Sample records for explosion containment vessel

  1. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  2. Probability of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure for a KWU PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, H.; Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Zuchuat, O. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    During postulated core meltdown accidents in light water reactors, there is a likelihood for an in-vessel steam explosion when the melt contacts the coolant in the lower plenum. The objective of the work described in this paper is to determine the conditional probability of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure for a Kraftwerk Union (KWU) pressurized water reactor (PWR). The energetics of the explosion depends on the mass of the molten fuel that mixes with the coolant and participates in the explosion and on the conversion of fuel thermal energy into mechanical work. The work can result in the generation of dynamic pressures that affect the lower head (and possibly lead to its failure), and it can cause acceleration of a slug (fuel and coolant material) upward that can affect the upper internal structures and vessel head and ultimately cause the failure of the upper head. If the upper head missile has sufficient energy, it can reach the containment shell and penetrate it. The analysis, must therefore, take into account all possible dissipation mechanisms.

  3. Development, testing and practical use of two special containment vessels for storage and transportation of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dikken, H. den

    1995-12-31

    The storage and transportation of high explosives gives many logistic managers a headache, especially when it comes to forwarding of small quantities. Air transport is limited to 1.4 explosives on cargo aircraft and 1.4S classified explosives on passenger aircraft, so most samples cannot be transported by air. Ocean transport is a possibility, but due to stowage and segregation regulations of the IMDG code, a very expensive one. Road transport is often the only solution, but high explosives require special trucks with licensed drivers. The solution to these logistic problems is solved by creating a 1.4S (Class C) classification for all high explosives, when packed in special containment vessels.

  4. Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Benham, R.A.; Fischer, S.H.; Kipp, M.E.; Martinez, R.R.

    1999-02-01

    Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber to impact by fragments from the largest explosive charge expected to be placed in these chambers (M426, 8 inch, chemical, 7 lbs Comp B) is evaluated. Numerical (CTH) and empirical (ConWep) codes are used to characterize the munition fragments, and assess the consequences of their impact and penetration on the walls of these vessels. Both pristine and corroded configurations of the munition have been considered, with and without liquid agent fill. When the munition burster charge detonates, munition case fragments impact and perforate the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel wall, resulting in extensive breakup of this inner chamber and the formation of additional fragments. These residual munition case and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to crater the Explosive Containment Chamber inner wall layer, with accompanying localized permanent deformation (bulging) of both the inner and outer chamber walls. The integrity of the Explosive Containment Chamber was retained under all of the APV / munition configurations considered in this study, with no evidence that primary (munition) or secondary (munition and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel) fragments will perforate the inner chamber wall. Limited analyses of munition detonation without the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel present indicate that some munition span fragments could form under those conditions that have sufficient mass and velocity to perforate the inner wall of the Explosive Containment Chamber.

  5. Contained high explosive firing facility (CHEFF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, H. L.; Seitz, W. L.; Wackerle, Jerry; Polcyn, Michael; Esparza, Edward

    1994-07-01

    A cylindrical vessel capable of totally containing the products and shrapnel resulting from the detonation of 10 kg of TNT (or equivalent) has been designed and built by Southwest Research Institute for and according to the requirements of the Detonation Systems Group (M-7) of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The vessel is 6.0-m long by 3.6-m diameter and is manufactured of 50-mm (elliptical end caps) and 38-mm (cylindrical walls) thick high-strength steel (HY-100). The cylindrical walls of the vessel are lined with 13-mm thick replaceable steel plates for shrapnel protection. The floor is made of steel-covered concrete. Ten large-aperature (254 mm) optical ports are available for instrumentation and four ports are provided for cabling and plumbing. Two qualifying detonation tests of 8.8 kg of C-4 explosive (equivalent to 10 kg TNT) have shown that the maximum strain produced is less than 78% of the elastic limit. The vessel is installed in a converted outdoor firing facility that has been modified to include an insulated and heated metal building to house the vessel and additional instrumentation. A computer-based system for data acquisition, firing control, and the monitoring of vessel response is described.

  6. Dynamic response of containment vessels to blast loading

    SciTech Connect

    Karpp, R.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Neal, T.R.; Warnes, R.H.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic response of steel, spherical containment vessels loaded by internal explosive blast was studied by experiments, computations, and analysis. Instrumentation used in the experiments consisted of strain and pressure gauges and a velocity interferometer. Data were used to rank the blast wave mitigating properties of several filler materials and to develop a scaling law relating strain, filler material, and explosive energy or explosive mass.

  7. 49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels. 176.194 Section 176...for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels. (a) General....

  8. 49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels. 176.194 Section 176...for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels. (a) General....

  9. 49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels. 176.194 Section 176...for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels. (a) General....

  10. Explosion caused by flashing liquid in a process vessel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell A. Ogle; Marcus V. Megerle; Delmar R. Morrison; Andrew R. Carpenter

    2004-01-01

    An explosion occurred at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin manufacturing plant. The explosion originated at an atmospheric storage vessel when it received a slurry discharge from a suspension polymerization reactor. The pressure rise caused by the uncontrolled flashing of superheated liquid vinyl chloride resulted in the complete separation of the roof from the tank shell. A cloud of vinyl chloride

  11. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

  12. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

  13. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

  14. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

  15. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  16. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Donald G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  17. Containment of explosions in water-filled right-circular cylinders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Proctor

    1970-01-01

    The formulation of basic explosion-containment equations for idealized water-filled right-circular cylinders is summarized. The equations express explosive-charge weight as a function of vessel geometry and conventional material properties. Extensive experiments with models verified the relations for a wide range of vessels, materials and sizes. The basic containment relations were modified to provide safe and reasonable solutions for less-adverse accident conditions

  18. Residual Stress Measurements of Explosively Clad Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Douglas J [TPL, Inc; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Hill, M. R. [Hill Engineering; Meith, W. A. [Hill Engineering

    2012-01-01

    Tantalum refractory liners were explosively clad into cylindrical pressure vessels, some of which had been previously autofrettaged. Using explosive cladding, the refractory liner formed a metallurgical bond with the steel of the pressure vessel at a cost of induced strain. Two techniques were employed to determine the residual stress state of the clad steel cylinders: neutron diffraction and mechanical slitting. Neutron diffraction is typically nondestructive; however, due to attenuation along the beam path, the cylinders had to be sectioned into rings that were nominally 25 mm thick. Slitting is a destructive method, requiring the sectioning of the cylindrical samples. Both techniques provided triaxial stress data and useful information on the effects of explosive cladding. The stress profiles in the hoop and radial directions were similar for an autofrettaged, nonclad vessel and a clad, nonautofrettaged vessel. The stress profiles in the axial direction appeared to be different. Further, the data suggested that residual stresses from the autofrettage and explosive cladding processes were not additive, in part due to evidence of reverse yielding. The residual stress data are presented, compared and discussed.

  19. Hydrodynamic modeling of detonations for structural design of containment vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Romero, C. (Christopher)

    2005-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), has been conducting confined high explosion experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design of these spherical vessels was originally accomplished by maintaining that the vessel's kinetic energy, developed from the detonation impulse loading, be equilibrated by the elastic strain energy inherent in the vessel. In some cases, the vessel is designed for one-time use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, the vessel can be designed for multiple use, in which case the material response is restricted to the elastic range. Within the last decade, designs have been accomplished utilizing sophisticated and advanced 3D computer codes that address both the detonation hydrodynamics and the vessel's highly nonlinear structural dynamic response. This paper describes the hydrodynamic modeling of HE reaction products phase, which produces transient pressures resulting in an impulsive load on the vessel shell. Modeling is accomplished through either (a) empirical/analytical methods utilizing a vast experimental database developed primarily for the Department of Defense (DoD) or (b) through application of numerical hydrodynamics codes, such as the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shock-wave physics code, CTH, which accurately model the thermochemistry and thermophysics of a detonation. It should be noted that this paper only addresses blast load prediction using the methods stated and does not include an assessment of structural response methods.

  20. Oil spill containment device for aquatic vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bouvier, J.J.

    1981-02-10

    Disclosed herein is an oil spill containment device for aquatic vessels including a flotation collar structure surrounding the periphery of the vessel to be contained, apparatus for deploying this collar including in one embodiment compressed air dispensing equipment and a cable deploying device which pays out and retracts cable as a function of tidal currents, and a sheet structure depending from and extending upwardly above the collar to constrain any oil slick or any potential thereof. Also contemplated herein is a compartmentized and containerized storage system for fuel within a cargo ship so as to minimize the likelihood of a catastrophic spill.

  1. An experimental investigation of flame behavior during cylindrical vessel explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, R.; Roth, P.

    1986-12-01

    The propagation of premixed flames centrally ignited at one of the end flanges of a closed cylindrical vessel and the flame-induced fluid flow have been investigated in the present study. Photographic records show that under specific geometrical conditions the flame exhibits a cone form with a backward directed top, called ''tulip'' -shaped. This appears after the flame has lost a main part of its area by side wall quenching. With a laser-Doppler anemometer the instantaneous flow velocity during the short explosion process was measured together with pressure records.

  2. An experimental investigation of flame behavior during cylindrical vessel explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, R.; Roth, P.

    1986-12-01

    The propagation of premixed flames centrally ignited at one of the end flanges of a closed cylindrical vessel and the flame-induced flow have been investigated. Photographic records show that under specific geometrical conditions the flame exhibits a cone form with a backward directed top, called tulip-shaped. This appears after the flame has lost a main part of its area by side wall quenching. The instantaneous flow velocity during the short explosion process was measured, together with pressure records, with an LDV. An analogy to the experiments of Markstein (1964), is shown, and the explanations of several authors for the 'tulip' formation are given.

  3. Results of steel containment vessel model test

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, V.K.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Komine, Kuniaki [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoyuki [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two tests are being conducted: (1) a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) and (2) a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper summarizes the conduct of the high pressure pneumatic test of the SCV model and the results of that test. Results of this test are summarized and are compared with pretest predictions performed by the sponsoring organizations and others who participated in a blind pretest prediction effort. Questions raised by this comparison are identified and plans for posttest analysis are discussed.

  4. Explosion caused by flashing liquid in a process vessel.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Russell A; Megerle, Marcus V; Morrison, Delmar R; Carpenter, Andrew R

    2004-11-11

    An explosion occurred at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin manufacturing plant. The explosion originated at an atmospheric storage vessel when it received a slurry discharge from a suspension polymerization reactor. The pressure rise caused by the uncontrolled flashing of superheated liquid vinyl chloride resulted in the complete separation of the roof from the tank shell. A cloud of vinyl chloride vapor was released and ignited resulting in a vapor cloud explosion. The accident caused significant property damage but no serious injuries. An investigation was conducted to determine the causes of the accident. It was discovered that the facility had experienced numerous overpressure incidents in the atmospheric storage vessels used as slurry tanks. Many of these incidents resulted in modest structural damage to these slurry tanks. It was determined by Exponent that the rapid flashing of residual liquid monomer present in the product slurry stream caused the earlier overpressure incidents. The facility operator did not adequately investigate or document these prior overpressure events nor did it communicate their findings to the operating personnel. Thus, the hazard of flashing liquid vinyl chloride was not recognized. The overpressure protection for the slurry tanks was based on a combination of a venting system and a safety instrumentation system (SIS). The investigation determined that neither the venting system nor the SIS was adequate to protect the slurry tank from the worst credible overpressure scenario. Fundamentally, this is because the performance objectives of the venting system and SIS were not clearly defined and did not protect against the worst credible overpressure scenario. The lessons learned from this accident include: use prior incident data for recognizing process hazards; identify targets vulnerable to these hazards; explicitly define performance objectives for safeguards to protect against the worst credible overpressure scenario. The ultimate lesson learned here is that a liquid trapped under pressure above its normal boiling point represents an overpressure hazard. To avoid exceeding the design pressure of the receiving vessel, the superheated liquid must be discharged slowly so that the vapor production rate caused by flashing does not exceed the venting rate of the receiving vessel. PMID:15518975

  5. BWR ex-vessel steam explosion analysis with MC3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, M. [Josef Stefan Inst., Jamova cesta 39, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-07-01

    A steam explosion may occur, during a severe reactor accident, when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. A strong enough steam explosion in a nuclear power plant could jeopardize the containment integrity and so lead to a direct release of radioactive material to the environment. To resolve the open issues in steam explosion understanding and modeling, the OECD program SERENA phase 2 was launched at the end of year 2007, focusing on reactor applications. To verify the progress made in the understanding and modeling of fuel coolant interaction key phenomena for reactor applications a reactor exercise has been performed. In this paper the BWR ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the MC3D code in conditions of the SERENA reactor exercise for the BWR case, is presented and discussed. The premixing simulations were performed with two different jet breakup modeling approaches and the explosion was triggered also at the expected most challenging time. For the most challenging case, at the cavity wall the highest calculated pressure was {approx}20 MPa and the highest pressure impulse was {approx}90 kPa.s. (authors)

  6. Engineering criteria for some current industrial contained nuclear explosion proposals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Knutson; B. G. Bray

    1966-01-01

    Several proposals have been made to the federal government to evaluate contained nuclear explosions for future industrial applications. These proposals are concerned with nuclear gas reservoir stimulation and oil shale rubble pile generation for subsequent in-situ retorting. Some of the criteria used in the selection of explosive size and location for these proposals were: (1) adequate burial for complete containment;

  7. Results of the Triggered TROI Steam Explosion Experiments with a Narrow Interaction Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Hong, S.H.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D. [Thermal-Hydraulics and Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong, Taejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The effect of the interaction vessel geometry has been studied on the energetics of a steam explosion in the TROI experiment. The interaction vessel was 30 cm in diameter (1-D geometry). Two types of corium composition were used as a melt. One was spontaneously non-explosive 80 : 20 corium (UO{sub 2} : ZrO{sub 2}) and the other was spontaneously explosive 70 : 30 eutectic corium. A test with 80 : 20 corium was carried out without an external triggering. Another test with 80 : 20 corium was also carried out with an external trigger. In addition, two tests with 70 : 30 corium were carried out with an external trigger. The external trigger was applied just before the contact between the melt and the bottom of the interaction vessel. This time was thought to be the triggering time of a spontaneous steam explosion. The external trigger was a chemical explosive of PETN 1.0 g. However, none of these tests led to steam explosions even with an external triggering. Since eutectic corium led to spontaneous or triggered steam explosions in a previous test using a 60 cm wide interaction vessel (3-D geometry), it is quite probable that a geometry effect of the interaction vessel could exist. The reason for no steam explosions in the narrow (1-D) interaction vessel is believed to be a relatively high void fraction in the vessel when compared with the 3-D vessel. Due to the high void fraction, a steam explosion could not propagate to the surroundings of the melt where the water was depleted. (authors)

  8. Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

  9. A study of the behaviour of a protected vessel containing LPG during pool fire engulfment.

    PubMed

    Shebeko, Y N; Bolodian, I A; Filippov, V N; Navzenya, V Y; Kostyuhin, A K; Tokarev, P M; Zamishevski, E D

    2000-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods for protection against fires of vessels containing liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) (safety relief valves, intumescent fire retardant coatings, thermal isolation) have been carried out. A simple mathematical model has been proposed, which describes dependences of various parameters on time. These parameters are temperature, pressure and mass of LPG, temperatures of the vessel's walls and thermal protection layer. The case of total fire engulfment of the vessel with LPG was considered. Experiments have been executed, which were aimed on the investigation of the behaviour of vessels with LPG (50 l), equipped with protective devices during total fire engulfment. It was found out that the safety valve prevented an explosion of the vessels without any other protective measures. The presence of the intumescent fire retardant coating caused a significant delay in operation of the safety valve. A rather good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was obtained. It has been revealed that the considered methods for protection of LPG vessels are promising in regard to prevention of explosions in these vessels at the fire engulfment. PMID:10946118

  10. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. 174.16 Section 174...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling...of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military...

  11. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. 174.16 Section 174...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling...of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military...

  12. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. 174.16 Section 174...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling...of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military...

  13. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. 174.16 Section 174...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling...of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military...

  14. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. 174.16 Section 174...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component controlling...of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military...

  15. Explosive containment and propagation evaluations for commonly used handling and storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of explosive tests were performed to establish containment integrity data for commonly used handling and storage containers of energetic materials at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M. The tests consisted of two phases: (1) each container was tested for explosive integrity and propagation, and (2) the data were used to evaluate a nominal donor-receptor test matrix for verifying the confinement integrity of a typical explosives service locker.

  16. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  17. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James G. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  18. Development of A595 Explosion-Resistant Container Design. Numerical, Theoretical and Experimental Justification of the Container Design Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Abakumov, A. I.; Devyatkin, I. V.; Meltsas, V. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Portnyagina, G. F.; Rusak, V. N.; Solovyev, V. P.; Syrunin, M. A.; Treshalin, S. M.; Fedorenko, A. G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-03

    The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental study on the AT595 metal-composite container designed in VNIIEF within the framework of international collaboration with SNL (USA). This container must completely contain products of an 8-kg-TNT detonation cased in 35 kg of inert surrounding material. Numerical and theoretical studies have been carried out of the containment capacity and fracture of small-scale open cylinder test units and container pressure vessel models subjected to different levels of specific explosive load (beneath, equal to and above the required design load defined for this container), and two AT595 containers have been tested for the design load and a higher load.

  19. A design guide and specification for small explosive containment structures

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, K.A.; Cox, P.A.; Polcyn, M.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The design of structural containments for testing small explosive devices requires the designer to consider the various aspects of the explosive loading, i.e., shock and gas or quasistatic pressure. Additionally, if the explosive charge has the potential of producing damaging fragments, provisions must be made to arrest the fragments. This may require that the explosive be packed in a fragment attenuating material, which also will affect the loads predicted for containment response. Material also may be added just to attenuate shock, in the absence of fragments. Three charge weights are used in the design. The actual charge is used to determine a design fragment. Blast loads are determined for a {open_quotes}design charge{close_quotes}, defined as 125% of the operational charge in the explosive device. No yielding is permitted at the design charge weight. Blast loads are also determined for an over-charge, defined as 200% of the operational charge in the explosive device. Yielding, but no failure, is permitted at this over-charge. This guide emphasizes the calculation of loads and fragments for which the containment must be designed. The designer has the option of using simplified or complex design-analysis methods. Examples in the guide use readily available single degree-of-freedom (sdof) methods, plus static methods for equivalent dynamic loads. These are the common methods for blast resistant design. Some discussion of more complex methods is included. Generally, the designer who chooses more complex methods must be fully knowledgeable in their use and limitations. Finally, newly fabricated containments initially must be proof tested to 125% of the operational load and then inspected at regular intervals. This specification provides guidance for design, proof testing, and inspection of small explosive containment structures.

  20. Preliminary results for a Russian designed explosive resistant container

    SciTech Connect

    Carbiener, K.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Experimental Physics has completed a contract with Sandia National Laboratories to explore conceptual development of a family of containers capable of withstanding an internal explosion. The goal was containment of both the explosive force and hazardous by-products of a generic conventional explosive device. The Institute studied two designs, one for 2 kg and one for 50 kg of explosive. The designs were based on numerical calculations to extrapolate prior Russian design and experimental work to encompass these two cases. The Institute`s analyses indicate that they achieved excellent results for both a spherical and a cylindrical container made from a stainless steel/fiberglass composite construction. Both designs incorporate unique design features for door closures, internal shrapnel resistance, and shock attenuation. The project identified testing requirements, potential design feature improvements, as well as a sensitivity to the mass of packaging material around the explosive. We are pursuing these issues in a follow-on contract that is being negotiated.

  1. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    1999-06-15

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

  2. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-06-15

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  3. High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

    2014-08-15

    The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen. PMID:25010457

  4. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  5. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  6. The effect of external heat transfer on thermal explosion in a spherical vessel with natural convection.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A N

    2015-06-24

    When any exothermic reaction proceeds in an unstirred vessel, natural convection may develop. This flow can significantly alter the heat transfer from the reacting fluid to the environment and hence alter the balance between heat generation and heat loss, which determines whether or not the system will explode. Previous studies of the effects of natural convection on thermal explosion have considered reactors where the temperature of the wall of the reactor is held constant. This implies that there is infinitely fast heat transfer between the wall of the vessel and the surrounding environment. In reality, there will be heat transfer resistances associated with conduction through the wall of the reactor and from the wall to the environment. The existence of these additional heat transfer resistances may alter the rate of heat transfer from the hot region of the reactor to the environment and hence the stability of the reaction. This work presents an initial numerical study of thermal explosion in a spherical reactor under the influence of natural convection and external heat transfer, which neglects the effects of consumption of reactant. Simulations were performed to examine the changing behaviour of the system as the intensity of convection and the importance of external heat transfer were varied. It was shown that the temporal development of the maximum temperature in the reactor was qualitatively similar as the Rayleigh and Biot numbers were varied. Importantly, the maximum temperature in a stable system was shown to vary with Biot number. This has important consequences for the definitions used for thermal explosion in systems with significant reactant consumption. Additionally, regions of parameter space where explosions occurred were identified. It was shown that reducing the Biot number increases the likelihood of explosion and reduces the stabilising effect of natural convection. Finally, the results of the simulations were shown to compare favourably with analytical predictions in the classical limits of Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii. PMID:26059913

  7. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  8. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. Tschritter; Brent L. Haroldsen; Timothy J. Shepodd; Jerome H. Stofleth; Raymond A. DiBerardo

    2005-01-01

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment

  9. Posttest Analyses of the Steel Containment Vessel Model

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of a scale model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. This testis part of a program to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loads beyond the design basis accident. The posttest analyses of this test focused on three areas where the pretest analysis effort did not adequately predict the model behavior during the test. These areas are the onset of global yielding, the strain concentrations around the equipment hatch and the strain concentrations that led to a small tear near a weld relief opening that was not modeled in the pretest analysis.

  10. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Silicon Containing Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos; Poulos, William; Pincay, Jack

    2007-06-01

    Improved relationships for the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid silicon and silicon oxide for use with JAGUAR thermo-chemical equation of state routines were developed in this study. Analyses of experimental melting temperature curves for silicon and silicon oxide indicated complex phase behavior and that improved coefficients were required for solid and liquid thermodynamic properties. Advanced optimization routines were utilized in conjunction with the experimental melting point data to establish volumetric coefficients for these substances. The new property libraries resulted in agreement with available experimental values, including Hugoniot data at elevated pressures. Detonation properties were calculated with JAGUAR using the revised property libraries for silicon containing explosives. Constants of the JWLB equation of state were established for varying extent of silicon reaction. Supporting thermal heat transfer analyses were conducted for varying silicon particle sizes to establish characteristic times for melting and silicon reaction.

  11. Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Jaguar product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products by analysis of Available Hugoniot and static volumetric data to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationships for the components. Experimental melting points were also utilized to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX—boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using Jaguar are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that the boron does not react near the detonation front or that boron mixtures exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior (as shown by some aluminized explosives), with higher detonation velocities at the initial points. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX—boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the detonation properties of the formulation.

  12. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  13. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers. 176.170...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  14. Instrumentation of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    Hessheimer, M.F.; Rightley, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. At present, two tests are being planned: a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) that is representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design; and a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper discusses plans and the results of a preliminary investigation of the instrumentation of the PCCV model. The instrumentation suite for this model will consist of approximately 2000 channels of data to record displacements, strains in the reinforcing steel, prestressing tendons, concrete, steel liner and liner anchors, as well as pressure and temperature. The instrumentation is being designed to monitor the response of the model during prestressing operations, during Structural Integrity and Integrated Leak Rate testing, and during test to failure of the model. Particular emphasis has been placed on instrumentation of the prestressing system in order to understand the behavior of the prestressing strands at design and beyond design pressure levels. Current plans are to place load cells at both ends of one third of the tendons in addition to placing strain measurement devices along the length of selected tendons. Strain measurements will be made using conventional bonded foil resistance gages and a wire resistance gage, known as a {open_quotes}Tensmeg{close_quotes}{reg_sign} gage, specifically designed for use with seven-wire strand. The results of preliminary tests of both types of gages, in the laboratory and in a simulated model configuration, are reported and plans for instrumentation of the model are discussed.

  15. Stress and Sealing Performance Analysis of Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    WU, TSU-TE

    2005-05-24

    This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing the containment vessel subjected to the combined loading of closure-bolt torque and internal pressure. The detailed stress distributions in the O-rings generated by both the torque load and the internal pressure can be evaluated by using this method. Consequently, the sealing performance of the O-rings can be determined. The material of the O-rings can be represented by any available constitutive equation for hyperelastic material. In the numerical calculation of this paper, the form of the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy potential is used. The technique treats both the preloading process of bolt tightening and the application of internal pressure as slow dynamic loads. Consequently, the problem can be evaluated using explicit numerical integration scheme.

