts and smuggling.\\u000a A number of methods for explosive screening have been developed. For the purpose of aviation security, the inspections are\\u000a performed on passengers, their carry-on luggage, checked baggage, and cargo containers. An effective explosive detection system\\u000a should be capable of reporting

H. Robert; P. J. Prado

2004-01-01

152

Experimental study of vapor explosion with water and R-22  

SciTech Connect

The term [open quotes]vapor explosion[close quotes] refers to a phenomenon in which the molten fuel rapidly fragments and transfers its energy to the coolant, resulting in vapor shock waves and possible mechanical damage. If such an event occurs during a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the integrity of the reactor vessel and/or containment is highly threatened. Thus, numerous experiments have been performed to understand its mechanism and energy generation with various simulant materials. However, many questions are still unanswered about the mixing mechanism, conversion ratio, parametric effects, and so on. The purpose of the experiment discussed in this paper is to investigate the parametric effects on a steam explosion: water depth, corium mass, temperature, and pouring velocity. The simulant materials for corium and water are hot water (70 to 90[degrees]C) and Freon-22 ([minus]41[degrees]C), respectively. The experiments are performed by injecting the hot water on refrigerant R-22 liquid, and the explosion pressure and mechanical energy are measured.

Park, I.-G.; Jo, S.Y.; chung, C.H.; Park, G.-C. (Seoul National Univ., Kwanak-Gu (Korea, Republic of))

1993-01-01

153

Pressure development due to turbulent flame propagation in large-scale methane-air explosions  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale methane-air explosion tests conducted in a 1800-ft/sup 3/ vented tube demonstrated that the presence of obstacles can greatly increase the violence of explosions in the vessel. For example, six 0.7-ft. high obstacles created overpressures larger than the theoretical closed-vessel maximum overpressure. The results suggest that safe venting criteria obtained from idealized experiments are totally inadequate for large-scale gaseous explosions in obstacle environments.

Moen, I.O.; Lee, J.H.S.; Hjertager, B.H.; Fuhre, K.; Eckhoff, R.K.

1982-07-01

154

Polyurethane Binder Systems for Polymer Bonded Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) consist of explosive components bound together by a polymeric binder. The most common binder systems in current PBXs are polyurethane based and contain plasticisers and other chemicals that alter processability, mechanical properties and chemical stability. This report details the history of PBX binders, components of polyurethane binder systems, their properties and the procedures for obtaining the

Merran A. Daniel

155

Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine.  

PubMed

Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A; Strand, Stuart E; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

2014-11-01

156

Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment  

SciTech Connect

We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M

2004-10-11

157

Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information #12;Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 2 The cryogenic pressure vessel concept has evolved from

158

Metallic Pressure Vessels Failures M. Mosnier, B. Daudonnet, J. Renard and G. Mavrothalassitis  

E-print Network

identification of possible explosion scénarios involving metallic vessels. Based on thé review of scientific to store or to transport gas or pressurized liquid (such as LPG or LNG), to dry, or as steam boiler... etc or an internai explosion. For this reason, thé pressure inside thé vessel exceeds thé dynamic pressure limit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

1980-05-09

160

Technical Review Report for the Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessel (PCV)  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessels (PCV). The waiver is to be used to support a limited number of shipments of fuel for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) Project in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Under the waiver, an inventory of existing national security PCVs will be converted to standard PCVs. Both types of PCVs are currently approved for use by the Office of Nuclear Energy. LLNL has previously reviewed the national security PCVs under Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Addendum No. 1, Revision c, dated June 2007 (Addendum 1). The safety analysis of the package is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Mound 1KW Package (i.e., the Mound 1KW SARP, or the SARP) where the standard PCVs have been reviewed by LLNL. The Mound 1KW Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) number USA/9516/B(U)F-85 for the transportation of Type B quantities of plutonium heat source material. The waiver requests an exemption, claiming safety equivalent to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.12, Specific Exemptions, and will lead to a letter amendment to the CoC. Under the waiver, the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems, NE-34, is seeking an exemption from 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1), Previously Approved Package,[5] which states: '(d) NRC will approve modifications to the design and authorized contents of a Type B package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided--(1) The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests specified in {section}71.71 and 71.73.' The LLNL staff had previously reviewed a request from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to reconfigure national security PCVs to standard PCVs. With a nominal 50% reduction in both the height and the volume, the LLNL staff initially deemed the modifications to be significant, which would not be allowed under the provisions of 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1)--see above. As a follow-up, the DOE requested additional clarification from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC concluded that the reconfiguration would be a new fabrication, and that an exemption to the regulations would be required to allow its use, as per the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.19(c)(1), Previously Approved Package: '(c) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, or a fissile material package previously approved by the NRC with the designation '-85' in the identification number of the NRC CoC, may be used under the general license of {section}71.17 with the following additional conditions: (1) Fabrication of the package must be satisfactorily completed by December 31, 2006, as demonstrated by application of its model number in accordance with 71.85(c).' Although the preferred approach toward the resolution of this issue would be for the applicant to submit an updated SARP, the applicant has stated that the process of updating the Model Mound 1KW Package SARP is a work that is in progress, but that the updated SARP is not yet ready for submittal. The applicant has to provide a submittal, proving that the package meets the '-96' requirements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, in order to fabricate approved packagings after December 31, 2006. The applicant has further stated that all other packaging features, as described in the currently approved Model Mound 1KW Package SARP, remain unchanged. This report documents the LLNL review of the waiver request. The specific review for each SARP Chapter is documented.

West, M; Hafner, R

2008-05-05

161

Reactor vessel annealing system  

DOEpatents

A system for annealing a vessel (14) in situ by heating the vessel (14) to a defined temperature, composed of: an electrically operated heater assembly (10) insertable into the vessel (14) for heating the vessel (14) to the defined temperature; temperature monitoring components positioned relative to the heater assembly (10) for monitoring the temperature of the vessel (14); a controllable electric power supply unit (32-60) for supplying electric power required by the heater assembly (10); a control unit (80-86) for controlling the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60); a first vehicle (2) containing the power supply unit (32-60); a second vehicle (4) containing the control unit (80-86); power conductors (18,22) connectable between the power supply unit (32-60) and the heater unit (10) for delivering the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10); signal conductors (20,24) connectable between the temperature monitoring components and the control unit (80-86) for delivering temperature indicating signals from the temperature monitoring components to the control unit (80-86); and control conductors (8) connectable between the control unit (80-86) and the power supply unit (32-60) for delivering to the power supply unit (32-60) control signals for controlling the level of power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10).

Miller, Phillip E. (Greensburg, PA); Katz, Leonoard R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Nath, Raymond J. (Murrysville, PA); Blaushild, Ronald M. (Export, PA); Tatch, Michael D. (Randolph, NJ); Kordalski, Frank J. (White Oak, PA); Wykstra, Donald T. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kavalkovich, William M. (Monroeville, PA)

1991-01-01

162

Chromospheric explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

1986-01-01

163

Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation  

E-print Network

mixtures of methane, oxygen and nitrogen, contained within spherical balloons with controlled initial ignition. This develop- ment has made it still more urgent to consider explosion loads in the design phase;- 6 - 2. INTRODUCTION This report describes a series of small-scale experiments carried out

164

Ammonium nitrate explosive systems  

DOEpatents

Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

165

Ammonium nitrate explosive systems  

SciTech Connect

Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

Coburn, M.D.; Stinecipher, M.M.

1981-11-17

166

Micromechanics simulations of glass-estane mock polymer bonded explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) are particulate composites containing explosive particles and a continuous binder. The elastic modulus of the particles, at room temperature and higher, is often three to four orders of magnitude higher than that of the binder. Additionally, the explosive particles occupy high volume fractions, often greater than 90%. Both experimental and numerical determination of macroscopic properties of

Biswajit Banerjee; Carl M. Cady; Daniel O. Adams

2003-01-01

167

Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives  

DOEpatents

A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Pagoria, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-09-27

168

49 CFR 173.59 - Description of terms for explosives.  

...2014-10-01 false Description of terms for explosives. 173.59 Section 173.59 Transportation...173.59 Description of terms for explosives. For the purpose of this subchapter...oil mixture (ANFO). A blasting explosive containing no essential...

2014-10-01

169

Detection and Measurement of Explosives in Groundwater Using In  

E-print Network

2/9/019 Cleanup CU-1220 Detection and Measurement of Explosives in Groundwater Using In Situ a variety of modern highly energetic materials, including propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnic materials. Many of these manufacturing sites contain explosives-contaminated soil and have contaminated

170

Explosive silicic eruptions in Iceland: from vent to peat bog  

E-print Network

Explosive silicic eruptions in Iceland: from vent to peat bog OUTLINE Microtephra horizons, found in soils across Scotland, contain fine ash produced by explosive eruptions in Iceland. They represent; Thordarson & Larsen 2007), but vary in size and explosivity. The primary threat to Scotland from the tephra

171

Blood Vessels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the circulatory system is composed of a series of tubes carries the vital elements and the wastes that keep us strong and healthy. Take a look at these amazing vessels and how they work together. Ever cut yourself on the toe? How about the finger? The ear? Ever get a bloody nose? How about a scrape on the knee? If these things have ever happened to you then you already know that blood vessels carry blood to EVERY part of the body. They start out ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2007-11-20

172

Thermally stable emulsion explosive composition  

SciTech Connect

A thermally stable, cap-sensitive, water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition is described which has a discontinuous aqueous oxidizer salt solution phase containing calcium nitrate, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid or organic phase, an emulsifier, and a density reducing agent. The salt solution contains calcium nitrate in an amount of at least 20% by weight based on the total composition. 9 claims.

Sudweeks, W.B.; Lawrence, L.D.

1982-03-30

173

Practical small-scale explosive seam welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Joining principles and variables, types of joints, capabilities, and current and potential applications are described for an explosive seam welding process developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Variable small quantities of RDX explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long length, uniform, hermetrically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The first major all application of the process is the repair of four nuclear reactors in Canada. Potential applications include pipelines, sealing of vessels, and assembly of large space structures.

Bement, L. J.

1983-01-01

174

Projectile-generating explosive access tool  

DOEpatents

A method for generating a projectile using an explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G; Todd, Steven N

2013-06-11

175

Bioremediation of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

1995-09-01

176

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

2009-01-01

177

Simulation of Steam Explosion with a General Purpose CFD Code  

SciTech Connect

An ex-vessel steam explosion may occur when during a severe reactor accident the reactor vessel fails and the molten core pours into the water in the reactor cavity. A steam explosion is a fuel coolant interaction process where the heat transfer from the melt to water is so intense and rapid that the timescale for heat transfer is shorter than the timescale for pressure relief. This can lead to the formation of shock waves and production of missiles at later times, during the expansion of the highly pressurized water vapor, that may endanger surrounding structures. In contrast to specialized steam explosion CFD codes, where the steam explosion is modeled on micro-scale using fundamental averaged multiphase flow conservation equations, in the presented approach the steam explosion is modeled in a simplified manner as an expanding high-pressure pre-mixture of dispersed molten fuel, liquid water and vapor. Applying the developed steam explosion model, a comprehensive analysis of the ex-vessel steam explosion in a typical PWR reactor cavity was done using the CFD code CFX-10. At four selected locations, which are of importance for the assessment of the vulnerability of cavity structures, the pressure histories were recorded and the corresponding pressure impulses calculated. The pressure impulses determine the destructive potential of the steam explosion and represent the input for the structural mechanical analysis of the cavity structures. The simulation results show that the pressure impulses depend mainly on the steam explosion energy conversion ratio, whereas the influence of the pre-mixture vapor volume fraction, which is a parameter in our model and determines the maximum steam explosion pressure, is not significant. (authors)

Leskovar, Matjaz; Koncar, Bostjan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2006-07-01

178

Breccias related to explosive volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive breccia pipes were formed in the phreatomagmatic eruption of Taal volcano 60 km south of Manila, Philippines in September 1976. They were photographed in eruption which consisted of a series of small explosions occurring during the peak of activity at 10 sec intervals. These four breccia pipes formed on the collapse fault marking the margin of the much more intense eruption of 28 September 1965 when a diatreme 800 m in diameter formed. Renewed eruption in October 1977 on one of the breccia pipes blasted out the sealed plug and breccia fragments in all stages of alteration were included in the tephra. They ranged from barely agglomerated to strongly cemented through argillized and pyritized to totally replaced by silica and pyrite, fragments indistinguishable from those found in many mining districts. The violence of the explosion initiating a phreatomagmatic eruptive sequence results in strong crackling of the walls of the pipe and the crakle zone may become mineralized (cf. Braden, Chile). Usually the crater collapses on ring faults after eruption, forming a marginal tectonic breccia which can be mineralized (cf. Balatoc, Philippines.) The small craters with steep inner walls and tapering outer slopes which form during phreatomagmatic eruptions, sometimes containing lakes, are called maars and they are the surficial expression of an explosive breccia pipe or diatreme. Superficially similar craters are formed over kimberlite pipes. Hydrothermal explosion craters are somewhat similar. Collapse breccia pipes can form in the same sequence with explosive pipes. When one rising plug encounters ground water and explodes, fluostatic pressure on any other cupolas rising from the same magma drops rapidly, resulting in withdrawal of magma and collapse of walls and roof (Perry 1961). "Fluidization" is not thought to be of any significance in formation of breccia pipes (Wolfe 1980) contrary to Reynolds (1954) and many authors who have cited that work. An explosive breccia pipe is like an open window resulting in rapid depression of the isotherms of a pluton. A concentrated brine front can build up in minutes after an explosion. The very rapid cooling may explain why many explosive breccia pipes are altered by silica and pyrite only, the system being cooled before metallic solutions have time to replace breccia matrix or fragments.

Wolfe, John A.

179

Totally confined explosive welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

Bement, L. J. (inventor)

1978-01-01

180

Large panel design for containment air baffle  

DOEpatents

The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel.

Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

181

Large panel design for containment air baffle  

DOEpatents

The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel. 9 figs.

Orr, R.S.

1992-12-08

182

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-01-29

183

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-11-26

184

An explosive shock tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments with a model explosive shock tube are described. Flow of a ; dense air plasma with speed 25-l0 km\\/sec is obtained by means of an explosive gas ; compressor. Photographs of flow over models were taken when the flow behind the ; shock wave becomes opaque. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory ; explosion chamber, (auth);

A. E. Voitenko; M. A. Lyubimova; E. P. Matochkin

1973-01-01

185

High-nitrogen explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy.

