Note: This page contains sample records for the topic explosion containment vessel from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Failure analysis for cylindrical explosion containment vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic or elastic–plastic dynamical response of the explosion containment vessels (ECVs) subject to the impulsive loading have been studied intensively, however the damage mechanism of ECVs is still scarcely investigated. In this work two cylindrical explosion containment vessels under the different explosion loads are tested. The overpressure is measured and compared with the numerical result. The damage mechanism of

Li Ma; Yang Hu; Jinyang Zheng; Guide Deng; Yongjun Chen

2010-01-01

2

Proof testing of an explosion containment vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steel containment vessel was fabricated and proof tested for use by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at their M-9 facility. The HY-100 steel vessel was designed to provide total containment for high explosives tests up to 22 lb (10 kg) of TNT equivalent. The vessel was fabricated from an 11.5-ft diameter cylindrical shell, 1.5 in thick, and 2:1 elliptical

E. D. Esparza; H. Stacy; J. Wackerle

1996-01-01

3

Dust explosion protection in linked vessels: guidance for containment and venting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much industrial dust-handling plant consists of vessels connected by pipelines. If a dust explosion propagates through such a system, the overall explosion event can be more violent than if a single vessel only is involved, due to a combination of increased turbulence, pressure piling and a jet flame ignition source in the second vessel. This paper gives guidance, based on

P. Holbrow; G. A. Lunn; A. Tyldesley

1999-01-01

4

Uncertainty quantification of a containment vessel dynamic response subjected to high-explosive detonation impulse loading  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in cooperation with Southwest Research Institute, has been developing capabilities to provide reliability-based structural evaluation techniques for performing weapon component and system reliability assessments. The development and applications of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) is an important ingredient in the overall weapon reliability assessments. Focus, herein, is placed on the uncertainty quantification associated with the structural response of a containment vessel for high-explosive (HE) experiments. The probabilistic dynamic response of the vessel is evaluated through the coupling of the probabilistic code NESSUS with the non-linear structural dynamics code, DYNA-3D. The probabilistic model includes variations in geometry and mechanical properties, such as Young's Modulus, yield strength, and material flow characteristics. Finally, the probability of exceeding a specified strain limit, which is related to vessel failure, is determined.

Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.); Thacker, B. H. (Ben H.); Riha, D. S. (David S)

2002-01-01

5

Explosive Safety Container.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The container is in the form of a plastic block with a hole for containing an explosive. The plastic is loaded into a tubular vessel such as glass or polyethylene. The plastic block is made of a plastic material which does not shatter like metal.

M. F. T. Zimmer L. K. Asaoka

1965-01-01

6

Spherical vessel subjected to explosive detonation loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following work utilizes a calculation method for the design of spherical containment vessels for pressure gases likely subjected to internal detonation. A centrally initiated explosion within the vessel is taken into account and the history of pressures on the internal vessel wall is investigated by means of the fundamental compressible fluid dynamics, for which a non-viscous perfect gas is

M. Giglio

1997-01-01

7

Viper Round Containment Vessel Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the development of a new steel containment vessel to contain the explosion effects of two Viper rounds. The containment vessel was utilized in a production facility for the load/assemble and packout of Viper rocket ...

C. J. Dahn

1982-01-01

8

Explosion containment device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

Benedick, William B. (Albuquerque, NM); Daniel, Charles J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1977-01-01

9

Shipping containers for small samples of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Two sizes of shipping containers for high explosives have been designed and tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The containers have been tested by detonating a powerful, HMX-based explosive in the containers. The containers were approved for shipping 70% of the minimum weight of explosive that could cause vessel failure.

Hildner, R.A.; Urizar, M.J.

1981-12-01

10

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section...CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port §...

2012-10-01

11

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section...CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port §...

2011-10-01

12

Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact  

SciTech Connect

Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber to impact by fragments from the largest explosive charge expected to be placed in these chambers (M426, 8 inch, chemical, 7 lbs Comp B) is evaluated. Numerical (CTH) and empirical (ConWep) codes are used to characterize the munition fragments, and assess the consequences of their impact and penetration on the walls of these vessels. Both pristine and corroded configurations of the munition have been considered, with and without liquid agent fill. When the munition burster charge detonates, munition case fragments impact and perforate the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel wall, resulting in extensive breakup of this inner chamber and the formation of additional fragments. These residual munition case and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to crater the Explosive Containment Chamber inner wall layer, with accompanying localized permanent deformation (bulging) of both the inner and outer chamber walls. The integrity of the Explosive Containment Chamber was retained under all of the APV / munition configurations considered in this study, with no evidence that primary (munition) or secondary (munition and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel) fragments will perforate the inner chamber wall. Limited analyses of munition detonation without the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel present indicate that some munition span fragments could form under those conditions that have sufficient mass and velocity to perforate the inner wall of the Explosive Containment Chamber.

Benham, R.A.; Fischer, S.H.; Kipp, M.E.; Martinez, R.R.

1999-02-01

13

Explosion characteristics of LPG–air mixtures in closed vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental study of explosive combustion of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)–air mixtures at ambient initial temperature was performed in two closed vessels with central ignition, at various total initial pressures within 0.3–1.3bar and various fuel\\/air ratios, within the flammability limits. The transient pressure-time records were used to determine several explosion characteristics of LPG–air: the peak explosion pressure, the explosion time

Domnina Razus; Venera Brinzea; Maria Mitu; D. Oancea

2009-01-01

14

Composite Vessels for Containment of Extreme Blast Loadings  

SciTech Connect

A worldwide trend for explosives testing has been to replace open-air detonations with containment vessels, especially when any hazardous materials are involved. As part of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) effort to ensure the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been developing a high performance filament wound composite firing vessel that is nearly radiographically transparent. It was intended to contain a limited number of detonations of metal cased explosive assemblies in radiographic facilities such as the Advanced Hydrodynamic Facility (AHF) being studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory. A 2-meter diameter pressure vessel was designed to contain up to 35 kg (80 lb) of TNT equivalent explosive without leakage. Over the past 5 years a total of three half-scale (1 meter diameter) vessels have been constructed, and two of them were tested to 150% load with 8.2 kg (18-pound) spheres of C4 explosive. The low density and high specific strength advantages used in this composite vessel design may have other additional applications such as transporting sensitive explosives that could otherwise be moved only in very small quantities. Also, it could be used for highly portable, explosive containment systems for law enforcement.