  16. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos

    2009-06-01

    The JAGUAR product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products. Relationships of the Murnaghan form for molar volumes and derived properties were implemented in JAGUAR. Available Hugoniot and static volumertic data were analyzed to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationship for solid boron, boron oxide, boron nitride, boron carbide, and boric acid. Experimental melting points were also utilized with optimization procedures to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX - boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using JAGUAR are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that boron mixtures may exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior, as observed by aluminized combined effects explosives, with higher detonation velocities than would be achieved by a classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX - boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the energy output obtained from the detonation of the formulation.

  17. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers. (a) Export information shall be filed in the AES for all vessels, locomotives, aircraft, rail cars, trucks, other vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans,...

  18. The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kane J. Fisher

    2000-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within a Mound-designed calorimeter. In order to qualify the WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels for use at WETF, steps have been taken to ensure the appropriate design, adequate testing, quality in fabrication, and acceptable documentation.

  19. Planning and preliminary design of a contained firing chamber to resist blast effects of 60kg of energetic chemical explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Pastrnak; C. F. Baker; L. F. Simmons

    1993-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nuclear Weapons Design Program operates explosive testing facilities at its Site 300 open air explosive test facility. LLNL is developing a blast containment facility to reduce emissions of hazardous materials and reduce the amount of contaminated waste generated from explosive testing of chemical explosives. The firing chamber is designed to contain the blast over

  20. Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberto, Francisco F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

  1. Detonation and Shock Reactivity Properties of Explosives Containing RDX and Reduced Sensitivity RDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit

    2005-07-01

    The detonation and shock reactivity properties of two monomodal research explosives were measured to assess how these properties change when different quality RDX is used. One explosive contained class 1 (coarse) RDX and HTPB binder; the other explosive contained reduced sensitivity (high quality) class 1 RDX (I-RDX) and HTPB binder. Experiments preformed included wave curvature, rate stick and flyer plate experiments. Wave curvature and rate stick experiments indicate that the reaction zone length is shorter for the explosive containing RDX. Our results show that decrement and wave curvature results are bounded by the results of Moulard and coworkers^1,2 for similar explosives containing fine and very coarse RDX particles. We will also present work of ongoing shock reactivity experiments. In these experiments, a flyer impacts an explosive sample containing multiple embedded pressure gauges. Analyses of the pressure gauge records allow us to determine shock reactivity trends for each explosive. ^1Moulard, H., Kury, J.W., Delclos, A., Proceedings of Eighth Symposium (International) on Detonation, Albuquerque, NM, 1985, pg. 902-913. ^2 Moulard, H., Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium (International) on Detonation, Portland, Oregon, 1989, pg. 18-24.

  2. Seismic analysis of a reinforced concrete containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    RANDY,JAMES J.; CHERRY,JEFFERY L.; RASHID,YUSEF R.; CHOKSHI,NILESH

    2000-02-03

    Pre-and post-test analytical predictions of the dynamic behavior of a 1:10 scale model Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel are presented. This model, designed and constructed by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., was subjected to seismic simulation tests using the high-performance shaking table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. A group of tests representing design-level and beyond-design-level ground motions were first conducted to verify design safety margins. These were followed by a series of tests in which progressively larger base motions were applied until structural failure was induced. The analysis was performed by ANATECH Corp. and Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, employing state-of-the-art finite-element software specifically developed for concrete structures. Three-dimensional time-history analyses were performed, first as pre-test blind predictions to evaluate the general capabilities of the analytical methods, and second as post-test validation of the methods and interpretation of the test result. The input data consisted of acceleration time histories for the horizontal, vertical and rotational (rocking) components, as measured by accelerometers mounted on the structure's basemat. The response data consisted of acceleration and displacement records for various points on the structure, as well as time-history records of strain gages mounted on the reinforcement. This paper reports on work in progress and presents pre-test predictions and post-test comparisons to measured data for tests simulating maximum design basis and extreme design basis earthquakes. The pre-test analyses predict the failure earthquake of the test structure to have an energy level in the range of four to five times the energy level of the safe shutdown earthquake. The post-test calculations completed so far show good agreement with measured data.

  3. Modeling solid thermal explosion containment on reactor HNIW and HMX.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ping; Chang, Chang-Ping; Chou, Yu-Chuan; Chu, Yung-Chuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2010-04-15

    2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane (HNIW), also known as CL-20 and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), are highly energetic materials which have been popular in national defense industries for years. This study established the models of thermal decomposition and thermal explosion hazard for HNIW and HMX. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data were used for parameters determination of the thermokinetic models, and then these models were employed for simulation of thermal explosion in a 437L barrel reactor and a 24 kg cubic box package. Experimental results indicating the best storage conditions to avoid any violent runaway reaction of HNIW and HMX were also discovered. This study also developed an efficient procedure regarding creation of thermokinetics and assessment of thermal hazards of HNIW and HMX that could be applied to ensure safe storage conditions. PMID:20018444

  4. Effects of natural convection on thermal explosion in a closed vessel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Yueh; Campbell, Alasdair N; Cardoso, Silvana S S; Hayhurst, Allan N

    2008-09-28

    A new way of ascertaining whether or not a reacting mixture will explode uses just three timescales: that for chemical reaction to heat up the fluid containing the reactants and products, the timescale for heat conduction out of the reactor, and the timescale for natural convection in the fluid. This approach is developed for an nth order chemical reaction, A --> B occurring exothermically in a spherical, batch reactor without significant consumption of A. The three timescales are expressed in terms of the physical and chemical parameters of the system. Numerical simulations are performed for laminar natural convection occurring; also, a theoretical relation is developed for turbulent flow. These theoretical and numerical results agree well with previous experimental measurements for the decomposition of azomethane in the gas phase. The new theory developed here is compared with Frank-Kamenetskii's classical criterion for explosion. This new treatment has the advantage of separating the two effects inhibiting explosion, viz. heat removal by thermal conduction and by natural convection. Also, the approach is easily generalised to more complex reactions and flow systems. PMID:18956086

  5. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...handling equipment that has been specifically designed or modified for the handling of freight containers may be used to load, unload, or handle freight containers containing Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. (b) The gross weight of...

  6. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...handling equipment that has been specifically designed or modified for the handling of freight containers may be used to load, unload, or handle freight containers containing Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. (b) The gross weight of...

  7. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...handling equipment that has been specifically designed or modified for the handling of freight containers may be used to load, unload, or handle freight containers containing Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. (b) The gross weight of...

  8. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...handling equipment that has been specifically designed or modified for the handling of freight containers may be used to load, unload, or handle freight containers containing Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. (b) The gross weight of...

  9. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...handling equipment that has been specifically designed or modified for the handling of freight containers may be used to load, unload, or handle freight containers containing Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. (b) The gross weight of...

  10. DC FURNACE CONTAINMENT VESSEL DESIGN USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Henning; M. Shapiro; L. A. le Grange

    Effective pyrometallurgical process vessel design requires accurate assessment of the heat fluxes through the walls of the furnace. This is particularly important for freeze lining operation which is designed to protect refractory materials exposed to chemically corrosive molten contents, or facilitate high temperature operation when the refractory materials are used at conditions close to their service limits. Numerical modelling of

  11. The effects of safety climate on vessel accidents in the container shipping context.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Tsai, Chaur-Luh

    2008-03-01

    This study empirically evaluates the influence of safety climate on vessel accidents from a seafarer's perspective, specifically in the container shipping context. Factor analysis revealed six safety climate dimensions: management safety practices, supervisor safety practices, safety attitude, safety training, job safety, and co-workers' safety practices. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of safety climate dimensions on vessel accidents in respect of crew fatality and vessel failure. Study findings indicated that management safety practices, safety training, and job safety dimensions significantly affect crew fatality incidence, and the job safety dimension has a significant influence on vessel failure. Overall, results suggest the job safety dimension has the most important effect on vessel accidents, followed by management safety practices and safety training dimensions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for vessel accident prevention in the container shipping context are discussed. PMID:18329411

  12. Pretest Round Robin Analysis of 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model

    SciTech Connect

    HESSHEIMER,MICHAEL F.; LUK,VINCENT K.; KLAMERUS,ERIC W.; SHIBATA,S.; MITSUGI,S.; COSTELLO,J.F.

    2000-12-18

    The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative scale models of nuclear containment to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. This objective is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. This research program consists of testing two scale models: a steel containment vessel (SCV) model (tested in 1996) and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, which is the subject of this paper.

  13. 33 CFR 401.72 - Reporting-explosive and hazardous cargo vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...bottom tanks and ballast side tanks. (g) If a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on a hazardous cargo that a vessel is carrying...provide information enabling the preparation of an MSDS. (h) Every vessel shall submit its...

  14. 33 CFR 401.72 - Reporting-explosive and hazardous cargo vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...hazardous cargo vessel carrying metal turnings, shavings, cuttings or borings in bulk shall, when reporting information related...any required certificate issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board authorizing such shipment. (e) Every vessel...

  15. Experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX).

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, D. H.

    1998-04-10

    The results of two series of experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. The first series of experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water while the second series employed 1.2-kg batches of zirconium-stainless steel mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite large, the explosion energies estimated from the experimental measurements were found to be small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available.

  16. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (?P(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions. PMID:25528229

  17. Rough estimates of severe accident containment loads accompanying vessel breach in boiling water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    Several probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) have identified containment loads accompanying reactor vessel failure as a major contributor to the probability of early containment failure during severe accidents. Two significant contributors to these loads are phenomena referred to as steam spike and direct containment heating. To date, direct application of experimental and analytical studies of these phenomena to boiling water reactors

  18. 49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...formed by two tight athwartship bulkheads extending from the skin of the vessel to the overdeck. If the cofferdam extends to...materials may be repacked on board a magazine vessel. Broken or damaged packages must be handled in accordance with the...

  19. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: the effect of explosive filler, container material and ambient temperature on device fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of different piping material under various conditions is important to predicting the behavior of pipe bombs. In this study, the effect of temperature on pipe bomb containers (i.e., PVC, black steel and galvanized steel) containing low explosive fillers (i.e., Pyrodex and double-base smokeless powder (DBSP)) was investigated. Measurements of fragment velocity and mass were compared for similar devices exploded in the spring (low/high temperature was 8°C/21°C) and winter (low/high temperature range was -9°C/-3°C). The explosions were captured using high speed filmography and fragment velocities were plotted as particle vector velocity maps (PVVM). The time that elapsed between the initiation of the winter devices containing double-base smokeless powder (DBSP) and the failure of their pipe containers ranged from 5.4 to 8.1 ms. The maximum fragment velocities for these devices ranged from 332 to 567 m/s. The steel devices ruptured and exploded more quickly than the PVC device. The steel devices also generated fragments with higher top speeds. Distributions of fragment masses were plotted as histograms and fragment weight distribution maps (FWDM). As expected, steel devices generated fewer, larger fragments than did the PVC devices. Comparison to devices exploded in the spring revealed several pieces of evidence for temperature effects on pipe bombs. For example, the mean fragment velocities for the winter devices were at or above those observed in the spring. The maximum fragment velocity was also higher for the winter steel devices. Although there were no significant differences in mean relative fragment mass, the fragment weight distribution maps (FWDMs) for two winter devices had anomalous slopes, where lower energy filler caused more severe fragmentation than higher energy filler. PMID:24378308

  20. Test Results Using a Bell Jar to Measure Containment Vessel Pressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.J.

    2002-05-10

    A bell jar is used to determine containment vessel pressurization due to outgassing of plutonium materials. Fifteen food cans containing plutonium bearing materials, including plutonium packaged in direct contact with plastic and plutonium contaminated enriched oxide have been tested to date.

  1. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL DETONATION (BLAST) LOADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. DUFFEY; E. A. RODRIGUEZ

    2001-01-01

    Spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels are often used to completely contain the effects of high explosions. These vessels generally fall into two categories. The first includes vessels designed for multiple use ([1]-[6]). Applications of such multiple-use vessels include testing of explosive components and bomb disposal. Because of the multiple-use requirement, response of the vessel is restricted to the elastic range.

  2. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Jonas; Binkowski, Eva; Bronsart, Robert

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS) is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC) the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel's calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.

  3. Probabilistic assessment of a containment vessel's survivability to facilitate decision making and enhance quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic approach for assessing the design and safety of an HSLA-100 Steel Confinement Vessel for particular types of detonations. Likelihood of failure for three different scenarios is considered. They are the likelihood a fragment, (1) penetrates half the containment vessel's thickness, (2) perforates through the containment vessel, and (3) perforates a secondary safety vessel given it's perforated the containment vessel. Uncertainties to be quantified include a fragment's geometry, orientation, and velocity. The governing equation for the likelihood of failure is the probability a large enough fragment exits, that it travels fast enough, and is in the proper orientation. The mathematical formulation of this probability expression is presented. The likelihood of failure is based on existing experimental evidence, theory, and expert judgment. Simulations are performed using Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling. The assessment model is used to verify and validate numerical predictions in the well-defined-well-documented, (WDWD) domain. Using Bayesian methods, confidence in numerical predictions is assessed within the WDWD domain so inferences beyond the domain can be made with confidence using only numerical analysis. The assessment model's influence diagram is evolved into a decision analysis model. Validation problems are presented to exercise the decision model.

  4. Shock Response of a Mock Explosive Containing Sugar and HTPB Binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, G. T.

    2004-07-01

    Three double shock experiments were performed on the mock explosive MXS-2 at initial pressures of 0.49, 0.79 and 1.06 GPa. In these experiments a PMMA flyer backed by 6061-T6 aluminum impacted a PMMA sample cell containing the MXS-2. MXS-2 is composed of fine sugar in a HTPB binder. CTH hydrocode simulations were used to find a linear Us-up relationship that adequately predicted first and second shock arrival times.

  5. Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium99

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela M. Dawson; D. Daniel Watson; James M. Hylko

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge,

  6. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight...Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in...

  7. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight...Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in...

  8. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight...Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in...

  9. USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, Bradley [Savannah River National Laboratory; Koenig, Richard [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-08

    The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

  10. Investigative studies into the recovery of DNA from improvised explosive device containers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Shane G; Stallworth, Shawn E; Foran, David R

    2012-05-01

    Apprehending those who utilize improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a national priority owing to their use both domestically and abroad. IEDs are often concealed in bags, boxes, or backpacks to prevent their detection. Given this, the goal of the research presented was to identify IED handlers through postblast DNA recovery from IED containers. Study participants were asked to use backpacks for 11 days, after which they served as containers for pipe bombs. Eleven postdeflagration backpack regions likely to be handled were swabbed and analyzed via mini-short tandem repeats (miniSTRs) and alleles were called blind. An experimental consensus method was examined in which profiles from all regions were considered, to help identify spurious drop-in/out. Results were correct for all loci, except one that remained ambiguous. The results show that recovering DNA from IED containers is a viable approach for aiding in the identification of those who may have been involved in an IED event. PMID:22150348

  11. Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Trapp, D.; Crow, G.

    2011-06-06

    In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs is that the 6CVS credits the inner O-ring seal as the containment boundary while the SRNL design credits the outer O-ring seal. Since the leak test must be done with the inner O-ring in place, the containment vessel does not have a pathway for getting the helium into the vessel during the leak test. The leak testing contractor was not able to get acceptable leak rates with the specified O-ring, but they were able to pass the leak test with a slightly larger O-ring. ANL asked the SRNL to duplicate the leak test vendor's method to determine the cause of the high leak rates. The SRNL testing showed that the helium leak indications were caused by residual helium left within the 6CVS Closure Assembly by the leak test technique, and by helium permeation through the Viton O-ring seals. After SRNL completed their tests, the leak testing contractor was able to measure acceptable leak rates by using the slightly larger O-ring size, by purging helium from the lid threads, and by being very quick in getting the bell jar under a full vacuum. This paper describes the leak test vendor's test technique, and other techniques that could be have been used to successfully leak test the 6CVS's.

  12. DESIGN OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR SHIPMENT OF TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K; Paul Blanton, P

    2007-07-03

    This paper presents a design summary of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This new package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The new design is based on changes in the regulatory requirements. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials that enhance the package's ability to withstand dynamic loading and thermal effects. This paper will specifically summarize the design philosophy and engineered features of the BTSP containment vessel closure. The closure design incorporates a concave closure lid, metallic C-Ring seals for containing tritium gas, a metal bellows valve and an elastomer O-Ring for leak testing. The efficient design minimizes the overall vessel height and protects the valve housing from damage during postulated drop and crush scenarios. Design features will be discussed.

  13. Explosives tester

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  14. CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

    2011-02-14

    The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

  15. Results of Overpressurization Test of a 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hessheimer, Michael F. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0744 (United States); Shibata, Satoru [Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan, 3-13, 4-chome Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105 (Japan); Costello, James F. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have been co-sponsoring and jointly funding a Cooperative Containment Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories. The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions with measured behavior. This is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. The first project in this program was a test of a mixed scale steel containment vessel (SCV). Next, a 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV), representative of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Japan, was constructed by NUPEC at Sandia National Laboratories from January 1997 through June, 2000. Concurrently, Sandia instrumented the model with over 1500 transducers to measure strain, displacement and forces in the model from prestressing through the pressure testing. The limit state test of the PCCV model was conducted in September, 2000 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the conduct and some of the results of this test. (authors)

  16. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raske

    1995-01-01

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed

  17. Numerical analysis of two dimensional natural convection heat transfer following a contained explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Steven James

    The Pantex facility near Amarillo, Texas, is the only U.S. site charged with the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Concerns over the safety of weapons handling procedures are now being revisited, due to the enhanced safety requirements of the peace time disassembly effort. This research is a detailed examination of one possible nuclear weapons-related accident. In this hypothetical accident, a chemical explosion equivalent to over 50 kilos of TNT destroys unassembled nuclear weapons components, and may potentially result in some amount of plutonium reaching the environment. Previous attempts to simulate this accident have centered around the one-dimensional node and branch approach of the MELCOR code. This approach may be adequate in calculating pressure driven flow through narrow rampways and leak sites, however, its one-dimensionality does not allow it to accurately calculate the multi-dimensional aspects of heat transfer. This research effort uses an axi-symmetric stream function---vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations to model a Pantex cell building following a successfully contained chemical explosion. This allows direct calculation of the heat transfer within the cell room during the transient. The tool that was developed to perform this analysis is called PET (Post-Explosion Transient), and it simulates natural convection thermal hydraulics taking into account temperature-related fluid density differences, variable fluid transport properties, and a non-linear equation of state. Results obtained using the PET code indicate that previous analyses by other researchers using the MELCOR code have been overly conservative in estimating the effects of cell room heat transfer. An increase in the calculated heat transfer coefficient of approximately 20% is indicated. This has been demonstrated to significantly decrease the projected consequences of the hypothetical accident.

  18. Spatially offset hyperspectral stand-off Raman imaging for explosive detection inside containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachhuber, Bernhard; Östmark, Henric; Carlsson, Torgny

    2014-05-01

    A stand-off Raman imaging system for the identification of explosive traces was modified for the analysis of substances in containers which are non-transparent to the human eye. This extends its application from trace detection of threat materials to the investigation of suspicious container content. Despite its limitation to containers that are opaque to the facilitated laser, the combination of Spatial Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) with stand-off Raman imaging allows to collect spectral data from a broad range of different spatial offsets simultaneously. This is a significant advantage over SORS with predefined offset, since the ideal offset is unknown prior to the measurement and depends on the container material as well as the sample content. Here the detection of sodium chlorate in a white plastic bottle is shown. A 532nm-laser (pulse length 5ns, repetition 50kHz) was focused to a diameter of 10mm at 10m. A 1500mm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with a 152.4mm diameter collected the scattered light. An edge filter removed inelastically scattered laser light and a liquid crystal tunable filter was used to select 0.25nm broad wavelength ranges between 480 and 720nm. The sample area of 50×50mm was imaged on 1024×1024 pixels of an ICCD camera. For the conducted experiments an ICCD gate time of 5ns was selected and 70?J-laser pulses were accumulated during 1s for each wavelength.

  19. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  20. Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Bhuyan; E. J. Sperling; G. Shen; H. Yin; M. D. Rana

    1999-01-01

    An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics-based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication-related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack, and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment

  1. Analysis of ex-vessel debris/water interaction and a potential overpressurization of containment

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    In the event of a meltdown in a PWR in which the disrupted core materials breach the primary vessel, the hot debris will interact with water in the containment cavity. The debris-water interaction provides a rapid generation of steam, which could build up pressure beyond the containment building limit. Previous analysis of the debris-water interactions was based on the single-sphere model, in which the internal and surface heat transfer are the control mechanism. In this study, the debris-water interaction is analyzed in terms of a porous debris bed model. The debris cooling and steam generation are controlled by the hydrodynamics of the two-phase flow. Different porous models developed by Dhir-Catton and Lipinski were examined and used to test their impact on containment dynamics. The results show that the magnitude of the predicted pressure rises is not affected by the different models. The occurence of the peak pressure, however, is considerably delayed by using the porous bed model.

  2. Analysis of an explosion accident of nitrogen trichloride in a waste liquid containing ammonium ion and platinum black.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ken; Akiyoshi, Miyako; Ishizaki, Keiko; Sato, Hiroyasu; Matsunaga, Takehiro

    2014-08-15

    Five liters of sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution (12 mass%) was poured into 300 L of liquid waste containing ammonium ion of about 1.8 mol/L in a 500 L tank in a plant area; then, two minutes later the solution exploded with a flash on March 30th, 2005. The tank cover, the fluorescent lamp and the air duct were broken by the blast wave. Thus, we have conducted 40 runs of laboratory-scale explosion tests under various conditions (solution concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 and NaClO, temperatures, Pt catalysts, pH, etc.) to investigate the causes for such an explosion. When solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite are mixed in the presence of platinum black, explosions result. This is ascribable to the formation of explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3). In the case where it is necessary to mix these 2 solutions (ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite) in the presence of platinum black, the following conditions would reduce a probability of explosion; the initial concentration of NH4(+) should be less than 3 mol/L and the pH should be higher than 6. The hypochlorite solution (in 1/10 in volume) to be added at room temperature is recommended to be less than 0.6 mol/L. PMID:24953938

  3. LOFT containment vessel reevaluation for -20°F air in space previously at 50°F

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pace

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the thermal gradients in LOFT containment vessel for new conditions. The new conditions are, (a) the outside air temperature in buildings attached to the outside of the containment was reduced from 50°F to -20°F, and (b) the LOCE conditions for inside the containment were reduced from one where T\\/sub max\\/ = 260°F to one where

  4. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOEpatents

    Tschritter, Kenneth L. (Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); DiBerardo, Raymond A. (Baltimore, MD)

    2005-04-19

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  5. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  6. Application of microwave induced combustion in closed vessels for carbon black-containing elastomers decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Diogo P.; Mesko, Márcia F.; Mello, Paola A.; Paniz, José N. G.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Knapp, Günter; Flores, Érico M. M.

    2007-09-01

    A rapid digestion procedure for the determination of Al, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn in carbon black-containing elastomers (30%) has been developed using sample combustion in closed quartz vessels. Microwave radiation was used for ignition. Combustion takes place in the presence of oxygen under pressure using ammonium nitrate (50 ?l of 6 mol l - 1 ) as aid for ignition. Samples of nitrile-butadiene rubber and ethylenepropylene-diene monomer were decomposed. A quartz device was used simultaneously as a sample holder and for the protection of vessel cap. The influence of the absorption solution (nitric acid or water) and the necessity of an additional reflux step were evaluated. Determination of Al, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A reference method (ASTM D 4004-06) based on conventional dry ashing and flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for comparison (Mn and Zn). Results were also compared to those obtained by using wet acid digestion in closed systems. Concentrated and diluted (4 mol l - 1 ) nitric acid, with 5 min of reflux after the combustion, gave best recoveries for all analytes (from 97 to 101%). For dry ashing quantitative recoveries were found only for Zn whereas for Al, Fe, Mn and Sr the recoveries were only 14, 37, 72 and 37%, respectively. With the proposed procedure the residual carbon content was below 0.5% and further determination of analytes was feasible with only the combustion step (for Fe a reflux with diluted HNO 3 was necessary). Complete sample digestion is obtained in less time using the proposed procedure than with other procedures and no concentrated acids were necessary.

  7. Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-02-25

    This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

  8. Explosive composition containing an inorganic oxidizer salt, a soluble lignosulphonate, and mutual solvent therefor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. M. Craig; E. L. Falconer

    1968-01-01

    In slurry-type explosive compositions comprising oxygen-supplying salts, a fluid carrier, and a sensitizer or fuel, optimum detonation and propagation have previously been possible only through the use of relatively large quantities of sensitizing materials and fuels. The described invention provides an explosive slurry composition of improved sensitivity, especially in small-diameter charges, by incorporating in the composition a quantity of a

  9. Influences of welding processes on fatigue life of cruciform joints of pressure vessel grade steels containing LOP defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Balasubramanian; B Guha

    2000-01-01

    The influences of two welding processes, namely, shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux cored arc welding (FCAW), on fatigue life of cruciform joints, containing lack of penetration (LOP) defects, have been studied. Load carrying cruciform joints were fabricated from high strength, quenched and tempered steels of pressure vessel (ASTM 517 ‘F’) grade. Fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out

  10. ASME code ductile failure criteria for impulsively loaded pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Nickell, Robert E.; Duffey, T. A. (Thomas A.); Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)

    2003-01-01

    Ductile failure criteria suitable for application to impulsively loaded high pressure vessels that are designed to the rules of the ASME Code Section VI11 Division 3 are described and justified. The criteria are based upon prevention of load instability and the associated global failure mechanisms, and on protection against progressive distortion for multiple-use vessels. The criteria are demonstrated by the design and analysis of vessels that contain high explosive charges.