D. Naud; M. A. Hiskey; J. F. Kramer; R. L. Bishop; H. H. Harry; S. F. Son; G. K. Sullivan

2002-01-01

186

Explosives with Lined Cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosives detonated in contact with thick steel plates produce much deeper holes in the steel when there is a cavity in the explosive in contact with the plate. While this phenomenon has been known for more than 150 years, the enormous increase in penetrating power that can be produced by lining the explosive cavity with thin metal has been discovered

Garrett Birkhoff; Duncan P. MacDougall; Emerson M. Pugh; Geoffrey Taylor

1948-01-01

187

Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins  

E-print Network

Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

Ravenel, Douglas

188

Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE\\/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the risk oriented accident analysis methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive

T. G. Theofanous; W. W. Yuen; S. Angelini; J. J. Sienicki; K. Freeman; X. Chen; T. Salmassi

1999-01-01

189

Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels. Resulting induced vessels did match in morphology to the target vessels. Several other covalently bound signals were then analyzed in the assay and resulting morphology of vessels was compared in several studies which further highlighted the utility of the micropocket assay in conjunction with the image based tool for vessel morphological quantification. Finally, an alternative method to provide rapid vasculature to the constructs, which relied on pre-seeded hydrogels encapsulated endothelial cells was also developed and shown to allow anastamosis between induced host vessels and the implanted construct within 48 hours. These results indicate great promise in the rational design of synthetic, bioactive hydrogels, which can be used as a platform to study microvascular induction for regenerative medicine and angiogenesis research. Future applications of this research may help to develop therapeutic strategies to ameliorate human disease by replacing organs or correcting vessel morphology in the case of ischemic diseases and cancer.

Gould, Daniel Joseph

190

Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner  

SciTech Connect

Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

1995-07-01

191

Report on Explosives Repository Testing  

SciTech Connect

Repositories have been in use at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories for storage of ten grams or less explosives samples for about twenty years. A previous Repository testing program detailed in UCID 19219 reported that a standard repository would contain ten grams of high explosive but the repository drawer would open. It further recommended a non-propagating array that would allow storage of quantities of explosives in a repository drawer, however; the capability of the proposed nonpropagating array was never verified. A series of tests was undertaken to verify the capability of the proposed array to provide non-propagation between 10-gram samples stored within that array and to document the extent of damage to the stored explosives, the array and the repository. Testing has verified that the standard four-drawer repository configured per UCID 19219 may store a 10-gram explosive sample without propagation to the other materials stored in the repository. Should a detonation of a 10-gram sample occur, the four-drawer repository will be damaged but does not appear to create a significant fragment hazard and does not sustain significant damage. The drawer containing the test charge opens quickly and fully releasing the detonation overpressure. Testing of a standard two-drawer repository verified that the array will prevent propagation, however; the repository was totally destroyed and would present a physical hazard to personnel and equipment in the immediate area of the repository. An additional test of a standard repository was conducted to verify current storage practices for detonators using detonators in the Mound non-propagating packing configuration. The repository drawer tested sustained minimal damage and no propagation between stored detonators. Therefore, storage of detonators in a standard Mound or Manufacturer non-propagating configuration in either a two-drawer or four-drawer repository is acceptable.

Crouch, L; Dotts, J E

2000-03-15

192

Terahertz spectroscopy techniques for explosives detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopy in the terahertz frequency range has demonstrated unique identification of both pure and military-grade explosives.\\u000a There is significant potential for wide applications of the technology for nondestructive and nonintrusive detection of explosives\\u000a and related devices. Terahertz radiation can penetrate most dielectrics, such as clothing materials, plastics, and cardboard.\\u000a This allows both screening of personnel and through-container screening. We review

Megan R. Leahy-Hoppa; Michael J. Fitch; Robert Osiander

2009-01-01

193

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15

194

Origin of the sound generated by Strombolian explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During strombolian eruptions, large bubbles break at the surface of the lava column and produce sound. Acoustic pressure recorded during several explosions on the Eastern vent of Stromboli volcano, shows a pattern consistent between explosions. The well-marked oscillation contains only very low frequencies (around 7 Hz), and is followed by a signal containing now both higher frequencies and lower frequency

S. Vergniolle; G. Brandeis

1994-01-01

195

Collapsing Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

1994-01-01

196

Explosives Development and Fundamentals of Explosives Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This introductory chapter is intended to give a brief outline of the history of the development of some common explosives\\u000a and point the reader toward more weighty texts where full details of each of the points made and many more may be found. It\\u000a also seeks to provide an introduction to some of the fundamentals of explosives technology, acting as

Peter R. Lee

197

PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification  

SciTech Connect

The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

2011-09-01

198

Explosive plane-wave lens  

SciTech Connect

An explosive wave lens is described comprising: a. a donor explosive; b. detonator means for generating a detonation wave in the donor explosive; c. an acceptor explosive; d. impactor means for receiving the detonation wave and for striking the acceptor explosive to produce a second detonation wave having a predetermined form in the acceptor explosive; and e. spacer means for spacing the impactor means apart from the acceptor explosive.

Marsh, S.P.

1988-03-08

199

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: COMPOSITING EXPLOSIVES/ORGANICS CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory scale and pilot scale studies were conducted to evaluate composting to treat sediments and soils containing explosive and organic compounds. Sediment and soil from lagoons at Army ammunition plants, located in Louisiana, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania contained high...

200

An Eulerian–Lagrangian approach for simulating explosions of energetic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the simulation of explosions of “energetic devices” is described. In this context, an energetic device is a metal container filled with a high explosive (HE). Examples include bombs, mines, rocket motors or containers used in storage and transport of HE material. Explosions may occur due to detonation or deflagration of the HE material, with initiation resulting from

J. E. Guilkey; T. B. Harman; B. Banerjee

2007-01-01

201

Small-scale explosive seam welding. [using ribbon explosive encased in lead sheath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique small scale explosive seam welding technique is reported that has successfully joined a variety of aluminum alloys and alloy combinations in thicknesses to 0.125 inch, as well as titanium in thicknesses to 0.056 inch. The explosively welded joints are less than one-half inch in width and apparently have no long length limitation. The ribbon explosive developed in this study contains very small quantities of explosive encased in a flexible thin lead sheath. The evaluation and demonstration of this welding technique was accomplished in three phases: evaluation and optimization of ten major explosive welding variables, the development of four weld joints, and an applicational analysis which included photomicrographs, pressure integrity tests, vacuum effects, and fabrication of some potentially useful structures in aluminum and titanium.

Bement, L. J.

1972-01-01

202

The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy

J. F. Wardell; J. L. Maienschein

2002-01-01

203

THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a fuse wire. A gas combination is considered flammable when a pressure rise of 7% of the initial absolute pressure is observed. The specified testing methodology is consistent with guidelines established in ASTM E-918-83 (2005) 'Standard Practices for Determining Limits of Flammability of Chemicals at Elevated Temperature and Pressure'.

Sherburne, C.

2012-01-12

204

Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research  

SciTech Connect

The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

2012-12-01

205

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

2006-10-01

206

Quadractic Model of Thermodynamic States in SDF Explosions  

SciTech Connect

We study the thermodynamic states encountered during Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. Such explosions contain up to six components: three fuels (PETN, TNT and Aluminum) and their products corresponding to stoichiometric combustion with air. We establish the loci in thermodynamic state space that correctly describes the behavior of the components. Results are fit with quadratic functions that serve as fast equations of state suitable for 3D numerical simulations of SDF explosions.

Kuhl, A L; Khasainov, B

2007-05-04

207

Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the War a general investigation was commenced at the Road Research Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives-the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by adjusting the constitution-and their relation to primers of different

D. Croney

1948-01-01

208

Inside an Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From afar, an explosion may seem like one of the most incredible examples of chaotic interaction. But once you look closer, as in this video from QUEST, you will find that large-scale explosions require very precise interactions to occur in just the right sequence.

Kqed

2009-10-30

209

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and

Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

2005-01-01

210

An explosion in Tunguska  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on

Ioan Nistor

2008-01-01

211

Coal dust explosibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01

212

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01

213

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

214

Numerical Analysis of Pressure Propagation and Energy Conversion Ratio in Sodium Vapor Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A computer code PROVER-II is developed for the propagation phase of a sodium vapor explosion. A new thermal fragmentation model is proposed that includes three kinds of timescales for modeling the instant fragmentation, spontaneous nucleation fragmentation, and normal boiling fragmentation. The pressure wave propagation in a sodium vapor explosion is analyzed and compared with that in a steam explosion. The energy conversion ratio of an in-vessel sodium vapor explosion is calculated by using hydrodynamic and thermal fragmentation mechanisms, and sensitivity analyses are carried out for some parameters. The initial thermal conditions for energetic fuel-coolant interactions in a sodium system are examined. Results show that the high saturation temperature of sodium results in a much lower pressure peak in a sodium vapor explosion compared to a steam explosion, and the mechanical energy release is limited by the mass of melt participating in the explosion during the core disruptive accident in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors.

Liu Jie; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki [University of Tokyo (Japan)

2003-12-15

215

21 CFR 868.1575 - Gas collection vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1575 Gas collection vessel. (a) Identification. A gas collection vessel is a container-like...collect a patient's exhaled gases for subsequent analysis. It does not include a sampling pump. (b)...

2010-04-01

216

The Arson & Explosives National Repository  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arson & Explosives National Repository, hosted by the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms(ATF), currently includes three database systems, providing statistics gathered by the ATF, the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the US Fire Administration (USFA). The first database, the Explosives Incident System (EXIS), contains several data tables that detail the arson and explosives incidents reported to the ATF from 1975 to 1995. The second database, the USFA's National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS), provides the "world's largest national annual database of fire incident information." NFIRS offers annual data tables for a range of fire incidents from 1981 to 1995. The third database in the repository, Church Arson Task Force Data, presents data on church arsons and bombings from 1995 to 1997; data are displayed in tables, charts, and graphs. Besides providing a list of available data, each system allows users to conduct customizable queries. Within each system, users may search for incident data within a specified date range, or produce a five-year incident summary for any state in the US.

217

Vapor explosions in a stratified geometry  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an experimental investigation of stratified vapor explosions and scalling conducted by constructing test sections of two different sizes and using two different fluid pairs. The horizontal lengths of the interaction vessels are 20 and 50 cm (geometric scale ratio: 2:5). The two liquid pairs are water and liquid nitrogen, and water and Freon-12, with water being the hot liquid. The interactions are either triggered by an external trigger or allowed to occur spontaneously depending on the liquid pair and initial conditions. The major experimental variables are initial water temperature, liquid layer depths, and magnitude of the external trigger pressure. Interaction pressures, mechanical work release, and depth of intermixing are measured. The water/Freon-12 pair produces more violent interactions than the water/liquid nitrogen. In both cases, the explosion propagation speeds are supersonic, ranging from 40 to 250 m/s. The small depths ({le}1 cm) of liquid-liquid mixing during the explosion propagation are observed in both liquid pairs. A simple model for the depth of intermixing is derived, and the result shows reasonable agreement with the experimental observations. The length of the liquid layer interface and the depth of the top liquid appear to be the key geometric parameters in stratified vapor explosions.

Bang, K.H.; Corradini, M.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, 1500 Johnson Drive, Madison, WI (US))

1991-05-01

218

29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 1915.172 Section 1915...SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable,...

2011-07-01

219

Optically measured explosive impulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

2014-06-01

220

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2014-07-01

221

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2012-07-01

222

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2013-07-01

223

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2010-07-01

224

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2011-07-01

225

PELAN 2001: current status of the PELAN explosives detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

PELAN (Pulsed ELemental Analysis with Neutrons) is a portable system for the detection of explosives, weighing less than 45 kg. It is based on the principle that explosives and other contraband contain various chemical elements such as H, C, N, O, etc. in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from other innocuous substances. Neutrons are produced with a pulsed 14

Phillip C. Womble; George Vourvopoulos; Ivan Novikov; Jonathon Paschal

2001-01-01

226

Simulation of high explosive explosion using adaptive material point method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of high explosive explosion problems is a big challenge to traditional numerical methods because explosion usually involves ex- tremely large deformation and multi-material interaction of different phases. Re- centlydevelopedmeshfreemethodsshowmuchadvantagesovermesh-basedmethod for problems associated with very large deformation. Some of them have been successfully applied to impact and explosion problems, such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Similar to SPH, material

Shang Ma; Xiong Zhang; Yanping Lian; Xu Zhou

2009-01-01

227

FOUDRE ET ATMOSPHERES EXPLOSIVES LIGHTNING AND EXPLOSIVES ATMOSPHERES  

E-print Network

97-36 FOUDRE ET ATMOSPHERES EXPLOSIVES LIGHTNING AND EXPLOSIVES ATMOSPHERES HALAMA S., 1NERIS l'utilisation de produits sensibles pouvant provoquer facilement des incendies et des explosions. C inflammables. Les atmospheres explosives gazeuses et poussiereuses ainsi que les conditions favorisant [eur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

Characterization of Detonation Products of RSI-007 Explosive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a production quality RSI-007 explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The free surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for the interferometry measurements. Detailed shock reverberations are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further determine the release state in different pressure regimes.

Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Chhabildas, Lalit

2011-06-01

229

Characterization of detonation products of RSI-007 explosive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a high-purity CL-20 based explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The back surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for interferometry measurements. Detailed reverberations corresponding to shock arrival and release are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further refine the release states.

Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Breaux, Bradley; Vineski, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Lambert, David; Chhabildas, Lalit

2012-03-01

230

Crashworthy Sealed Pressure Vessel for Plutonium Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rugged transportation package for the air shipment of radioisotopic materials was recently developed. This package includes a tough, sealed, stainless steel inner containment vessel of 1460 cc capacity. This vessel, intended for a mass load of up to 2 K...

J. A. Andersen

1980-01-01

231

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

232

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

233

Development of a technique using MCNPX code for determination of nitrogen content of explosive materials using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma 10.8 MeV following radioactive neutron capture by 14N nuclei. We aimed to study the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) along with improved nuclear equipment to detect and identify explosives, illicit substances or landmines. A 252Cf radio-isotopic source was embedded in a cylinder made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the cylinder was then placed in another cylindrical container filled with water. Measurements were performed on high nitrogen content compounds such as melamine (C3H6N6). Melamine powder in a HDPE bottle was placed underneath the vessel containing water and the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The results were simulated with MCNP4c code calculations. The theoretical calculations and experimental measurements were in good agreement indicating that this method can be used for detection of explosives and illicit drugs.

Nasrabadi, M. N.; Bakhshi, F.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A.

2011-12-01

234

Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

Dubasov, Yuri V.

2010-05-01

235

76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nitroisobutametriol trinitrate]. Nitrate explosive mixtures. Nitrate sensitized with gelled nitroparaffin. Nitrated carbohydrate explosive. Nitrated glucoside explosive. Nitrated polyhydric alcohol explosives. Nitric acid and a nitro aromatic...