Pastrnak, J; Henning, C; Grundler, W; Switzer, V; Hollaway, R; Morrison, J; Hagler, L; Kokko, E; Deteresa, S; Hathcoat, B; Dalder, E

2004-07-15

15

Explosion caused by flashing liquid in a process vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explosion occurred at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin manufacturing plant. The explosion originated at an atmospheric storage vessel when it received a slurry discharge from a suspension polymerization reactor. The pressure rise caused by the uncontrolled flashing of superheated liquid vinyl chloride resulted in the complete separation of the roof from the tank shell. A cloud of vinyl chloride

Russell A. Ogle; Marcus V. Megerle; Delmar R. Morrison; Andrew R. Carpenter

2004-01-01

16

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine...

2009-10-01

17

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine...

2010-10-01

18

Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1981-01-01

19

Mathematical modelling of dust explosions in interconnected vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the topic of dust explosions in connected vessels. This has gained much interest in recent years because of its safety applications and because of the new possibilities arising from the growth of computer simulations based on mathematical models. Modelling of such processes can be challenging: the equations are nonlinear and their numerical solution require good

P. Kosinski; A. C. Hoffmann

2005-01-01

20

Residual Stress Measurements of Explosively Clad Cylindrical Pressure Vessels  

SciTech Connect

Tantalum refractory liners were explosively clad into cylindrical pressure vessels, some of which had been previously autofrettaged. Using explosive cladding, the refractory liner formed a metallurgical bond with the steel of the pressure vessel at a cost of induced strain. Two techniques were employed to determine the residual stress state of the clad steel cylinders: neutron diffraction and mechanical slitting. Neutron diffraction is typically nondestructive; however, due to attenuation along the beam path, the cylinders had to be sectioned into rings that were nominally 25 mm thick. Slitting is a destructive method, requiring the sectioning of the cylindrical samples. Both techniques provided triaxial stress data and useful information on the effects of explosive cladding. The stress profiles in the hoop and radial directions were similar for an autofrettaged, nonclad vessel and a clad, nonautofrettaged vessel. The stress profiles in the axial direction appeared to be different. Further, the data suggested that residual stresses from the autofrettage and explosive cladding processes were not additive, in part due to evidence of reverse yielding. The residual stress data are presented, compared and discussed.

Taylor, Douglas J [TPL, Inc; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Hill, M. R. [Hill Engineering; Meith, W. A. [Hill Engineering

2012-01-01

21

Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Donald G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

22

Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

1984-06-25

23

Explosive containment with spherically tamped powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective technique for maximizing the explosive charge that a given container can safely handle is to fill the space between the charge and the container walls with a porous medium or a powder. Using the wrong powder, however, can be worse than using no powder at all. Moreover, a powder-filled container that performs very well with a small charge

L. A. Glenn

1986-01-01

24

Igloo containment system for improvised explosive devices  

SciTech Connect

A method for containing or partially containing the blast and dispersal of radioactive particulate from improvised explosive devices is described. The containment system is restricted to devices located in fairly open areas at ground level, e.g., devices concealed in trucks, vans, transportainers, or small buildings which are accessible from all sides.

Dyckes, G.W.

1980-09-01

25

Containment of explosions in water-filled right-circular cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formulation of basic explosion-containment equations for idealized water-filled right-circular cylinders is summarized. The equations express explosive-charge weight as a function of vessel geometry and conventional material properties. Extensive experiments with models verified the relations for a wide range of vessels, materials and sizes. The basic containment relations were modified to provide safe and reasonable solutions for less-adverse accident conditions

James F. Proctor

1970-01-01

26

Hydrogen/hydrocarbon explosions in the ITER vacuum vessel  

SciTech Connect

The consequences of H{sub 2}/hydrocarbon detonations in the vacuum vessel (torus) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have been studied. The most likely scenario for such a detonation involves a water leak into the torus and a vent of the torus to atmosphere, permitting the formation of an explosive fuel-air mixture. The generation of fuel gases and possible sources of air or oxygen are reviewed, and the severity and effects of specific fuel-air mixture explosions are evaluated. Detonation or deflagration of an explosive mixture could result in pressures exceeding the maximum allowable torus pressure. Further studies to examine the design details and develop an event-tree study of events following a gas detonation are recommended.

Goranson, P.L.

1992-04-01

27

Hydrogen/hydrocarbon explosions in the ITER vacuum vessel  

SciTech Connect

The consequences of H{sub 2}/hydrocarbon detonations in the vacuum vessel (torus) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have been studied. The most likely scenario for such a detonation involves a water leak into the torus and a vent of the torus to atmosphere, permitting the formation of an explosive fuel-air mixture. The generation of fuel gases and possible sources of air or oxygen are reviewed, and the severity and effects of specific fuel-air mixture explosions are evaluated. Detonation or deflagration of an explosive mixture could result in pressures exceeding the maximum allowable torus pressure. Further studies to examine the design details and develop an event-tree study of events following a gas detonation are recommended.

Goranson, P.L.