  11. HALFTON: A high-explosive containment experiment in partially saturated tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    The HALFTON experiment explored the phenomena of high explosive detonations in 90% water-saturated tuff rock. The explosive source was a 453 kg TNT sphere which was grouted in a drift in G Tunnel, Nevada Test Site. Active gages measured stresses and motions in the range of 1.3 to 5.3 cavity radii and showed a peak stress decay as range raised to the {minus}2.77 power. Additional stress gages were fielded to investigate the gage inclusion problem.

  12. A Neutron Based Scanner to Detect Explosives in Small, Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Koltick, D.; Sword, E. [Physics Department, Purdue University 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-03-10

    A scanning system has been designed for portal protection applications, with the capability of detecting explosive materials after an initial scan of 30 seconds. The scanner operates using the principle of neutron induced return gamma-ray spectrometry. This system utilizes high purity germanium detectors, a neutron generator based on deuterium-tritium fusion and a unique neutron reflector and guide design. The neutron reflector amplifies the flux and alters the energy spectrum of neutrons produced by the generator. A depleted uranium reflector is shown to perform 7.3 times better than no reflector, and is found to perform 1.5 times better than a tungsten reflector using MCNP simulation. This improvement is due to neutron knockout and induced fission occurring in depleted uranium. The system is capable of detecting 300 g of explosives with 90% detection probability, which includes a 15% rescan rate after a 30 second initial scan.

  13. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: measuring the mass and velocity distributions of container fragments.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices such as pipe bombs are prevalent due to the availability of materials and ease of construction. However, little is known about how these devices actually explode, as few attempts to characterize fragmentation patterns have been attempted. In this study, seven devices composed of various pipe materials (PVC, black steel, and galvanized steel) and two energetic fillers (Pyrodex and Alliant Red Dot) were initiated and the explosions captured using high-speed videography. The video footage was used to calculate fragment velocities, which were represented as particle velocity vector maps. In addition, the fragments were weighed. The results demonstrate a correlation between the type of energetic filler and both the size and velocity of the fragments. Larger fragments were produced by Pyrodex filler indicating a less complete fragmentation, compared with smaller fragments produced by double-base smokeless powder. Additionally, higher fragment velocities were seen with Alliant Red Dot filler. PMID:24147889

  14. Mathematical simulation of containment of molten fuel in the vessel of fast reactor under conditions of heavy accident: Mathematical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Kashcheev; I. A. Kuznetsov

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model is suggested of containment of melt in the vessel of a fast reactor under conditions of deterioration\\u000a of fuel assemblies. The computational domain under consideration is multiply connected and includes 15 sub-domains. The mathematical\\u000a simulation of sub-domains as porous bodies is performed using the laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, written\\u000a in the form of

  15. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Schniedermann; Moritz Rennecke; Kerstin Buttler; Georg Richter; Anna-Maria Städtler; Susanne Norgall; Muhammad Badar; Bernhard Barleon; Tobias May; Jörg Wilting; Herbert A Weich

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. RESULTS: In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung

  16. Predicting runaway reaction in a solid explosive containing a single crack

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Mechanically damaged high explosive (HE) undergoing defiagration has recently been shown capable of generating combustion pressures and flame speeds dramatically in excess of those observed in undamaged HE. Flame penetration of HE cracks large enough to support the reaction zone serves to increase the burning surface area and the rate of gas production. Cracks confine the product gas, elevating the local pressure and reducing the reaction zone thickness such that the flame can enter smaller-width cracks. As the reaction zone decreases sufficiently to enter the smallest cracks, the flame surface area will grow appreciably, rapidly pressurizing the cracks. This runaway of pressure and burning area, termed combustion bootstrapping, can dramatically accelerate the combustion mode and in the most extreme cases may result in deflagration-to-detonation transition [3, 4]. The current study is intended to help predict the conditions required for the onset of reaction runaway in a narrow slot in HE. We review experiments [5] where flames were observed to propagate though a narrow slot (intended to simulate a well-formed crack) in high explosive at velocities up to 10 km/s, reaching pressures in excess of 1 kbar. Pressurization of the slot due to gas-dynamic choking is then used to predict the onset of runaway reaction. This model agrees with experimental pressure measurements of observed reaction runaway in slots.

  17. A flag-based algorithm and associated neutron interrogation system for the detection of explosives in sea-land cargo containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, A. L.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    Recent efforts in the simulation of sea-land cargo containers in active neutron interrogation scenarios resulted in the identification of several flags indicating the presence of conventional explosives. These flags, defined by specific mathematical manipulations of the neutron and photon spectra, have been combined into a detection algorithm for screening cargo containers at international borders and seaports. The detection algorithm's steps include classifying the cargo type, identifying containers filled with explosives, triggering in the presence of concealed explosives, and minimizing the number of false positives due to cargo heterogeneity. The algorithm has been implemented in a system that includes both neutron and photon detectors. This system will take about 10 min to scan a container and cost approximately 1M to construct. Dose calculations resulted in estimates of less than 0.5 mSv for a person hidden in the container, and an operator annual dose of less than 0.9 mSv.

  18. Integrated ex-vessel source term analysis with the CONTAIN 1. 1 computer code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Murata; F. J. Schelling; G. D. Valdez; D. E. Carroll; K. E. Washington

    1986-01-01

    Important new phenomenological models and code improvements, which will be available in Version 1.1 of the CONTAIN code, are discussed, and results of a thirteen cell demonstration calculation presented. CONTAIN has been developed for the USNRC as a best-estimate code for modeling nuclear reactor containment behavior under severe accident conditions. CONTAIN 1.1 has major new capabilities for treating core-concrete interactions

  19. Proceedings of the seventh symposium on containment of underground nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    This is Volume 2 of two unclassified volumes of a meeting of workers at all levels in the science and technology of containment. Papers on containment and related geological, geophysical, engineering, chemical, and computational topics were included. Particular topics in this volume include: Low-yield test beds, modeling and residual stress, material properties, collapse phenomena and shock diagnostics, stemming practices and performance, geophysics, and geosciences and weapons destruction. Individual papers are indexed separately on the data base.

  20. Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Phenomenology

    1994-08-01

    The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

  1. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL DETONATION (BLAST) LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. DUFFEY; E. A. RODRIGUEZ

    2001-05-01

    Spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels are often used to completely contain the effects of high explosions. These vessels generally fall into two categories. The first includes vessels designed for multiple use ([1]-[6]). Applications of such multiple-use vessels include testing of explosive components and bomb disposal. Because of the multiple-use requirement, response of the vessel is restricted to the elastic range. The second category consists of vessels designed for one-time use only ([7]-[9]). Vessels in this category are typically used to contain accidental explosions and are designed to efficiently utilize the significant plastic energy absorption capacity of ductile materials. Because these vessels may undergo large permanent plastic deformations, they may not be reusable. Ideally one would design a Containment Vessel according to some National or International Consensus Standard, such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Unfortunately, however, a number of issues preclude direct use of the ASME Code in its present form to the design of Containment Vessels. These issues are described in Section 2, along with a request for guidance from the PVRC as to a suitable path forward for developing appropriate ASME B&PV design guidance for Containment Vessels. Next, a discussion of the nature of impulsive loading as a result of an internal detonation of the high explosive within a Containment Vessel is described in Section 3. Ductile failure criteria utilized for LANL Containment Vessels are described in Section 4. Finally, brittle fracture criteria currently utilized by LANL are presented in Section 5. This memo is concluded with a brief summary of results and an appeal to PVRC to recommend and develop an appropriate path forward (Section 6). This path forward could be of a short-term specialized nature (e.g., Code Case) for specific guidance regarding design of the LANL Containment Vessels; a long-term development of a general design approach applicable to all Containment Vessels, including those at LANL; or a combination of the two. This memo supplements information provided in the viewgraphs of the Presentation by E.A. Rodriguez to be given to the PVRC at the May Meeting. The Presentation is entitled, ''Design Criteria for Internal Detonation (Blast) Loading''.

  2. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

  3. Thermal decomposition of explosives with full containment in one-dimensional geometries. [TNT, TATB, PETN, BTF, and HMX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Tarver; R. R. McGuire; E. W. Wrenn; K. R. Brein

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some experiments designed to accurately determine the time interval required to produce the reactive event in confined explosives and propellants subjected to temperatures which will cause decomposition. Geometry and boundary conditions are both well defined so that these experiments on the rapid thermal decomposition of high explosives are amenable to predictive modeling.

  4. Dynamics of an Explosion Blast-proof Aircraft Luggage Container. Part II—Theoretical Failure Analysis and Experimental Verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Chin; Y. D. Kwon; H. L. Li; D. C. Prevorsek

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the blast of an explosive and the effect of the blast on the walls of surrounding (neighboring) structure has been made using the finite element analysis technique. The finite element analysis computer code used in this analysis is EPIC-2 interfaced with the subroutines developed for the composite material behavior. EPIC-2 allows one to predict the explosion

  5. Shrapnel impact probability and diagnostic port failure analysis for LLNL`s explosives testing contained firing facility (CFF)

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D. E., LLNL

    1998-05-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory` s (LLNL) Contained Firing Facility (CFF) is a facility to be constructed for explosives testing of up to 60 kg of explosives at LLNL` s Site 300 Explosives Test Site. The CFF will be a large, rectangular, reinforced concrete firing chamber, lined with steel for shrapnel protection. The CFF will contain several glass ports for cameras, lasers, and other diagnostic equipment to be used for data collection during planned explosives detonations. Glass is used due to the need for the greatest possible optical clarity. This study was performed during the CFF final design stage to determine probabilities and consequences (bounding and best estimate) of impact of shrapnel, due to concerns about the possible effects of rebounding shrapnel on these glass diagnostic ports. We developed a customized version of the Persistence of Vision{trademark} Ray-Tracer (POV-Ray{trademark}) version 3.02 code for the Macintosh TM Operating System (MacOS{trademark}). POV-Ray creates three- dimensional, very high quality (photo-realistic) images with realistic reflections, shading, textures, perspective, and other effects using a rendering technique called ray-tracing. It reads a text file that describes the objects and lighting in a scene and generates an image of that scene from the viewpoint of a camera, also described in the text file. The customized code (POV-Ray Shrapnel Tracker, V3.02 - Custom Build) generates fragment trajectory paths at user designated angle intervals in three dimensions, tracks these trajectory paths through any complex three-dimensional space, and outputs detailed data for each ray as requested by the user, including trajectory source location, initial direction of each trajectory, vector data for each surface/trajectory interaction, and any impacts with designated model target surfaces during any trajectory segment (direct path or reflected paths). This allows determination of the three-dimensional trajectory of each simulated particle, as well as overall and individual fragment probabilities of impact with any designated target(s) in the three-dimensional model. It also allows identification of any areas of particular concern due to grouping (in discrete areas) of fragment paths that lead to hits on the target areas of concern. The default code output includes data for specified fragment paths up through four reflections, with the number of target hits for each path segment listed. Output is grouped by target number, arbitrarily assigned in order as the target objects are declared in the input model text file. Hits on the targets are listed by path segments (e.g., direct path, one bounce, two bounces, etc.). The code has the capability to output a separate data file containing full x, y, and z directional data for each fragment path, to output just the data for a user specified number of reflections, or to output data for just the paths that lead to hits on the specified targets. The code assumes that the shrapnel originates from a point source located at the defined camera position in the model. The shrapnel pieces are assumed to be ideal, spherical, point-sized objects. Travel paths are assumed to be short and at high speed, i.e., gravitational curvature of the shrapnel paths is ignored. Reflections are assumed to be ideal, i.e., the reflection angle is equal to the incident angle. Both irregular fragment shapes and rotational momentum of the fragments would be expected to cause individual fragments to deviate from the ideal fragment paths. However, the aggregate real-world fragment paths would not be expected to significantly deviate from the ideal paths because of the averaging out of the deviations. Any collisions or other interactions between fragments are ignored. The analysis code has the capability to simulate non-ideal reflections caused by irregular fragment shapes by introducing either regular or random surface roughness or bumpiness. However, no simulation method available in the analysis code has been identified to simulate the effects of rotational energy.

  6. Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues

    SciTech Connect

    De Lucia, Frank C. Jr.; Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-11-01

    A technique being evaluated for standoff explosives detection is laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a real-time sensor technology that uses components that can be configured into a ruggedized standoff instrument. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has been coupling standoff LIBS spectra with chemometrics for several years now in order to discriminate between explosives and nonexplosives. We have investigated the use of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for explosives detection. We have extended our study of PLS-DA to more complex sample types, including binary mixtures, different types of explosives, and samples not included in the model. We demonstrate the importance of building the PLS-DA model by iteratively testing it against sample test sets. Independent test sets are used to test the robustness of the final model.

  7. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  8. Functional and structural failure mode overpressurization tests of 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model.

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, James F. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Shibata, Satoru (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation, Tokyo, Japan); Hessheimer, Michael F.

    2003-02-01

    A 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV), representative of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Japan, was constructed by NUPEC at Sandia National Laboratories from January 1997 through June, 2000. Concurrently, Sandia instrumented the model with nearly 1500 transducers to measure strain, displacement and forces in the model from prestressing through the pressure testing. The limit state test of the PCCV model, culminating in functional failure (i.e. leakage by cracking and liner tearing) was conducted in September, 2000 at Sandia National Laboratories. After inspecting the model and the data after the limit state test, it became clear that, other than liner tearing and leakage, structural damage was limited to concrete cracking and the overall structural response (displacements, rebar and tendon strains, etc.) was only slightly beyond yield. (Global hoop strains at the mid-height of the cylinder only reached 0.4%, approximately twice the yield strain in steel.) In order to provide additional structural response data, for comparison with inelastic response conditions, the PCCV model filled nearly full with water and pressurized to 3.6 times the design pressure, when a catastrophic rupture occurred preceded only briefly by successive tensile failure of several hoop tendons. This paper summarizes the results of these tests.

  9. Shale oil explosives

    SciTech Connect

    York, E.D.; Porter, D.D.

    1984-10-09

    Ammonium nitrate shale oil explosives are provided which are effective, powerful, inexpensive, and safe. The explosives contain about 2% to 10% by weight shale oil and about 90% to 98% by weight ammonium nitrate. The shale oil can be whole shale oil or heavy shale oil containing from 0.1% to 65% by weight oil shale dust. The ammonium nitrate is preferably in the form of explosive grade ammonium nitrate prills.

  10. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176...Segregation § 176.145 Segregation in single hold vessels. (a) On board a vessel having a single cargo hold, Class 1 (explosive)...

  11. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176...Segregation § 176.145 Segregation in single hold vessels. (a) On board a vessel having a single cargo hold, Class 1 (explosive)...

  12. Shale oil explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. York; D. D. Porter

    1984-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate shale oil explosives are provided which are effective, powerful, inexpensive, and safe. The explosives contain about 2% to 10% by weight shale oil and about 90% to 98% by weight ammonium nitrate. The shale oil can be whole shale oil or heavy shale oil containing from 0.1% to 65% by weight oil shale dust. The ammonium nitrate is

  13. 40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

  14. 40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

  15. 40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

  16. 40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

  17. 40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

  18. Partitioning effect on a dust explosion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Partitioning effect on a dust explosion J.M. Pascaud Université d'Orléans 63, avenue de Lattre de explosion and the formation of overpressures inside a partitioned vessel. A calculation methodology of the explosion from one compartment to another adjacent compartment by the means of the hot flow through

  19. Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas

    1999-08-01

    A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.

  20. Query Nuclear Explosions Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    NUCEXP, National Geoscience Database, provided by the Australian Geological Survey Organization (AGSO), contains entries on nuclear explosions around the world since 1945, with the location, time and size of explosions. To view the records, users must select site and country conducting the test and beginning/end dates.

  1. 49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

  2. 49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

  3. 49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

  4. 49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

  5. Finite Element Investigation of Stationary Natural Convection of Light and HeavyWater in a Vessel Containing Heated Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Mohamed M.

    2012-07-01

    This numerical study investigates the steady state natural convection of light and heavy water entering a vessel from the left and leaving on the right. The cavity consists of a matrix of cylindrical heated rods as in light and heavy water reactors. The aim of the study is to describe the effects of water inlet velocity on the flow and thermal fields in presence of such heated obstacle. The investigations are conducted for different values of rods temperatures. From the numerical results, it is evident that the flow pattern and temperature fields are significantly dependent on the water inlet velocity and rods temperature

  6. Booster for relatively insensitive explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Cook; H. E. Farnam; S. D. Malstrom; W. H. Peterson

    1962-01-01

    Insensitive explosives, containing a high percentage of ammonium nitrate (NHD4UNOD3U) and containing nonexplosive organic sensitizers, have found wide application as blasting explosives. Prilled NHD4UNOD3U containing 94% NHD4UNOD3U and 6% fuel oil, and aqueous slurries of TNT-NHD4UNOD3U are examples of such insensitive explosives. The compositions are not detonable by blasting caps and prior art methods for detonating them include the use

  7. Requirements on future containments to avoid evacuation and relocation outside the plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Ke?er

    1995-01-01

    Contributions to the risk of nuclear reactors result essentially from severe accidents leading to core melting and subsequent phenomena that may result in the end in the failure of the reactor pressure vessel and the outer containment. Accident phenomena subsequent to core elting having a potential for containment failure are: •-hydrogen generation,•-steam explosion,•-melt-through of the pressure vessel at high pressure,

  8. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  9. Simultaneous identification and quantification of nitro-containing explosives by advanced chemometric data treatment of cyclic voltammetry at screen-printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cetó, Xavier; O' Mahony, Aoife M; Wang, Joseph; Del Valle, Manel

    2013-03-30

    The simultaneous determination of three nitro-containing compounds found in the majority of explosive mixtures, namely hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), is demonstrated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches involving the coupling of electrochemical measurements and advanced chemometric data processing. Voltammetric responses were obtained from a single bare screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which exhibited marked mix-responses towards the compounds examined. The responses obtained were then preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the resulting coefficients were input to an artificial neural network (ANN) model. Subsequently, meaningful data was extracted from the complex voltammetric readings, achieving either the correct discrimination of the different commercial mixtures (100% of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) or the individual quantification of each of the compounds under study (total NRMSE of 0.162 for the external test subset). PMID:23598222

  10. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  11. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  12. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  13. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  14. Preliminary identification of flags for a novel algorithm-based approach for explosives detection using neutron interrogation for a simulated idealized cargo container scenario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Lehnert; K. J. Kearfott

    2011-01-01

    The use of all information provided by induced photons and scattered neutrons has the potential of optimizing the performance of fast neutron interrogation for explosives detection. A new method is proposed that involves the usage of flags relating the secondary radiation to the presence of explosives. These flags would consist of mathematical relationships among scattered neutrons at specific energies and

  15. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Germer, J.H.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

  16. Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives

    E-print Network

    Aslam, Tariq

    Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives(). At the edges of the explosive, Dn() is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive-containing systems. Key words: Detonation, Curvature eect, Edge interactions

  17. Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives#

    E-print Network

    Aslam, Tariq

    Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives ###. At the edges of the explosive# D n ### is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive#containing systems. Key words# Detonation# Curvature e#ect# Edge interactions

  18. Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes; Peter J. (Danville, CA); Alcaraz, Armando (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-05-10

    A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

  19. 29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive components (Order 1). 570.51 Section...plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive...

  20. 29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive components (Order 1). 570.51 Section...plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive...

  1. 29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive components (Order 1). 570.51 Section...plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive...

  2. Detection of Explosives via Photolytic Cleavage of Nitroesters and Nitramines

    E-print Network

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    The nitramine-containing explosive RDX and the nitroester-containing explosive PETN are shown to be susceptible to photofragmentation upon exposure to sunlight. Model compounds containing nitroester and nitramine moieties ...

  3. Supplement Analysis to the 1999 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Proposed Disposition of Certain Large Containment Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-02-12

    This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) (DOE 1999a) adequately addresses the environmental effects of introducing a proposed project for the clean-out and decontamination (DECON) of certain large containment vessels into the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA) 3, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. After undergoing the clean-out and DECON steps, the subject containment vessels would be disposed of at LANL's TA-54 low-level waste (LLW) disposal site or, as appropriate, at a DOE or commercial offsite permitted LLW-regulated landfill; after actinides were recovered from the DECON solution within the CMR Building, they would be moved to LANL's TA-55 Plutonium Facility and undergo subsequent processing at that facility for reuse. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement (EIS) when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are changed circumstances or new or changed information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 10211.314(c) of the DOE's regulations for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementation that states: ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis''. This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the proposed project action with the LANL operations capabilities evaluated in the 1999 SWEIS in support DOE's long-term hydrodynamic testing program at LANL, as well as the waste disposal capabilities evaluated in the SWEIS in support of LANL operations. It also provides an explanation of any differences between the proposed action and activities described in the SWEIS analysis. The SWEIS analyzed the impacts of performing plutonium (Pu) and actinide activities, including hydrodynamic testing support activity, at the Plutonium Facility and at the CMR Building.

  4. The NICMOS detectors are mounted in a cryogenically cooled well inside of a dewar filled with solid Nitrogen. The cryogenic vessel contains a sparse matrix of an aluminum "sponge" into

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Glenn

    THE DEWAR The NICMOS detectors are mounted in a cryogenically cooled well inside of a dewar filled with solid Nitrogen. The cryogenic vessel contains a sparse matrix of an aluminum "sponge" into which liquid cooling is employed to two shields in the dewar to prolong the cryogen life. On­orbit, the cryogen

  5. Fuel fire test results for RX-08-FK in a toroidal composite vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Black, W.; Bretl, D.; von Holtz, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Didlake, J.; Ferrario, M.; Spingarn, J.; Schwegel, J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    A fuel first test was conducted on October 15, 1992, during which a toroidal composite vessel containing 6.5 kg of RX-08-FK Paste Extrudable Explosive was subjected to a dynamic (transient) thermal environment. The vessel was mounted inside a closed, but vented, thin-walled steel cylinder, and the entire assembly was then engulfed in a fuel fire. Approximately 5 minutes into the test, the PEX began to burn. At the time reaction of PEX occurred, temperatures of the inside wall of the steel cylinder were 815C and temperatures on outside wall of the composite vessel ranged from 163--454C. Subsequently, temperatures in excess of 950C were reached inside the cylinder for tens of minutes. Based on criteria set forth in MIL-STD-1648A(AS), the RX-08-FK-loaded vessel passed the fuel fire test, because no violent reaction beyond burning was observed.

  6. A new mosaic pattern in glioma vascularization: exogenous endothelial progenitor cells integrating into the vessels containing tumor-derived endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Fang, Jingqin; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Heng; Du, Xuesong; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Xue; Yang, Yizeng; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-04-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) transdifferentiating into vascular endothelial cells (ECs) possibly contributes to tumor resistance to antiangiogenic therapy. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), showing active migration and incorporation into neovasculature of glioma, may be a good vehicle for delivering genes to target GSCs transdifferentiation. Here, we found a new mosaic pattern that exogenous EPCs integrated into the vessels containing the tumor-derived ECs in C6 glioma rat model. Further, we evaluated the effect of these homing EPCs on C6 glioma cells transdifferentiation. The transdifferentiation frequency of C6 glioma cells and the expressions of key factors on GSCs transdifferentiation, i.e. HIF-1?, Notch1, and Flk1 in gliomas with or without EPCs transplantation showed no significant difference. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging could track the migration and incorporation of EPCs into glioma in vivo, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. The number of magnetically labeled EPCs estimated from T2 maps correlated well with direct measurements of labeled cell counts by flow cytometry. Taken together, our findings may provide a rational base for the future application of EPCs as a therapeutic and imaging probe to overcome antiangiogenic resistance for glioma and monitor the efficacy of this treatment. PMID:24722469

  7. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  8. Explosive Z Pinch

    E-print Network

    Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann; Markus Schwarz

    2006-11-08

    We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

  9. Pressure vessel safety: the story of the ASME code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canonico

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the development of the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code used by manufacturers and users of pressure vessels. The early history of pressure-vessel use was marked by numerous catastrophic explosions. While pressure vessel failures are not infrequent - and catastrophic failures, rare - credit for their reliable service can be attributed, according to the article, to

  10. Explosively Actuated Opening for Rapid Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.; Perry, R.

    1982-01-01

    Flexible linear-shaped charge provides explosive energy to create opening and to jettison panel. Container around explosive charge protects pilot from effects of explosion. Exterior steel strip receives most of force of explosion to jettison severed panel. System allows pilot to bail out from left side of airplane by creating opening where no door exists. Egress system is simple and highly responsive, requiring minimal modifications to airplane.