2011-10-19

236

77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nitroisobutametriol trinitrate]. Nitrate explosive mixtures. Nitrate sensitized with gelled nitroparaffin. Nitrated carbohydrate explosive. Nitrated glucoside explosive. Nitrated polyhydric alcohol explosives. Nitric acid and a nitro aromatic...

2012-09-20

237

75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nitroisobutametriol trinitrate]. Nitrate explosive mixtures. Nitrate sensitized with gelled nitroparaffin. Nitrated carbohydrate explosive. Nitrated glucoside explosive. Nitrated polyhydric alcohol explosives. Nitric acid and a nitro aromatic...

2010-11-17

238

75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nitroisobutametriol trinitrate]. Nitrate explosive mixtures. Nitrate sensitized with gelled nitroparaffin. Nitrated carbohydrate explosive. Nitrated glucoside explosive. Nitrated polyhydric alcohol explosives. Nitric acid and a nitro aromatic...

2010-01-08

239

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

2004-10-01

240

Disorder induces explosive synchronization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

2014-06-01

241

Explosive Magnetic Generators Of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the known types of electromagnetic energy sources, the explosive magnetic generators (=G) are the best characterized in terms of their specific energy output and cost. The results of studies on \\

V. K. Chernyahev; M. S. Protasov; V. A. Shevtsov; P. N. Fiskarev; B. I. Zharinov; G. I. Volkov; V. V. Vakhrunhev; B. B. Grinevitch; A. Ivanov; V. A. Demidov; C. V. Pak; X. P. Bidylo; V. P. Pogorelov; A. A. Petrukhin; A. I. Kuzjaev; V. B. Jakubov; V. I. Shpagin

1991-01-01

242

Disorder induces explosive synchronization.  

PubMed

We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks. PMID:25019837

Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

2014-06-01

243

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

244

Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

245

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

ScienceCinema

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2013-05-28

246

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

SciTech Connect

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2011-01-01

247

Disorder induces explosive synchronization  

E-print Network

We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on either the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

Per Sebastian Skardal; Alex Arenas

2014-04-03

248

The ignition temperature of solid explosives exposed to a fire  

SciTech Connect

When a system containing solid explosive is engulfed in a fire it receives a heat flux that causes the temperature of the system to rise monotonically. The temperature rise can often be approximated by a linear rise for extended periods of time. When some portion of the explosive, usually near the surface, reaches its ignition temperature it will begin to burn. If the explosive is unconfined, or can breach its confinement at low pressure, it will burn, not explode. Typically the burn front will propagate through a slab or shell at speeds on the order of a centimeter a minute. If the explosive is confined, the gas resulting from its burning will generate pressures high enough to rupture the confinement, but the peak pressure will generally be only a fraction of the pressure from a true detonation. When a system is not engulfed in the fire, but is close enough to be heated slowly by the fire, the behavior will be different. If the explosive is heated slowly it will have a nearly uniform temperature and ignition will occur inside the explosive. This almost always causes an explosion, even when the explosive as a whole is unconfined. The reason for this behavior is not well understood but slow heating of an explosive generally results in a more violent explosion than fast heating. These two situations are recognized by fast and slow cookoff tests used with munitions. Many munitions pass the fast cookoff test with heating rates around 2 K/min. Slow cookoff tests with heating rates around 4 K/hr generally result in an explosion. (The equations in this paper assume absolute temperatures in Kelvins, equal to Celsius + 273.16.) Mathematical models predicting the time to explosion are usually based on the assumption that the explosive has a uniform initial temperature and that the outer surface is suddenly raised to some temperature and held there. The earliest such models where those of Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii.

Creighton, J.R.

1993-09-01

249

Splashes from Underwater Explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The splashes from the underwater explosions of 1 and 10 1b. charges of P.E. no. 2 and Nobel's Explosive '808' at various depths have been photographed with cine-cameras. The experiments were carried out in a sheltered pond which enabled the surface phenomena to be studied in greater detail than has been done hitherto, and a number of new phenomena have

H. Kolsky; J. P. Lewis; M. T. Sampson; A. C. Shearman; C. I. Snow

1949-01-01

250

Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive  

DOEpatents

A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

Stroud, John R. (Livermore, CA); Ornellas, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

251

Energy Output of Insensitive High Explosives by Measuring the Detonation Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detonation products of high explosives are dependent on pressure and also on the confinement under which the detonation reaction proceeds. To determine the detonation products of less sensitive high explosives such as trinitrotoluene\\/nitroguanidine and polymer bonded explosive charges with polybutadiene binder containing cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, together with or without aluminium, experiments have been performed in a stainless steel chamber of

C. Storm; F. Volk; W. Byers Brown; P. Gray

1992-01-01

252

Energy Dispersive X Ray Diffraction to identify Explosive Substances : spectra analysis procedure optimization  

E-print Network

, France tel: 0033472437084 Abstract: To detect the presence of explosives in packages, automated systems for explosive detection and identification. To this end, a database has been constructed, containing measured X: Explosives detection, X-ray diffraction, non destructive testing 1. Introduction Energy dispersive X

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

254

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions  

E-print Network

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J. Fern´andez Bonder, UBA J.D. Rossi, UBA ERPEM, November 29th, 2006 Pablo Groisman UBA Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

Groisman, Pablo

255

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15

256

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

257

30 CFR 77.1303 - Explosives, handling and use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that the detonator is contained securely and is completely embedded within the explosive cartridge. (q) No tamping shall be...instantaneous blasting is performed, the double-trunkline or loop system shall be used in detonating-cord blasting. (dd)...

2010-07-01

258

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Explosive Detection Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains opening remarks, kickoff address and keynote address, and 89 papers presented at the First International Symposium on Explosive Detection Technology held November 13-15, 1991, in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The general papers deal with...

S. M. Khan

1992-01-01

259

46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions that ignite spontaneously or undergo marked decomposition when subjected for forty-eight consecutive hours to a temperature of 167 °F. or more; composition containing an...

2010-10-01

260

Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives.  

PubMed

The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other countries is of similar magnitude. In recent years, growing concern about the health and ecological threats posed by man-made chemicals have led to studies of the toxicology of explosives, which have identified toxic and mutagenic effects of the common military explosives and their transformation products (Bruns-Nagel et al., 1999a; Fuchs et al., 2001; Homma-Takeda et al., 2002; Honeycutt et al., 1996; Rosenblatt et al., 1991; Spanggord et al., 1982; Tan et al., 1992 and Won et al., 1976). Because the cleanup of areas contaminated by explosives is now mandated because of public health concerns, considerable effort has been invested in finding economical remediation technologies. Biological treatment processes are often considered, since these are usually the least expensive means of destroying organic pollution. This review examines the most important groups of chemicals that must be treated at sites contaminated by explosives processing, the chemical and biological transformations they undergo, and commercial processes developed to exploit these transformations for treatment of contaminated soil. We critically examine about 150 papers on the topic, including approximately 60 published within the past 5 years. PMID:15016438

Lewis, Thomas A; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Ronald L

2004-04-01

261

Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

Valk, T.C.

1993-09-01

262

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2013-10-01

263

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2012-10-01

264

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2011-10-01

265

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2010-10-01

266

Retinal Vessel Detection using Self-Matched Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated analysis of retinal images usually requires es- timating the positions of blood vessels, which contain impor- tant features for image alignment and abnormality detection. Matched filtering can produce the best results but is difficult to implement because the vessel orientations and widths are unknown beforehand. Many researchers use Hessian filtering, which provides an estimate for vessel orientation through the

Nai-Xiang Lian; Vitali Zagorodnov; Yap-peng Tan

2007-01-01

267

Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform  

SciTech Connect

This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

None

2010-06-01

268

Viscoelastic models for explosive binder materials  

SciTech Connect

An improved model of the mechanical properties of the explosive contained in conventional munitions is needed to accurately simulate performance and accident scenarios in weapons storage facilities. A specific class of explosives can he idealized as a mixture of two components: energetic crystals randomly suspended in a polymeric matrix (binder). Strength characteristics of each component material are important in the macroscopic behavior of the composite (explosive). Of interest here is the determination of an appropriate constitutive law for a polyurethane binder material. This paper is a continuation of previous work in modeling polyurethane at moderately high strain rates and for large deformations. Simulation of a large deformation (strains in excess of 100%) Taylor Anvil experiment revealed numerical difficulties which have been addressed. Additional experimental data have been obtained including improved resolution Taylor Anvil data, and stress relaxation data at various strain rates. A thorough evaluation of the candidate viscoelastic constitutive model is made and possible improvements discussed.

Bardenhagen, S.G.; Harstad, E.N.; Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Foster, J.C. Jr. [Wright Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

1997-07-01

269

Explosively separable casing  

DOEpatents

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

Jacobson, Albin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rychnovsky, Raymond E. (Livermore, CA); Visbeck, Cornelius N. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

270

Molecular models for explosives  

SciTech Connect

Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of formation, etc. for explosives. As a result of this extensive experimental work, a large and ever increasing number of observed properties of explosives are available. Given sufficient data, models for the prediction of molecular properties can be developed and calibrated. Nevertheless, many desirable molecular properties can be obtained with considerable effort and, in many cases, experimental measurements are not possible for practical reasons; e.g., bond dissociation energies are very difficult to obtain for explosives. Consequently, theoretical methods for obtaining these properties are quite desirable. In addition, it is oftentimes desired to estimate the properties of unknown molecules. Consequently, methods for the estimation of molecular properties, which might seem quite crude by other standards, can be of considerable practical value. We present in this paper some of our recent efforts at extending and developing molecular models for explosives. These efforts fall into three main areas: Estimation of crystal densities of organic nitrates and perchlorates by an entirely empirical group additivity method; calculation of molecular heats of formation and bond dissociation energies (BDE's) by a semi-empirical molecular orbital method (AM1); and the electronic structure of nitrobenzene as obtained from non-empirical (sometimes called ab initio molecular orbital calculations. 10 refs.

Ritchie, J.P.; Bachrach, S.M.

1987-01-01

271

Canine detection odor signatures for explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

1998-12-01

272

Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

2007-03-01

273

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS IN EXPLOSIVES  

SciTech Connect

Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H. [MS J566, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lee, R. J. [Lndian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States)

2009-12-28

274

Continuous steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C. [Stake Technology Ltd., Norval, Ontario (Canada)

1995-02-01

275

Bioremediation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The extensive manufacture, packing, and the use of explosives has often resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground waters near these activities. Congressional mandate has now required that such sites be remediated. An especially promising technology for this explosives problem is biotechnology. When applicable, biotechnology is cheap and provides complete conversion of hazardous compounds to harmless biomass or carbon dioxide. The focus of this paper will be on our present understanding of the microbial metabolism of the explosives, TNT and RDX, which have been used most extensively in the United States. To assure that an efficient process is developed for TNT biodegradation, we are conducting appropriate lab scale tests with TNT contaminated soil. First, we are testing their efficiency in soil/water slurries; we are also testing their efficiency in a column system designed to simulate composting conditions. A pilot scale test of this bacterial degradation will be conducted as soon as weather permits. 36 refs., 5 figs.

Unkefer, P.J.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Unkefer, C.J.; Stenger, M.; Margiotta, E.A.

1990-01-01

276

Explosive Synchronization is Discontinuous  

E-print Network

Spontaneous explosive is an abrupt transition to collective behavior taking place in heterogeneous networks when the frequencies of the nodes are positively correlated to the node degree. This explosive transition was conjectured to be discontinuous. Indeed, numerical investigations reveal a hysteresis behavior associated with the transition. Here, we analyze explosive synchronization in star graphs. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the transition to (and out) collective behavior is indeed discontinuous. The discontinuous nature of the transition is related to the nonlinear behavior of the order parameter, which in the thermodynamic limit exhibits multiple fixed points. Moreover, we unravel the hysteresis behavior in terms of the graph parameters. Our numerical results show that finite size graphs are well described by our predictions.

Vladimir Vlasov; Yong Zou; Tiago Pereira

2014-11-25

277

A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.  

PubMed

The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. PMID:22858504

Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

2012-10-01

278

Toward retinal vessel parameterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliable measurement of retinal vessel geometry in ordinary red-free fundus photograph is a challenging issue. Quite apart from refractive effects which can distort absolute measures, the existence of the central light reflex poses some interesting problems in vessel modeling and segmentation. One aim of our research is to obtain sub-pixel vessel width precision from digitized retinal photographs. For this

Xiaohong Gao; Anil A. Bharath; Alun J. Hughes; Alice Stanton; Neil Chapman; Simon Thom

1997-01-01

279

Laser initiation of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through laser initiation of explosives offers many advantages like controlled threshold energy over wide range, replacement of complicated safety arming mechanisms to simple and better system, immunity to RF/EMI environment etc, but there is greater difficulty to build detonator for all purpose applications and regular field trials. The challenges are to understand the interaction of laser radiation or its induced plasma with explosives, launching and transmission of high power laser beam, coupling and focussing to desired target area. This paper looks into the details of those facts.

Singh, Manpreet; Sethi, V. S.

2002-09-01

280

Microcantilever detector for explosives  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

Thundat, T.G.

1999-06-29

281

Physically based simulation of explosions  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a method for using physically based techniques to model an explosion and the resulting side effects. Explosions are some of the most visually exciting phenomena known to humankind and have become nearly ubiquitous in action...

Roach, Matthew Douglas

2005-08-29

282

Reactor vessel material surveillance program  

Microsoft Academic Search

B&W conducts surveillance programs for its 850-MW(e) class of reactors ; to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the full Charpy V-notch curves ; of the reactor vessel materials. Charpy and tensile specimens, which are ; machined from as-fabricated metal, heat-affected-zone metal (HAZ), and weld ; metal, are placed in six surveillance capsules containing dosimeters and ; temperature monitors.

G. J. Snyder; G. S. Carter

1973-01-01

283

Analysis of wave curvature experiments for monomodal explosives with different crystal quality and particle size characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Wood-Kirkwood theory reaction zone thickness determinations and computer simulations of wave curvature experiments of two sets of explosives are presented. One set included explosives composed of RDX with different crystal quality characteristics. The other set of explosives was composed of monomodal explosives made from fine, coarse and very coarse sieved RDX and bimodal explosives made from combining the fine and very coarse RDX. The calculated reaction zone thickness was found to be greater for explosives with higher RDX crystal quality and for those of higher mean particle size. A simplified two-term ignition and growth reactive model parameterized by embedded gauge experiments was used in CTH hydrocode simulations of the wave curvature experiments for the explosives where crystal quality was varied. The simulations under-predicted the axial position lag seen in experiment and predicted as seen in experiment, that the explosive containing the higher quality crystals had a greater axial position lag.