1992-01-01

28

Containment vessel for a nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A containment vessel for a nuclear reactor having a dry well for mounting therein a pressure vessel for containing the nuclear reactor, a pressure suppressing chamber having a pool of coolant therein, and a vent pipe device for releasing therethrough into the pool of coolant within the pressure suppressing chamber steam which will be produced as a result of the

Sh. Yamanari; T. Horiuchi; T. Sugisaki; K. Tominaga

1985-01-01

29

Oil spill containment device for aquatic vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an oil spill containment device for aquatic vessels including a flotation collar structure surrounding the periphery of the vessel to be contained, apparatus for deploying this collar including in one embodiment compressed air dispensing equipment and a cable deploying device which pays out and retracts cable as a function of tidal currents, and a sheet structure depending

Bouvier

1981-01-01

30

Mitigation of Explosions in a Vented Vessel Connected to a Duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the problem of mitigation of the explosion initiated in a vessel and vented through a duct.A solution has been studied which allows quiet evacuation of the explosion gases, without combustion intensification in the vessel and enhancement of explosion overpressures, characteristic in such a system. This can be obtained by retardation of the flame front penetrating into

B. PONIZY; B. VEYSSIERE

2000-01-01

31

Explosion of a road tanker containing liquified natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of a road tanker transporting LNG (one person killed, two injured) is studied. The analysis shows that the explosion, which followed a two-step mode as for the failure of the vessel, could have been a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). The overpressure and thermal radiation have been estimated and related to the effects observed. Only a relatively

Eulàlia Planas-Cuchi; Núria Gasulla; Albert Ventosa; Joaquim Casal

2004-01-01

32

Contained high explosive firing facility (CHEFF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cylindrical vessel capable of totally containing the products and shrapnel resulting from the detonation of 10 kg of TNT (or equivalent) has been designed and built by Southwest Research Institute for and according to the requirements of the Detonation Systems Group (M-7) of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The vessel is 6.0-m long by 3.6-m diameter and is manufactured of

H. L. Stacy; W. L. Seitz; J. Wackerle; M. Polcyn; E. Esparza

1993-01-01

33

Contained high explosive firing facility (CHEFF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cylindrical vessel capable of totally containing the products and shrapnel resulting from the detonation of 10 kg of TNT (or equivalent) has been designed and built by Southwest Research Institute for and according to the requirements of the Detonation Systems Group (M-7) of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The vessel is 6.0-m long by 3.6?m diameter and is manufactured of

H. L. Stacy; W. L. Seitz; Jerry Wackerle; Michael Polcyn; Edward Esparza

1994-01-01

34

Testing of a steel containment vessel model  

SciTech Connect

A mixed-scale containment vessel model, with 1:10 in containment geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness, was fabricated to represent an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment vessel. A contact structure, installed over the model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. This paper describes the pretest preparations and the conduct of the high pressure test of the model performed on December 11-12, 1996. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-04-01

35

Temperature and pressure influence on explosion pressures of closed vessel propane–air deflagrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of propane–air mixtures was performed, for systems with various initial concentrations and pressures ([C3H8]=2.50–6.20vol.%, p0=0.3–1.2bar). The explosion pressures and explosion times were measured in a spherical vessel (?=10cm), at various initial temperatures (T0=298–423K) and in a cylindrical vessel (?=10cm; h=15cm), at ambient initial temperature. The experimental values of explosion pressures

Domnina Razus; Venera Brinzea; Maria Mitu; Dumitru Oancea

2010-01-01

36

Preliminary results for a Russian designed explosive resistant container  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Experimental Physics has completed a contract with Sandia National Laboratories to explore conceptual development of a family of containers capable of withstanding an internal explosion. The goal was containment of both the explosive force and hazardous by-products of a generic conventional explosive device. The Institute studied two designs, one for 2 kg and

Carbiener

1996-01-01

37

Explosive composition containing high density hydrocarbon liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blasting composition is composed of a mixture of inorganic nitrate, e.g., ammonium nitrate, and a high density hydrocarbon liquid. This explosive has more explosive force than an equal volumetric amount of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel. The latter is a commercial explosive currently used in large quantities. A high-density hydrocarbon liquid is one having a density

W. L. Borkowski; A. Schneider

1977-01-01

38

Temperature and pressure influence on explosion pressures of closed vessel propane-air deflagrations.  

PubMed

An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures was performed, for systems with various initial concentrations and pressures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.2 bar). The explosion pressures and explosion times were measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm), at various initial temperatures (T(0)=298-423 K) and in a cylindrical vessel (Phi=10 cm; h=15 cm), at ambient initial temperature. The experimental values of explosion pressures are examined against literature values and compared to adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, initial temperature and fuel concentration on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, the explosion pressures are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, both the measured and calculated (adiabatic) explosion pressures are linear functions of reciprocal value of initial temperature. Such correlations are extremely useful for predicting the explosion pressures of flammable mixtures at elevated temperatures and/or pressures, when direct measurements are not available. PMID:19818553

Razus, Domnina; Brinzea, Venera; Mitu, Maria; Oancea, Dumitru

2009-09-23

39

Preliminary results for a Russian designed explosive resistant container.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Experimental Physics has completed a contract with Sandia National Laboratories to explore conceptual development of a family of containers capable of withstanding an internal explosion. The goal was contain...

K. E. Carbiener

1996-01-01

40

Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

Stinecipher, M.M.

1981-01-01

41

Calculating Contained Firing Facility (CFF) explosive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of California awarded LLNL contract No. B345381 for the design of the facility to Parsons Infrastructure Technology, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated fxings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg of

Lyle

1998-01-01

42

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. 174.16 Section...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component...suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD...

2010-07-01

43

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. 174.16 Section...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component...suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD...

2009-07-01

44

JUGFAE (Jug-Contained Fuel-Air Explosive) Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uncontested minefields, ones without covering enemy fire, are cleared cautiously but still cause casualties. The Jug-Contained Fuel-Air-Explosive (JUGFAE) concept does not send men into the minefield, but lets them proceed methodically from the minefield ...