  11. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...subpart. (b) An explosive mixture or device containing a chlorate and also containing: (1) An ammonium salt, including...inch), or a toy torpedo containing a mixture of potassium chlorate, black antimony (antimony sulfide), and sulfur, if...

  12. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  13. Workbook for predicting pressure wave and fragment effects of exploding propellant tanks and gas storage vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Bessey, R. L.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Oldham, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Technology needed to predict damage and hazards from explosions of propellant tanks and bursts of pressure vessels, both near and far from these explosions is introduced. Data are summarized in graphs, tables, and nomographs.

  14. Fasciocutaneous vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Cormack; B. G. H. Lamberty

    1984-01-01

    Summary In the conventional view of the arterial blood supply of skin, two systems of vessels are recognised; the direct cutaneous arteries and the musculocutaneous perforators. The existence of a third system consisting of fasciocutaneous perforators, is a relatively new concept. These vessels supply the skin by passing along the fascial septa between adjacent muscles. A particular feature of these

  15. Nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broyles, A. A.

    1982-07-01

    A summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and its effects on human beings is presented at the level of a sophomore general physics course without calculus. It is designed to supplement a standard text for such a course and problems are included.

  16. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  17. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  18. Plant tissue analysis for explosive compounds in phytoremediation and phytoforensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adcharee Karnjanapiboonwong; Ruipu Mu; Yuan Yuan; Honglan Shi; Yinfa Ma; Joel G. Burken

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue analysis methods were evaluated for six explosive compounds to assess uptake and phytoforensic methods development to quantify explosives in plant to obtain the plant data for the evaluation of explosive contamination in soil and groundwater. Four different solvent mixtures containing acetonitrile or methanol were tested at variable extraction ratios to compare the extraction efficiency for six explosive compounds:

  19. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  20. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  1. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

  2. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cantwell

    1988-01-01

    As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due

  3. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cantwell

    1988-01-01

    In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems

  4. Demonstration Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles "Skip"

    1998-05-01

    Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

  5. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  6. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  7. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  8. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  9. Time-resolved measurements of near infrared emission spectra from explosions: Pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate and its mixtures containing silver and aluminum particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jon D.; Piecuch, Scott; Lightstone, James M.; Carney, Joel R.; Hooper, Joe

    2010-08-01

    Measurements of chemical transients and thermodynamic conditions are difficult to obtain yet fundamentally important in understanding the behavior of explosives. We have constructed a fast near infrared (NIR) spectrometer and have made temporally and spectrally-resolved emission measurements during postdetonation combustion of pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) charges and PETN charges doped with 10 wt % microparticles composed of silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al). We have observed postdetonation PETN emission spectra between 750 and 1500 nm at rates up to 46 992 spectra/s. The instrument captures the highly structured spectra immediately following breakout as well as the longer-lived broadband NIR emission signals from hot particles. The early spectra reveal spectral signatures related to PETN and the reacting constituents of the particles. The later spectra provide a means to infer the gray-body temperature history of the particles.

  10. Technical Review Report for the Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessel (PCV)

    SciTech Connect

    West, M; Hafner, R

    2008-05-05

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessels (PCV). The waiver is to be used to support a limited number of shipments of fuel for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) Project in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Under the waiver, an inventory of existing national security PCVs will be converted to standard PCVs. Both types of PCVs are currently approved for use by the Office of Nuclear Energy. LLNL has previously reviewed the national security PCVs under Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Addendum No. 1, Revision c, dated June 2007 (Addendum 1). The safety analysis of the package is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Mound 1KW Package (i.e., the Mound 1KW SARP, or the SARP) where the standard PCVs have been reviewed by LLNL. The Mound 1KW Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) number USA/9516/B(U)F-85 for the transportation of Type B quantities of plutonium heat source material. The waiver requests an exemption, claiming safety equivalent to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.12, Specific Exemptions, and will lead to a letter amendment to the CoC. Under the waiver, the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems, NE-34, is seeking an exemption from 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1), Previously Approved Package,[5] which states: '(d) NRC will approve modifications to the design and authorized contents of a Type B package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided--(1) The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests specified in {section}71.71 and 71.73.' The LLNL staff had previously reviewed a request from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to reconfigure national security PCVs to standard PCVs. With a nominal 50% reduction in both the height and the volume, the LLNL staff initially deemed the modifications to be significant, which would not be allowed under the provisions of 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1)--see above. As a follow-up, the DOE requested additional clarification from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC concluded that the reconfiguration would be a new fabrication, and that an exemption to the regulations would be required to allow its use, as per the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.19(c)(1), Previously Approved Package: '(c) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, or a fissile material package previously approved by the NRC with the designation '-85' in the identification number of the NRC CoC, may be used under the general license of {section}71.17 with the following additional conditions: (1) Fabrication of the package must be satisfactorily completed by December 31, 2006, as demonstrated by application of its model number in accordance with 71.85(c).' Although the preferred approach toward the resolution of this issue would be for the applicant to submit an updated SARP, the applicant has stated that the process of updating the Model Mound 1KW Package SARP is a work that is in progress, but that the updated SARP is not yet ready for submittal. The applicant has to provide a submittal, proving that the package meets the '-96' requirements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, in order to fabricate approved packagings after December 31, 2006. The applicant has further stated that all other packaging features, as described in the currently approved Model Mound 1KW Package SARP, remain unchanged. This report documents the LLNL review of the waiver request. The specific review for each SARP Chapter is documented.

  11. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

  12. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

  13. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

  14. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

  15. SHIP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO HIGH EXPLOSIVE DETONATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Z. Vulitsky; John J. McMullen; H. Karni

    Predicting the structural response of a naval vessel to a high explosive detonation is an important requirement in naval shipbuilding. Unfortunately, current analysis methods do not provide high level of confidence leading to the utilization of large structural design safety factors. As a result, ships are heavier and more expensive to construct and maintain than may actually be required. Moreover,

  16. Blood Vessels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hirschi

    2007-11-20

    Part of the circulatory system is composed of a series of tubes carries the vital elements and the wastes that keep us strong and healthy. Take a look at these amazing vessels and how they work together. Ever cut yourself on the toe? How about the finger? The ear? Ever get a bloody nose? How about a scrape on the knee? If these things have ever happened to you then you already know that blood vessels carry blood to EVERY part of the body. They start out ...

  17. Analysis of Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jehuda Yinon; John C. Hoffsommer

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of explosives is of major importance in several analytical fields:1. Forensic identification of explosives is a major problem in the criminalistic investigation of a bombing which involves connecting the type of explosive used with the suspect. The detection and identification of explosive residues in debris material constitutes a highly difficult task. The thermal instability of most explosives, along

  18. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Martin G. (Wilmington, DE)

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  19. Blast deflector traps smoke and debris from explosive trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkowski, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Blast deflector protects interior areas and personnel from the smoke and debris of explosive trains. It contains open-cell foam to absorb the pressure loads generated by explosive charges and control the smoke and debris.

  20. Universe Explosions

    E-print Network

    Ram Brustein; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld

    2012-09-24

    A scenario for a quantum big crunch to big bang transition is proposed. We first clarify the similarities between this transition and the final stages of black hole evaporation. The black hole and the universe are thought of as quantum states. The importance of an external observer for understanding the big crunch to big bang transition is emphasized. Then, relying on the similarities between the black hole and the universe, we propose that the transition should be described as an explosion that connects the contracting phase to the expanding one. The explosion occurs when entropy bounds are saturated, or equivalently when the states cease to be semiclassically (meta)stable. We discuss our scenario in three examples: collapsing dust, a brane universe falling into a bulk black hole in anti-de Sitter space, and a contracting universe filled with a negative cosmological constant and a small amount of matter. We briefly discuss the late time observables that may carry some information about the state of the universe before the transition.

  1. Pressure development due to turbulent flame propagation in large-scale methane-air explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. O. Moen; J. H. S. Lee; B. H. Hjertager; K. Fuhre; R. K. Eckhoff

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale methane-air explosion tests conducted in a 1800-ft³ vented tube demonstrated that the presence of obstacles can greatly increase the violence of explosions in the vessel. For example, six 0.7-ft. high obstacles created overpressures larger than the theoretical closed-vessel maximum overpressure. The results suggest that safe venting criteria obtained from idealized experiments are totally inadequate for large-scale gaseous explosions in

  2. Explosion and detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Toshio; Horiguchi, Sadashige

    2009-05-15

    In this study, the explosion and detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether (DME) were experimentally investigated. A spherical pressure vessel with an internal volume of 180L was used as the explosion vessel. Therefore, tubes 10m in length with internal diameters of 25mm and 50mm were used as detonation tubes. In addition, we compared the characteristics of DME with those of propane since DME is considered as a substitute fuel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG). At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the maximum explosive pressure increased tenfold. The explosion index (K(G) values), an indicator of the intensity of an explosion, was larger than that of propane, indicating that the explosion was intense. No experimental study has been conducted on the detonation behavior of DME so far, but this research confirmed a transition to detonation. The detonation characteristics were similar to the characteristics of the Chapman-Jouguet detonation, and the concentration range for detonation was from 5.5% to 9.0%. PMID:18774641

  3. Threat localization in QR explosive detection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Robert; P. J. Prado

    2004-01-01

    The detection of explosives for the purpose of aviation security is an important task for preventing terrorism acts and smuggling.\\u000a A number of methods for explosive screening have been developed. For the purpose of aviation security, the inspections are\\u000a performed on passengers, their carry-on luggage, checked baggage, and cargo containers. An effective explosive detection system\\u000a should be capable of reporting

  4. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A Lewis; David A Newcombe; Ronald L Crawford

    2004-01-01

    The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other

  5. The Effect of the Presence of Ozone on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of Hydrogen in Vessels Containing Savannah River Site High Level Waste - 12387

    SciTech Connect

    Sherburne, Carol [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Osterberg, Paul [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, Illinois (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a fuse wire. A gas combination is considered flammable when a pressure rise of 7% of the initial absolute pressure is observed. The specified testing methodology is consistent with guidelines established in ASTM E-918-83 (2005) 'Standard Practices for Determining Limits of Flammability of Chemicals at Elevated Temperature and Pressure'. The LFL of hydrogen in air was determined and is in good agreement with the literature data. Ozone-oxygen mixtures were found to be flammable at concentrations above 8.3 vol.% based on the ASTM E918 7% pressure rise criteria for flame propagation. This result is lower than previously reported values which can be explained through the variations in the test setup and procedure. It is believed that the lower values obtained in this work are a result of improvements of the test methodology. Tests performed with hydrogen in various concentrations of ozone in oxygen have shown that the LFL of hydrogen decreases as the concentration of ozone in the mixture increases. This testing was designed to provide data under the conditions considered most optimal to produce deflagration. The geometry and materials of construction of the testing vessel; the location of the fuse wire; the magnitude of the supplied energy; the careful minimization of diluents and other contaminants; and meticulous procedural detail to maintain integrity of the ozone to the maximum extent practical, result in data that reflect not the expected process conditions, but those that enhance the possibility of flame propagation. For this reason, there is believed to be considerable conservatism in the indicated results. Per the vendor, the maximum possible ozone concentration producible by the planned ECC Ozone generator is 8 volume percent (the typical maximum operating setpoint concentration is 6.8 vol%), less than the 8.3 minimum volume % concentration shown to be flammable in a 99.999% pure O{sub 2} environment at the optimally conservative conditions established in this testing. Further, the feed to the ECC ozone generator is only 87% oxygen, the remainder, water vapor

  6. Development of Tritium Storage and Transport Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Paek, S.; Lee, M.; Kim, K.R.; Ahn, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, K.M.; Shon, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop tritium storage and transport vessels for industrial applications. Prototype tritium storage and transport vessels were designed and manufactured. Uranium and zirconium/cobalt (ZrCo) metals were selected for the storage materials. The prototype transport container for the vessel was designed on the basis of Type B transportation package standards. The transport container was composed of a steel drum, inner packing materials, and a storage vessel. A second refinement cap was installed on the prototype vessel to protect the valves on the 100 kCi vessel. The vessel is stored in a steel drum packed with a thermal barrier and a shock absorber. Structural, thermal, shielding, and confinement analyses have to be performed for this container based on Type B requirements. (authors)

  7. Chaotic Explosions

    E-print Network

    Eduardo G. Altmann; Jefferson S. E. Portela; Tamás Tél

    2015-01-22

    We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

  8. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  9. Analysis of the xplAB-containing gene cluster involved in the bacterial degradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A; Strand, Stuart E; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2014-11-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  10. Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M

    2004-10-11

    We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

  11. A compatibility study of containment materials in FEFO, bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Moddeman, W.E.; Foster, P.

    1995-02-01

    We report on a program to evaluate the compatibility of energetic fluids with candidate containment materials. The energetic fluids are constituents of various extrudable explosives developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These paste-like explosives consist of explosive particulates (HMX, TATB for example) suspended in mixtures of energetic liquids and are designed to remain extrudable over a wide temperature range for many years. It is important to preclude or minimize interactions between the constituents of the paste and the containment materials since such interactions could result in decreased reliability or failure of the containment vessel as well as intrinsic changes in the flow or explosive characteristics of the paste. In this report we focus on one specific paste formulation: RX-52-AE (Transferable Insensitive Explosive, TIE), composed principally of the solid explosive TATB and the energetic liquid, FEFO. Compatibility between a number of organic and metallic materials with neat FEFO has been evaluated. The 300 series stainless steels, Al 6061-T6, and Monel 400 showed evidence of surface attack (oxidation or pitting). Polished gold coupons became discolored and XPS analysis revealed the formation gold cyanide. Platinum, iridium, titanium, tantalum and Ta-10% W showed little evidence of reaction. Among the organic materials, the per-fluorinated materials showed only slight interaction with the FEFO while the polyethylene, polyester and Aclar{reg_sign} materials were attacked by the liquid. These interactions were manifested in changes in color, net weight gain and mechanical properties. The changes were exaggerated by higher temperatures.

  12. Evaluation of ferrocyanide\\/nitrate explosive hazard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cady

    1992-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory agreed to assist Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the Ferrocyanide Safety Evaluation Program by helping to evaluate the explosive hazard of several mixtures of simulated ferrocyanide waste-tank sludge containing sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This report is an evaluation of the small-scale safety tests used to assess the safety of these materials from an explosive point of

  13. Large panel design for containment air baffle

    DOEpatents

    Orr, R.S.

    1992-12-08

    The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel. 9 figs.

  14. Large panel design for containment air baffle

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel.

  15. Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Daniel Joseph

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels. Resulting induced vessels did match in morphology to the target vessels. Several other covalently bound signals were then analyzed in the assay and resulting morphology of vessels was compared in several studies which further highlighted the utility of the micropocket assay in conjunction with the image based tool for vessel morphological quantification. Finally, an alternative method to provide rapid vasculature to the constructs, which relied on pre-seeded hydrogels encapsulated endothelial cells was also developed and shown to allow anastamosis between induced host vessels and the implanted construct within 48 hours. These results indicate great promise in the rational design of synthetic, bioactive hydrogels, which can be used as a platform to study microvascular induction for regenerative medicine and angiogenesis research. Future applications of this research may help to develop therapeutic strategies to ameliorate human disease by replacing organs or correcting vessel morphology in the case of ischemic diseases and cancer.

  16. Containment heat removal system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Wade; G. Barbanti; P. F. Gou; A. S. Rao; L. C. Hsu

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined

  17. A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subject to internal explosive detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, R.L.; Anderson, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Thin cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations expand outwardly at strain-rates on the order 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. At approximately 150% strain, multiple plastic instabilities appear on the surface of these shells in a quasi-periodic pattern. These instabilities continue to develop into bands of localized shear and eventually form cracks that progress in a way that causes the shell to break into fragments. The entire process takes less than 100 microseconds from detonation to complete fragmentation. Modeling this high strain-rate expansion and generation of instabilities prior to fragmentation is the primary focus of this paper. Applications for this research include hypervelocity accelerators, flux compression generators, and explosive containment vessels for terrorist threats and power plants.

  18. Supernova Explosions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-06

    In this activity, students are reminded that the Universe is made up of elements and that the heavier elements are created inside of a star, as they learned in the "Elements and You" activity. They are introduced to the life cycle of a star and to the way in which a star's mass affects its process of fusion and eventual death. Students discuss the physical concept of equilibrium as a balancing of forces and observe an experiment to demonstrate what happens to a soda can when the interior and exterior forces are not in equilibrium. An analogy is made between this experiment and core collapse in stars, to show the importance of maintaining equilibrium in stars. Finally, students participate in an activity which demonstrates how mass is ejected from a collapsed star in a supernova explosion, thereby dispersing heavier elements throughout the Universe. This activity is part of a series that has been designed specifically for use with Girl Scouts, but the activities can be used in other settings. Most of the materials are inexpensive or easily found. It is recommended that a leader with astronomy knowledge lead the activities, or at least be available to answer questions, whenever possible.

  19. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  20. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...a substituted ammonium or quaternary ammonium salt; or (2) An acidic substance, including a salt of a weak base and a strong acid. (c) A leaking or damaged package or article containing an explosive. (d) Propellants that are...

  1. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...a substituted ammonium or quaternary ammonium salt; or (2) An acidic substance, including a salt of a weak base and a strong acid. (c) A leaking or damaged package or article containing an explosive. (d) Propellants that are...

  2. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...a substituted ammonium or quaternary ammonium salt; or (2) An acidic substance, including a salt of a weak base and a strong acid. (c) A leaking or damaged package or article containing an explosive. (d) Propellants that are...

  3. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...a substituted ammonium or quaternary ammonium salt; or (2) An acidic substance, including a salt of a weak base and a strong acid. (c) A leaking or damaged package or article containing an explosive. (d) Propellants that are...

  4. Thermally stable emulsion explosive composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sudweeks, W.B.; Lawrence, L.D.

    1982-03-30

    A thermally stable, cap-sensitive, water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition is described which has a discontinuous aqueous oxidizer salt solution phase containing calcium nitrate, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid or organic phase, an emulsifier, and a density reducing agent. The salt solution contains calcium nitrate in an amount of at least 20% by weight based on the total composition. 9 claims.

  5. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  6. Saccharification of explosively dried corn

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G.H.; Zaragosa, E.M.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1986-08-01

    Very rapid or explosive drying of grains such as corn leads to obvious physical changes in the macrostructure of the grain kernel, probable alteration in starch molecular structure, and reduction in starch average molecular weight. These changes lead to greater susceptibility to attack by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes. Rates of formation of nonreducing and reducing sugars by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes applied to explosively dried and milled yellow dent corn and small-kernel flint corn were 3.3-10.6 times greater then rates for the normally milled grains. The enzymatic conversion of explosively dried flint corn containing absorbed ethyl alcohol, as would be the case if it had been used as an adsorbent to dewater aqueous ethyl alcohol, was not significantly different from that of ethyl-alcohol-free flint corn. 15 references.

  7. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  8. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  9. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  10. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  11. Collapsing Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  12. Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives

    SciTech Connect

    Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

    1991-07-01

    The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

  13. Chemical-decomposition models for the thermal explosion of confined HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT explosives

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Tarver, C.M.

    1981-03-26

    Chemical decomposition models have been deduced from the available chemical kinetic data on the thermal decomposition of HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT. A thermal conduction model is used in which the thermal conductivity of the reacting explosive decreases linearly with the mass fraction reacted to that of the gaseous products. These reactive heat flow models are used to predict the time to explosion versus reciprocal temperature curves from several heavily confined explosive tests. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and calculated explosion times for the pure explosives HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT, mixtures such as RX-26-AF (HMX/TATB), Octol (HMX/TNT), and Comp B (RDX/TNT), and for PBX 9404, an HMX-based explosive containing an energetic nitrocellulose binder.

  14. Initiative for Explosives Detection

    E-print Network

    of highly concealed explosives include the development of enhanced energy sources, improved electronics. For terrorist organizations and insurgents, the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) has become a weapon of choice

  15. Gas induced fire and explosion frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1997-07-01

    The use and handling of flammable gases poses a fire and explosion hazard to many DOE nuclear facilities. This hazard is not unique to DOE facilities. Each year over 2,900 non-residential structural fires occur in the U.S. where a gas is the first item ignited. Details from these events are collected by the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) through an extensive reporting network. This extensive data set (800,000 fires in non-residential structures over a 5-year period) is an underutilized resource within the DOE community. Explosions in nuclear facilities can have very severe consequences. The explosion can both damage the facility containment and provide a mechanism for significant radiological dispersion. In addition, an explosion can have significant worker safety implications. Because of this a quantitative frequency estimate for explosions in an SRS laboratory facility has been prepared using the NFIRS data. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Inverse problem in explosion and combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A K; Sum, T-H; Kuhl, A L

    2001-02-05

    The principal task of our studies is to provide a rational interpretation of the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic events taking place in a closed vessel upon detonation of an explosive charge and subsequent turbulent combustion of its products, acting as fuel for an exothermic reaction with air. Under such circumstances, the latter has been compressed by a reverberating shock front of the blast wave generated by the explosion. The paper presents the chemical and thermodynamic background and its numerical results, deduced for this purpose from mass spectroscopic data and pressure records, acquired upon explosion of a 0.8 kg charge of TNT in a 17 m{sup 3} chamber filled with air--a diagnostic analysis identified by the title. The evolution of the flow field and its structure are presented in a companion paper.

  17. Explosive Detection Equipment Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    As the Technical Direction Agent for the Department of Defense's Explosive Detection Equipment Program, the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division provides leadership in the pursuit of effective and suitable technology for concealed threat device detection. This program seeks explosive detection equipment that will effectively and economically confirm the presence or absence of energetic materials in or on: 1) mail\\/parcels\\/cargo,

  18. Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins

    E-print Network

    Ravenel, Douglas

    Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

  19. SURVEY OF THE RADIATION LEVELS IN THE CONTAINMENT VESSEL OF THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT. PART V. GAMMA RADIATION LEVELS ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE CONTAINMENT BUILDING. a. LEVELS ABOVE THE EQUIPMENT COMPARTMENT. Technical Memorandum No. 16

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Chaltron; H. E. Hungerford

    1959-01-01

    The results are presented of a survey of calculated gamma-ray levels at ;\\u000a many points on the surface of the operating floor of the containment building for ;\\u000a the Enrico Fermi reactor. That portion of the floor surveyed lies directly above ;\\u000a the equipment compartment. The calculations were made with the aid of an IBM-650 ;\\u000a electronic computer. The main

  20. THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sherburne, C.

    2012-01-12

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a fuse wire. A gas combination is considered flammable when a pressure rise of 7% of the initial absolute pressure is observed. The specified testing methodology is consistent with guidelines established in ASTM E-918-83 (2005) 'Standard Practices for Determining Limits of Flammability of Chemicals at Elevated Temperature and Pressure'.

  1. Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

  2. Terahertz spectroscopy techniques for explosives detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan R. Leahy-Hoppa; Michael J. Fitch; Robert Osiander

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopy in the terahertz frequency range has demonstrated unique identification of both pure and military-grade explosives.\\u000a There is significant potential for wide applications of the technology for nondestructive and nonintrusive detection of explosives\\u000a and related devices. Terahertz radiation can penetrate most dielectrics, such as clothing materials, plastics, and cardboard.\\u000a This allows both screening of personnel and through-container screening. We review

  3. Tuff reaction vessel experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, F.; Rego, J.H.

    1986-06-01

    A laboratory leaching test has been performed as part of a project to evaluate the suitability of tuff rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Glass samples of the kind that will be used to store nuclear waste were placed in water inside tuff vessels, and then the tuff vessels were placed in water inside Teflon containers. Glass-component leach rates and migration through the tuff were measured for samples of the ATM-8 actinide glass, which is a PNL 76-68 based glass with low levels of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu to simulate wastes. Disc samples of this glass were leached at 90{sup 0}C to 30, 90, and 1983 days inside tuff vessels using a natural groundwater (J-13 well-water) as the leachant. Some samples were held by 304L stainless steel supports to evaluate the effect of this metal on the release rate of glass constituents. At the end of each leaching interval, the J-13 water present inside and outside the rock vessel was analyzed for glass components in solution. On the basis of these analyses, B, Mo, and Tc, appear to migrate through the rock at rates that depend on the porosity of each vessel and the time of reaction. U, Np, and Pu were found only in the inner leachate. Na, Si, and Sr are present in the rock as well as in the J-13 water, and the addition of these elements from the glass could not be determined. Normalized elemental mass loss values for B, Mo, and Tc were calculated using the combined concentrations of the inner and outer leachates and assuming a negligible retention on the rock. The maximum normalized release was 2.3 g/m{sup 2} for Tc. B, Mo, Tc, and Np were released linearly with respect to each other, with B and Mo released at about 85% of the Tc rate, and Np at 5-10% of the Tc rate. Plutonium was found at low levels in the inner leachate but was strongly sorbed on the steel and Teflon supports. Neptunium was sorbed to a lesser extent.