Sutherland, G. T. [Technology Development Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States); Lemar, E. R.; Marcus, M. H. [Energetics Technology Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States)

2007-12-12

284

LLNL explosives handbook: properties of chemical explosives and explosives and explosive simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook presents information and data for high explosives (HEs) of interest to programs at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It is intended to be useful to the scientist or engineer, the novice or expert, who needs to develop a new weapon system, design a physics experiment, or select and\\/or evaluate an

Dobratz

1981-01-01

285

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

286

Managing the data explosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

1993-01-01

287

The combustion of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

Son, S. F. (Steven F.)

2001-01-01

288

Underwater electrical wire explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the results obtained in recent research of underwater electrical wire explosions using microsecond and nanosecond generators is presented. It was shown that the increase in the rate of energy input into the exploding wire allows one to increase the wire temperature and amplitude of shock waves (SWs). Estimated energy deposition into Cu and Al wire material

Ya E. Krasik; A. Fedotov; D. Sheftman; S. Efimov; A. Sayapin; V. Tz Gurovich; D. Veksler; G. Bazalitski; S. Gleizer; A. Grinenko; V. I. Oreshkin

2010-01-01

289

Underwater electrical wire explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief review of the results obtained in recent research of underwater electrical wire explosions using microsecond and nanosecond generators is presented. It was shown that the increase in the rate of energy input into the exploding wire allows one to increase the wire temperature and amplitude of shock waves (SWs). Estimated energy deposition into Cu and Al wire material of up to 200 eV/atom was achieved. In microsecond time scale wire explosion, a good agreement was attained between the wire resistance calculated using the equation of state (EOS) and that obtained experimentally. Conversely, in nanosecond time scale wire explosion, the wire resistance of EOS was modified in order to fit experimental data. Analysis of the emitted radiation showed that black body approximation cannot be used to characterize exploding wire radiation. It was found that <=24% of the deposited energy is transferred into the water flow's mechanical energy. Also, it was shown that converging SWs formed by the explosion of cylindrical wire arrays can be used to achieve a pressure up to 250 kbar at the axis of implosion. Hydrodynamic simulations showed that with the use of relatively moderate pulsed power generators with stored energy of several hundred kilojoules, a pressure of several megabar can be achieved at the axis of implosion.

Krasik, Ya E.; Fedotov, A.; Sheftman, D.; Efimov, S.; Sayapin, A.; Gurovich, V. Tz; Veksler, D.; Bazalitski, G.; Gleizer, S.; Grinenko, A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

2010-06-01

290

Explosives signatures and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable

Jonathan M. Oyler

2008-01-01

291

Portable Raman explosives detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics,\\u000a as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy,\\u000a both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

David S. Moore; R. Jason Scharff

2009-01-01

292

Ecotoxicology of Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, 'Ecotoxicology of Explosives' provides comprehensive and critical reviews available to date on fate, transport, and effects of explosives. The book delineates the state of the science of the ecotoxicology of explosives, past, present, and recently developed. It reviews the accessible fate and ecotoxicological data for energetic materials (EMs) and the methods for their development. The chapters characterize the fate of explosives in the environment, then provide information on their ecological effects in key environmental media, including aquatic, sedimentary, and terrestrial habitats. The book also discusses approaches for assembling these lines of evidence for risk assessment purposes. The chapter authors have critically examined the peer-reviewed literature to identify and prioritize the knowledge gaps and to recommend future areas of research. The editors include a review of the genotoxic effects of the EMs and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these chemicals. They also discuss the transport, transformation, and degradation pathways of these chemicals in the environment that underlie the potential hazardous impact and bioaccumulation of EMs in different terrestrial and aquatic ecological receptors. This information translates into practical applications for the environmental risk assessment of EM-contaminated sites and into recommendations for the sustainable use of defense installations.

Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Morrill, Valerie [U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground; Jenkins, Thomas [U.S. Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory

2009-04-01

293

Environmental fate of explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal practices associated with military production of weapons, especially before and during World War II, have resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground water with high explosives such as TNT, RDX and HMX. Development of remediation and risk management strategies for these contaminated sites as well as development of approaches for sustainable use of active training and weapons

Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon

2002-01-01

294

Explosions: A Conference to  

E-print Network

Winds, Bubbles, & Explosions: A Conference to Honour John Dyson. Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México, 9 spectra for analysis com­ puted with WMBASIC code (Pauldrach, Ho#­ man, Lennon 2001), and with Hillier Physics & Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N.Charles Baltimore, MD21210, (bianchi

Bianchi, Luciana

295

CBC: Halifax Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the evening of December 6, 1917, a massive explosion rocked the harbor of the rapidly growing city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, located in eastern Canada. Caused by the collision of two ships (one of which was carrying a tremendous amount of explosive material), the explosion killed over 1500 people outright, and devastated the settlements around the area. Working with various historical groups, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has created this engrossing multimedia look into the events leading up to that dreadful incident, along with offering a broader historical perspective on the development of the city of Halifax and the aftermath of these tragic events. Starting from the main page, visitors will learn about Halifax's history, along with having the opportunity to view significant interactive features, such as maps of the area and recently-discovered archival footage of the city and its environs. The interactive features here are quite amazing, as visitors can view video clips of survivors' recollections, and watch footage of various commemoration activities associated with the explosion.

296

Hand held explosives detection system  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

297

LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY  

E-print Network

ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

Rathbun, Julie A.

298

Excess energetic materials as ingredients in commercial explosives  

SciTech Connect

The efforts were focused on investigating the feasibility of using excess energetic materials from the Department of Defense and Aerospace Industries as ingredients in commercial explosives. The management of the excess energetic materials inventory in this country has become a serious problem facing the Department of Defense and its contractors, the Aerospace Industry and both state and federal regulatory agencies. According to the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, the United States uses over 2 million metric tons of commercial explosives per year. The possibility of using these excess energetic materials in even a small portion of the commercial explosives which are used presents a significant outlet. A Class 1.3 Composite propellant (containing ammonium perchlorate and aluminum) and a Smokeless Powder Propellant (double based propellant) were researched. The safety and technical aspects of adding these materials to several common types of commercial explosives at the point of manufacture were investigated. Explosive characteristics such as detonation velocity, critical diameter, and energy release were also measured. It was concluded that the resulting mixtures either maintained the explosive characteristics of the standard formulations or they exhibited significantly enhanced explosive characteristics over those of the standard formulations. The use of these excess energetic materials as ingredients in commercial explosives presents a viable alternate use.

Gilion, J.B.; Eck, G. [Universal Tech Corp., Riverton, KS (United States). R and D Lab.; Machacek, O. [Universal Tech Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

299

Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial confinement. The Frozen Rock Experiment in 2006 found only minor differences in seismic coupling for explosions in frozen and unfrozen rock. The seismo-acoustic source function was the focus of the above- and below-ground Humble Redwood explosions (2007, 2009 ) in New Mexico and detonations of rocket motor explosions in Utah. Acoustic travel time calibration for the IMS was accomplished with the 2009 and 2011 100-ton surface explosions in southern Israel. The New England Damage Experiment in 2009 correlated increased shear wave generation with increased rock damage from explosions. Damage from explosions continues to be an important research topic at Nevada's National Center for Nuclear Security with the ongoing Source Physics Experiment. A number of exciting experiments are already planned for the future and thus continue the effort to improve global detection, location, and identification of nuclear explosions.

Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

2011-12-01

300

FIRE Vacuum Vessel Design and Analysis  

E-print Network

lifetime component - remotely welded joints are double contained - all bellows are double contained · High quality vacuum - outgassing and leak rate welded construction for remote maintenance - Field joints must be capable of remote leak testing and repair - In-vessel re

301

Super eruption environments make for "super" hydrothermal explosions: Extreme hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal explosions are violent events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments over areas that range from a few meters in diameter up to several kilometers in diameter. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam-saturated fluids underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in pressure causes the fluids to flash to steam resulting in significant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 meters in diameter) hydrothermal explosions have been identified, and the scale of the individual events dwarfs similar features in other hydrothermal and geothermal areas of the world. Large explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka at an interval of ~1 per every 700 yrs and similar events are likely to occur in the future. Our studies of hydrothermal explosive events indicate: 1) none are associated with magmatic or volcanic events; 2) several have been triggered by seismic events coupled with other processes; 3) lithic clasts and matrix from explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating long-term, extensive hydrothermal mineralization in areas that were incorporated into the explosion deposit; 4) many lithic clasts in explosion breccia deposits contain evidence of repeated fracturing and cementation; and 4) dimensions of many documented large hydrothermal explosion craters in Yellowstone are similar to the dimensions of currently active geyser basins or thermal areas in Yellowstone. The vast majority of active thermal areas in Yellowstone are characterized by 1) high-temperature hot-water systems in areas of high heat-flow, 2) extensive systems of hot springs, fumaroles, geysers, sinter terraces, mud pots, and, in places, small hydrothermal explosion craters, 3) widespread alteration of host rocks, 4) large areal dimensions (>several 100 m) and 5) intermittent but long-lived activity (40,000 to 300,000 years). Critical requirements for large hydrothermal explosions are an interconnected system of well-developed joints and fractures along which hydrothermal fluids flow and a water-saturated system close to or at boiling temperatures. Important factors are the active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera, active faults and moderate seismicity, high heat flow, climate changes, and regional stresses. Ascending fluids flow along fractures that develop in response to active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera and along edges of impermeable rhyolitic lava flows. Alteration, self sealing, and dissolution further constrain the distribution and development of hydrothermal fields. A partial impermeable cap can contribute to the final over-pressurization. An abrupt drop in pressure initiates steam-flashing and is instantly transmitted through interconnected fractures, resulting in a series of multiple large-scale explosions and excavation of an explosion crater. Strong similarities between large hydrothermal explosion craters and thermal fields in Yellowstone may indicate that catastrophic failures leading to large hydrothermal explosions represent a unique phase in the life cycle of a geyser basin.

Morgan, L. A.; Shanks, W. P.; Pierce, K. L.

2006-12-01

302

Liquid cargo container  

SciTech Connect

A double-tank shipping container for general bulk liquid cargo, the container being constituted by a sea-going vessel having a single hull provided with a hold which defines the outer tank of the container and a prefabricated flexible bladder forming an inner tank received within the outer tank and readily removable therefrom. The inner tank has a configuration roughly conforming to the contours of the outer tank and yet capable of sustaining the liquid cargo in the event of a rupture in the outer tank, thereby to prevent spillage from the vessel and to avoid pollution of the seas.

Kohn, J.; Roberts, W.M.

1980-10-28

303

Designing for explosive safety'': The Explosive Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is to be a new major facility in the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Weapons Program. The ECF is a self-contained, secure site on SNL property and is surrounded by Kirtland Air Force Base which is located 6-1/2 miles east of downtown Albuquerque, New Mexico. The ECF will be dedicated to research, development, and testing of detonators, neutron generators, batteries, explosives, and other weapon components. It will have capabilities for conducting explosive test fires, gas gun testing, physical analyses, chemical analyses, electrical testing and ancillary explosive storage in magazines. The ECF complex is composed of a building covering an area of approximately 91,000 square feet, six exterior explosive service magazines and a remote test cell. Approximately 50% of the building space will be devoted to highly specialized laboratory and test areas, the other 50% of the building is considered nonhazardous. Critical to the laboratory and test areas are the blast-structural design consideration and operational considerations, particularly those concerning personnel access control, safety and environmental protection. This area will be decoupled from the rest of the building to the extent that routine tests will not be heard or felt in the administrative area of the building. While the ECF is designed in accordance with the DOE Explosives Safety Manual to mitigate any off-site blast effects, potential injuries or death to the ECF staff may result from an accidental detonation of explosive material within the facility. Therefore, reducing the risk of exposing operation personnel to hazardous and energetic material is paramount in the design of the ECF.

Couch, W.A.

1990-12-01

304

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

305

An explosive intrusive subglacial rhyolite eruption at Dalakvísl, Torfajökull, Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes unusual rhyolitic deposits at Dalakvísl, Torfajökull, Iceland that were emplaced during a Quaternary subglacial eruption. Despite its small volume (<0.2 km3), the eruption mechanisms were highly variable and involved both explosive and intrusive phases. The explosive phase involved vesiculation-driven magma fragmentation at the glacier base and generated a pumiceous pyroclastic deposit containing deformed sheets of dense obsidian.

H. Tuffen; D. W. McGarvie; H. Pinkerton; J. S. Gilbert; R. A. Brooker

2008-01-01

306

Nuclear Fusion induced by Coulomb Explosion of Heteronuclear Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new mechanism for the production of high-energy ( E>3 keV) deuterons, suitable to induce dd nuclear fusion, based on multielectron ionization and Coulomb explosion of heteronuclear deuterium containing molecular clusters, e.g., (D2O)n, in intense ( 1016-2×1018 W\\/cm2) laser fields. Cluster size equations for E, in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations, reveal important advantages of Coulomb explosion of

Isidore Last; Joshua Jortner

2001-01-01

307

Explosives detection using photoneutrons produced by X-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of explosives has become a critical issue after recent terrorist attacks. This paper describes research on explosives detection using photoneutrons from a photoneutron convertor that consists of 20kg heavy water in an aluminum container whose shape was optimized to most effectively convert X-rays to photoneutrons. The X-rays were produced by a 9MeV electron accelerator with an average electron

Yigang Yang; Yuanjing Li; Haidong Wang; Tiezhu Li; Bin Wu

2007-01-01

308

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

309

[Explosive "Roman find"].  

PubMed

A case of a 40-year-old hobby archeologist is presented who searched for remains from Roman times. After finding an oblong, cylindrical object, he opened it with a saw to examine it, which triggered an explosion killing the man. The technical investigation of the remains showed that the find was actually a grenade from the 2nd World War. The autopsy findings and the results of the criminological investigation are presented. PMID:16529179

Stiel, Michael; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

2006-01-01

310

New Dark Matter Detector using Nanoscale Explosives  

E-print Network

We present nanoscale explosives as a novel type of dark matter detector and study the ignition properties. When a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle WIMP from the Galactic Halo elastically scatters off of a nucleus in the detector, the small amount of energy deposited can trigger an explosion. For specificity, this paper focuses on a type of two-component explosive known as a nanothermite, consisting of a metal and an oxide in close proximity. When the two components interact they undergo a rapid exothermic reaction --- an explosion. As a specific example, we consider metal nanoparticles of 5 nm radius embedded in an oxide. One cell contains more than a few million nanoparticles, and a large number of cells adds up to a total of 1 kg detector mass. A WIMP interacts with a metal nucleus of the nanoparticles, depositing enough energy to initiate a reaction at the interface between the two layers. When one nanoparticle explodes it initiates a chain reaction throughout the cell. A number of possible thermite mat...