J. D. Sullivan C. N. Kingery

1988-01-01

45

Spall Fracture of Metallic Circular Plates, Vessel Endplates and Conical Frustums Driven by Direct Explosive Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic fracture experiments are conducted for circular plates, vessel endplates and conical frustums of A2017-7075 aluminum alloys and 304 stainless steel, using a testing apparatus developed applying wire-row explosion technique to initiation, where tensile stress waves are generated producing spall in the specimens by the direct incidence of plane detonation waves of the explosive PETN. A VISAR system is adopted

Tetsuyuki Hiroe; Kazuhito Fujiwara; Hidehiro Hata; Daiki Tsutsumi

2007-01-01

46

Explosive containment and propagation evaluations for commonly used handling and storage containers  

SciTech Connect

A series of explosive tests were performed to establish containment integrity data for commonly used handling and storage containers of energetic materials at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M. The tests consisted of two phases: (1) each container was tested for explosive integrity and propagation, and (2) the data were used to evaluate a nominal donor-receptor test matrix for verifying the confinement integrity of a typical explosives service locker.

LeBlanc, R.

1994-01-01

47

An investigation of the consequences of primary dust explosions in interconnected vessels.  

PubMed

In this article Eulerian-Lagrangian 2D computer simulations of consequences of primary dust explosions in two vessels connected by a duct are described. After an explosion in the primary vessel a propagation of hot pressurised gases to the secondary vessel, initially uniformly filled with dust particles, is simulated. The gas phase is described by the standard equations and it is coupled with the particulate phase through the drag force and the convective heat transfer. No chemical reaction is considered in the model since the objective was to model the system up to the time of ignition. The computation was performed for different lengths and diameters (heights) of the linking duct. Having analysed the results, it was concluded that the simulations agree with experimental observations in that the probability of transmission of an explosion from the primary to the secondary vessel decreases with decreasing diameter (height) and increasing length of the connecting pipeline. Snapshots of particle positions for different times are presented. The work illustrates the behaviour of the mixture in the secondary vessel: the particles tend to concentrate in clouds, and domains with no particles are observed. This may influence the explosion characteristics of the system. PMID:16730896

Kosinski, Pawel; Hoffmann, Alex C

2006-05-30

48

Three-dimensional analysis for explosions of a propane-air mixture in cylindrical vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematically simple spatial difference method has been applied for analysing three-dimensionally, and for illustrating graphically, the process of the development of a flame after the propane-air stoichiometric mixture is ignited. The calculated results show that the mathematical simulation can well express the process of mixture explosion in cylindrical vessels, and can evaluate the effects of laminar swirl flow on

Y. Tanaka; Y. Hamamoto; E. Tomita

1988-01-01

49

Molten iron containing vessel with improved refractory lining  

SciTech Connect

A molten iron containing vessel includes a refractory fireproof inner lining of dolomite bricks and bauxite bricks. The lining includes magnesia bricks positioned between the dolomite and bauxite bricks, thereby avoiding contact reactions between the dolomite and bauxite. A gas permeable brick member extends through an end portion of the vessel for injecting a gas into the molten iron contained therein.

Coordes, H.; Oberbach, M.

1984-02-21

50

Contained fissionly vaporized imploded fission explosive breeder reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a nuclear reactor system which produces useful thermal power and breeds fissile isotopes wherein large spherical complex slugs containing fissile and fertile isotopes as well as vaporizing and tamping materials are exploded seriatim in a large containing chamber having walls protected from the effects of the explosion by about two thousand tons of slurry of fissile and fertile

Marwick

1978-01-01

51

Explosion testing for the container venting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the study of the hazards of inspecting nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site, the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Hanford Company have developed a container venting system to sample the gases that may be present in various metal drums and other containers. In support of this work, the US Bureau of Mines has studied the

K. L. Cashdollar; G. M. Green; R. A. Thomas; J. A. Demiter

1993-01-01

52

Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel  

DOEpatents

This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

Powell, J.G.

1993-11-16

53

Preliminary results for a Russian designed explosive resistant container  

SciTech Connect

The Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Experimental Physics has completed a contract with Sandia National Laboratories to explore conceptual development of a family of containers capable of withstanding an internal explosion. The goal was containment of both the explosive force and hazardous by-products of a generic conventional explosive device. The Institute studied two designs, one for 2 kg and one for 50 kg of explosive. The designs were based on numerical calculations to extrapolate prior Russian design and experimental work to encompass these two cases. The Institute`s analyses indicate that they achieved excellent results for both a spherical and a cylindrical container made from a stainless steel/fiberglass composite construction. Both designs incorporate unique design features for door closures, internal shrapnel resistance, and shock attenuation. The project identified testing requirements, potential design feature improvements, as well as a sensitivity to the mass of packaging material around the explosive. We are pursuing these issues in a follow-on contract that is being negotiated.

Carbiener, K.E.

1996-12-01

54

Development of A595 Explosion-Resistant Container Design. Numerical, Theoretical and Experimental Justification of the Container Design Parameters  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental study on the AT595 metal-composite container designed in VNIIEF within the framework of international collaboration with SNL (USA). This container must completely contain products of an 8-kg-TNT detonation cased in 35 kg of inert surrounding material. Numerical and theoretical studies have been carried out of the containment capacity and fracture of small-scale open cylinder test units and container pressure vessel models subjected to different levels of specific explosive load (beneath, equal to and above the required design load defined for this container), and two AT595 containers have been tested for the design load and a higher load.