  4. Final report for confinement vessel analysis. Task 2, Safety vessel impact analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Y.D. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    1994-01-26

    This report describes two sets of finite element analyses performed under Task 2 of the Confinement Vessel Analysis Program. In each set of analyses, a charge is assumed to have detonated inside the confinement vessel, causing the confinement vessel to fail in either of two ways; locally around the weld line of a nozzle, or catastrophically into two hemispheres. High pressure gases from the internal detonation pressurize the inside of the safety vessel and accelerate the fractured nozzle or hemisphere into the safety vessel. The first set of analyses examines the structural integrity of the safety vessel when impacted by the fractured nozzle. The objective of these calculations is to determine if the high strength bolt heads attached to the nozzle penetrate or fracture the lower strength safety vessel, thus allowing gaseous detonation products to escape to the atmosphere. The two dimensional analyses predict partial penetration of the safety vessel beneath the tip of the penetrator. The analyses also predict maximum principal strains in the safety vessel which exceed the measured ultimate strain of steel. The second set of analyses examines the containment capability of the safety vessel closure when impacted by half a confinement vessel (hemisphere). The predicted response is the formation of a 0.6-inch gap, caused by relative sliding and separation between the two halves of the safety vessel. Additional analyses with closure designs that prevent the gap formation are recommended.

  5. 46 CFR 390.5 - Agreement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...trailers or barges which are part of the complement of an agreement vessel. The complement is limited to three times the container...Administrator shall agree to a different complement. [41 FR 4265, Jan. 29, 1976,...

  6. 46 CFR 390.5 - Agreement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...trailers or barges which are part of the complement of an agreement vessel. The complement is limited to three times the container...Administrator shall agree to a different complement. [41 FR 4265, Jan. 29, 1976,...

  7. 46 CFR 390.5 - Agreement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...trailers or barges which are part of the complement of an agreement vessel. The complement is limited to three times the container...Administrator shall agree to a different complement. [41 FR 4265, Jan. 29, 1976,...

  8. 46 CFR 390.5 - Agreement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...trailers or barges which are part of the complement of an agreement vessel. The complement is limited to three times the container...Administrator shall agree to a different complement. [41 FR 4265, Jan. 29, 1976,...

  9. 46 CFR 390.5 - Agreement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...trailers or barges which are part of the complement of an agreement vessel. The complement is limited to three times the container...Administrator shall agree to a different complement. [41 FR 4265, Jan. 29, 1976,...

  10. An Eulerian–Lagrangian approach for simulating explosions of energetic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Guilkey; T. B. Harman; B. Banerjee

    2007-01-01

    An approach for the simulation of explosions of “energetic devices” is described. In this context, an energetic device is a metal container filled with a high explosive (HE). Examples include bombs, mines, rocket motors or containers used in storage and transport of HE material. Explosions may occur due to detonation or deflagration of the HE material, with initiation resulting from

  11. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  12. Determination of Explosive Blast Loading Equivalencies with AN Explosively Driven Shock Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott I.; Morris, John S.; Hill, Larry G.

    2009-12-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values were measured for C4, ANFO, and two perchlorate explosives. Explosive equivalencies from these values were found to agree with prior theory and experiment.

  13. Small-scale explosive seam welding. [using ribbon explosive encased in lead sheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A unique small scale explosive seam welding technique is reported that has successfully joined a variety of aluminum alloys and alloy combinations in thicknesses to 0.125 inch, as well as titanium in thicknesses to 0.056 inch. The explosively welded joints are less than one-half inch in width and apparently have no long length limitation. The ribbon explosive developed in this study contains very small quantities of explosive encased in a flexible thin lead sheath. The evaluation and demonstration of this welding technique was accomplished in three phases: evaluation and optimization of ten major explosive welding variables, the development of four weld joints, and an applicational analysis which included photomicrographs, pressure integrity tests, vacuum effects, and fabrication of some potentially useful structures in aluminum and titanium.

  14. Methodology for Assessing a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) Blast Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, Chris P.

    2012-01-01

    Composite Vessels are now used to store a variety of fluids or gases including cryogenic fluids under pressure. Sudden failure of these vessels under certain conditions can lead to a potentially catastrophic vapor expansion if thermal control is not maintained prior to failure. This can lead to a "Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion" or BLEVE.

  15. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  16. Centerline-based vessel segmentation using graph cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xin; Cheng, Yuanzhi

    2015-03-01

    Complete and accurate segmentation of the vessel from 3D (three dimensional) CT images is challenging due to lowcontrast, combined with noise, and high variation of vessel size. We describe a novel centerline-based method to produce the accurate vessel segmentation. It starts with locating vessel centerline which will be used as guidance, followed by graph cuts, with edge-weights depending on the intensity of the centerline. The main advantage of our framework is that it detects vessel boundary in problematic regions that contain small vessels and noise. A comparison has been made with two state-of-the-art vessel segmentation methods. Quantitative results on synthetic data indicate that our method is more accurate than these methods. Furthermore, experimental results on clinical data have shown that our method is capable of detecting more detailed information of vessel. It is more accurate and robust that these state-of-the-art methods and is, therefore, more suited for automatic vessel extraction.

  17. Explosion-Induced Implosions of Cylindrical Shell Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, C. M.; Duncan, J. H.

    2010-11-01

    An experimental study of the explosion-induced implosion of cylindrical shell structures in a high-pressure water environment was performed. The shell structures are filled with air at atmospheric pressure and are placed in a large water-filled pressure vessel. The vessel is then pressurized to various levels P?=?Pc, where Pc is the natural implosion pressure of the model and ? is a factor that ranges from 0.1 to 0.9. An explosive is then set off at various standoff distances, d, from the model center line, where d varies from R to 10R and R is the maximum radius of the explosion bubble. High-speed photography (27,000 fps) was used to observe the explosion and resulting shell structure implosion. High-frequency underwater blast sensors recorded dynamic pressure waves at 6 positions. The cylindrical models were made from aluminum (diameter D = 39.1 mm, wall thickness t = 0.89 mm, length L = 240 mm) and brass (D = 16.7 mm, t = 0.36 mm, L=152 mm) tubes. The pressure records are interpreted in light of the high-speed movies. It is found that the implosion is induced by two mechanisms: the shockwave generated by the explosion and the jet formed during the explosion-bubble collapse. Whether an implosion is caused by the shockwave or the jet depends on the maximum bubble diameter and the standoff distance.

  18. Quadractic Model of Thermodynamic States in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04

    We study the thermodynamic states encountered during Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. Such explosions contain up to six components: three fuels (PETN, TNT and Aluminum) and their products corresponding to stoichiometric combustion with air. We establish the loci in thermodynamic state space that correctly describes the behavior of the components. Results are fit with quadratic functions that serve as fast equations of state suitable for 3D numerical simulations of SDF explosions.

  19. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and

  20. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  1. Coal dust explosibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. Cashdollar

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental

  2. Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks Diego Alcala and Katherine Sytwu With Shane Squires ­ Directed and undirected networks ­ Percolation ­ Explosive percolation · Methodology · Results · Conclusion, infrastructure, etc. · Grow by the addition of links · New class of transitions: "explosive percolation" Taken

  3. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  4. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  5. VESSELS IN SOME ASLEPIADCEAE

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Anita; Kshetrapal, S.

    1990-01-01

    In the present investigation vessels of 16 species of family Asclepiadaceae have been studied. Through a lot of variation exists in the size and shape of vessels, number of perforation plates and intravascular thickening of walls in the taxa, the vessels in asclepiadaceae are found highly specified. PMID:22557694

  6. Neutrino Factory Mercury Vessel

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    area ­ Space is available ­ If need 1 s to recool the He in a heat exchanger, need 3 kg, volume = 18 m3 vessel assumed to be cooled with Helium ­ Shielding vessel filled with tungsten beads ­ Mercury vessel-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Cooling Calculations 15 Nov 2012 Helium Properties @ 20C http

  7. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  8. Unreacted Hugoniots of Three Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.

    2005-07-01

    There is a continuing interest in determining the detonation characteristics of loaded plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The UK licensing agency for explosives, DOSG, wishes to better understand the response of insensitive high explosives. This has required more detailed investigation of the transit of reaction from the unreacted state to products. The starting condition, before application of a kinetic scheme to describe reaction, is thus the unreacted Hugoniot for the material. In this work three PBXs, manufactured by BAE Landsystems, are investigated and modelled. All contain RDX in differing quantities in an HTPB binder. One of them contains aluminium. Two of the materials have the same weight percentage of filler and binder but differ in the grain size distribution entrained. The experimental Hugoniots are presented, and a composite equation of state is derived using an engineering model and shown to describe the measurements well. Further applications of the technique are described and future application is outlined.

  9. PELAN 2001: current status of the PELAN explosives detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip C. Womble; George Vourvopoulos; Ivan Novikov; Jonathon Paschal

    2001-01-01

    PELAN (Pulsed ELemental Analysis with Neutrons) is a portable system for the detection of explosives, weighing less than 45 kg. It is based on the principle that explosives and other contraband contain various chemical elements such as H, C, N, O, etc. in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from other innocuous substances. Neutrons are produced with a pulsed 14

  10. Stress Growth Measurements for the Explosive IRX-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit T.

    2002-07-01

    Embedded gauge experiments were performed to measure the shock reactivity of IRX-4, a plastic-bonded explosive that contains HMX, Al, AP and HTPB binder. The pressure-time profiles obtained are similar to those obtained for similar composite explosives. Hugoniot points obtained are in agreement with those obtained with mixture theory.

  11. A new seismic discriminant for earthquakes and explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley B. Woods; Donald V. Helmberger

    1993-01-01

    With the spread of nuclear weapons technology, more regions of the world need to be monitored in order to verify nuclear nonproliferation and limited test-ban treaties. Seismic monitoring is the primary means to remotely sense contained underground explosions ``Bolt, 1976; Dahlman and Israelson, 1977''. Both underground explosions and earthquakes generate seismic energy, which propagates through the Earth as elastic waves.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting...are transported using trolley locomotives— (i) Trips carrying explosives...shall be separated from the locomotives by at least one car that is...container of detonators and the mine roof or other...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting...are transported using trolley locomotives— (i) Trips carrying explosives...shall be separated from the locomotives by at least one car that is...container of detonators and the mine roof or other...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting...are transported using trolley locomotives— (i) Trips carrying explosives...shall be separated from the locomotives by at least one car that is...container of detonators and the mine roof or other...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting...are transported using trolley locomotives— (i) Trips carrying explosives...shall be separated from the locomotives by at least one car that is...container of detonators and the mine roof or other...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting...are transported using trolley locomotives— (i) Trips carrying explosives...shall be separated from the locomotives by at least one car that is...container of detonators and the mine roof or other...

  17. Optically measured explosive impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

  18. Characterization of detonation products of RSI-007 explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Breaux, Bradley; Vineski, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Lambert, David; Chhabildas, Lalit

    2012-03-01

    PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a high-purity CL-20 based explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The back surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for interferometry measurements. Detailed reverberations corresponding to shock arrival and release are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further refine the release states.

  19. Characterization of Detonation Products of RSI-007 Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Chhabildas, Lalit

    2011-06-01

    PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a production quality RSI-007 explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The free surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for the interferometry measurements. Detailed shock reverberations are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further determine the release state in different pressure regimes. Presenter

  20. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  1. FOUDRE ET ATMOSPHERES EXPLOSIVES LIGHTNING AND EXPLOSIVES ATMOSPHERES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    97-36 FOUDRE ET ATMOSPHERES EXPLOSIVES LIGHTNING AND EXPLOSIVES ATMOSPHERES HALAMA S., 1NERIS l'utilisation de produits sensibles pouvant provoquer facilement des incendies et des explosions. C inflammables. Les atmospheres explosives gazeuses et poussiereuses ainsi que les conditions favorisant [eur

  2. Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

  3. Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, Fred [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Brooks, Art [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Goranson, Paul [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Cole, Mike [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Titus, Peter [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (United States)

    2005-05-15

    The NCSX vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellerator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 deg. centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

  4. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  5. Explosive Nucleosynthesis: Prospects

    E-print Network

    David Arnett

    1999-08-16

    Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions---the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of SN1987A, SN1998bw (GRB980425?), and eta Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

  6. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  7. Modeling the Effects of Confinement during Cookoff of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Michael

    2013-06-01

    In practical scenarios, cookoff of explosives is a three-dimensional transient phenomenon where the rate limiting reactions may occur either in the condensed or gas phase. The effects of confinement are more dramatic when the rate-limiting reactions occur in the gas phase. Explosives can be self-confined, where the decomposing gases are contained within non-permeable regions of the explosive, or confined by a metal or composite container. Self-confinement is prevalent in plastic bonded explosives at full density. The time-to-ignition can be delayed by orders of magnitude if the reactive gases leave the confining apparatus. Delays in ignition can also occur when the confining apparatus has excess gas volume or ullage. Explosives with low melting points, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) or cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) are complex since melting and flow need to be considered when simulating cookoff. Cookoff of composite explosives such as Comp-B (mixture of TNT and RDX) are even more complex since dissolution of one component increases the reactivity of the other component. Understanding the effects of confinement is required to accurately model cookoff at various scales ranging from small laboratory experiments to large real systems that contain explosives. In practical scenarios, cookoff of explosives is a three-dimensional transient phenomenon where the rate limiting reactions may occur either in the condensed or gas phase. The effects of confinement are more dramatic when the rate-limiting reactions occur in the gas phase. Explosives can be self-confined, where the decomposing gases are contained within non-permeable regions of the explosive, or confined by a metal or composite container. Self-confinement is prevalent in plastic bonded explosives at full density. The time-to-ignition can be delayed by orders of magnitude if the reactive gases leave the confining apparatus. Delays in ignition can also occur when the confining apparatus has excess gas volume or ullage. Explosives with low melting points, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) or cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) are complex since melting and flow need to be considered when simulating cookoff. Cookoff of composite explosives such as Comp-B (mixture of TNT and RDX) are even more complex since dissolution of one component increases the reactivity of the other component. Understanding the effects of confinement is required to accurately model cookoff at various scales ranging from small laboratory experiments to large real systems that contain explosives. Sandia National Laboratories is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Mader; Michael Gittings

    2007-01-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible

  9. Splashes from Underwater Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kolsky; J. P. Lewis; M. T. Sampson; A. C. Shearman; C. I. Snow

    1949-01-01

    The splashes from the underwater explosions of 1 and 10 1b. charges of P.E. no. 2 and Nobel's Explosive '808' at various depths have been photographed with cine-cameras. The experiments were carried out in a sheltered pond which enabled the surface phenomena to be studied in greater detail than has been done hitherto, and a number of new phenomena have

  10. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...vehicles, and vessels. (a) Each brewer who transfers beer to another brewery...route board of the container. (b) The brewer shall mark each container with— (1) The designation “Beer”; (2) The brewer's name; (3) The address of...

  11. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...vehicles, and vessels. (a) Each brewer who transfers beer to another brewery...route board of the container. (b) The brewer shall mark each container with— (1) The designation “Beer”; (2) The brewer's name; (3) The address of...

  12. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...vehicles, and vessels. (a) Each brewer who transfers beer to another brewery...route board of the container. (b) The brewer shall mark each container with— (1) The designation “Beer”; (2) The brewer's name; (3) The address of...

  13. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...vehicles, and vessels. (a) Each brewer who transfers beer to another brewery...route board of the container. (b) The brewer shall mark each container with— (1) The designation “Beer”; (2) The brewer's name; (3) The address of...

  14. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...vehicles, and vessels. (a) Each brewer who transfers beer to another brewery...route board of the container. (b) The brewer shall mark each container with— (1) The designation “Beer”; (2) The brewer's name; (3) The address of...

  15. Energy Dispersive X Ray Diffraction to identify Explosive Substances : spectra analysis procedure optimization

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , France tel: 0033472437084 Abstract: To detect the presence of explosives in packages, automated systems for explosive detection and identification. To this end, a database has been constructed, containing measured X: Explosives detection, X-ray diffraction, non destructive testing 1. Introduction Energy dispersive X

  16. Incineration of explosive contaminated soil as a means of site remediation. Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Major; J. C. Amos

    1992-01-01

    Large scale releases of explosive contaminated water have occurred in connection with manufacture of explosives, with load assembly and pack operations and at centers for the disassembly and recycle of munitions. The most serious contamination is at sites where explosive contaminated pink water was discarded in unlined evaporation lagoons. Sediments in pink water lagoons normally contain a high concentration of

  17. Shock evolution after shaped charge jet impact and its relevance to explosive initiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Frey; W. Lawrence; M. Chick

    1995-01-01

    When a shaped charge jet impacts a target containing explosive, the explosive may be initiated by one of three shocks: the impact shock, a bow shock that forms in the inert plate covering the exlosive, or a bow shock that forms in the explosive. In this paper, numerical calculations are used to determine how thick the cover plate must be

  18. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOEpatents

    Stroud, John R. (Livermore, CA); Ornellas, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  19. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  20. Determination of Explosive Blast Loading Equivalencies with an Explosively Driven Shock Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Hill, Larry; Morris, John

    2009-06-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and compared to other methods of equivalency determination.

  1. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...subjected for forty-eight consecutive hours to a temperature of 167 °F. or more; composition containing an ammonium salt and a chlorate; and other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank...

  2. Insensitive explosive composition of halogenated copolymer and triaminotrinitrobenzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benziger; Theodore M

    1976-01-01

    A highly insensitive and heat resistant plastic-bonded explosive containing 90 wt % triaminotrinitrobenzene and 10 wt % of a fully saturated copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride is readily manufactured by the slurry process.

  3. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  4. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

  5. Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J. Fern´andez Bonder, UBA J.D. Rossi, UBA ERPEM, November 29th, 2006 Pablo Groisman UBA Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

  6. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1987-07-14

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed. 7 figs.

  7. Evaluation of ferrocyanide/nitrate explosive hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, H.H.

    1992-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory agreed to assist Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the Ferrocyanide Safety Evaluation Program by helping to evaluate the explosive hazard of several mixtures of simulated ferrocyanide waste-tank sludge containing sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This report is an evaluation of the small-scale safety tests used to assess the safety of these materials from an explosive point of view. These tests show that these materials are not initiated by mechanical insult, and they require an external heat source before any exothermic chemical reaction can be observed.

  8. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1986-05-02

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

  9. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, Phillip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Tucker, Tillman J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

  10. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  11. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  12. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  13. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  14. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-06-01

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  15. Critical conditions for impact- and shock-induced hot spots in solid explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig M. Tarver; Steven K. Chidester; Albert L. Nichols

    1996-01-01

    Chemical kinetic thermal decomposition models of pressed solid high explosives containing octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), which accurately calculate the times to explosion at various initial temperatures measured in the one-dimensional time to explosion (ODTX) test, are extended to higher temperatures to predict the critical temperatures, times to explosion, and dimensions of the impact- and shock-induced hot spots that are

  16. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Thomas A; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Ronald L

    2004-04-01

    The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other countries is of similar magnitude. In recent years, growing concern about the health and ecological threats posed by man-made chemicals have led to studies of the toxicology of explosives, which have identified toxic and mutagenic effects of the common military explosives and their transformation products (Bruns-Nagel et al., 1999a; Fuchs et al., 2001; Homma-Takeda et al., 2002; Honeycutt et al., 1996; Rosenblatt et al., 1991; Spanggord et al., 1982; Tan et al., 1992 and Won et al., 1976). Because the cleanup of areas contaminated by explosives is now mandated because of public health concerns, considerable effort has been invested in finding economical remediation technologies. Biological treatment processes are often considered, since these are usually the least expensive means of destroying organic pollution. This review examines the most important groups of chemicals that must be treated at sites contaminated by explosives processing, the chemical and biological transformations they undergo, and commercial processes developed to exploit these transformations for treatment of contaminated soil. We critically examine about 150 papers on the topic, including approximately 60 published within the past 5 years. PMID:15016438

  17. Viscoelastic models for explosive binder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardenhagen, S.G.; Harstad, E.N.; Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Foster, J.C. Jr. [Wright Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    An improved model of the mechanical properties of the explosive contained in conventional munitions is needed to accurately simulate performance and accident scenarios in weapons storage facilities. A specific class of explosives can he idealized as a mixture of two components: energetic crystals randomly suspended in a polymeric matrix (binder). Strength characteristics of each component material are important in the macroscopic behavior of the composite (explosive). Of interest here is the determination of an appropriate constitutive law for a polyurethane binder material. This paper is a continuation of previous work in modeling polyurethane at moderately high strain rates and for large deformations. Simulation of a large deformation (strains in excess of 100%) Taylor Anvil experiment revealed numerical difficulties which have been addressed. Additional experimental data have been obtained including improved resolution Taylor Anvil data, and stress relaxation data at various strain rates. A thorough evaluation of the candidate viscoelastic constitutive model is made and possible improvements discussed.

  18. Explosive volcanism: Inception, evolution, and hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    One purpose of the studies is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such an assessment is an evaluation of the adequacy of present geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of present research programs to provide information required for those decisions. Some of the studies place more emphasis on assessing the present status of a field of geophysics and identifying the most promising directions for future research. This study on explosive volcanism was begun soon after the cataclysmic eruptions of Mount St. Helens. It readily became apparent to the committee that an assessment of the explosive nature of volcanoes must cover all types of volcanic activity; any volcano can be explosive. Improved understanding of the physics of volcanic eruptions is an exciting goal that is vital to progress in hazard evaluation. The study of explosive volcanism must include an appreciation of the severe social problems that are caused by erupting volcanoes. None is of greater urgency than planning for a crisis. This report considers the progress in research on these aspects of explosive volcanism and the need for additional research efforts. This volume contains 13 papers. Topics include tectonism, volcanism, volcanic periodicity, eruptive mechanics, emergency planning and recommendations. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  19. VESSELS IN SOME APOCYNACEAE

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Anita; Kshetrapal, Shashikala

    1988-01-01

    In the present investigation vessels of 24 species of the family Apocynaceae have been studied. Lot of variation exist in the size and shape of vessels, number of perforation plates and intervascular thickening of walls in the taxa of Apocynaceae. PMID:22557619

  20. Muliscale Vessel Enhancement Filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro F. Frangi; Wiro J. Niessen; Koen L. Vincken; Max A. Viergever

    1998-01-01

    The multiscale second order local structure of an image (Hessian )i s ex- amined with the purpose of developing a vessel enhancement filter. A vesselness mea- sure is obtained on the basis of all eigenvalues of the Hessian. This measure is tested on two dimensional DSA and three dimensional aortoiliac and cerebral MRA data. Its clinical utility is shown by

  1. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  2. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C. [Stake Technology Ltd., Norval, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  3. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS IN EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H. [MS J566, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lee, R. J. [Lndian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States)

    2009-12-28

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

  4. Investigation of steam explosion loadings using SIMMER-II

    SciTech Connect

    Bohl, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The SIMMER-II computer code was used to estimate the maximum anticipated loads on the upper head of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) following an in-vessel steam explosion. The SIMMER-II equation of state and heat-transfer models were upgraded for this. The modified code was calibrated to Sandia National Laboratories steam explosion data and compared with Los Alamos shallow-pool experiments. A lower-head failure and motion model also was developed. Analysis of parametric cases suggests that the upper bound on the conditional probability of alpha-mode failure, given core melt, should be 0.01 if the vessel upper head and bolts are near normal operating temperatures.

  5. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  6. Explosion at Walton Colliery Yorkshire 

    E-print Network

    Rogers, T. A.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT WALTON COLLIERY YORKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the explosion which occurred at Walton Colliery, Yorkshire, on 22nd April, 1959 by T. A. ROGERS, C.B.E. H.M. ...

  7. Explosion at Glyncorrwg Colliery, Glamorganshire 

    E-print Network

    Jones, T.A.

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT GLYNCORRWG COLLIERY, GLAMORGANSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the Explosion which occurred at Glyncorrwg Colliery, Glamorganshire, on 13th January, ...

  8. Explosion at Cardowan Colliery Lanarkshire 

    E-print Network

    Houston, H. R.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT CARDOWAN COLLIERY LANARKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the explosion which occurred at Cardowan Colliery, Lanarkshire, on 25th July, 1960 BY H. R. HOUSTON, C.B.E ...

  9. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06

    the dust for explosibility based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 1226 to ensure proper regulation of facilities. Dusts found in cotton gins were tested to determine if they are explosible. Safety Consulting Engineers Inc. (SCE...