Lopez, Alejandro; Freese, Katherine; Kurdak, Cagliyan; Tarle, Gregory

2014-01-01

311

Adhesion of explosives.  

PubMed

It is of increasing importance to understand how explosive particles adhere to surfaces in order to understand how to remove them for detection in airport or other security settings. In this study, adhesion forces between royal demolition explosive (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in their crystalline forms and aluminum coupons with three finishes, acrylic melamine (clear coating), polyester acrylic melamine (white coating) automotive finishes, and a green military-grade finish, were measured and modeled. The force measurements were performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) method. Explosive particles were mounted on AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought in and out of contact with the surfaces of interest while the required force needed to pull out of contact was recorded. An existing Matlab-based simulator was used to describe the observed adhesion force distributions, with excellent agreement. In these simulations, the measured topographies of the interacting surfaces were considered, although the geometries were approximated. The simulations were performed using a van der Waals force-based adhesion model and a composite effective Hamaker constant. It was determined that certain combinations of roughness on the interacting surfaces led to preferred particle-substrate orientations that produced extreme adhesion forces. PMID:23510004

Chaffee-Cipich, Michelle N; Sturtevant, Bryce D; Beaudoin, Stephen P

2013-06-01

312

Explosives signatures and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

2008-04-01

313

Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

Lohr, Tresa Rae

2006-01-01

314

Stellarator helical vacuum vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that can be machined and welded together into a helical configuration. A complication in the design requires that

Yavornik

1983-01-01

315

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes "re-freezing" the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the "re-freezing" temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude "re-freezing" of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

Makhov, M. N.

2004-07-01

316

Dual shell pressure balanced vessel  

DOEpatents

A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

317

Flexible Composite-Material Pressure Vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed lightweight pressure vessel would be made of a composite of high-tenacity continuous fibers and a flexible matrix material. The flexibility of this pressure vessel would render it (1) compactly stowable for transport and (2) more able to withstand impacts, relative to lightweight pressure vessels made of rigid composite materials. The vessel would be designed as a structural shell wherein the fibers would be predominantly bias-oriented, the orientations being optimized to make the fibers bear the tensile loads in the structure. Such efficient use of tension-bearing fibers would minimize or eliminate the need for stitching and fill (weft) fibers for strength. The vessel could be fabricated by techniques adapted from filament winding of prior composite-material vessels, perhaps in conjunction with the use of dry film adhesives. In addition to the high-bias main-body substructure described above, the vessel would include a low-bias end substructure to complete coverage and react peak loads. Axial elements would be overlaid to contain damage and to control fiber orientation around side openings. Fiber ring structures would be used as interfaces for connection to ancillary hardware.

Brown, Glen; Haggard, Roy; Harris, Paul A.

2003-01-01

318

Near-Source Scattering of Explosion-Generated Rg: Insight From Difference Spectrograms of NTS Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies of the generation of low-frequency Lg from explosions indicate that the Lg wavetrain from explosions contains significant contributions from (1) the scattering of explosion-generated Rg into S and (2) direct S waves from the non-spherical spall source associated with a buried explosion. The pronounced spectral nulls observed in Lg spectra of Yucca Flats (NTS) and Semipalatinsk explosions (Patton and Taylor, 1995; Gupta et al., 1997) are related to Rg excitation caused by spall-related block motions in a conical volume over the shot point, which may be approximately represented by a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) source (Patton et al., 2005). Frequency-dependent excitation of Rg waves should be imprinted on all scattered P, S and Lg waves. A spectrogram may be considered as a three-dimensional matrix of numbers providing amplitude and frequency information for each point in the time series. We found difference spectrograms, derived from a normal explosion and a closely located over-buried shot recorded at the same common station, to be remarkably useful for an understanding of the origin and spectral contents of various regional phases. This technique allows isolation of source characteristics, essentially free from path and recording site effects, since the overburied shot acts as the empirical Green's function. Application of this methodology to several pairs of closely located explosions shows that the scattering of explosion-generated Rg makes significant contribution to not only Lg and its coda but also to the two other regional phases Pg (presumably by the scattering of Rg into P) and Sn. The scattered energy, identified by the presence of a spectral null at the appropriate frequency, generally appears to be more prominent in the somewhat later-arriving sections of Pg, Sn, and Lg than in the initial part. Difference spectrograms appear to provide a powerful new technique for understanding the mechanism of near-source scattering of explosion-generated Rg and its contribution to various regional phases.

Gupta, I.; Chan, W.; Wagner, R.

2005-12-01

319

Towards an Empirically Based Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before been tested. The focus of our work is on the local and regional distances (< 2000 km) and phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg) necessary to see small explosions. We are developing a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum that is compatible with the earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation models developed using the Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC) techniques (Walter and Taylor, 2002). The explosion parametric model will be particularly important in regions without any prior explosion data for calibration. The model is being developed using the available body of seismic data at local and regional distances for past nuclear explosions at foreign and domestic test sites. Parametric modeling is a simple and practical approach for widespread monitoring applications, prior to the capability to carry out fully deterministic modeling. The achievable goal of our parametric model development is to be able to predict observed local and regional distance seismic amplitudes for event identification and yield determination in regions with incomplete or no prior history of underground nuclear testing. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R; Ruppert, S; Matzel, E; Hauk, T; Gok, R

2009-08-31

320

Direct real-time detection of vapors from explosive compounds.  

PubMed

The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX, and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances was demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a nonradioactive ionization source coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was accomplished in less than 5 s at ambient temperature without sample preconcentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provided a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3(-) and NO3(-)·HNO3), enabled highly sensitive explosives detection from explosive vapors present in ambient laboratory air. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicated detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284, and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX, and NG, respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations sampled in ambient laboratory air, including double base propellants, plastic explosives, and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN, and RDX product ions. PMID:24090362

Ewing, Robert G; Clowers, Brian H; Atkinson, David A

2013-11-19

321

Linear accelerator for explosive detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14 MeV, S-band linear accelerator has been designed and built by Beta Development for use in the MIDEP explosive detection program at Titan\\/Spectron Division. The explosive detection technique utilizes photoneutron activation of the nitrogen which is an integral component in most commercial and military explosives. The accelerator was designed to be a small, high power, light weight, and portable

K. Whitham; R. C. Miller; H. Anamkath; J. R. Clifford; R. B. Miller; K. Habiger

1991-01-01

322

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system  

SciTech Connect

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

2012-02-14

323

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions  

E-print Network

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions #12;Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical

Groisman, Pablo

324

High-speed imaging, acoustic features, and aeroacoustic computations of jet noise from Strombolian (and Vulcanian) explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

imaging of explosive eruptions at Stromboli (Italy), Fuego (Guatemala), and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes allowed visualization of pressure waves from seconds-long explosions. From the explosion jets, waves radiate with variable geometry, timing, and apparent direction and velocity. Both the explosion jets and their wave fields are replicated well by numerical simulations of supersonic jets impulsively released from a pressurized vessel. The scaled acoustic signal from one explosion at Stromboli displays a frequency pattern with an excellent match to those from the simulated jets. We conclude that both the observed waves and the audible sound from the explosions are jet noise, i.e., the typical acoustic field radiating from high-velocity jets. Volcanic jet noise was previously quantified only in the infrasonic emissions from large, sub-Plinian to Plinian eruptions. Our combined approach allows us to define the spatial and temporal evolution of audible jet noise from supersonic jets in small-scale volcanic eruptions.

Taddeucci, J.; Sesterhenn, J.; Scarlato, P.; Stampka, K.; Del Bello, E.; Pena Fernandez, J. J.; Gaudin, D.

2014-05-01

325

Multilayer Composite Pressure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been devised to enable the fabrication of lightweight pressure vessels from multilayer composite materials. This method is related to, but not the same as, the method described in gMaking a Metal- Lined Composite-Overwrapped Pressure Vessel h (MFS-31814), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 59. The method is flexible in that it poses no major impediment to changes in tank design and is applicable to a wide range of tank sizes. The figure depicts a finished tank fabricated by this method, showing layers added at various stages of the fabrication process. In the first step of the process, a mandrel that defines the size and shape of the interior of the tank is machined from a polyurethane foam or other suitable lightweight tooling material. The mandrel is outfitted with metallic end fittings on a shaft. Each end fitting includes an outer flange that has a small step to accommodate a thin layer of graphite/epoxy or other suitable composite material. The outer surface of the mandrel (but not the fittings) is covered with a suitable release material. The composite material is filament- wound so as to cover the entire surface of the mandrel from the step on one end fitting to the step on the other end fitting. The composite material is then cured in place. The entire workpiece is cut in half in a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry at its mid-length point, yielding two composite-material half shells, each containing half of the foam mandrel. The halves of the mandrel are removed from within the composite shells, then the shells are reassembled and bonded together with a belly band of cured composite material. The resulting composite shell becomes a mandrel for the subsequent steps of the fabrication process and remains inside the final tank. The outer surface of the composite shell is covered with a layer of material designed to be impermeable by the pressurized fluid to be contained in the tank. A second step on the outer flange of each end fitting accommodates this layer. Depending on the application, this layer could be, for example, a layer of rubber, a polymer film, or an electrodeposited layer of metal. If the fluid to be contained in the tank is a gas, then the best permeation barrier is electrodeposited metal (typically copper or nickel), which can be effective at a thickness of as little as 0.005 in (.0.13 mm). The electrodeposited metal becomes molecularly bonded to the second step on each metallic end fitting. The permeation-barrier layer is covered with many layers of filament-wound composite material, which could be the same as, or different from, the composite material of the inner shell. Finally, the filament-wound composite material is cured in an ov

DeLay, Tom

2005-01-01

326

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

DOEpatents

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01

327

Explosive scabbling of structural materials  

DOEpatents

A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

328

Explosions on the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System - these are the eruptions and flaring that occur on the Sun. They can release as much energy as 10 million volcanoes, and throw out material into the solar system with similar mass to Mount Everest! The theories of what can produce such an explosion are based around the magnetic field that confines the gas. These events can produce emission right across the electromagnetic spectrum. The status of our ability to predict these events is discussed.

Harra, Louise K.

2005-10-01

329

Biodegradation of the Nitramine Explosive CL-20  

PubMed Central

The cyclic nitramine explosive CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) was examined in soil microcosms to determine whether it is biodegradable. CL-20 was incubated with a variety of soils. The explosive disappeared in all microcosms except the controls in which microbial activity had been inhibited. CL-20 was degraded most rapidly in garden soil. After 2 days of incubation, about 80% of the initial CL-20 had disappeared. A CL-20-degrading bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71, was isolated from enrichment cultures containing garden soil as an inoculum, succinate as a carbon source, and CL-20 as a nitrogen source. Growth experiments revealed that strain JS71 used 3 mol of nitrogen per mol of CL-20. PMID:12620886

Trott, Sandra; Nishino, Shirley F.; Hawari, Jalal; Spain, Jim C.

2003-01-01

330

Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and

Roy Merrifield

2000-01-01

331

On-site Analysis of Explosives in Various Matrices  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed several different strategies and technologies for the on-site detection of explosives. These on-site detection techniques include a colorimetric test, thin layer chromatography (TLC) kit and portable gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The screening of suspicious containers on-site and the search for trace explosive residue in a post-blast forensic investigation are of great importance. For these reasons, LLNL's Forensic Science Center has developed a variety of fieldable detection technologies to screen for a wide range of explosives in various matrices and scenarios. Ideally, what is needed is a fast, accurate, easy-to-use, pocket-size and inexpensive field screening test for explosives.

Reynolds, J G; Nunes, P; Whipple, R E; Alcaraz, A

2006-01-25

332

Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06

333

Green primary explosives: 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies.  

PubMed

The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[Fe(II)(NT)(3)(H(2)O)(3)], cat(2)[Fe(II)(NT)(4)(H(2)O)(2)], cat(3)[Fe(II)(NT)(5)(H(2)O)], and cat(4)[Fe(II)(NT)(6)] with cat = cation and NT(-) = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2). With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2)-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries. PMID:16803957

Huynh, My Hang V; Coburn, Michael D; Meyer, Thomas J; Wetzler, Modi

2006-07-01

334

Green primary explosives: 5-Nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies  

PubMed Central

The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[FeII(NT)3(H2O)3], cat2[FeII(NT)4(H2O)2], cat3[FeII(NT)5(H2O)], and cat4[FeII(NT)6] with cat = cation and NT? = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2. With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries. PMID:16803957

Huynh, My Hang V.; Coburn, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi

2006-01-01

335

Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

1998-04-23

336

Evaluation of surface storage facilities for explosives, blasting agents and other explosive materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histories of recent and past magazine explosions were reviewed; present explosive storage conditions and practices were observed; and existing Federal regulations on explosive storage were examined. A recent increase in magazine explosion frequency must be attributed to a large increase in deliberate explosions; fires of various origins account for the remaining explosions of the past decade. During 1884-1926 several

J. Roth

1983-01-01

337

Explosive components facility certification tests  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01

338

Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

Sokolova, Inna

2014-05-01

339

Laser machining of explosives  

DOEpatents

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01

340

Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

Chastagner, Philippe (3134 Natalie Cir., Augusta, GA 30909-2748)

1994-01-01

341

Proteoglycans and Vascular Residual Stress: Exposing a Hidden Mechanism for Regulating Blood Vessel Bio mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomechanics plays a fundamental role in understanding how blood vessels function in the body, and how they adapt in response to abnormal loading conditions that accompany many devastating cardiovascular diseases. In particular, blood vessels contain so-called \\

Vikrum Thimmappa; Evren U. Azeloglu; Gerard A. Ateshian; Kevin D. Costa

342

Pre-explosive conduit conditions of the 1997 Vulcanian explosions at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat: I. Pressure and vesicularity distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An authoritative case of Vulcanian eruptive dynamics is the series of 88 explosions that occurred between August and October 1997 at Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat Island. The state of the magmatic column just before a Vulcanian explosion is still poorly understood, but conditions the eruptive style. This study establishes such a pre-explosive stratigraphy by 1) documenting the textures covering the range of the 1997 products, 2) quantitative analysis of H 2O content in interstitial glass measured by Karl-Fischer Titration, and 3) combining these data with a simple model linking pre- and post-explosive vesicularities. The model shows that syn-explosive degassing affects greatly the way porosity evolves by decompression during an explosion. The stratigraphy reconstruction shows a three-part vertical layering of the conduit prior to explosion with overall denser values than those previously suggested. A dense and strongly degassed plug caps the column. It is underlain by a shallow transition zone featuring complex mingling between vesicular and dense magma up to 10 MPa. At higher pressure, up to 80 MPa, lies a more homogeneous zone of relatively dense (10-20 vol.%) magma, which was emplaced under partly open-system degassing. This conduit stratigraphy gives the vision of a strongly heterogeneous magma column immediately prior to its disruption. Our analysis suggests that fragmenting such a composite magma cannot happen in a single coherent pulse, but rather as stages. The transition zone contains heterogeneous amounts of exsolved gas that could explain the pulsatory nature of the Vulcanian jets at the beginning of the explosions. This contrasts with the nearly constant vesicularities of the deeper part of the pre-explosive magma column, which are propitious to a general, short-lived disruption.