Abakumov, A. I.; Devyatkin, I. V.; Meltsas, V. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Portnyagina, G. F.; Rusak, V. N.; Solovyev, V. P.; Syrunin, M. A.; Treshalin, S. M.; Fedorenko, A. G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation)

2006-08-03

55

Spall Fracture of Metallic Circular Plates, Vessel Endplates and Conical Frustums Driven by Direct Explosive Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic fracture experiments are conducted for circular plates, vessel endplates and conical frustums of A2017-7075 aluminum alloys and 304 stainless steel, using a testing apparatus developed applying wire-row explosion technique to initiation, where tensile stress waves are generated producing spall in the specimens by the direct incidence of plane detonation waves of the explosive PETN. A VISAR system is adopted to observe the free-surface velocity histories of the specimens. The signals for basic circular plate specimens indicate the characteristics of the failure for tested materials, effects of explosive thickness variations and the configuration of specimens. Hydro codes are satisfactorily applied to simulate the experimental signal data and observed damage phenomena of recovered specimens. Next, an explosive-filled cylindrical vessel with endplate at the one end is initiated at the other end surface and expanded by axially propagating explosive detonation to fracture. Both the VISAR signals and numerical simulation indicate a pullback signal of spallation at the endplate. Finally conic frustums are also loaded by plane detonation, showing different type of spall failure due to the additional reflected waves from the slopping side surfaces.

Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito; Hata, Hidehiro; Tsutsumi, Daiki

2007-06-01

56

Spall Fracture of Metallic Circular Plates, Vessel Endplates and Conical Frustums Driven by Direct Explosive Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic fracture experiments are conducted for circular plates, vessel endplates and conical frustums of A2017-7075 aluminum alloys and 304 stainless steel, using a testing apparatus developed applying wire-row explosion technique to initiation, where tensile stress waves are generated producing spall in the specimens by the direct incidence of plane detonation waves of the explosive PETN. A VISAR system is adopted to observe the free-surface velocity histories of the specimens. The signals for basic circular plate specimens indicate the characteristics of the failure for tested materials, effects of explosive thickness variations and the configuration of specimens. Hydro codes are satisfactorily applied to simulate the experimental signal data and observed damage phenomena of recovered specimens. Next, an explosive-filled cylindrical vessel with an endplate at the one end is initiated at the other end surface and expanded by axially propagating explosive detonation to fracture. Both the VISAR signals and numerical simulation indicate a pullback signal of spallation at the endplate. Finally conic frustums are also loaded by plane detonation, showing different type of spall failure due to the additional reflected waves from the slopping side surfaces.

Hiroe, T.; Fujiwara, K.; Hata, H.; Tsutsumi, D.

2007-12-01

57

Instrumentation and testing of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model  

SciTech Connect

Static overpressurization tests of two scale models of nuclear containment structures - a steel containment vessel (SCV) representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for pressurized water reactors (PWR) - are being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper discusses plans for instrumentation and testing of the PCCV model. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Hessheimer, M.F.; Pace, D.W.; Klamerus, E.W. [and others

1997-04-01

58

Containment of Tritium in Austenitic Stainless Steel Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vessel of type 316L stainless steel will be used for the long-term storage of tritium. The tritium may be gas, or fixed as a metal tritide. We have assembled the data and equations needed to estimate the efficiency of the containment. If the vessel wall...

C. E. Ells S. A. Kushneriuk J. H. Van Der Kuur

1981-01-01

59

Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the Molten Salt Destruction Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current method of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), or other energetic materials, by open-pit burning, or detonation is becoming an environmentally unacceptable form of bulk destruction of these materials because of the products of incomplete combustion of HE. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD

R. S. Upadhye; W. A. Brummond; C. O. Pruneda

1992-01-01

60

Reinforced concrete containment safety under hydrogen explosion loading  

SciTech Connect

In the present study the behavior and safety of a typical steel-lined reinforced concrete containment under postulated hydrogen explosions is investigated. The containment structure is that of the Indian Point, Unit 3, nuclear power plant, and consists of a cylinder capped with a hemispherical dome. The postulated explosions include both deflagrations and detonations. A deflagration produces a slow increase in pressure and temperature inside the containment. The pressure at the end of deflagration is, in first approximation, proportional to the predeflagration pressure and to the hydrogen volumetric concentration, and inversely proportional to the initial absolute temperature of the containment. The response to the quasistatic deflagration loading is computed by axisymmetric nonlinear Finite Element analysis.

Fardis, M.N.; Nacar, A.; Delichatsios, M.A.

1982-09-01

61

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-06-15

62

Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-16

63

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component...suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities...

2013-07-01

64

Three-dimensional analysis for explosions of a propane-air mixture in cylindrical vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematically simple spatial difference method has been applied for analysing three-dimensionally, and for illustrating graphically, the process of the development of a flame after the propane-air stoichiometric mixture is ignited. The calculated results show that the mathematical simulation can well express the process of mixture explosion in cylindrical vessels, and can evaluate the effects of laminar swirl flow on the flame development. It is concluded that the swirl motion deforms the flame front and accelerates the flame enlargement. Described also is a comparison of swirl flame calculation, with and without the centripetal effect caused by the difference in densities between burnt and unburnt gases.

Tanaka, Y.; Hamamoto, Y.; Tomita, E.

1988-07-01

65

PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS  

SciTech Connect

Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

Hensel, S.

2012-03-27

66

Sunken vessels and aircraft containing hazardous materials in Puget Sound  

SciTech Connect

In past years, numerous ships, barges, and aircraft potentially containing various kinds of hazardous cargo and large amounts of fuel and oil have sunk in Puget Sound and adjacent waters. Some of the cargo, fuel and oil, if present in sufficient quantities could pose a hazard to human health or the aquatic environment. Vessels of interest include commercial transport and military vessels over 50 tons gross weight (greater than 100 feet in length) that sank after 1915, and all commercial and military aircraft. Thirty-seven sources of information were investigated including state and federal government agencies, public port associations, maritime organizations, historical archives, and individuals. Using information from these sources, a list of 134 sunken vessels and aircraft were compiled.

Barnard, K.M.; Gordon, D.G.

1991-08-01

67

Posttest Analyses of the Steel Containment Vessel Model  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure test of a scale model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. This testis part of a program to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loads beyond the design basis accident. The posttest analyses of this test focused on three areas where the pretest analysis effort did not adequately predict the model behavior during the test. These areas are the onset of global yielding, the strain concentrations around the equipment hatch and the strain concentrations that led to a small tear near a weld relief opening that was not modeled in the pretest analysis.