  10. GEOFRAC: an explosives stimulation technique for a geothermal well

    SciTech Connect

    Mumma, D.M.; McCullough, F. Jr.; Schmidt, E.W.; Pye, D.S.; Allen, W.C.; Pyle, D.; Hanold, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The first known use of explosives for stimulating a geothermal well was successfully conducted in December 1981 with a process called GEOFRAC. The 260/sup 0/C well was located at the Union Oil Company's Geysers Field in northern California. For the initial test, 364 kg of a new explosive called HITEX II was placed at a depth of 2256 meters and detonated to verify techniques. The explosive was contained in an aluminum canister to separate it from the well fluids. In the second test, 5000 kg of explosive was used representing a column length of approximately 191 meters. The explosive was detonated at a depth of 1697 meters in the same well. The results of these tests show that HITEX II can be safely emplaced and successfully detonated in a hot geothermal well without causing damage to the well bore or casing.

  11. Portable Raman explosives detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Moore; R. Jason Scharff

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics,\\u000a as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy,\\u000a both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  12. Environmental fate of explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon

    2002-01-01

    Waste disposal practices associated with military production of weapons, especially before and during World War II, have resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground water with high explosives such as TNT, RDX and HMX. Development of remediation and risk management strategies for these contaminated sites as well as development of approaches for sustainable use of active training and weapons

  13. Ecotoxicology of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Morrill, Valerie [U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground; Jenkins, Thomas [U.S. Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory

    2009-04-01

    Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, 'Ecotoxicology of Explosives' provides comprehensive and critical reviews available to date on fate, transport, and effects of explosives. The book delineates the state of the science of the ecotoxicology of explosives, past, present, and recently developed. It reviews the accessible fate and ecotoxicological data for energetic materials (EMs) and the methods for their development. The chapters characterize the fate of explosives in the environment, then provide information on their ecological effects in key environmental media, including aquatic, sedimentary, and terrestrial habitats. The book also discusses approaches for assembling these lines of evidence for risk assessment purposes. The chapter authors have critically examined the peer-reviewed literature to identify and prioritize the knowledge gaps and to recommend future areas of research. The editors include a review of the genotoxic effects of the EMs and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these chemicals. They also discuss the transport, transformation, and degradation pathways of these chemicals in the environment that underlie the potential hazardous impact and bioaccumulation of EMs in different terrestrial and aquatic ecological receptors. This information translates into practical applications for the environmental risk assessment of EM-contaminated sites and into recommendations for the sustainable use of defense installations.

  14. Explosive vaporization in microenclosures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Romera-Guereca; J. Lichtenberg; A. Hierlemann; D. Poulikakos; B. Kang

    2006-01-01

    The explosive vaporization of a liquid above planar microheaters induces a fast increase of pressure that is exploited in many thermally driven actuators in MEMS components such as ink jet printer cartridges, pumps, valves and optical switches. Some of these components need to enclose the working fluid as it is the case of valves in which the heated liquid is

  15. CBC: Halifax Explosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the evening of December 6, 1917, a massive explosion rocked the harbor of the rapidly growing city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, located in eastern Canada. Caused by the collision of two ships (one of which was carrying a tremendous amount of explosive material), the explosion killed over 1500 people outright, and devastated the settlements around the area. Working with various historical groups, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has created this engrossing multimedia look into the events leading up to that dreadful incident, along with offering a broader historical perspective on the development of the city of Halifax and the aftermath of these tragic events. Starting from the main page, visitors will learn about Halifax's history, along with having the opportunity to view significant interactive features, such as maps of the area and recently-discovered archival footage of the city and its environs. The interactive features here are quite amazing, as visitors can view video clips of survivors' recollections, and watch footage of various commemoration activities associated with the explosion.

  16. Analysis of wave curvature experiments for monomodal explosives with different crystal quality and particle size characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, G. T. [Technology Development Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States); Lemar, E. R.; Marcus, M. H. [Energetics Technology Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States)

    2007-12-12

    Wood-Kirkwood theory reaction zone thickness determinations and computer simulations of wave curvature experiments of two sets of explosives are presented. One set included explosives composed of RDX with different crystal quality characteristics. The other set of explosives was composed of monomodal explosives made from fine, coarse and very coarse sieved RDX and bimodal explosives made from combining the fine and very coarse RDX. The calculated reaction zone thickness was found to be greater for explosives with higher RDX crystal quality and for those of higher mean particle size. A simplified two-term ignition and growth reactive model parameterized by embedded gauge experiments was used in CTH hydrocode simulations of the wave curvature experiments for the explosives where crystal quality was varied. The simulations under-predicted the axial position lag seen in experiment and predicted as seen in experiment, that the explosive containing the higher quality crystals had a greater axial position lag.

  17. Safe explosives for shaped charges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Scribner; J. O. Davis

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that high-performance shaped charges could be developed using as the explosive charge mixtures of ingredients that are not, by themselves, considered explosives. At least one of the ingredients needed to be a liquid, stored separately, that could be quickly injected into the shaped charge cavity to generate the active explosive. Precision copper shaped charge cones in diameters

  18. LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

  19. EXPLOSIONS AND ARBITRAGE IOANNIS KARATZAS

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    EXPLOSIONS AND ARBITRAGE IOANNIS KARATZAS Abstract The Feller and Khas'minskii tests provide conditions, under which a given dif- fusion process X(·) in a domain D can have explosions. If such explosions happen with positive probability, what is the distribution F(t, x) = Px(S t) , 0

  20. Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation

    E-print Network

    s & Dt^boooo^j Risø-R-525 Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation (Small-Scale Experiments EXPLOSION CHARACTERIZATION, WAVE PROPAGATION (Small-Scale Experiments) G.C. Larsen Abstract. A number; EXPLOSIONS; HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES; METHANE; NITROGEN; OXYGEN; PRESSURE MEASUREMENT; REFLECTION; SIMULATION

  1. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  2. New explosive seam welding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  3. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  4. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  5. Shock Response of the Explosives IRX-1 and IRX-3A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Sutherland; J. W. Forbes

    2001-01-01

    The shock and detonation properties of the explosives IRX-1 and IRX-3A have been simulated with the use of the CTH hydrocode. IRX-1 is an explosive containing mono-modal HMX and HTPB binder. IRX-3A is an explosive containing mono-modal HMX, aluminum, and HTPB binder. Parameters for the Lee-Tarver ignition and growth model were obtained from light gas gun experiments in which IRX-1

  6. Shock Response of the Explosives IRX-1 and IRX-3A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Sutherland; J. O. O'Connor; R. N. Baker; J. W. Forbes; K. D. Ashwell

    1999-01-01

    The shock and detonation properties of the explosives IRX-1 and IRX-3A have been simulated with the use of the DYNA2D hydrocode. IRX-1 is an explosive containing mono-modal HMX and HTPB binder. IRX-3A is an explosive containing mono-modal HMX, aluminum, and HTPB binder. Parameters for the Lee-Tarver ignition and growth model were obtained from light gas gun experiments in which IRX-1

  7. Reliability analysis of containment strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Greimann; F. Fanous; A. Sabri; D. Ketelaar; A. Wolde-Tinsae; D. Bluhm

    1982-01-01

    The Sequoyah and McGuire ice condenser containment vessels were designed to withstand pressures in the range of 12 to 15 psi. Since pressures of the order of 28 psi were recorded during the Three Mile Island incident, a need exists to more accurately define the strength of these vessels. A best estimate and uncertainty assessment of the strength of the

  8. Small vessel vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriou, Despina; Dillon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The pediatric small vessel vasculitides reviewed in this article are Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) and the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides (AAV). The new classification criteria for HSP and Wegener’s granulomatosis are now validated and will facilitate the conduct of future epidemiological studies and clinical trials. The clinical manifestations of small vessel vasculitis in children are described, and current therapies discussed. There is a lack of good clinical trial data on which to base therapy for HSP. Similarly, data based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for pediatric AAV are lacking, although children with AAV are for the first time now included in a RCT of mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclophosphamide. Significant challenges remain in the field of pediatric small vessel vasculitis, including the development of validated disease outcome measures and biomarkers to be used in clinical trials. Lastly, long-term outcome data are lacking in survivors of pediatric small vessel vasculitis. PMID:19885685

  9. Effect of Velocity of Detonation of Explosives on Seismic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Leidig, M.; Bonner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    We studied seismic body wave generation from four fully contained explosions of approximately the same yields (68 kg of TNT equivalent) conducted in anisotropic granite in Barre, VT. The explosions were detonated using three types of explosives with different velocities of detonation (VOD): Black Powder (BP), Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil/Emulsion (ANFO), and Composition B (COMP B). The main objective of the experiment was to study differences in seismic wave generation among different types of explosives, and to determine the mechanism responsible for these differences. The explosives with slow burn rate (BP) produced lower P-wave amplitude and lower corner frequency, which resulted in lower seismic efficiency (0.35%) in comparison with high burn rate explosives (2.2% for ANFO and 3% for COMP B). The seismic efficiency estimates for ANFO and COMP B agree with previous studies for nuclear explosions in granite. The body wave radiation pattern is consistent with an isotropic explosion with an added azimuthal component caused by vertical tensile fractures oriented along pre-existing micro-fracturing in the granite, although the complexities in the P- and S-wave radiation patterns suggest that more than one fracture orientation could be responsible for their generation. High S/P amplitude ratios and low P-wave amplitudes suggest that a significant fraction of the BP source mechanism can be explained by opening of the tensile fractures as a result of the slow energy release.

  10. Blood Vessels of the Fetal Pig Dissection Posterior Vessels Protocol

    E-print Network

    Loughry, Jim

    Blood Vessels of the Fetal Pig Dissection Posterior Vessels Protocol: 1. The blood vessels membrane is the peritoneum, the blood vessels are said to be retroperitoneal). In order to see the blood that supplies the stomach, liver and spleen with blood. This is the celiac artery. c. Just below where

  11. Plastic collapse analysis of longitudinally flawed pipes and vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Staat

    2004-01-01

    Improved collapse loads of thick-walled, crack containing pipes and vessels are suggested. Very deep cracks have a residual strength which is better modelled by a global limit load. In all burst tests, the ductility of pressure vessel steels was sufficiently high whereby the burst pressure could be predicted by limit analysis with no need to apply fracture mechanics. The relative

  12. Coupled thermal structural analysis of LWR vessel creep failure experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-G. Willschütz; E. Altstadt; B. R. Sehgal; F.-P. Weiss

    2001-01-01

    Considering the hypothetical core melt down scenario for a light water reactor (LWR) the failure mode of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) has to be investigated to determine the loadings on the containment. The failure of reactor vessel retention (FOREVER)-experiments, currently underway, are simulating the thermal and pressure loadings on the lower head for a melt pool with internal heat

  13. Super eruption environments make for "super" hydrothermal explosions: Extreme hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. A.; Shanks, W. P.; Pierce, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments over areas that range from a few meters in diameter up to several kilometers in diameter. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam-saturated fluids underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in pressure causes the fluids to flash to steam resulting in significant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 meters in diameter) hydrothermal explosions have been identified, and the scale of the individual events dwarfs similar features in other hydrothermal and geothermal areas of the world. Large explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka at an interval of ~1 per every 700 yrs and similar events are likely to occur in the future. Our studies of hydrothermal explosive events indicate: 1) none are associated with magmatic or volcanic events; 2) several have been triggered by seismic events coupled with other processes; 3) lithic clasts and matrix from explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating long-term, extensive hydrothermal mineralization in areas that were incorporated into the explosion deposit; 4) many lithic clasts in explosion breccia deposits contain evidence of repeated fracturing and cementation; and 4) dimensions of many documented large hydrothermal explosion craters in Yellowstone are similar to the dimensions of currently active geyser basins or thermal areas in Yellowstone. The vast majority of active thermal areas in Yellowstone are characterized by 1) high-temperature hot-water systems in areas of high heat-flow, 2) extensive systems of hot springs, fumaroles, geysers, sinter terraces, mud pots, and, in places, small hydrothermal explosion craters, 3) widespread alteration of host rocks, 4) large areal dimensions (>several 100 m) and 5) intermittent but long-lived activity (40,000 to 300,000 years). Critical requirements for large hydrothermal explosions are an interconnected system of well-developed joints and fractures along which hydrothermal fluids flow and a water-saturated system close to or at boiling temperatures. Important factors are the active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera, active faults and moderate seismicity, high heat flow, climate changes, and regional stresses. Ascending fluids flow along fractures that develop in response to active deformation of the Yellowstone caldera and along edges of impermeable rhyolitic lava flows. Alteration, self sealing, and dissolution further constrain the distribution and development of hydrothermal fields. A partial impermeable cap can contribute to the final over-pressurization. An abrupt drop in pressure initiates steam-flashing and is instantly transmitted through interconnected fractures, resulting in a series of multiple large-scale explosions and excavation of an explosion crater. Strong similarities between large hydrothermal explosion craters and thermal fields in Yellowstone may indicate that catastrophic failures leading to large hydrothermal explosions represent a unique phase in the life cycle of a geyser basin.

  14. Accurate Vessel Segmentation With Constrained B-Snake.

    PubMed

    Yuanzhi Cheng; Xin Hu; Ji Wang; Yadong Wang; Tamura, Shinichi

    2015-08-01

    We describe an active contour framework with accurate shape and size constraints on the vessel cross-sectional planes to produce the vessel segmentation. It starts with a multiscale vessel axis tracing in a 3D computed tomography (CT) data, followed by vessel boundary delineation on the cross-sectional planes derived from the extracted axis. The vessel boundary surface is deformed under constrained movements on the cross sections and is voxelized to produce the final vascular segmentation. The novelty of this paper lies in the accurate contour point detection of thin vessels based on the CT scanning model, in the efficient implementation of missing contour points in the problematic regions and in the active contour model with accurate shape and size constraints. The main advantage of our framework is that it avoids disconnected and incomplete segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions that contain touching vessels (vessels in close proximity to each other), diseased portions (pathologic structure attached to a vessel), and thin vessels. It is particularly suitable for accurate segmentation of thin and low contrast vessels. Our method is evaluated and demonstrated on CT data sets from our partner site, and its results are compared with three related methods. Our method is also tested on two publicly available databases and its results are compared with the recently published method. The applicability of the proposed method to some challenging clinical problems, the segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions, is demonstrated with good results on both quantitative and qualitative experimentations; our segmentation algorithm can delineate vessel boundaries that have level of variability similar to those obtained manually. PMID:25861085

  15. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

  16. Optical ordance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Merson; F. J. Salas; F. M. Helsel

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt III perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro 1, 3, 5, 7 --

  17. Explosives detection using photoneutrons produced by X-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigang Yang; Yuanjing Li; Haidong Wang; Tiezhu Li; Bin Wu

    2007-01-01

    The detection of explosives has become a critical issue after recent terrorist attacks. This paper describes research on explosives detection using photoneutrons from a photoneutron convertor that consists of 20kg heavy water in an aluminum container whose shape was optimized to most effectively convert X-rays to photoneutrons. The X-rays were produced by a 9MeV electron accelerator with an average electron

  18. Designing for explosive safety'': The Explosive Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, W.A.

    1990-12-01

    The Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is to be a new major facility in the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Weapons Program. The ECF is a self-contained, secure site on SNL property and is surrounded by Kirtland Air Force Base which is located 6-1/2 miles east of downtown Albuquerque, New Mexico. The ECF will be dedicated to research, development, and testing of detonators, neutron generators, batteries, explosives, and other weapon components. It will have capabilities for conducting explosive test fires, gas gun testing, physical analyses, chemical analyses, electrical testing and ancillary explosive storage in magazines. The ECF complex is composed of a building covering an area of approximately 91,000 square feet, six exterior explosive service magazines and a remote test cell. Approximately 50% of the building space will be devoted to highly specialized laboratory and test areas, the other 50% of the building is considered nonhazardous. Critical to the laboratory and test areas are the blast-structural design consideration and operational considerations, particularly those concerning personnel access control, safety and environmental protection. This area will be decoupled from the rest of the building to the extent that routine tests will not be heard or felt in the administrative area of the building. While the ECF is designed in accordance with the DOE Explosives Safety Manual to mitigate any off-site blast effects, potential injuries or death to the ECF staff may result from an accidental detonation of explosive material within the facility. Therefore, reducing the risk of exposing operation personnel to hazardous and energetic material is paramount in the design of the ECF.

  19. Multidimensional detection of explosives and explosive signatures via laser electrospray mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John J.; Flanigan, Paul M., IV; Perez, Johnny J.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2012-06-01

    Nitro- and inorganic-based energetic material is vaporized at atmospheric pressure using nonresonant, 70 femtosecond laser pulses prior to electrospray post-ionization and transfer into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass analysis. Measurements of a nitro-based energetic molecule, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), adsorbed on metal and dielectric surfaces indicate nonresonant vaporization of intact molecules, demonstrating the universality of laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) technique for explosives. In addition, RDX is analyzed at a distance of 2 meters to demonstrate the remote detection capability of LEMS. Finally, the analysis and multivariate statistical classification of inorganic-based explosives containing ammonium nitrate, chlorate, perchlorate, black powder, and an organic-based explosive is presented, further expanding the capabilities of the LEMS technique for detection of energetic materials.

  20. Fate dynamics of environmentally exposed explosive traces.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Roderick R; Gregory, Kerin E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Clark, Michelle L; Ostrinskaya, Alla; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-04-12

    The chemical and physical fates of trace amounts (<50 ?g) of explosives containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were determined for the purpose of informing the capabilities of tactical trace explosive detection systems. From these measurements, it was found that the mass decreases and the chemical composition changes on a time scale of hours, with the loss mechanism due to a combination of sublimation and photodegradation. The rates for these processes were dependent on the explosive composition, as well as on both the ambient temperature and the size distribution of the explosive particulates. From these results, a persistence model was developed and applied to model the time dependence of both the mass and areal coverage of the fingerprints, resulting in a predictive capability for determining fingerprint fate. Chemical analysis confirmed that sublimation rates for TNT were depressed by UV (330-400 nm) exposure due to photochemically driven increases in the molecular weight, whereas the opposite was observed for RDX. No changes were observed for PETN upon exposure to UV radiation, and this was attributed to its low UV absorbance. PMID:22424334

  1. Explosive welding of pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Drennov; O. Burtseva; A. Kitin

    2006-01-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their

  2. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Burtseva

    2007-01-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their

  3. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  4. Adhesion of explosives.

    PubMed

    Chaffee-Cipich, Michelle N; Sturtevant, Bryce D; Beaudoin, Stephen P

    2013-06-01

    It is of increasing importance to understand how explosive particles adhere to surfaces in order to understand how to remove them for detection in airport or other security settings. In this study, adhesion forces between royal demolition explosive (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in their crystalline forms and aluminum coupons with three finishes, acrylic melamine (clear coating), polyester acrylic melamine (white coating) automotive finishes, and a green military-grade finish, were measured and modeled. The force measurements were performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) method. Explosive particles were mounted on AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought in and out of contact with the surfaces of interest while the required force needed to pull out of contact was recorded. An existing Matlab-based simulator was used to describe the observed adhesion force distributions, with excellent agreement. In these simulations, the measured topographies of the interacting surfaces were considered, although the geometries were approximated. The simulations were performed using a van der Waals force-based adhesion model and a composite effective Hamaker constant. It was determined that certain combinations of roughness on the interacting surfaces led to preferred particle-substrate orientations that produced extreme adhesion forces. PMID:23510004

  5. Explosives signatures and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

    2008-04-01

    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  6. Dynamic analysis of large suspended LMFBR reactor vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.

    1983-01-01

    Large breeder reactor vessels are often designed under the top-suspended condition. Since the vessel contains a large volume of liquid sodium as reactor coolant, the structural integrity of the vessel bottom head and its effect on the vessel dynamic response are of great importance to the safety and reliability of the reactor systems. This paper presents a dynamic analysis of the large suspended reactor vessel subjected to the horizontal earthquake excitation with the emphasis on the effect of bottom head vibration on fluid pressure and sloshing response. Unlike the conventional lumped mass method, the present analysis treats the liquid sodium as a continuum medium. As a result, the important effects ignored in the lumped mass method such as fluid coupling, fluid-structure interaction, interaction between sloshing and vessel vibration, etc. can be accounted into the analysis.

  7. Infrared spectrometry and radiometry of high-explosive detonations: the Los Alamos experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E H; Williams, R L; Frazier, E N; Stone, D K; Herr, K C; Young, R M; Robbins, R G

    1982-11-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether the infrared spectra of high-explosive detonations can be used to infer the type of explosive material and/or the containment material employed. Infrared spectra and radiometric traces were measured during a test series of twenty-three detonations; some were contained and some uncontained. A variety of high-explosive materials and containment materials were included. The explosive charge was typically about 175 g. Infrared spectra were taken at the rate of 250 spectra/sec. This rate was too slow to characterize the very early gas expansion or burn pase of these explosions. The infrared spectra of the delayed or afterburn phase of these explosions often displayed molecular emission and absorption features. Absorption by NH/sub 3/ was observed when C-4 was the high-explosive material, and not observed for any other material. Emissions from H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ were observed part of the time. Their occurence does not seem to be correlated with the type of containment or type of high-explosive material, or peak temperature reached in the afterburn. From the radiometric traces, one concludes that the relative peak radiance from the burn and afterburn phases depend strongly on the type of high-explosive material. For similar devices the burn phase is consistent from shot to shot, whereas the afterburn is very inconsistent. The answer to the question whether infrared spectra of high-explosive detonations can be used to infer the type of explosive material and/or the containment material must await spectral observations of the burn phase. We now believe that spectra of the burn phase are likely to be the ones most useful in identifying the high-explosive or containment material.

  8. Stellarator helical vacuum vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Yavornik, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that can be machined and welded together into a helical configuration. A complication in the design requires that a circular magnet coil be located at the minor toroidal axis and that this coil be embedded within the periphery of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel has a minor toroidal axis diameter of 4 meters, a 68.6-cm shell diameter, and a 1.9-cm wall thickness. It twists about the minor toroidal axis twice in 360/sup 0/C. (An n value of 2). It is proposed that the unit be made of cylindrical segments with the ends of the cylinders cut at appropriate lengths and angles to form the helix. A mathematical derivation of the dimensions necessary to produce the required shapes of the segments has been made. Also, drawings of the vacuum vessel components have been produced on LANL's CTR CAD/CAM system. The procedure developed can be used for any value of n as dictated by physics requirements.

  9. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  10. Radon free storage container and method

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold (Mack, CO); Rangel, Mark J. (Austin, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A radon free containment environment for either short or long term storage of radon gas detectors can be provided as active, passive, or combined active and passive embodiments. A passive embodiment includes a resealable vessel containing a basket capable of holding and storing detectors and an activated charcoal adsorbing liner between the basket and the containment vessel wall. An active embodiment includes the resealable vessel of the passive embodiment, and also includes an external activated charcoal filter that circulates the gas inside the vessel through the activated charcoal filter. An embodiment combining the active and passive embodiments is also provided.

  11. Shipping container for fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Crowder, H.E.

    1984-12-17

    The present invention is directed to a shipping container for the interstate transportation of enriched uranium materials. The shipping container is comprised of a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical-shaped outer vessel lined with thermal insulation. Disposed inside the thermal insulation and spaced apart from the inner walls of the outer vessel is a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical inner vessel impervious to liquid and gaseous substances and having the inner surfaces coated with a layer of cadmium to prevent nuclear criticality. The cadmium is, in turn, lined with a protective shield of high-density urethane for corrosion and wear protection. 2 figs.

  12. Evaluation of Impact Damage to the Burster Detonation Vessel Caused by Fragments from a Drained M121A1 Chemical Munition Detonated with an Initiation Charge

    SciTech Connect

    KIPP, MARLIN E.

    2001-12-01

    Explosive charges placed on the fuze end of a drained chemical munition are expected to be used as a means to destroy the fuze and burster charges of the munition. Analyses are presented to evaluate the effect of these additional initiation charges on the fragmentation characteristics for the M121A1 155mm chemical munition, modeled with a T244 fuze attached, and to assess the consequences of these fragment impacts on the walls of a containment chamber--the Burster Detonation Vessel. A numerical shock physics code (CTH) is used to characterize the mass and velocity of munition fragments. Both two- and three-dimensional simulations of the munition have been completed in this study. Based on threshold fragment velocity/mass results drawn from both previous and current analyses, it is determined that under all fragment impact conditions from the munition configurations considered in this study, no perforation of the inner chamber wall will occur, and the integrity of the Burster Detonation Vessel is retained. However, the munition case fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to locally damage the surface of the inner wall of the containment vessel.

  13. Design of aerosol sampler to remove radon and thoron progeny interference from aerosol samples for nuclear explosion monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Weaver; S. R. F. Biegalski; A. Brand; E. J. Artnak

    2009-01-01

    A Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Inertial Impactor (NEMII) system was developed to physically separate naturally occurring radionuclides\\u000a from those produced in nuclear weapons explosions. Studies show that aerosols containing natural activity have an aerodynamic\\u000a diameter in the range of 0.1–1.0 ?m. It has been established that atmospheric nuclear explosions produce radioactive aerosols\\u000a with aerodynamic diameters <0.1 ?m and surface explosion produce a bimodal

  14. High-speed imaging, acoustic features, and aeroacoustic computations of jet noise from Strombolian (and Vulcanian) explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, J.; Sesterhenn, J.; Scarlato, P.; Stampka, K.; Del Bello, E.; Pena Fernandez, J. J.; Gaudin, D.