Burgisser, Alain; Poussineau, Stéphane; Arbaret, Laurent; Druitt, Timothy H.; Giachetti, Thomas; Bourdier, Jean-Louis

2010-07-01

343

Explosive Plane-Wave Lens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than aro...

S. P. Marsh

1987-01-01

344

Corona discharge initiated mine explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that lightning has initiated methane explosions in abandoned and sealed areas of underground coal mines. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) investigated several of these occurrences within recent years. The investigated explosions occurred at significant depths, ranging from 700 ft to 1200 ft. Data from the national lightning detection network indicated a strong correlation between

H. K. Sacks; Thomas Novak

2004-01-01

345

A primer on explosives costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a multitude of cost centers in the typical coal mine, and almost as many ways to calculate their individual and collective effect on the bottom line. The costs of explosives is, in some ways, very difficult to determine without consideration of drilling, loading, hauling and breaking costs. Saving a nickel in explosive costs, for example, could end up

Paddock

1987-01-01

346

Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.  

PubMed

Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide. PMID:12773843

Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

2003-06-01

347

Explosives Detection for Aviation Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

Anthony Fainberg

1992-01-01

348

Small vessel strokes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small vessel disease is a common cause of cerebrovascular disease. It is responsible for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes,\\u000a cognitive decline, and asymptomatic disease. Millions of Americans are affected by silent strokes and white matter abnormalities.\\u000a Lacunar stroke is the most common manifestation. Despite its importance, small vessel strokes remain understudied. There is\\u000a a need for research focused on this prevalent

Oscar Benavente; Carole L. White; Ana M. Roldan

2005-01-01

349

The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment  

SciTech Connect

We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

2002-07-05

350

Enhancing commerical aircraft explosion survivability via active venting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for enhancing aircraft safety in the event of an on-board explosion was studied. The method under study employs deployable vent panels located on the fuselage which are activated by an array of pressure sensors in the aircraft interior. In the event that an explosion is detected, appropriate vent panels are rapidly released from the aircraft. This approach seeks to provide timely relief of explosive pressures within an aircraft to prevent catastrophic structural failure. In this study, the approximate time scale of an explosive detonation and the subsequent sensing and electronic processing was determined. Then, the actuation response times of several vent panel systems were determined through analytical modeling and scale-model experimental testing with good correlation achieved. A scale-model experimental analysis was also conducted to determine the decompression venting time of an aircraft fuselage under a variety of conditions. Two different sized pressure vessels were used in the experimental work and the results correlated quite favorably with an analytical model for decompression times. Finally, a dynamic finite element analysis was conducted to determine the response of a portion of a typical commercial aircraft fuselage subjected to explosive pressure loading. It was determined from this analysis that the pre-stressing of the fuselage from cabin pressurization increases the damage vulnerability of a commercial aircraft fuselage to internal explosions. It was also learned from the structural analysis that the peak fuselage strains due to blast loading occur quickly (within approximately 2 milliseconds) while it was conservatively estimated that approximately 5 to 7 milliseconds would be required to sense the explosion, to actuate selected vent panels, and to initiate the release of cabin pressure from the aircraft. Additionally, since it was determined that predicted fuselage strains for both pressurized and unpressurized load cases remained well below the material strain limit, ultimate failure of the aircraft under blast loading may occur later than originally thought due to secondary explosive pressure reflections and the significant overall increase in cabin pressure after detonation. This delayed onset of failure indicates that an active venting system may indeed be capable of functioning rapidly enough to reduce significant fuselage explosive damage.

Veldman, Roger Lee

2001-10-01

351

PURE NIOBIUM AS A PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIAL  

SciTech Connect

Physics laboratories around the world are developing niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for use in particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are typically cooled to low temperatures by direct contact with a liquid helium bath, resulting in at least part of the helium container being made from pure niobium. In the U.S., the Code of Federal Regulations allows national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel rules or use of alternative rules which provide a level of safety greater than or equal to that afforded by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up also being treated as a material for pressure vessels. This report summarizes what we have learned about the use of niobium as a pressure vessel material, with a focus on issues for compliance with pressure vessel codes. We present results of a literature search for mechanical properties and tests results, as well as a review of ASME pressure vessel code requirements and issues.

Peterson, T. J.; Carter, H. F.; Foley, M. H.; Klebaner, A. L.; Nicol, T. H.; Page, T. M.; Theilacker, J. C.; Wands, R. H.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Wu, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2010-04-09

352

Explosion of chaotic bubbling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied a saddle-node bifurcation/explosion of air bubble formation driven by a sound wave, whose amplitude is the control parameter. The bubbles are formed in a nozzle submerged in a water/glycerol solution inside a cylindrical tube, and the sound wave is tuned to the air column above the fluid. The nonlinear interaction between sound wave and the fluid oscillations, caused by the air bubbles passage through the liquid, results in a route to chaos via quasi-periodicity, with some resonant states characterized by the rational winding numbers W= fs/ fb, where fs is the sound wave frequency and fb is the bubbling rate. We also have shown that the bubble dynamics is similar to the one observed in the two-dimensional circle map.

Tufaile, A.; Reyes, M. B.; Sartorelli, J. C.

2002-05-01

353

On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives  

SciTech Connect

Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Div.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Div.

1997-07-01

354

Evaluation of blood vessel detection methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of evaluating the performance of algorithms for detecting curvilinear structures in medical images. As an exemplar we consider the detection of vessel trees which contain structures of variable width and contrast. Results for the conventional approach to evaluation, in which the detector output is compared directly with a groundtruth mask, tend to be dominated by the

R. Sadeghzadeh; M. Berks; S. M. Astley; C. J. Taylor

2011-01-01

355

Thermochemistry of mixed explosives  

SciTech Connect

In order to predict thermal hazards of high-energy materials, accurate kinetics constants must be determined. Predictions of thermal hazards for mixtures of high-energy materials require measurements on the mixtures, because interactions among components are common. A differential-scanning calorimeter (DSC) can be used to observe rate processes directly, and isothermal methods enable detection of mechanism changes. Rate-controlling processes will change as components of a mixture are depleted, and the correct depletion function must be identified for each specific stage of a complex process. A method for kinetics measurements on mixed explosives can be demonstrated with Composition B is an approximately 60/40 mixture of RDX and TNT, and is an important military explosive. Kinetics results indicate that the mator process is the decomposition of RDX in solution in TNT with a perturbation caused by interaction between the two components. It is concluded that a combination of chemical kinetics and experimental self-heating procedures provides a good approach to the production of predictive models for thermal hazards of high-energy materials. Systems involving more than one energy-contributing component can be studied. Invalid and dangerous predictive models can be detected by a failure of agreement between prediction and experiment at a specific size, shape, and density. Rates of thermal decomposition for Composition B appear to be modeled adequately for critical-temperature predictions with the following kinetics constants: E = 180.2 kJ mole/sup -1/ and Z = 4.62 X 10/sup 16/ s/sup -1/.

Janney, J.L.; Rogers, R.N.

1982-01-01

356

Defect Characterization in Crystalline Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While microstructural defects such as dislocations, voids, and impurities may dramatically affect ignition sensitivity of energetic materials, the use of non-destructive techniques to accurately characterize the nature of internal defects and how they correlate to initiation is lacking. The objective of this work is to investigate the application of various defect characterization methods to crystalline explosives. X-ray Topography imaging, performed at on oriented, crystal slabs of RDX, shows that for a <210> crystal slab, dislocation structure was only observed in the 020 transmission image compared to the 002, 102, 111, and 021 images. XRT images of the <111> sliced sample taken through the 102 and 202 crystal planes show features including dislocations, grain boundaries, and the seed origin. Small and Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering experiments were performed on standard grade and reduced sensitivity grade RDX powder samples using the contrast variation method. Significant differences in scattering profiles were observed from these two versions of RDX, likely due to the existence of sub-micron voids or impurity pockets in the standard grade RDX sample. Large Scale Gap Test (LSGT) data from IHDIV NSWC for formulations containing these powder samples were then used to correlate neutron scattering to shock sensitivity.

Stoltz, Chad; Mason, Brian; Roberts, Colin; Black, David

2009-06-01

357

46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. 154.409...Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. (a) For...154.406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be determined from...

2014-10-01

358

Original article Variation of vessel lumen diameter in radial direction  

E-print Network

per unit area were investigated in sessile oak wood from 3 trees in the same stand. With increasing in oak wood suggest that the juvenile (core) wood of the oak trees may contain approximately 30 growth diameters of earlywood and latewood vessels and the number of vessels per unit area in oak trees of even

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

Numerical modelling of the expansion phase of steam explosions  

SciTech Connect

The two-fluid, three-dimensional, fluid dynamics code K-FIX has been modified to produce the K-FIX(GT) code, in order to simulate the expansion phase of steam explosions. For a given explosion, the interaction zone is represented by a high pressure bubble as an initial condition; subsequent calculations are made to determine pressure histories and impulse at the test vessel or confinement building walls and internal structures. Explosion energetics, i.e. the work and mechanical energy yield, are also calculated as a measure of the destructive potential of the explosion. The main modifications involved in developing the K-FIX(GT) code consist of adding new components representing a non-condensible gas, air, and debris particles to the two-phase water mixture, and introducing new exchange functions for mass, momentum, and energy which are particularly suited to this type of fast transient. This paper describes the theoretical models incorporated into the code. In addition, one of Sandia National Laboratories Fully Instrumented Test Series tests (FITS-2B) is simulated for the purpose of preliminary code and method validation. Comparison between experimental data and code predictions shows good agreement.

Farawila, Y.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Halvorson, P.J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Hyder, M.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-31

360

Numerical modelling of the expansion phase of steam explosions  

SciTech Connect

The two-fluid, three-dimensional, fluid dynamics code K-FIX has been modified to produce the K-FIX(GT) code, in order to simulate the expansion phase of steam explosions. For a given explosion, the interaction zone is represented by a high pressure bubble as an initial condition; subsequent calculations are made to determine pressure histories and impulse at the test vessel or confinement building walls and internal structures. Explosion energetics, i.e. the work and mechanical energy yield, are also calculated as a measure of the destructive potential of the explosion. The main modifications involved in developing the K-FIX(GT) code consist of adding new components representing a non-condensible gas, air, and debris particles to the two-phase water mixture, and introducing new exchange functions for mass, momentum, and energy which are particularly suited to this type of fast transient. This paper describes the theoretical models incorporated into the code. In addition, one of Sandia National Laboratories Fully Instrumented Test Series tests (FITS-2B) is simulated for the purpose of preliminary code and method validation. Comparison between experimental data and code predictions shows good agreement.

Farawila, Y.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Halvorson, P.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Hyder, M.L. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

361

Vessel Sanitation Program Construction Guidelines  

E-print Network

Vessel Sanitation Program Construction Guidelines July 2005 #12;Department of Health Vessel Sanitation Program Atlanta, GA and Ft Lauderdale, FL Vessel Sanitation Program Centers-7070 Fax: (770) 488-4127 E-mail: vsp@cdc.gov Vessel Sanitation Program Centers for Disease Control

362

Vessel Sanitation Program Operations Manual  

E-print Network

Vessel Sanitation Program Operations Manual August 2005 U.S. Public Health Service for Environmental Health Vessel Sanitation Program Atlanta, GA and Ft Lauderdale, FL Vessel Sanitation Program: (770) 4887070 Fax: (770) 4884127 Email: vsp@cdc.gov Vessel Sanitation Program Centers for Disease

363

Towards a predictive thermal explosion model for energetic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of models and computational strategies for simulating the thermal response of high explosives using a multi-physics hydrodynamics code, ALE3D. Recent improvements to the code have aided our computational capability in modeling the behavior of energetic materials systems exposed to strong thermal environments such as fires. We apply these models and computational techniques to a thermal explosion experiment involving the slow heating of a confined explosive. The model includes the transition from slow heating to rapid deflagration in which the time scale decreases from days to hundreds of microseconds. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical effects are modeled during all phases of this process. The heating stage involves thermal expansion and decomposition according to an Arrhenius kinetics model while a pressure-dependent burn model is employed during the explosive phase. We describe and demonstrate the numerical strategies employed to make the transition from slow to fast dynamics. In addition, we investigate the sensitivity of wall expansion rates to numerical strategies and parameters. Results from a one-dimensional model show that violence is influenced by the presence of a gap between the explosive and container. In addition, a comparison is made between 2D model and measured results for the explosion temperature and tube wall expansion profiles.

Yoh, Jack J.; McClelland, Matthew A.; Maienschein, Jon L.; Wardell, Jeffrey F.

2005-01-01

364

Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

2013-10-03

365

Detection of explosives in soils  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

366

Explosive volcanism may not be an inevitable consequence of magma fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fragmentation of magma, containing abundant gas bubbles, is thought to be the defining characteristic of explosive eruptions. When viscous stresses associated with the growth of bubbles and the flow of the ascending magma exceed the strength of the melt, the magma breaks into disconnected fragments suspended within an expanding gas phase. Although repeated effusive and explosive eruptions for individual

Helge M. Gonnermann; Michael Manga

2003-01-01

367

Test results of chemical reactivity test (CRT) analysis of structural materials and explosives  

SciTech Connect

The chemical reactivity test, CRT, is a procedure used to screen the compatibility of component structure materials with explosives. This report contains the results of CRT materials evaluations conducted at Mound Facility. Data about materials combinations are catalogued both under the name of the explosive and the nonexplosive.

Back, P.S.; Barnhart, B.V.; Walters, R.R.; Haws, L.D.; Collins, L.W.

1980-03-21

368

Blood vessel segmentation in magnetic resonance angiography imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small blood vessels may be difficult to detect in magnetic resonance angiography due to the lack of blood flow caused by disease or injury. Our method, which uses a block-matching denoising approach to segment blood vessels, works well in the presence of noise. We examined extended regions of an image to determine whether they contained blood vessels by fitting a Gaussian mixture model to a region's histogram. Then, dissimilar regions were denoised separately. This approach was beneficial in low-contrast settings. It can be used to detect higher-order blood vessels that may be difficult to detect under normal conditions.