Costello, J.F.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Luk, V.K.

1999-03-01

68

Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

1999-03-01

69

The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within

Kane J. Fisher

2000-01-01

70

Instrumentation of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model  

SciTech Connect

A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. At present, two tests are being planned: a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) that is representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design; and a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper discusses plans and the results of a preliminary investigation of the instrumentation of the PCCV model. The instrumentation suite for this model will consist of approximately 2000 channels of data to record displacements, strains in the reinforcing steel, prestressing tendons, concrete, steel liner and liner anchors, as well as pressure and temperature. The instrumentation is being designed to monitor the response of the model during prestressing operations, during Structural Integrity and Integrated Leak Rate testing, and during test to failure of the model. Particular emphasis has been placed on instrumentation of the prestressing system in order to understand the behavior of the prestressing strands at design and beyond design pressure levels. Current plans are to place load cells at both ends of one third of the tendons in addition to placing strain measurement devices along the length of selected tendons. Strain measurements will be made using conventional bonded foil resistance gages and a wire resistance gage, known as a {open_quotes}Tensmeg{close_quotes}{reg_sign} gage, specifically designed for use with seven-wire strand. The results of preliminary tests of both types of gages, in the laboratory and in a simulated model configuration, are reported and plans for instrumentation of the model are discussed.

Hessheimer, M.F.; Rightley, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1995-09-01

71

DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS  

SciTech Connect

Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

Leduc, D

2008-06-10

72

Effects of natural convection on thermal explosion in a closed vessel.  

PubMed

A new way of ascertaining whether or not a reacting mixture will explode uses just three timescales: that for chemical reaction to heat up the fluid containing the reactants and products, the timescale for heat conduction out of the reactor, and the timescale for natural convection in the fluid. This approach is developed for an nth order chemical reaction, A --> B occurring exothermically in a spherical, batch reactor without significant consumption of A. The three timescales are expressed in terms of the physical and chemical parameters of the system. Numerical simulations are performed for laminar natural convection occurring; also, a theoretical relation is developed for turbulent flow. These theoretical and numerical results agree well with previous experimental measurements for the decomposition of azomethane in the gas phase. The new theory developed here is compared with Frank-Kamenetskii's classical criterion for explosion. This new treatment has the advantage of separating the two effects inhibiting explosion, viz. heat removal by thermal conduction and by natural convection. Also, the approach is easily generalised to more complex reactions and flow systems. PMID:18956086

Liu, Ting-Yueh; Campbell, Alasdair N; Cardoso, Silvana S S; Hayhurst, Allan N

2008-07-24

73

The Containment of Blast Effects from the Detonation of Small High Explosive Charges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A spherical containment device to be used for the safe transportation of high explosives was evaluated for its ability to suppress blast effects from internal explosive detonations of charge weights extending to 483 gms (17.03 oz.) of 50/50 pentolite expl...

W. F. Jackson

1981-01-01

74

Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method is disclosed for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives (TNT and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

Radtke, C.W.; Roberto, F.F.

2000-04-18

75

15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Vessels, locomotives, aircraft, rail cars, trucks, other vehicles, trailers, pallets...United States to ownership abroad. If a vessel, car, aircraft, locomotive, rail car, vehicle, or container, whether in...

2013-01-01

76

Calculating Contained Firing Facility (CFF) explosive ; firing zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of California awarded LLNL contract No. B345381 for the design of the facility to Parsons Infrastructure & Technology, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated fxings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg

Lyle

1998-01-01

77

Explosions in closed pipes containing baffles and 90 degree bends  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general lack of information on the effects of full-bore obstacles on combustion in the literature, these obstacles are prevalent in many applications and knowledge of their effects on phenomena including burning rate, flame acceleration and DDT is important for the correct placing of explosion safety devices such as flame arresters and venting devices. In this work methane,

Robert Blanchard; Detlef Arndt; Rainer Grätz; Marco Poli; Swen Scheider

2010-01-01

78

DARRIEUS–LANDAU AND THERMO-ACOUSTIC INSTABILITIES IN CLOSED VESSEL EXPLOSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments involving a spherical explosion bomb are reported, in which Darrieus–Landau thermo-diffusive, D-L,T-D, flame instabilities interacted with primary and secondary, self-excited, thermo-acoustic oscillations. Explosions with central ignition demonstrated that rich i-octane and lean hydrogen-air mixtures generated strong pressure oscillations, a consequence of their negative Markstein numbers. Utilizing dual wall ignitions, the structures of high pressure flames were studied using appropriate

A. S. AL-SHAHRANY; D. BRADLEY; M. LAWES; K. LIU; R. WOOLLEY

2006-01-01

79

Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs

D. Trapp; G. Crow

2011-01-01

80

Pressurized 3-piece steel container explosions and failure mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of 3-piece steel pressurized containers includes double seams that connect the bottom and top of the container\\u000a to the container body. These seams have some inherent design features, such as crevices, that can lead to corrosion and other\\u000a forms of failure. Since the 3-piece containers are pressurized with liquefied propellants, such as propane, failure can lead\\u000a to catastrophic

M. Fox; R. Hastings

2003-01-01

81

DC FURNACE CONTAINMENT VESSEL DESIGN USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective pyrometallurgical process vessel design requires accurate assessment of the heat fluxes through the walls of the furnace. This is particularly important for freeze lining operation which is designed to protect refractory materials exposed to chemically corrosive molten contents, or facilitate high temperature operation when the refractory materials are used at conditions close to their service limits. Numerical modelling of

B. Henning; M. Shapiro; L. A. le Grange

82

Pesticide Chemical Runaway Reaction Pressure Vessel Explosion (Two Killed, Eight Injured). Investigation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On August 28, 2008, at about 10:35 p.m., a runaway chemical reaction occurred inside a 4,500 gallon pressure vessel known as a residue treater, causing the vessel to explode violently in the methomyl unit at the Bayer CropScience facility in Institute, We...