    2014-05-01

    High-speed imaging of explosive eruptions at Stromboli (Italy), Fuego (Guatemala), and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes allowed visualization of pressure waves from seconds-long explosions. From the explosion jets, waves radiate with variable geometry, timing, and apparent direction and velocity. Both the explosion jets and their wave fields are replicated well by numerical simulations of supersonic jets impulsively released from a pressurized vessel. The scaled acoustic signal from one explosion at Stromboli displays a frequency pattern with an excellent match to those from the simulated jets. We conclude that both the observed waves and the audible sound from the explosions are jet noise, i.e., the typical acoustic field radiating from high-velocity jets. Volcanic jet noise was previously quantified only in the infrasonic emissions from large, sub-Plinian to Plinian eruptions. Our combined approach allows us to define the spatial and temporal evolution of audible jet noise from supersonic jets in small-scale volcanic eruptions.

  15. Direct real-time detection of vapors from explosive compounds.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Robert G; Clowers, Brian H; Atkinson, David A

    2013-11-19

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX, and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances was demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a nonradioactive ionization source coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was accomplished in less than 5 s at ambient temperature without sample preconcentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provided a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3(-) and NO3(-)·HNO3), enabled highly sensitive explosives detection from explosive vapors present in ambient laboratory air. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicated detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284, and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX, and NG, respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations sampled in ambient laboratory air, including double base propellants, plastic explosives, and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN, and RDX product ions. PMID:24090362

  16. Towards an Empirically Based Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R; Ruppert, S; Matzel, E; Hauk, T; Gok, R

    2009-08-31

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before been tested. The focus of our work is on the local and regional distances (< 2000 km) and phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg) necessary to see small explosions. We are developing a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum that is compatible with the earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation models developed using the Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC) techniques (Walter and Taylor, 2002). The explosion parametric model will be particularly important in regions without any prior explosion data for calibration. The model is being developed using the available body of seismic data at local and regional distances for past nuclear explosions at foreign and domestic test sites. Parametric modeling is a simple and practical approach for widespread monitoring applications, prior to the capability to carry out fully deterministic modeling. The achievable goal of our parametric model development is to be able to predict observed local and regional distance seismic amplitudes for event identification and yield determination in regions with incomplete or no prior history of underground nuclear testing. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  17. Linear accelerator for explosive detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Whitham; R. C. Miller; H. Anamkath; J. R. Clifford; R. B. Miller; K. Habiger

    1991-01-01

    A 14 MeV, S-band linear accelerator has been designed and built by Beta Development for use in the MIDEP explosive detection program at Titan\\/Spectron Division. The explosive detection technique utilizes photoneutron activation of the nitrogen which is an integral component in most commercial and military explosives. The accelerator was designed to be a small, high power, light weight, and portable

  18. Microstructure–property relationship in explosively welded duplex stainless steel–steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Kaçar; M Acarer

    2003-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (2205 grade) and vessel steel (DIN-P355GH grade) were cladded by explosive welding. The relationship between hardness, tensile shear strength and toughness and microstructure of cladded materials were evaluated. The bond interface of the cladded materials shows a wavy morphology. The hardness was similar in the base and flyer plate near the bond interface while a general increase

  19. Explosives solve downhole problems

    SciTech Connect

    Defrank, P.

    1981-11-01

    Shaped charges were first used more than 30 years ago to perforate casing, cement sheath and reservoir to provide selective communication between the reservoir and well bore. Since then, advances have been made in design of shaped charge sand ancillary equipment. Penetration has increased considerably. Miniaturization of equipment allows passing through relatively small restrictions and effectively communicating with reservoirs. Gun debris has been drastically reduced and in some designs eliminated. Deep reservoirs can be effectively penetrated under down-hole environments exceeding 500 F and 20,000 psi. This work covers the problems encountered and reviews successful devices employing shaped charge and explosive technology.

  20. Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

    2013-06-21

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741

  1. Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashimori, K.; Yokoi, N.; Hoshino, M.

    2013-06-01

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

  2. Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukawa, S.

    1990-04-01

    A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

  3. Modeling of explosion thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, K. L.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stankevich, Yu. A.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamic and radiation processes accompanying explosions of chemical explosives and fuel-air mixtures have been considered. Computer modeling of the radiation from a fire ball of explosion and a flame of diffusion combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel has been performed. The dependences of the heat flux density from the region occupied by explosion and combustion products on its temperature and geometric characteristics have been determined. Thermal load distributions on targets of different orientations in the vicinity of the energy release zone have been obtained. A comparison of the thermal parameters on radiation detectors with the criteria of thermal affection of people and ignition of combustible materials has been made.

  4. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  5. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  6. Internal Detonation Velocity Measurements Inside High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Benterou, J; Bennett, C V; Cole, G; Hare, D E; May, C; Udd, E

    2009-01-16

    In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation models and detonation models of high explosives, the ability to continuously measure the detonation velocity within an explosive is required. Progress on an embedded velocity diagnostic using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber containing a chirped fiber Bragg grating is reported. As the chirped fiber Bragg grating is consumed by the moving detonation wave, the physical length of the unconsumed Bragg grating is monitored with a fast InGaAs photodiode. Experimental details of the associated equipment and data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within PBX-9502 are presented. This small diameter fiber sensor has the potential to measure internal detonation velocities on the order of 10 mm/{micro}sec along path lengths tens of millimeters long.

  7. NO FISHING REPORTING FORM Vessel ID. NO. Vessel Name

    E-print Network

    King Mackerel Spanish Mackerel Schedule # NO FISHING REPORTING FORM Vessel ID. NO. Vessel Name: During-Grouper Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Shark King Mackerel Spanish Mackerel Signature: Phone: ( ) - Schedule # MAIL

  8. NO FISHING REPORTING FORM Vessel ID. NO. Vessel Name

    E-print Network

    King Mackerel Spanish Mackerel Schedule # NO FISHING REPORTING FORM Vessel ID. NO. Vessel Name: During-Grouper Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Shark King Mackerel Spanish Mackerel Signature: Phone: ( ) - Schedule # OMB

  9. Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions #12;Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical

  10. Results of an experiment in a Zion-like geometry to investigate the effect of water on the containment basement floor on direct containment heating (DCH) in the Surtsey Test Facility: The IET-4 test

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nichols, R.T. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This document discusses the fourth experiment of the Integral Effects Test (IET-4) series which was conducted to investigate the effects of high pressure melt ejection on direct containment heating. Scale models (1:10) of the Zion reactor pressure vessel (RPV), cavity, instrument tunnel, and subcompartment structures were constructed in the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The RPV was modeled with a melt generator that consisted of a steel pressure barrier, a cast MgO crucible, and a thin steel inner liner. The melt generator/crucible had a hemispherical bottom head containing a graphite limitor plate with a 3.5-cm exit hole to simulate the ablated hole in the RPV bottom head that would be tonned by tube ejection in a severe nuclear power plant accident. The reactor cavity model contained 3.48 kg of water with a depth of 0.9 cm that corresponded to condensate levels in the Zion plant. A 43-kg initial charge of iron oxide/aluminum/chromium thermite was used to simulate corium debris on the bottom head of the RPV. Molten thermite was ejected into the scaled reactor cavity by 6.7 MPa steam. IET-4 replicated the third experiment in the IET series (IET-3), except the Surtsey vessel contained slightly more preexisting oxygen (9.6 mol.% vs. 9.0 mol.%), and water was placed on the basement floor inside the crane wall. The cavity pressure measurements showed that a small steam explosion occurred in the cavity at about the same time as the steam explosion in IET-1. The oxygen in the Surtsey vessel in IET-4 resulted in a vigorous hydrogen bum, which caused a significant increase in the peak pressure, 262 kPa compared to 98 kPa in the IET-1 test. EET-3, with similar pre-existing oxygen concentrations, also had a large peak pressure of 246 kPa.

  11. Fragment Impact Characterisation of Melt-Cast and PBX Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Malcolm D.; Haskins, Peter J.; Briggs, Richard I.; Stennett, Chris; Fellows, Justin; Cheese, Philip J.; DERA Team

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we report new experimental results on the shock to detonation transition characteristics of the melt-cast explosive RDX/TNT 60:40, and two PBX explosives, one containing RDX, and the other HMX, with HTPB as the binder in both cases. These experiments employed right-regular cylindrical steel projectiles impacting charges covered by either steel or aluminium barrier plates. Response curves were generated giving the threshold impact velocity for prompt shock initiation as a function of barrier thickness. The results of these experiments showed some general trends. Firstly, the melt-cast explosive was generally more shock sensitive than the PBX formulations. The PBX compositions showed similar shock sensitivities; despite the RDX based material having a higher percentage of nitramine (88compared to the HMX material (85appeared to have at least one discontinuity. For the melt-cast explosive this appeared at thicker barriers than for the PBX formulations. The result

  12. Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana

    2014-11-03

    As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

  13. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  14. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

  15. Green primary explosives: 5-Nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Coburn, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-01-01

    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[FeII(NT)3(H2O)3], cat2[FeII(NT)4(H2O)2], cat3[FeII(NT)5(H2O)], and cat4[FeII(NT)6] with cat = cation and NT? = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2. With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries. PMID:16803957

  16. Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

    1998-04-23

    The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

  17. Detection of explosives and explosives-related compounds by single photon laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Christopher; Irwin, Amos; Pond, Bethany V; Huestis, David L; Coggiola, Michael J; Oser, Harald

    2006-06-01

    The application of single photon ionization in combination with mass-selective detection by time-of-flight mass spectrometry is described for the rapid detection of the nitro-containing explosives and explosives-related compounds nitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, o-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, as well as the peroxide-based explosive triacetone triperoxide in the gas phase. The technique is demonstrated to be a plausible approach for laser-based rapid detection of explosives. The limits of detection for nitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene using SPI were also measured and determined to be 17-24 (S/N approximately 2:1) and approximately 40 ppb (S/N approximately 2:1), respectively. PMID:16737241

  18. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  19. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations 

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06

    personnel listed dust found in cotton gins, or gin dust, fueled two explosions in the past. OSHA is required by law to regulate facilities handling explosible dusts to provide a safe working environment for employees. The dust handling facilities must test...

  20. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  1. Explosive welding of metal plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. A. Akbari-Mousavi; L. M. Barrett; S. T. S. Al-Hassani

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study of explosive welding of metal plates. The properties of a locally prepared mix of 77\\/23 ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) explosive and the dynamics of the plates are investigated and the results from welding tests presented. The strength of the clad plates is measured and ultrasonic inspection performed to identify and locate defects. The

  2. After an explosion, what happens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1975-01-01

    Whenever an explosion or fire occurs in the presence of LP-gas, an investigation is usually necessary to determine the cause and to protect the marketer from unreasonable lawsuits. Haag Engineering Co., Dallas, urges that the evidence be studied carefully so that mistakes do not obliterate evidence before a conclusion is reached. Overall effects of the explosion should be examined to

  3. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  8. 77 FR 55108 - Explosive Siting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...facilities at a launch site where solid propellants, energetic liquids, or other explosives...basis of the type and quantity of solid propellants, energetic liquids, and other explosives...division 1.1 explosives and liquid propellants with trinitrotoluene (TNT)...

  9. Enhancing commerical aircraft explosion survivability via active venting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldman, Roger Lee

    2001-10-01

    A new technique for enhancing aircraft safety in the event of an on-board explosion was studied. The method under study employs deployable vent panels located on the fuselage which are activated by an array of pressure sensors in the aircraft interior. In the event that an explosion is detected, appropriate vent panels are rapidly released from the aircraft. This approach seeks to provide timely relief of explosive pressures within an aircraft to prevent catastrophic structural failure. In this study, the approximate time scale of an explosive detonation and the subsequent sensing and electronic processing was determined. Then, the actuation response times of several vent panel systems were determined through analytical modeling and scale-model experimental testing with good correlation achieved. A scale-model experimental analysis was also conducted to determine the decompression venting time of an aircraft fuselage under a variety of conditions. Two different sized pressure vessels were used in the experimental work and the results correlated quite favorably with an analytical model for decompression times. Finally, a dynamic finite element analysis was conducted to determine the response of a portion of a typical commercial aircraft fuselage subjected to explosive pressure loading. It was determined from this analysis that the pre-stressing of the fuselage from cabin pressurization increases the damage vulnerability of a commercial aircraft fuselage to internal explosions. It was also learned from the structural analysis that the peak fuselage strains due to blast loading occur quickly (within approximately 2 milliseconds) while it was conservatively estimated that approximately 5 to 7 milliseconds would be required to sense the explosion, to actuate selected vent panels, and to initiate the release of cabin pressure from the aircraft. Additionally, since it was determined that predicted fuselage strains for both pressurized and unpressurized load cases remained well below the material strain limit, ultimate failure of the aircraft under blast loading may occur later than originally thought due to secondary explosive pressure reflections and the significant overall increase in cabin pressure after detonation. This delayed onset of failure indicates that an active venting system may indeed be capable of functioning rapidly enough to reduce significant fuselage explosive damage.

  10. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for the Berth Allocation and Container Stacking Problems in Container Terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salido, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Molins, Mario; Barber, Federico

    The Container Stacking Problem and the Berth Allocation Problem are two important problems in maritime container terminal's management which are clearly related. Terminal operators normally demand all containers to be loaded into an incoming vessel should be ready and easily accessible in the terminal before vessel's arrival. Similarly, customers (i.e., vessel owners) expect prompt berthing of their vessels upon arrival. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligence based-integrated system to relate these problems. Firstly, we develop a metaheuristic algorithm for berth allocation which generates an optimized order of vessel to be served according to existing berth constraints. Secondly, we develop a domain-oriented heuristic planner for calculating the number of reshuffles needed to allocate containers in the appropriate place for a given berth ordering of vessels. By combining these optimized solutions, terminal operators can be assisted to decide the most appropriated solution in each particular case.

  11. Great Lakes Research Vessel Construction

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Two new additions to the U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center's fleet of large research vessels are currently being constructed. The two new USGS research vessels will replace the aging vessels on lakes Erie and Ontario. They will provide safe and reliable platforms for scient...

  12. Great Lakes Research Vessel Construction

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Two new additions to the U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center's fleet of large research vessels are currently being constructed. The two new USGS research vessels will replace the aging vessels on lakes Erie and Ontario. They will provide safe and reliable platforms for scientists, and ...

  13. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  14. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-01

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and ?13, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on ?13, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  15. Assessing nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    The all-Union session on the Geophysical and Geochemical Consequences of Nuclear Explosions at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting attracted a large audience, and many were unable to find a seat or standing room. The speakers and questioners emphasized the complexity of the processes and the need to extend the computer models. In particular, the global-circulation models presented byscientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that smoke/dust clouds should cause major changes in the weather systems with great contrast between the temperature perturbations over oceanic, coastal, and continental regions. Important developments in the models and conclusions can be expected over the next few years as AGU members from many disciplines contribute their skills.

  16. Large Vessel Pulmonary Arteritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim M. Kerr

    \\u000a Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) are the most well known large vessel vasculitides. Although similar\\u000a in histologic appearance, they have been divided into two distinct clinical entities on the basis of their age of onset, clinical\\u000a presentation, and distribution of vascular involvement. Although both may involve large and mediumsized arteries, including\\u000a the aorta and its branches, the

  17. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J S

    2015-07-01

    Human vascularized allografts are perfused through blood vessels composed of cells (endothelium, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells) that remain largely of graft origin and are thus subject to host alloimmune responses. Graft vessels must be healthy to maintain homeostatic functions including control of perfusion, maintenance of permselectivity, prevention of thrombosis, and participation in immune surveillance. Vascular cell injury can cause dysfunction that interferes with these processes. Graft vascular cells can be activated by mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to participate in graft inflammation contributing to both ischemia/reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. Different forms of rejection may affect graft vessels in different ways, ranging from thrombosis and neutrophilic inflammation in hyperacute rejection, to endothelialitis/intimal arteritis and fibrinoid necrosis in acute cell-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection, respectively, and to diffuse luminal stenosis in chronic rejection. While some current therapies targeting the host immune system do affect graft vascular cells, direct targeting of the graft vasculature may create new opportunities for preventing allograft injury and loss. PMID:25807965

  18. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Upton, Hubert A. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  19. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  20. Viscoelastic models for explosive binder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardenhagen, S.G.; Harstad, E.N.; Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Foster, J.C. Jr. [Wright Laboratory, Armament Directorate, Eglin AFB, Florida 32542 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    An improved model of the mechanical properties of the explosive contained in conventional munitions is needed to accurately simulate performance and accident scenarios in weapons storage facilities. A specific class of explosives can be idealized as a mixture of two components: energetic crystals randomly suspended in a polymeric matrix (binder). Strength characteristics of each component material are important in the macroscopic behavior of the composite (explosive). Of interest here is the determination of an appropriate constitutive law for a polyurethane binder material. This paper is a continuation of previous work in modeling polyurethane at moderately high strain rates and for large deformations. Simulation of a large deformation (strains in excess of 100{percent}) Taylor Anvil experiment revealed numerical difficulties which have been addressed. Additional experimental data have been obtained including improved resolution Taylor Anvil data, and stress relaxation data at various strain rates. A thorough evaluation of the candidate viscoelastic constitutive model is made and possible improvements discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-13

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m/sup 3/. Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m/sup 3/. By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  2. 40 CFR 1042.650 - Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels. 1042... Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels. The...Category 1 and Category 2 engines, including auxiliary engines installed on vessels...

  3. 40 CFR 1042.650 - Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels. 1042.650...IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions...Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels. The...

  4. 40 CFR 1042.650 - Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels. 1042.650...IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions...Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels. The...

  5. Non-Solid Explosives for Shaped Charges I: Explosive Parameters Measurements for Sensitized Liquid Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cartwright; D. Lloyd-Roach; P. J. Simpson

    2007-01-01

    The disposal of time-expired and unexploded ordnance is a major problem for the NATO countries. Simple functioning of the device, either in its design mode or by attachment of additional explosive and firing, requires extended safety zones. Inducing deflagration could reduce co-lateral damage within the safety zone. One solution to the problem, with current explosive fillings, of producing predictable performance

  6. 7 CFR 60.131 - Vessel flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vessel flag. 60.131 Section 60.131 Agriculture Regulations...General Provisions Definitions § 60.131 Vessel flag. Vessel flag means the country of registry for a vessel,...

  7. 7 CFR 60.131 - Vessel flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vessel flag. 60.131 Section 60.131 Agriculture Regulations...General Provisions Definitions § 60.131 Vessel flag. Vessel flag means the country of registry for a vessel,...

  8. 7 CFR 60.131 - Vessel flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vessel flag. 60.131 Section 60.131 Agriculture Regulations...General Provisions Definitions § 60.131 Vessel flag. Vessel flag means the country of registry for a vessel,...

  9. 7 CFR 60.131 - Vessel flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vessel flag. 60.131 Section 60.131 Agriculture Regulations...General Provisions Definitions § 60.131 Vessel flag. Vessel flag means the country of registry for a vessel,...

  10. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in the strap. The roller also serves to equalize the load in the portions of the strap on both sides of the clevis pin. The lap seam is formed near the clevis by use of a tapered diamond stitch: This stitch is designed specifically to allow fibers in the stitch and strap to relax under load in such a manner that the load becomes more nearly evenly distributed among all fibers in the stitch region. Thus, the tapered diamond stitch prevents load concentrations that could cause premature failure of the strap and thereby increases the strength of the strap/structural-core joint. The lap seam can be rated at >90 percent of the strength of the strap material.

  11. On the Unreacted Hugoniots of Three Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.

    2006-07-01

    There is a continuing interest in determining the detonation characteristics of loaded plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The UK licensing agency for explosives, DOSG, wishes to better understand the response of insensitive high explosives. This has required more detailed investigation of the transit of reaction from the unreacted state to products. The starting condition, before application of a kinetic scheme to describe reaction, is thus the unreacted Hugoniot for the material. In this work three PBXs, manufactured by BAE Land Systems, are investigated and modelled. All contain RDX in differing quantities in an HTPB binder. One of them contains aluminium. Two of the materials have the same weight percentage of filler and binder but differ in the grain size distribution entrained. The experimental Hugoniots are presented, and a composite equation of state is derived using an engineering model and shown to describe the measurements well. Further applications of the technique are described and future uses are outlined.

  12. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  13. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  14. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  15. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  16. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  17. Explosive volcanism may not be an inevitable consequence of magma fragmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helge M. Gonnermann; Michael Manga

    2003-01-01

    The fragmentation of magma, containing abundant gas bubbles, is thought to be the defining characteristic of explosive eruptions. When viscous stresses associated with the growth of bubbles and the flow of the ascending magma exceed the strength of the melt, the magma breaks into disconnected fragments suspended within an expanding gas phase. Although repeated effusive and explosive eruptions for individual

  18. Chemical warfare agent and high explosive identification by spectroscopy of neutron-induced gamma rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Caffrey; J. D. Cole; R. J. Gehrke; R. C. Greenwood

    1992-01-01

    A nondestructive assay method to identify chemical warfare (CW) agents and high explosive (HE) munitions was tested with actual chemical agents and explosives. The assay method exploits the gamma radiation produced by neutron interactions inside a container or munition to identify the elemental composition of its contents. The characteristic gamma-ray signature of the chemical elements chlorine, phosphorus, and sulfur were

  19. Vessel segmentation in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Dietrich; Chastel, Serge; Feldmann, Tobias

    2005-04-01

    Detection of the papilla region and vessel detection on images of the retina are problems that can be solved with pattern recognition techniques. Topographic images, as provided e.g. by the HRT device, as well as fundus images can be used as source for the detection. It is of diagnostic importance to separate vessels inside the papilla area from those outside this area. Therefore, detection of the papilla is important also for vessel segmentation. In this contribution we present state of the art methods for automatic disk segmentation and compare their results. Vessels detected with matched filters (wavelets, derivatives of the Gaussian, etc.) are shown as well as vessel segmentation using image morphology. We present our own method for vessel segmentation based on a special matched filter followed by image morphology. In this contribution we argue for a new matched filter that is suited for large vessels in HRT images.

  20. Carbon fiber internal pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Internal pressure vessels were designed; the filament was wound of carbon fibers and epoxy resin and tested to burst. The fibers used were Thornel 400, Thornel 75, and Hercules HTS. Additional vessels with type A fiber were made. Polymeric linears were used, and all burst testing was done at room temperature. The objective was to produce vessels with the highest attainable PbV/W efficiencies. The type A vessels showed the highest average efficiency: 2.56 x 10 to the 6th power cm. Next highest efficiency was with Thornel 400 vessels: 2.21 x 10 to the 6th power cm. These values compare favorably with efficiency values from good quality S-glass vessels, but strains averaged 0.97% or less, which is less than 1/3 the strain of S-glass vessels.

  1. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  2. Site 300`s new contained firing facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Sometime in 2000, far fewer loud {open_quotes}BOOMS{close_quotes} will resonate from Site 300, the Laboratory`s explosives test complex. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s new Contained Firing Facility (CFF) will begin operation that year to provide indoor testing of high explosives, and most open-air experiments at Site 300 will be discontinued. The new Contained Firing Facility will be an important adjunct to Livermore`s

  3. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  4. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  5. DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Desmare, Gabriel W. (Amarillo, TX); Cates, Dillard M. (Amarillo, TX)

    2002-05-14

    High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

  6. [Self-contained neurosurgical cryoprobe].

    PubMed

    Verkin, B I; Sipity?, V I; Murinets-Markevich, B N; Zamoshnikov, V N; Krasnikov, A R

    1977-01-01

    A cryoprobe with an interchangeable container (vessel) holding the cryoprobe has been designed, this enabling it to dispense with the use of hoses to deliver the coolant to and remove it from the Dewar vessel and the vacuum pump. The cryogenic action provided for by a single ampoule lasts 5 minutes. The small diameter of the cryoprobe makes for a minimal traumatization of the surrounding structures, while the absence of connecting hoses makes for its easy handling. PMID:870787

  7. Noise From Shallow Underwater Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloway, Alexander G.

    Naval activities such as ordnance disposal, demolition and requisite training, can involve detonation of small explosive charges in shallow water that have the potential to harm nearby marine life. Measurements of the underwater sound generated by sub-surface explosions were collected as part of a naval training exercise. In this thesis the noise levels from these explosions will be investigated using peak pressure, sound exposure level and energy spectral density. Measurements of very-low frequency Scholte interface waves will also be presented and used to investigate elastic parameters in the sediment.