Kozaitis, S. P.; Chandramohan, R.

2011-06-01

369

On the Unreacted Hugoniots of Three Plastic Bonded Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a continuing interest in determining the detonation characteristics of loaded plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The UK licensing agency for explosives, DOSG, wishes to better understand the response of insensitive high explosives. This has required more detailed investigation of the transit of reaction from the unreacted state to products. The starting condition, before application of a kinetic scheme to describe reaction, is thus the unreacted Hugoniot for the material. In this work three PBXs, manufactured by BAE Land Systems, are investigated and modelled. All contain RDX in differing quantities in an HTPB binder. One of them contains aluminium. Two of the materials have the same weight percentage of filler and binder but differ in the grain size distribution entrained. The experimental Hugoniots are presented, and a composite equation of state is derived using an engineering model and shown to describe the measurements well. Further applications of the technique are described and future uses are outlined.

Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.

2006-07-01

370

Stellarator helical vacuum vessel  

SciTech Connect

A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that can be machined and welded together into a helical configuration. A complication in the design requires that a circular magnet coil be located at the minor toroidal axis and that this coil be embedded within the periphery of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel has a minor toroidal axis diameter of 4 meters, a 68.6-cm shell diameter, and a 1.9-cm wall thickness. It twists about the minor toroidal axis twice in 360/sup 0/C. (An n value of 2). It is proposed that the unit be made of cylindrical segments with the ends of the cylinders cut at appropriate lengths and angles to form the helix. A mathematical derivation of the dimensions necessary to produce the required shapes of the segments has been made. Also, drawings of the vacuum vessel components have been produced on LANL's CTR CAD/CAM system. The procedure developed can be used for any value of n as dictated by physics requirements.

Yavornik, E.J.

1983-01-01

371

46 CFR 67.134 - Captured vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Application for Special Qualifications for Vessel Documentation § 67.134 Captured vessels...order stating that the vessel was lawfully captured and condemned as a...

2010-10-01

372

High Explosive Radio Telemetry System  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews the High Explosive Radio Telemetry (HERT) system, under co-development by Los Alamos National Laboratories and Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. This telemetry system is designed to measure the initial performance of an explosive package under flight environment conditions, transmitting data from up to 64 sensors. It features high speed, accurate time resolution (10 ns) and has the ability to complete transmission of data before the system is destroyed by the explosion. In order to affect the resources and performance of a flight delivery vehicle as little as possible, the system is designed such that physical size, power requirements, and antenna demands are as small as possible.

Bracht, R.R.; Crawford, T.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Mclaughlin, B.M.

1998-11-04

373

Dynamic analysis of large suspended LMFBR reactor vessels  

SciTech Connect

Large breeder reactor vessels are often designed under the top-suspended condition. Since the vessel contains a large volume of liquid sodium as reactor coolant, the structural integrity of the vessel bottom head and its effect on the vessel dynamic response are of great importance to the safety and reliability of the reactor systems. This paper presents a dynamic analysis of the large suspended reactor vessel subjected to the horizontal earthquake excitation with the emphasis on the effect of bottom head vibration on fluid pressure and sloshing response. Unlike the conventional lumped mass method, the present analysis treats the liquid sodium as a continuum medium. As a result, the important effects ignored in the lumped mass method such as fluid coupling, fluid-structure interaction, interaction between sloshing and vessel vibration, etc. can be accounted into the analysis.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.

1983-01-01

374

Acoustic emission testing of 12-nickel maraging steel pressure vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic emission data were obtained from three point bend fracture toughness specimens of 12-nickel maraging steel, and two pressure vessels of the same material. One of the pressure vessels contained a prefabricated flaw which was extended and sharpened by fatigue cycling. It is shown that the flawed vessel had similar characteristics to the fracture specimens, thereby allowing estimates to be made of its nearness to failure during a proof test. Both the flawed and unflawed pressure vessel survived the proof pressure and 5 cycles to the working pressure, but it was apparent from the acoustic emission response during the proof cycle and the 5 cycles to the working pressure that the flawed vessel was very near failure. The flawed vessel did not survive a second cycle to the proof pressure before failure due to flaw extension through the wall (causing a leak).

Dunegan, H. L.

1973-01-01

375

The efficiency of an explosive plasma compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of an experimental investigation of the efficiency of an explosive plasma compressor. The experimental set-up consisted of the explosive plasma compressor and a calorimeter. The detonation of an explosive charge produced a shock wave which compressed the working gas and converted it into a plasma. The plasma was thrust by the explosion into a steel calorimetric

A. E. Voitenko; V. I. Kirko

1975-01-01

376

Prompt detonation of secondary explosives by laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary high explosives have been promptly detonated by directing a laser beam of various wavelengths from 266 nanometers to 1.06 micron on the surface of the explosives. For this paper ''prompt'' means the excess transit time through an explosive charge is \\/approximately\\/250 nanoseconds (or less) less than the accepted full detonation velocity time. Timing between laser pulse, explosive initiation and

Paisley

1989-01-01

377

Explosives detection with hard-wired moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

2004-01-01

378

40 CFR 63.1314 - Storage vessel provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the purposes of this subpart. (15) When the determination of equivalence criteria in § 63.102(b) is referred...subpart do not apply to storage vessels containing ethylene glycol at existing or new affected sources and storage...

2010-07-01

379

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

380

JiTT - Cambrian Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) How do scientists come up with the number 2 billion years ago for the first branch of life? Explain the dating technique and information that is used. 2) Describe the evidence AGAINST the Cambrian Explosion. ...

Guertin, Laura

381

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Marsh, S.P.

1987-03-12

382

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

Marsh, S.P.

1988-03-08

383

Explosive Spot Joining of Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

384

Explosion modelling for complex geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature review suggested that the combined effects of fuel reactivity, obstacle density, ignition strength, and confinement result in flame acceleration and subsequent pressure build-up during a vapour cloud explosion (VCE). Models for the prediction of propagating flames in hazardous areas, such as coal mines, oil platforms, storage and process chemical areas etc. fall into two classes. One class involves use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This approach has been utilised by several researchers. The other approach relies upon a lumped parameter approach as developed by Baker (1983). The former approach is restricted by the appropriateness of sub-models and numerical stability requirements inherent in the computational solution. The latter approach raises significant questions regarding the validity of the simplification involved in representing the complexities of a propagating explosion. This study was conducted to investigate and improve the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code EXPLODE which has been developed by Green et al., (1993) for use on practical gas explosion hazard assessments. The code employs a numerical method for solving partial differential equations by using finite volume techniques. Verification exercises, involving comparison with analytical solutions for the classical shock-tube and with experimental (small-scale, medium and large-scale) results, demonstrate the accuracy of the code and the new combustion models but also identify differences between predictions and the experimental results. The project has resulted in a developed version of the code (EXPLODE2) with new combustion models for simulating gas explosions. Additional features of this program include the physical models necessary to simulate the combustion process using alternative combustion models, improvement to the numerical accuracy and robustness of the code, and special input for simulation of different gas explosions. The present code has the capability of predicting venting failures by different combustion models, something that was not shown clearly in the open literature by the previous numerical studies in gas explosions. The work accomplished in this research was undertaken put of the need for an objective method to predict explosion parameters for vapour cloud explosions in confined and semi-confined areas. The thesis describes basic features of a numerical explosion model that has been developed for predicting explosion pressure and flame propagation in confined and semi confined regions. The validation of the code and combustion models against analytical and several experimental data supports the code and its combustion models as a good tool for prediction of VCEs. This thesis starts with a basic description of explosion, assessment methods, theory, turbulent combustion, different combustion models and concludes with a discussion of the results and areas of uncertainty.

Nehzat, Naser

385

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

386

Quantitative understanding of explosive stimulus transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanisms of detonation transfer across hermetically sealed interfaces created by necessary interruptions in high explosive trains, such as at detonators to explosive columns, field joints in explosive columns, and components of munitions fuse trains are demostrated. Reliability of detonation transfer is limited by minimizing explosive quantities, the use of intensitive explosives for safety, and requirements to propagate across gaps and angles dictated by installation and production restraints. The major detonation transfer variables studied were: explosive quanity, sensitivity, and thickness, and the separation distances between donor and acceptor explosives.

Schimmel, M. L.

1973-01-01

387

Disaster management following explosion.  

PubMed

Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making. PMID:18522253

Sharma, B R

2008-01-01

388

76 FR 59660 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel Monitoring System Requirements for...compliance with federal identification requirements and...vessel monitoring system (VMS). This...minutes; vessel identification, 45...

2011-09-27

389

HIGH PERFORMANCE MELT-CAST PLASTIC-BONDED EXPLOSIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRDC Valcartier has been developing new melt-cast explosives containing nitramines, TNT and a family of energetic thermoplastic elastomers (ETPEs) based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer. It was proven that the ETPEs, added in small amounts to the TNT, modified the glassy behaviour of the compositions and created a new product that showed enough elasticity to pass mechanical Insensitive Munitions tests such

P. Brousseau; G. Ampleman; S. Thiboutot; E Diaz; S. Trudel

390

Liquid contents verification for explosives, chemical agents, and dissolved narcotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly important need today is to guard against terrorist attacks at key locations such as airports and public buildings. Liquid explosives can avoid detection at security checkpoints by being concealed as beverages or other benign liquids. Magnetic resonance (MR) offers a safe, non-invasive technology for probing and classifying the liquid contents inside sealed non-metallic containers or packages. Quantum Magnetics

Sankaran Kumar; W. Casey McMichael; Erik E. Magnuson; Young K. Lee; Charles R. Moeller; Peter V. Czipott; Timothy J. Rayner; David E. Newman; Dariusz Wroblewski

2001-01-01

391

Steam explosion triggering: a review of theoretical and experimental investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a review of the current state of knowledge of the triggering stage of a steam explosion. The data are summarised in the following four categories: (i) small-scale experiments; (ii) suppression of triggering; (iii) vapour film collapse models, and (iv) what has been learned from integral tests. It is concluded that whilst it is currently not possible to

D. F. Fletcher

1995-01-01

392

Optically-energized, emp-resistant, fast-acting, explosion initiating device  

DOEpatents

Optical energy, provided from a remote user-operated source, is utilized to initially electrically charge a capacitor in a circuit that also contains an explosion initiating transducer in contact with a small explosive train contained in an attachable housing. Additional optical energy is subsequently supplied in a preferred embodiment to an optically responsive phototransistor acting in conjunction with a silicon controlled rectifer to release the stored electrical energy through the explosion initiating transducer to set off the explosive train. All energy transfers between the user and the explosive apparatus, either for charging it up or for setting it off, are conveyed optically and may be accomplished in a single optical fiber with coding to distinguish between specific optical energy transfers and between these and any extraneous signals.

Benson, David A. (Albuquerque, NM); Kuswa, Glenn W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

393

Interplay of explosive thermal reaction dynamics and structural confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosives play a significant role in human affairs; however, their behavior in circumstances other than intentional detonation is poorly understood. Accidents may have catastrophic consequences, especially if additional hazardous materials are involved. Abnormal ignition stimuli, such as impact, spark, friction, and heat may lead to a very violent outcome, potentially including detonation. An important factor influencing the behavior subsequent to abnormal ignition is the strength and inertia of the vessel confining the explosive, i.e., the near-field structural/mechanical environment, also known as confinement (inertial or mechanical). However, a comprehensive and quantified understanding of how confinement affects reaction violence does not yet exist. In the research discussed here, we have investigated a wide range of confinement conditions and related the explosive response to the fundamentals of the combustion process in the explosive. In our experiments, a charge of an octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX 9501) was loaded into a gun assembly having variable confinement conditions and subjected to a heating profile. The exploding charge breached the confinement and accelerated a projectile down the gun barrel. High bandwidth pressure and volume measurements were made and a first-law analysis was used to obtain enthalpy and power from the raw data. These results were then used to quantify reaction violence. Enthalpy change and power ranged from 0-1.8 kJ and 0-12 MW for 300 mg charges, respectively. Below a confinement strength of 20 MPa, violence was found to decline precipitously with decreasing confinement, while the violence for the heaviest confinement experiments was found to be relatively constant. Both pressure and pressurization rate were found to have critical values to induce and sustain violent reaction.

Perry, W. Lee; Zucker, Jonathan; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, Blaine W.

2007-04-01

394

Core collapse supernovae: magnetorotational explosion  

E-print Network

Core-collapse supernovae are connected with formation of neutron stars. Part of the gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed in SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. The mechanism of transformation is not simple, because the overwhelming majority of the energy is going into weakly interacting neutrino. The attempts to use this energy for the explosion were not successful during about 40 years of investigation. We consider the explosion mechanism in which the source of energy is the rotation, and magnetic field serves for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of explosion. 2-D MHD simulations of this mechanism were performed. After the collapse the core consists of a rapidly rotating proto-neutron star with a differentially rotating envelope. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy generated by the differential rotation grows as quadratic function with time at the initial stage of the evolution of the magnetic field. The linear growth of the toroidal magnetic field is terminated by the development of magnetohydrodynamic instability, when the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal field, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. At the moment when the magnetic pressure becomes comparable to the gas pressure at the periphery of the proto-neutron star the MHD compression wave appears and goes through the envelope of the collapsed core. It transforms into the fast MHD shock and produces a supernova explosion. Our simulations give the energy of the explosion $0.6\\cdot 10^{51}$ ergs. The amount of the mass ejected by the explosion is $\\sim 0.14M_\\odot$. The implicit numerical method, based on the Lagrangian triangular grid of variable structure, was used for the simulations.

G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; S. G. Moiseenko; N. V. Ardeljan

2005-11-07

395

30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.  

...contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or containers shall be— (a) Drained...Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to and at frequent intervals during the...

2014-07-01

396

30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.  

...contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or containers shall be— (a) Drained...Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to and at frequent intervals during the...

2014-07-01

397

Workbook for estimating effects of accidental explosions in propellant ground handling and transport systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workbook is presented to supplement an earlier NASA publication, which was intended to provide the designer and safety engineer with rapid methods for predicting damage and hazards from explosions of liquid propellant and compressed gas vessels used in ground storage, transport and handling. Information is presented in the form of graphs and tables to allow easy calculation, using only desk or handheld calculators. Topics covered in various chapters are: (1) estimates of explosive yield; (2) characteristics of pressure waves; (3) effects of pressure waves; (4) characteristics of fragments; and (5) effects of fragments and related topics.

Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Vargas, L. M.; Moseley, P. K.

1978-01-01

398

Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion

This artist's animation shows the explosion of a massive star, the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that the star exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart.