2011-01-01

83

Third symposium on containment of underground nuclear explosions. Abstracts  

SciTech Connect

The symposium included presentations and discussions on containment and related geological, geophysical, engineering, chemical and computational topics. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (ACR)

Not Available

1985-01-01

84

Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions  

SciTech Connect

Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (50--90mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments.

Porter, V.L.

1993-12-31

85

Pretest Round Robin Analysis of 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative scale models of nuclear containment to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. This objective is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. This research program consists of testing two scale models: a steel containment vessel (SCV) model (tested in 1996) and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, which is the subject of this paper.

HESSHEIMER,MICHAEL F.; LUK,VINCENT K.; KLAMERUS,ERIC W.; SHIBATA,S.; MITSUGI,S.; COSTELLO,J.F.

2000-12-18

86

USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST  

SciTech Connect

Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

2011-06-03

87

Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

1992-07-01

88

Hydrolysis of plutonium: Corrosion kinetics in DMSO solutions containing simulated high explosive and water  

SciTech Connect

A sequence of experiments is described that address the compatibility of plutonium metal with dimethyl sulfoxide solvent and with solutions containing simulated HMX explosive and simulated explosive plus water. In the absence of water, reaction is slow and forms a thin adherent product layer on clean metal surfaces. Corrosion of oxide-coated plutonium is observed after 15 to 20 days in a solution containing 0.18 mass % (0.11 M) water. After corrosion initiates, the rate accelerates rapidly and attains a value of 0.13 mg Pu/cm{sup 2} h with a surface that is approximately one percent active. Dependence of the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction on water concentration is evaluated using the data from literature sources. Hazards associated with the use of wet dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent for removing explosives during weapon dismantlement are identified and a simple method for their mitigation is outlined.

Haschke, J.M.; Pruner, R.E. II

1995-01-01

89

Development of steam explosion simulation code JASMINE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steam explosion is considered as a phenomenon which possibly threatens the integrity of the containment vessel of a nuclear power plant in a severe accident condition. A numerical calculation code JASMINE (JAeri Simulator for Multiphase INteraction and ...

J. Sugimoto K. Moriyama N. Yamano T. Kudo Y. Maruyama

1995-01-01

90

Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation's stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE's Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PB...

C. E. Burgess J. D. Woodyard K. A. Rainwater J. M. Lightfoot B. R. Richardson

1998-01-01

91

Explosive Synthesis of Ultradisperse Aluminum Oxide in an Oxygen?Containing Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosive synthesis of ultradisperse aluminum oxide in an oxygen-containing medium is studied. Synthesis conditions that are most optimal for production of the material in the ultradisperse state are determined. A physical model of the process is proposed. It is shown that attenuation of the shock wave causes separation of the shock-compressed material into liquid and solid layers. Possible mechanisms of

A. A. Bukaemskii; A. G. Beloshapko

2001-01-01

92

Thermal explosion in a combustible gas containing fuel droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original physical model of self-ignition in a combustible gas mixture containing liquid fuel droplets is developed. The droplets are small enough for the gas-droplet mixture to be considered as a fine mist such that individual droplet burning is subsumed into a well-stirred, spatially invariant burning approximation. A classical Semenov-type analysis is used to describe the exothermic reaction, and the endothermic terms involve the use of quasi-steady mass transfer/heat balance and the Clausius-Clapeyron evaporative law. The resulting analysis predicts the ignition delay which is a function of the system parameters. Results are given for typical dynamical regimes. The case of different initial temperatures for droplets and gas is highly relevant to gas turbine lean blow-out and re-ignition.

McIntosh, A. C.; Gol'dshtein, V.; Goldfarb, I.; Zinoviev, A.

1998-06-01

93

33 CFR 401.72 - Reporting-explosive and hazardous cargo vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The name of the cargo, its IMO class and UN number as set out in the...Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on a hazardous cargo that...enabling the preparation of an MSDS. (h) Every vessel shall...refusal. [45 FR 52379, Aug. 7, 1980, as amended at 61...

2013-07-01

94

Numerical simulation by the molecular collision theory of two-phase mixture explosion characteristics in closed or vented vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work consists in presenting a simple modelling (the molecular collision theory), easily usable in an industrial environment in order to predict the evolution of thermodynamical characteristics of the combustion of two-phase mixtures in a closed or a vented vessel. Basic characteristics of the modelling have been developed for ignition and combustion of propulsive powders and adapted with appropriate parameters linked to simplified kinetics. A simple representation of the combustion phenomena based on energy transfers and the action of specific molecules is presented. The model is generalized to various mixtures such as dust suspensions, liquid fuel drops and hybrid mixtures composed of dust and a gaseous supply such as methane or propane in the general case of vented explosions. The pressure venting due to the vent breaking is calculated from thermodynamical characteristics given by the model and taking into account, the mass rate of discharge of the different products deduced from the standard orifice equations. The application conditions determine the fuel ratio of the used mixtures, the nature of the chemical kinetics and the calculation of a universal set of parameters. The model allows to study the influence of the fuel concentration and the supply of gaseous additives, the influence of the vessel volume (2400ell leq V_bleq 250 000ell) and the influence of the venting pressure or the vent area. The first results have been compared with various experimental works available for two phase mixtures and indicate quite correct predictions.

Pascaud, J. M.; Brossard, J.; Lombard, J. M.

1999-09-01

95

Vitrification of actinides contained in platinum alloy vessels  

SciTech Connect

While the use of platinum and platinum alloys for melting glass has a history dating back hundreds of years, its use for vitrification of radioactive materials has developed only within the last few years. Platinum-rhodium alloy has recently been utilized for both the containment and heating of small quantities of actinide materials during the vitrification process. Small, platinum alloy, melter systems are planned for use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to vitrify residual actinide materials. The primary example is the SRS program to vitrify the contents of F-canyon Tank 17.1. This tank contains the majority of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) in the DOE complex. Other actinides by be verified in the future and include uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu).