  8. Critical conditions for impact- and shock-induced hot spots in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Chidester, S.K.; Nichols, A.L. III [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-04-04

    Chemical kinetic thermal decomposition models of pressed solid high explosives containing octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), which accurately calculate the times to explosion at various initial temperatures measured in the one-dimensional time to explosion (ODTX) test, are extended to higher temperatures to predict the critical temperatures, times to explosion, and dimensions of the impact- and shock-induced hot spots that are known to control the ignition of exothermic reaction in solid explosives. The effects of hot spot geometry and surrounding temperature on the critical hot spot conditions are investigated. Since hot spot temperatures and dimensions cannot be measured experimentally, these estimated temperatures, sizes, and times required for exothermic chemical reaction provide a means to evaluate proposed physical mechanisms of hot spot formation in accident scenarios involving impact (friction and shear) and shock compression of solid explosives. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Numerical Modelling of the Expansion Phase of Vapor Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction, involving sudden fragmentation of some of the molten material and rapid evaporation of the liquid, takes place. This phenomenon is referred to as a "vapor explosion" or "steam explosion". In the event of a core meltdown accident in a light water reactor, the molten fuel can interact with cooling water inside or outside the reactor vessel and cause a vapor explosion. The mechanical energy released during such an explosion can result in structural damage, and ultimately may lead to the release of radioactive material into the environment. Vapor explosions are extremely fast transients, involving a flow field consisting of at least three distinct phases, accompanied by thermal non-equilibrium and strong interfacial transfer processes. The objective of this research was to mechanistically model the expansion phase of a vapor explosion. A transient three-dimensional, three -fluid thermal hydraulic model was developed. Coolant liquid plus fragmented fuel particles, coolant vapor plus noncondensables and unfragmented fuel constitute the three fluids. Hydrodynamic and thermal interactions between the three phases were mechanistically treated, using flow regime-dependent models. The models were incorporated into a computer code, in which the conservation equations are cast in finite-difference form and are numerically solved using the point-relaxation method. The code was utilized in parametric and sensitivity calculations aimed at assessing the significance of interfacial transfer processes, and the effect of the premixture initial conditions on the phenomenology of the expansion phase of steam explosions. The initial conditions for the expansion phase were estimated by assuming that the propagation phase was a constant volume heat exchange process. Parametric results indicate that thermal and mechanical nonequilibrium are both significant. Various modelling assumptions relevant to the inter-phase transfer coefficients could change the predicted magnitude of the conversion ratio by up to a factor of two. The parametric results were extremely sensitive to the initial void fraction in the premixture prior to the propagation. The calculated conversion ratios varied by an order of magnitude as a result of varying the aforementioned initial void fraction.

  10. Branching Blood Vessels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jonathan Borne (Union Springs Academy)

    2000-08-01

    This activity explores some of the factors that affect blood flow in branching vessels and is designed for AP Biology, Anatomy & Physiology, and Physics. You may want to do this as activity as a series of labs or you can assign the problems to different groups. After conducting this lab myself, I suggest that you practice it yourself before doing it in class. Be sure that your tubing and funnel fit snugly. Also, make sure that your clamps and Y-connectors fit snugly with the tubing as well.

  11. Detection and Measurement of Explosives in Groundwater Using In

    E-print Network

    Electrochemical Sensors Background: Since World War I, munitions have been manufactured in the United States using, storage, disposal, and demilitarization. It is estimated that 1,300 installations worldwide containing actions. A significant portion of this contamination is due to past practices for disposal of explosives

  12. Using Fast Neutrons to Detect Explosives and Illicit Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Buffler

    The present global political landscape continues to encourage the development of new technologies for the detection of hidden illicit materials, especially explosives, in packages ranging in size from small mail items to cargo containers. The various approaches using fast neutrons for contraband detection, presently under development, are reviewed.

  13. Disaster management following explosion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2008-01-01

    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making. PMID:18522253

  14. Explosive actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

  15. Explosive actuated valves

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, Jr., Lawrence L. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a generally tubular housing having an end portion forming a chamber to receive the sensitive portion of an explosive squib, a plunger within said housing having an end portion exposed to said chamber, squib retaining means for engaging said housing and a said squib to releasably maintain the squib in close proximity to said plunger end portion including a retaining ring of fusible material spaced outwardly from and encircling at least part of a said squib and part of its sensitive portion for reception of heat from an external source prior to appreciable reception thereof by the sensitive portion of the squib, an annular compression spring bearing at one end against said housing for urging at least a portion of the squib retaining means and a said squib away from said housing and from said plunger end portion upon subjection of the fusible material to heat sufficient to melt at least a portion thereof, and guide means for said spring to maintain even expansion thereof as a said squib is being urged away from said housing.

  16. Explosive Spot Joining of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

  17. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  18. Explosives detection with hard-wired moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

  19. Detonation characteristics of powerful insensitive explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Bogdanova; S. A. Gubin; B. L. Korsunskii; V. I. Pepekin

    2009-01-01

    Experimental and calculated detonation characteristics of powerful insensitive explosives are given. Features of explosives\\u000a with a high hydrogen content are discussed. The relationship between the power and sensitivity characteristics of explosives\\u000a and the structure of their molecules are considered. Prospects for the development of powerful explosives are discussed.

  20. EXPLOSIVE WELDING SIMULATION OF MULTILAYER TUBES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Akbari Mousavi; G. Joodaki

    Summary. Explosive welding is a process which uses explosive detonation to propel the flyer plate material into the base material to produce a sound joint. Experimental tests have been performed to explosively welded aluminum 5056, aluminum 1015 and stainless steel 304 tubes in one step. The tests have been carried out using various stand-off distances and explosive ratios. Various interface

  1. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  2. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X. (N. Versailles, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Twp., Allegheny County, PA); Wilson, Robert M. (Plum Boro, PA); Wepfer, Robert M. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  3. Microbial remediation of explosive waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-05-01

    Explosives are synthesized globally mainly for military munitions. Nitrate esters, such as GTN and PETN, nitroaromatics like TNP and TNT and nitramines with RDX, HMX and CL20, are the main class of explosives used. Their use has resulted in severe contamination of environment and strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. The incredible versatility inherited in microbes has rendered these explosives as a part of the biogeochemical cycle. Several microbes catalyze mineralization and/or nonspecific transformation of explosive waste either by aerobic or anaerobic processes. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward explosives and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals. This review summarizes information on the biodegradation and biotransformation pathways of several important explosives. Isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation are also discussed. This may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for clean up of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. The necessity of further investigations concerning the microbial metabolism of these substances is also discussed. PMID:22497284

  4. Interplay of explosive thermal reaction dynamics and structural confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, W. Lee; Zucker, Jonathan; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, Blaine W.

    2007-04-01

    Explosives play a significant role in human affairs; however, their behavior in circumstances other than intentional detonation is poorly understood. Accidents may have catastrophic consequences, especially if additional hazardous materials are involved. Abnormal ignition stimuli, such as impact, spark, friction, and heat may lead to a very violent outcome, potentially including detonation. An important factor influencing the behavior subsequent to abnormal ignition is the strength and inertia of the vessel confining the explosive, i.e., the near-field structural/mechanical environment, also known as confinement (inertial or mechanical). However, a comprehensive and quantified understanding of how confinement affects reaction violence does not yet exist. In the research discussed here, we have investigated a wide range of confinement conditions and related the explosive response to the fundamentals of the combustion process in the explosive. In our experiments, a charge of an octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX 9501) was loaded into a gun assembly having variable confinement conditions and subjected to a heating profile. The exploding charge breached the confinement and accelerated a projectile down the gun barrel. High bandwidth pressure and volume measurements were made and a first-law analysis was used to obtain enthalpy and power from the raw data. These results were then used to quantify reaction violence. Enthalpy change and power ranged from 0-1.8 kJ and 0-12 MW for 300 mg charges, respectively. Below a confinement strength of 20 MPa, violence was found to decline precipitously with decreasing confinement, while the violence for the heaviest confinement experiments was found to be relatively constant. Both pressure and pressurization rate were found to have critical values to induce and sustain violent reaction.

  5. Shock Response of the Explosives IRX-1 and IRX-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, G. T.; O'Connor, J. O.; Baker, R. N.; Forbes, J. W.; Ashwell, K. D.

    1999-06-01

    The shock and detonation properties of the explosives IRX-1 and IRX-3A have been simulated with the use of the DYNA2D hydrocode. IRX-1 is an explosive containing mono-modal HMX and HTPB binder. IRX-3A is an explosive containing mono-modal HMX, aluminum, and HTPB binder. Parameters for the Lee-Tarver ignition and growth model were obtained from light gas gun experiments in which IRX-1 or IRX-3A targets were impacted by aluminum or copper flyers. Manganin gauges placed at various depths in the explosive measure the stress generated by the shock wave and shock induced chemical reactions in the explosive. The Lee-Tarver model enabled us to perform computer simulations of other experiments performed at NSWC using IRX-1 or IRX-3A such as wave curvature and the modified gap test.

  6. Shock Response of the Explosives IRX-1 and IRX-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, G. T.; Forbes, J. W.

    2001-06-01

    The shock and detonation properties of the explosives IRX-1 and IRX-3A have been simulated with the use of the CTH hydrocode. IRX-1 is an explosive containing mono-modal HMX and HTPB binder. IRX-3A is an explosive containing mono-modal HMX, aluminum, and HTPB binder. Parameters for the Lee-Tarver ignition and growth model were obtained from light gas gun experiments in which IRX-1 or IRX-3A targets were impacted by aluminum or copper flyers. Manganin gauges placed at various depths in the explosive measure the stress generated by the shock wave and shock induced chemical reactions in the explosive. The Lee-Tarver model enabled us to perform computer simulations of other experiments performed at NSWC using IRX-1 or IRX-3A such as wave curvature and the modified gap test.

  7. Apollo experience report: Pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecord, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo spacecraft pressure vessels, associated problems and resolutions, and related experience in evaluating potential problem areas are discussed. Information is provided that can be used as a guideline in the establishment of baseline criteria for the design and use of lightweight pressure vessels. One of the first practical applications of the use of fracture-mechanics technology to protect against service failures was made on Apollo pressure vessels. Recommendations are made, based on Apollo experience, that are designed to reduce the incidence of failure in pressure-vessel operation and service.

  8. Workbook for estimating effects of accidental explosions in propellant ground handling and transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Vargas, L. M.; Moseley, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    A workbook is presented to supplement an earlier NASA publication, which was intended to provide the designer and safety engineer with rapid methods for predicting damage and hazards from explosions of liquid propellant and compressed gas vessels used in ground storage, transport and handling. Information is presented in the form of graphs and tables to allow easy calculation, using only desk or handheld calculators. Topics covered in various chapters are: (1) estimates of explosive yield; (2) characteristics of pressure waves; (3) effects of pressure waves; (4) characteristics of fragments; and (5) effects of fragments and related topics.

  9. The ITER in-vessel system

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    The overall programmatic objective, as defined in the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) Agreement, is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. The ITER EDA Phase, due to last until July 1998, will encompass the design of the device and its auxiliary systems and facilities, including the preparation of engineering drawings. The EDA also incorporates validating research and development (R&D) work, including the development and testing of key components. The purpose of this paper is to review the status of the design, as it has been developed so far, emphasizing the design and integration of those components contained within the vacuum vessel of the ITER device. The components included in the in-vessel systems are divertor and first wall; blanket and shield; plasma heating, fueling, and vacuum pumping equipment; and remote handling equipment.

  10. Core collapse supernovae: magnetorotational explosion

    E-print Network

    G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; S. G. Moiseenko; N. V. Ardeljan

    2005-11-10

    Core-collapse supernovae are connected with formation of neutron stars. Part of the gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed in SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. The mechanism of transformation is not simple, because the overwhelming majority of the energy is going into weakly interacting neutrino. The attempts to use this energy for the explosion were not successful during about 40 years of investigation. We consider the explosion mechanism in which the source of energy is the rotation, and magnetic field serves for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of explosion. 2-D MHD simulations of this mechanism were performed. After the collapse the core consists of a rapidly rotating proto-neutron star with a differentially rotating envelope. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy generated by the differential rotation grows as quadratic function with time at the initial stage of the evolution of the magnetic field. The linear growth of the toroidal magnetic field is terminated by the development of magnetohydrodynamic instability, when the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal field, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. At the moment when the magnetic pressure becomes comparable to the gas pressure at the periphery of the proto-neutron star the MHD compression wave appears and goes through the envelope of the collapsed core. It transforms into the fast MHD shock and produces a supernova explosion. Our simulations give the energy of the explosion $0.6\\cdot 10^{51}$ ergs. The amount of the mass ejected by the explosion is $\\sim 0.14M_\\odot$. The implicit numerical method, based on the Lagrangian triangular grid of variable structure, was used for the simulations.

  11. Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion

    This artist's animation shows the explosion of a massive star, the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that the star exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart.

    Cassiopeia A is what is known as a supernova remnant. The original star, about 15 to 20 times more massive than our sun, died in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion viewable from Earth about 340 years ago. The remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia.

    The movie begins by showing the star before it died, when its layers of elements (shown in different colors) were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. The star is then shown blasting to smithereens. Spitzer found evidence that the star's original layers were preserved, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. In other words, some chunks of the star sped outward faster than others, as illustrated by the animation.

    The movie ends with an actual picture of Cassiopeia A taken by Spitzer. The colored layers containing different elements are seen next to each other because they traveled at different speeds.

    The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds.

    Chunks of the star that were thrown out fastest hit the shock wave sooner and have had more time to heat up to scorching temperatures previously detected by X-ray and visible-light telescopes. Chunks of the star that lagged behind hit the shock wave later, so they are cooler and radiate infrared light that was not seen until Spitzer came along. These lagging chunks are seen in false colors in the Spitzer picture of Cassiopeia A. They are made up of gas and dust containing neon, oxygen and aluminum -- elements from the middle layers of the original star.

  12. Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Silicon Containing Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.; Poulos, W.

    2007-12-01

    Improved relationships were developed in this study for the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid silicon and silicon dioxide for use with JAGUAR thermo-chemical equation of state routines. Analyses of experimental melting temperature curves for silicon and silicon dioxide indicated complex phase behavior and that improved coefficients were required for solid and liquid thermodynamic properties. Advanced optimization routines were utilized in conjunction with the experimental melting point data to establish volumetric coefficients for these substances. The new property libraries resulted in agreement with available experimental values, including Hugoniot data at elevated pressures.

  13. Software for Preliminary Location Shallow Explosions, at Colima Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Mendez, P. J.; Alatorre, E.; Dominguez, T.; Navarro-Ochoa, C.; Breton Gonzalez, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Colima Volcano (19.51oN, 103.61oW) had been considered, historically, the most active volcano in Mexico, located in west side of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, this stratovolcano has andesitic activity: explosive eruptions of sub-plinian type, with generation of piroclastic flows and fall deposits, and effusive eruptions that generated block-lava domes and flows. The most recent eruption is a sample for this, it was erupted since May of 2001, with generation of summit dome and little lava flows. Result of comparison between the pictures from visual monitoring network and explosive events of low magnitude recorded in RESCO (State of Colima Seismic Network), we observed that surface expression of explosive events and its seismic record had a variable temporal delay. This fact motivated us to define the zone where this dynamical process takes place (the zone where the pressure of gasses contained into bubble overcomes confined pressure for the magma and that had seismic and visual expressions). Particle's movement and spectral analysis of seismic records show that each explosive event is composed of body and surface waves, moreover, shock waves are also observed for near stations. From Arrival times of these phases and group velocities, we obtained a multilayer structural model for more proximal region to the volcano that satisfied our observations. We plotted a Wadati's Diagram for body and surface waves and added a simple correction to obtain the origin time. A simple PC program for location of these explosive events was implemented. A small correlation between explosive events and tremor volcanic duration for the tremors which occurred during the months of April, May and early June of 2002 was also observed. Location of the source of the small explosions is another tool of surveillance that could be added to those which are already been carried out in Colima, since temporary or space variations of these sources could inform from physical changes in the behavior of the volcano.

  14. Spring Filling of Xylem Vessels in Wild Grapevine 1

    PubMed Central

    Sperry, John S.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Zimmermann, Martin H.; Tyree, Melvin T.

    1987-01-01

    Xylem vessels in grapevines Vitis labrusca L. and Vitis riparia Michx. growing in New England contained air over winter and yet filled with xylem sap and recovered their maximum hydraulic conductance during the month before leaf expansion in late May. During this period root pressures between 10 and 100 kilopascals were measured. Although some air in vessels apparently dissolved in ascending xylem sap, results indicated that some is pushed out of vessels and then out of the vine. Air in the vessel network distal to advancing xylem sap was compressed at about 3 kilopascals; independent measurements indicated this was sufficient to push air across vessel ends, and from vessels to the exterior through dead vine tips, inflorescence scars, and points on the bark. Once wetted, vessel ends previously air-permeable at 3 kilopascals remained sealed against air at pressures up to 2 and 3 megapascals. Permeability at 3 kilopascals was restored by dehydrating vines below ?2.4 megapascals. We suggest that the decrease in permeability with hydration is due to formation of water films across pores in intervascular pit membranes; this water seal can maintain a pressure difference of roughly 2 megapascals, and prevents cavitation by aspirated air at xylem pressures less negative than ?2.4 megapascals. PMID:16665259

  15. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

  16. Vessel segmentation in retinal images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich Paulus; Serge Chastel; Tobias Feldmann

    2005-01-01

    Detection of the papilla region and vessel detection on images of the retina are problems that can be solved with pattern recognition techniques. Topographic images, as provided e.g. by the HRT device, as well as fundus images can be used as source for the detection. It is of diagnostic importance to separate vessels inside the papilla area from those outside

  17. Molecular regulation of vessel maturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh K Jain

    2003-01-01

    The maturation of nascent vasculature, formed by vasculogenesis or angiogenesis, requires recruitment of mural cells, generation of an extracellular matrix and specialization of the vessel wall for structural support and regulation of vessel function. In addition, the vascular network must be organized so that all the parenchymal cells receive adequate nutrients. All of these processes are orchestrated by physical forces

  18. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  19. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  20. A Survey of Pressure Vessel Code Compliance for Superconducting RF Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Thomas; Klebaner, Arkadiy; Nicol, Tom; Theilacker, Jay; /Fermilab; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kako, Eiji; Nakai, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Akira; /KEK, Tsukuba; Jensch, Kay; Matheisen, Axel; /DESY; Mammosser, John; /Jefferson Lab

    2011-06-07

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from niobium and cooled with liquid helium are becoming key components of many particle accelerators. The helium vessels surrounding the RF cavities, portions of the niobium cavities themselves, and also possibly the vacuum vessels containing these assemblies, generally fall under the scope of local and national pressure vessel codes. In the U.S., Department of Energy rules require national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel standards or to show ''a level of safety greater than or equal to'' that of the applicable standard. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up being treated as a low-temperature pressure vessel material. Niobium material is not a code listed material and therefore requires the designer to understand the mechanical properties for material used in each pressure vessel fabrication; compliance with pressure vessel codes therefore becomes a problem. This report summarizes the approaches that various institutions have taken in order to bring superconducting RF cryomodules into compliance with pressure vessel codes. In Japan, Germany, and the U.S., institutions building superconducting RF cavities integrated in helium vessels or procuring them from vendors have had to deal with pressure vessel requirements being applied to SRF vessels, including the niobium and niobium-titanium components of the vessels. While niobium is not an approved pressure vessel material, data from tests of material samples provide information to set allowable stresses. By means of procedures which include adherence to code welding procedures, maintaining material and fabrication records, and detailed analyses of peak stresses in the vessels, or treatment of the vacuum vessel as the pressure boundary, research laboratories around the world have found methods to demonstrate and document a level of safety equivalent to the applicable pressure vessel codes.

  1. Novel method for edge detection of retinal vessels based on the model of the retinal vascular network and mathematical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Hengyi; Yu, Yajun

    1998-09-01

    Accurate edge detection of retinal vessels is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis of subtle morphological changes of retinal vessels under different pathological conditions. A novel method for edge detection of retinal vessels is presented in this paper. Methods: (1) Wavelet-based image preprocessing. (2) The signed edge detection algorithm and mathematical morphological operation are applied to get the approximate regions that contain retinal vessels. (3) By convolving the preprocessed image with a LoG operator only on the detected approximate regions of retinal vessels, followed by edges refining, clear edge maps of the retinal vessels are fast obtained. Results: A detailed performance evaluation together with the existing techniques is given to demonstrate the strong features of our method. Conclusions: True edge locations of retinal vessels can be fast detected with continuous structures of retinal vessels, less non- vessel segments left and insensitivity to noise. The method is also suitable for other application fields such as road edge detection.

  2. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  3. Optical model of the blood in large retinal vessels.

    PubMed

    Denninghoff, K R; Smith, M H

    2000-10-01

    Several optical techniques that investigate blood contained within the retinal vessels are available or under development. We present a mechanical model that simulates the optical properties of the eye, the retinal vessels, and the ocular fundus. A micropipette is chosen as the retinal vessel model, and a mechanical housing is constructed to simulate the eyeball. Spectralon is used to simulate the retinal layers. Filling the eye with fluid index matched to the glass pipette eliminates reflection and refraction effects from the pipette. An apparatus is constructed and used to set the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide concentrations in whole human blood. These whole blood samples are pumped through the pipette at 34 microL/min. Measurements made in the model eye closely resemble measurements made in the human eye. This apparatus is useful for developing the science and testing the systems that optically investigate blood and blood flow in the large retinal vessels. PMID:11092424

  4. Optical model of the blood in large retinal vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Smith, Matthew H.

    2000-10-01

    Several optical techniques that investigate blood contained within the retinal vessels are available or under development. We present a mechanical model that simulates the optical properties of the eye, the retinal vessels, and the ocular fundus. A micropipette is chosen as the retinal vessel model, and a mechanical housing is constructed to simulate the eyeball. Spectralon is used to simulate the retinal layers. Filling the eye with fluid index matched to the glass pipette eliminates reflection and refraction effects from the pipette. An apparatus is constructed and used to set the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide concentrations in whole human blood. These whole blood samples are pumped through the pipette at 34 (mu) L/min. Measurements made in the model eye closely resemble measurements made in the human eye. This apparatus is useful for developing the science and testing the systems that optically investigate blood and blood flow in the large retinal vessels.

  5. Pattern formation in colloidal explosions

    E-print Network

    Arthur V. Straube; Ard A. Louis; Jörg Baumgartl; Clemens Bechinger; Roel P. A. Dullens

    2011-07-23

    We study the non-equilibrium pattern formation that emerges when magnetically repelling colloids, trapped by optical tweezers, are abruptly released, forming colloidal explosions. For multiple colloids in a single trap we observe a pattern of expanding concentric rings. For colloids individually trapped in a line, we observe explosions with a zigzag pattern that persists even when magnetic interactions are much weaker than those that break the linear symmetry in equilibrium. Theory and computer simulations quantitatively describe these phenomena both in and out of equilibrium. An analysis of the mode spectrum allows us to accurately quantify the non-harmonic nature of the optical traps. Colloidal explosions provide a new way to generate well-characterized non-equilibrium behaviour in colloidal systems.

  6. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  7. Explosive evaporation in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

  8. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B. (ed.) (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States))

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to as low as 5.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]6]. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson[sup 8] provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10[sup [minus]1].

  9. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, Jack L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Von Holle, William G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  10. 46 CFR 171.055 - Intact stability requirements for a monohull sailing vessel or a monohull auxiliary sailing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...monohull sailing vessel or a monohull auxiliary sailing vessel. 171.055 Section...monohull sailing vessel or a monohull auxiliary sailing vessel. (a) Except as...section, each monohull sailing vessel and auxiliary sailing vessel must be shown by...

  11. Megavolt Computed Tomography for Air Cargo Container Inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bendahan; W. Garms

    2008-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is one of the approved technologies for screening checked airline baggage for explosive devices in the U.S. Explosives in cargo pose a similar threat as in luggage. Standard and advanced x-ray systems have been considered for inspecting air cargo. However, continued improvement in the detection of explosives in cluttered cargo containers is needed. Supported by funds

  12. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid... Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H Article containing both an...

  13. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid... Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H Article containing both an...

  14. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid... Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H Article containing both an...

  15. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid... Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H Article containing both an...

  16. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  17. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-06-11

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  18. Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.-I.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation results from both the EM collisionless particle code and the MHD particle code reveal an explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, and ensuing amplitude oscillations in the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures are modeled by an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential. This phenomenon may explain the rapid energy release of a certain class of solar flares during their impulsive phase.

  19. Explosive response model evaluation using the explosive H6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerrit T. Sutherland; Joseph Burns

    2000-01-01

    Reactive rate model parameters for a two term Lee Tarver [simplified ignition and growth (SIG)] model were obtained for the explosive H6 from modified gap test data. These model was used to perform simulations of the underwater sensitivity test (UST) using the CTH hydrocode. Reaction was predicted in the simulations for the same water gaps that reaction was observed in

  20. A computer simulation model of container movement by sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan J. van Rensburg; Yi He; A. J. Kleywegt

    2005-01-01

    We describe a computer simulation model of ocean container carrier operations. The simulation is called SimSea and was developed through collaboration between the CSIR, a research organization in South Africa, and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech). SimSea simulates the transport of containers by container vessels. Containers are transported from container depots to customers. The customers load the containers,