Cassiopeia A is what is known as a supernova remnant. The original star, about 15 to 20 times more massive than our sun, died in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion viewable from Earth about 340 years ago. The remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia.

The movie begins by showing the star before it died, when its layers of elements (shown in different colors) were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. The star is then shown blasting to smithereens. Spitzer found evidence that the star's original layers were preserved, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. In other words, some chunks of the star sped outward faster than others, as illustrated by the animation.

The movie ends with an actual picture of Cassiopeia A taken by Spitzer. The colored layers containing different elements are seen next to each other because they traveled at different speeds.

The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds.

Chunks of the star that were thrown out fastest hit the shock wave sooner and have had more time to heat up to scorching temperatures previously detected by X-ray and visible-light telescopes. Chunks of the star that lagged behind hit the shock wave later, so they are cooler and radiate infrared light that was not seen until Spitzer came along. These lagging chunks are seen in false colors in the Spitzer picture of Cassiopeia A. They are made up of gas and dust containing neon, oxygen and aluminum -- elements from the middle layers of the original star.

2006-01-01

399

Behavioural and Genetic Evidence for C. elegans' Ability to Detect Volatile Chemicals Associated with Explosives  

PubMed Central

Background Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. Methodology/Principal Findings We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. Conclusions/Significance: The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles. PMID:20830309

Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

2010-01-01

400

Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole  

DOEpatents

There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1981-01-01

401

A Study on Intermediate Scale Steam Explosion Experiments with Zirconia and Corium Melt  

SciTech Connect

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) launched an intermediate scale steam explosion experiment using real reactor materials, named 'Test for Real corium Interaction with water (TROI)' to investigate the effect of material composition, multi-dimensional melt-water interaction, and hydrogen generation on a steam explosion. In the first series of the tests using several kg of molten zirconia where the melt was brought into contact with the water in the water pool at room temperature to 95 deg. C and at atmospheric pressure, either a quenching or a spontaneous steam explosion was observed. In the second series of test, about 10 kg of molten corium (70:30 of depleted UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}) was used. They were performed at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure, a spontaneous steam explosion occurred in most cases. It is rather surprising because no spontaneous steam explosions were observed in the FARO/KROTOS tests performed at Joint Research Center (JRC) in Ispra, Italy using corium melt. The steam explosion process was monitored using video cameras. Dynamic pressures, impulses and water temperatures, melt temperature and static pressure inside the pressure vessel were measured. The morphology of debris and pressure profile clearly indicated that steam explosions had occurred. In the case of a steam explosion, the amount of finely fragmented debris (less than 0.710 mm), which was not found in the tests without a steam explosion, was rather large as about 17% - 31%. Hydrogen generation was measured using the gas mass spectrometry. (authors)

Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Shin, Y.S.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D. [Thermal-hydraulics and Safety Research Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

402

Retinal image blood vessel segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an important role in diagnosis of eye diseases. This paper proposes a method for segmentation of blood vessels in color retinal images. We present a method that uses 2-D Gabor wavelet to enhance the vascular pattern. We locate and segment the blood vessels using adaptive thresholding. The technique is

M. Usman Akram; Anam Tariq; Shoab A. Khan

2009-01-01

403

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

Kuhl, A L

2009-10-16

404

Improvised explosive devices: pathophysiology, injury profiles and current medical management.  

PubMed

The improvised explosive device (IED), in all its forms, has become the most significant threat to troops operating in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices range from rudimentary home made explosives to sophisticated weapon systems containing high-grade explosives. Within this broad definition they may be classified as roadside explosives and blast mines, explosive formed pojectile (EFP) devices and suicide bombings. Each of these groups causeinjury through a number of different mechanisms and can result in vastly different injury profiles. The "Global War on Terror" has meant that incidents which were previously exclusively seen in conflict areas, can occur anywhere, and clinicians who are involved in emergency trauma care may be required to manage casualties from similar terrorist attacks. An understanding of the types of devices and their pathophysiological effects is necessary to allow proper planning of mass casualty events and to allow appropriate management of the complex poly-trauma casualties they invariably cause. The aim of this review article is to firstly describe the physics and injury profile from these different devices and secondly to present the current clinical evidence that underpins their medical management. PMID:20397601

Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Clasper, J C

2009-12-01

405

Canine detection odor signatures for mine-related explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives used in land mines. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to (1) blank air, (2) a target odor such as an explosive, and (3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like the target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT and C-4. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Dugan, Regina E.; Hallowell, Susan F.

1998-09-01

406

Cryogenic storage vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

McDonnell Douglas Corp.'s new cryogenic storage vessel design features internally-insulated tanks which may be used to store and transport liquefied gas at temperatures as low as -423°F, and store and transport fluids under high pressure or atmospheric pressure. The cargo tanks, which are integrally supported inside the cargo holds, feature a reliable liner-insulation system which can be installed in a

Lemons

1974-01-01

407

High pressure storage vessel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27

408

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

1994-10-04

409

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Upton, Hubert A. (Morgan Hill, CA)

1994-01-01

410

Reactor vessel sectioning demonstration  

SciTech Connect

A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel; air arc gouging was selected to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. Three sectioning operations were demonstrated. For all three, the operating parameters were the same; but the position of the sample was varied. For the first cut, the sample was placed in a horizontal position, and it was successfully severed from the SS side. For the second cut, the sample was turned over and cut from the carbon steel side. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction

Lundgren, R.A.

1981-09-01

411

Insensitive fuze train for high explosives  

DOEpatents

A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

1994-01-04

412

Insensitive fuze train for high explosives  

DOEpatents

A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

Cutting, Jack L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Von Holle, William G. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

413

The Quiet Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very weak and 'soft' [1], very different from a gamma-ray burst and more in line with what is expected from a normal supernova." So, after the supernova was discovered, the team rapidly observed it from the Asiago Observatory in Northern Italy and established that it was a Type Ic supernova. "These are supernovae produced by stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium-rich outermost layers before exploding, and are the only type of supernovae which are associated with (long) gamma-ray bursts," explains Mazzali. "The object thus became even more interesting!" Earlier this year, an independent team of astronomers reported in the journal Nature that SN 2008D is a rather normal supernova. The fact that X-rays were detected was, they said, because for the first time, astronomers were lucky enough to catch the star in the act of exploding. Mazzali and his team think otherwise. "Our observations and modeling show this to be a rather unusual event, to be better understood in terms of an object lying at the boundary between normal supernovae and gamma-ray bursts." The team set up an observational campaign to monitor the evolution of the supernova using both ESO and national telescopes, collecting a large quantity of data. The early behaviour of the supernova indicated that it was a highly energetic event, although not quite as powerful as a gamma-ray burst. After a few days, however, the spectra of the supernova began to change. In particular Helium lines appeared, showing that the progenitor star was not stripped as deeply as supernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts. Over the years, Mazzali and his group have developed theoretical models to analyse the properties of supernovae. When applied to SN2008D, their models indicated that the progenitor star was at birth as massive as 30 times the Sun, but had lost so much mass that at the time of the explosion the star had a mass of only 8-10 solar masses. The likely result of the collapse of such a massive star is a black hole. "Since the masses and energies involved ar

2008-07-01

414

Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

1997-06-01

415

Explosive evaporation in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

Fisher, George H.

1987-01-01

416

Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques  

SciTech Connect

In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

1980-01-01

417

The vapor pressures of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

2013-01-05

418

Pattern formation in colloidal explosions  

E-print Network

We study the non-equilibrium pattern formation that emerges when magnetically repelling colloids, trapped by optical tweezers, are abruptly released, forming colloidal explosions. For multiple colloids in a single trap we observe a pattern of expanding concentric rings. For colloids individually trapped in a line, we observe explosions with a zigzag pattern that persists even when magnetic interactions are much weaker than those that break the linear symmetry in equilibrium. Theory and computer simulations quantitatively describe these phenomena both in and out of equilibrium. An analysis of the mode spectrum allows us to accurately quantify the non-harmonic nature of the optical traps. Colloidal explosions provide a new way to generate well-characterized non-equilibrium behaviour in colloidal systems.

Arthur V. Straube; Ard A. Louis; Jörg Baumgartl; Clemens Bechinger; Roel P. A. Dullens

2010-09-10

419

The Influence of Variations in the Water Depth and Melt Composition on a Spontaneous Steam Explosion in the TROI Experiments  

SciTech Connect

In the recent TROI test series, six steam explosion experiments were performed using Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) melt and corium melts of two different compositions interacting with water pools of various depths at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. These experiments were aimed at finding the effect of the water depth and melt composition on the occurrence of a spontaneous steam explosion. The compositions (UO{sub 2}: ZrO{sub 2}) of the corium were 80: 20 and 70: 30 at a weight percent and the mass of the corium interacting with the water was about 10 kg. The water depth was varied from 67 cm to 130 cm in these experiments. In the case of the three interactions between the 80: 20 corium melt and the water pool of 130 cm in depth, no spontaneous steam explosion occurred. Meanwhile, from the two interactions between the corium melts of two different compositions (80: 20 and 70: 30 at weight percent) and a 67 cm deep water pool, steam spikes were believed to have been observed. Also, from one interaction between the zirconia melt ({approx}5.43 kg) and a 67 cm deep water pool, an explosive steam explosion occurred which was accompanied with strong pressure waves of 5.5 MPa and a dynamic load greater than 500 kN. It is thought that the probability of a self-triggering of a steam explosion is reduced in a deep water pool since the melt could be cooled down and then solidified due to its long journey through the water pool before a contact between the melt and the vessel bottom beneath the water, which is supposed to be the time for the triggering of a steam explosion. By changing the composition of the melt to pure zirconia, the triggerabilty and explosiveness of the zirconia melt was found to be much higher than that of the corium. In the case of a steam explosion, the pressure vessel was heated up less than that in the no steam explosion cases. This probably results from the fact that the pressure vessel heat-up was lowered by the dispersion of the water sent to the atmosphere by a steam explosion, while it was increased by the continuous generation of hot steam in the no steam explosion cases. (authors)

Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Shin, Y.S.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D. [Thermal-hydraulics and Safety Research Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

420

Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation results from both the EM collisionless particle code and the MHD particle code reveal an explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, and ensuing amplitude oscillations in the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures are modeled by an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential. This phenomenon may explain the rapid energy release of a certain class of solar flares during their impulsive phase.

Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.-I.

1986-01-01

421

Carbon fiber internal pressure vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Internal pressure vessels were designed; the filament was wound of carbon fibers and epoxy resin and tested to burst. The fibers used were Thornel 400, Thornel 75, and Hercules HTS. Additional vessels with type A fiber were made. Polymeric linears were used, and all burst testing was done at room temperature. The objective was to produce vessels with the highest attainable PbV/W efficiencies. The type A vessels showed the highest average efficiency: 2.56 x 10 to the 6th power cm. Next highest efficiency was with Thornel 400 vessels: 2.21 x 10 to the 6th power cm. These values compare favorably with efficiency values from good quality S-glass vessels, but strains averaged 0.97% or less, which is less than 1/3 the strain of S-glass vessels.

Simon, R. A.

1973-01-01

422

Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

2014-04-01

423

Earlywood vessels of Castanea sativa record temperature before their formation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the climatic signal contained in the earlywood vessel size of the ring-porous chestnut (Castanea sativa) and the physiological processes involved in the underlying mechanisms. In order to assign the encoded signal to a specific physiological process, bud phenology and vessel formation were monitored along an elevation transect and chronologies of the size of the first row of earlywood vessels were retrospectively correlated with 40 yr of early spring temperatures. The first vessels appeared in late April to early May, after encoding both a negative temperature signal in February-March (during tree quiescence) and a positive temperature signal in early April (at the time of resumption of shoot growth). We hypothesize that February and March temperatures affect cambial sensitivity to auxin, preconditioning tree responses later in the season. Furthermore, April temperature is related to tree activation whereby new hormone production fosters vessel expansion. PMID:17244050

Fonti, Patrick; Solomonoff, Natalie; García-González, Ignacio

2007-01-01

424

Hydrogen\\/dust explosion hazard in ITER: Effect of nitrogen dilution on explosion behavior of hydrogen\\/tungsten dust\\/air mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work is aimed at supporting inert-gas dilution method proposed to mitigate hydrogen\\/dust explosion hazard in ITER in case of severe accidents. A standard method of 20-l sphere is used to study the effect of nitrogen dilution on the explosion behavior of 0.5-?m tungsten dust dispersed in hydrogen-containing air atmospheres. The oxygen content varied from normal 21 to 10vol.%. The

A. Denkevits

2010-01-01

425

Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

1980-01-01

426

Producing a computer generated explosive effect  

E-print Network

This thesis provides a process for a computer generated (CG) effects animator wishing to produce computer generated explosive effects using Alias|Wavefront Power Animator and Composer software. A study of the physical phenomena of real explosions...

Mao, Wei

2012-06-07

427

Apparatus for monitoring linear explosive performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques provide performance monitoring standard for acceptance, lot qualification, and comparison testing of devices. Exhibit high degree of simplicity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Apparatus simultaneously measures explosive pressure stimulus energy, explosive cutting, or rupturing, ability, and detonation propagation rate.

Bement, L. J.

1974-01-01

428

30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102 Section 56.6102...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material...

2010-07-01

429

27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

2013-04-01

430

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2011-07-01

431

27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

2012-04-01

432

30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

2013-07-01

433

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

2013-04-01

434

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2013-07-01

435

30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

2010-07-01

436

30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

2010-07-01

437

27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Identification of explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of...

2010-04-01

438

27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

2010-04-01

439

30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2012-07-01

440

30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

... 2014-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

2014-07-01

441

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2012-07-01

442

30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

2014-07-01

443

30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

2011-07-01

444

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

... 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2014-07-01

445

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2013-07-01

446

27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2010-04-01 true Identification of explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of...

2011-04-01

447

30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

2011-07-01

448

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

...2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2014-07-01

449

30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

...2014-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

2014-07-01

450

30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

2012-07-01

451

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2011-07-01

452

30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2011-07-01

453

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2012-07-01

454

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2013-07-01

455

30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

...2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

2014-07-01

456

30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

2013-07-01

457

30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

2011-07-01

458

27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

2010-04-01

459

30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

2011-07-01

460

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2010-07-01

461

27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

2013-04-01

462

30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

2010-07-01

463

30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

2010-07-01

464

30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

2011-07-01

465

27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

2010-04-01

466

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

...2014-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

2014-04-01

467

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

2011-04-01

468

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2010-07-01

469

27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

2012-04-01

470

27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Identification of explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of...

2013-04-01

471

30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.  

...2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

2014-07-01

472

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2010-07-01

473

27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

2011-04-01

474

29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

2012-07-01

475

27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

2014-04-01