Schumacher, R.F.

1997-10-01

96

Test Results Using a Bell Jar to Measure Containment Vessel Pressurization  

SciTech Connect

A bell jar is used to determine containment vessel pressurization due to outgassing of plutonium materials. Fifteen food cans containing plutonium bearing materials, including plutonium packaged in direct contact with plastic and plutonium contaminated enriched oxide have been tested to date.

Hensel, S.J.

2002-05-10

97

Explosives tester  

DOEpatents

An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

2011-01-11

98

Probabilistic assessment of a containment vessel's survivability to facilitate decision making and enhance quality assurance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a probabilistic approach for assessing the design and safety of an HSLA-100 Steel Confinement Vessel for particular types of detonations. Likelihood of failure for three different scenarios is considered. They are the likelihood a fragment, (1) penetrates half the containment vessel's thickness, (2) perforates through the containment vessel, and (3) perforates a secondary safety vessel given it's perforated the containment vessel. Uncertainties to be quantified include a fragment's geometry, orientation, and velocity. The governing equation for the likelihood of failure is the probability a large enough fragment exits, that it travels fast enough, and is in the proper orientation. The mathematical formulation of this probability expression is presented. The likelihood of failure is based on existing experimental evidence, theory, and expert judgment. Simulations are performed using Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling. The assessment model is used to verify and validate numerical predictions in the well-defined-well-documented, (WDWD) domain. Using Bayesian methods, confidence in numerical predictions is assessed within the WDWD domain so inferences beyond the domain can be made with confidence using only numerical analysis. The assessment model's influence diagram is evolved into a decision analysis model. Validation problems are presented to exercise the decision model.

Dolin, Ronald M.

2001-01-01

99

Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic

Caroline E. Burgess; James D. Woodyard; K. A. Rainwater; J. M. Lightfoot; B. R. Richardson

1998-01-01

100

Temperature and pressure influence on maximum rates of pressure rise during explosions of propane–air mixtures in a spherical vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum rates of pressure rise during closed vessel explosions of propane–air mixtures are reported, for systems with various initial concentrations, pressures and temperatures ([C3H8]=2.50–6.20vol.%, p0=0.3–1.3bar; T0=298–423K). Experiments were performed in a spherical vessel (?=10cm) with central ignition. The deflagration (severity) index KG, calculated from experimental values of maximum rates of pressure rise is examined against the adiabatic deflagration index,

D. Razus; V. Brinzea; M. Mitu; C. Movileanu; D. Oancea

2011-01-01

101

Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium99  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge,

Pamela M. Dawson; D. Daniel Watson; James M. Hylko

2002-01-01

102

Response of a BWR Mark II containment vessel head to loads beyond the design basis  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the macro-deformations of the sealing surfaces between the removable drywell head and the conical shell of a Mark II containment vessel head during a severe accident is presented. This junction contains two continuous gaskets in a configuration classified as non-pressure seating. An examination of the behavior of this junction to pressure and thermal loadings is reported. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Kulak, R.F.; Ash, J.E.; Kennedy, J.M.; Hsieh, B.J.

1985-01-01

103

Vibration and shock test report for the H1616-1 container and the Savannah River Hydride Transport Vessel  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories performed random vibration and shock tests on a tritium hydride transport vessel that was packaged in an H1616-1 container. The objective of the tests was to determine if the hydride transport vessel remains leaktight under vibration and shock normally incident to transport, which is a requirement that the hydride transport vessel must meet to be shipped in the H1616-1. Helium leak tests before and after the vibration and shock tests showed that the hydride transport vessel remained leaktight under the specified conditions. There were no detrimental effects on the containment vessel of the H1616-1.

York, A.R. II; Joseph, B.J.

1992-11-01

104

Investigative studies into the recovery of DNA from improvised explosive device containers.  

PubMed

Apprehending those who utilize improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a national priority owing to their use both domestically and abroad. IEDs are often concealed in bags, boxes, or backpacks to prevent their detection. Given this, the goal of the research presented was to identify IED handlers through postblast DNA recovery from IED containers. Study participants were asked to use backpacks for 11 days, after which they served as containers for pipe bombs. Eleven postdeflagration backpack regions likely to be handled were swabbed and analyzed via mini-short tandem repeats (miniSTRs) and alleles were called blind. An experimental consensus method was examined in which profiles from all regions were considered, to help identify spurious drop-in/out. Results were correct for all loci, except one that remained ambiguous. The results show that recovering DNA from IED containers is a viable approach for aiding in the identification of those who may have been involved in an IED event. PMID:22150348

Hoffmann, Shane G; Stallworth, Shawn E; Foran, David R

2011-12-08

105

Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types-based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

2009-12-01

106

The effect of friction on simulated containment of underground nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The strength of the residual stress field is used as an important indicator in assessing the containment of underground nuclear explosions. Containment analysis using the COTTAGE geology shows considerable cracking in the hard Paleozoic layer, just below the cavity. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of total shear stress applied to a closed fracture surface to normal applied compressive total stress. Without any friction, the Paleozoic residual stress field is weakest. As the friction coefficient is increased from 0 to 0.5, the Paleozoic residual stress field is strengthened. A further increase of the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.8 shows strengthened where cracks are closed and weakening where cracks remain open. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Attia, A.V.

1990-11-01

107

Numerical analysis of two dimensional natural convection heat transfer following a contained explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pantex facility near Amarillo, Texas, is the only U.S. site charged with the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Concerns over the safety of weapons handling procedures are now being revisited, due to the enhanced safety requirements of the peace time disassembly effort. This research is a detailed examination of one possible nuclear weapons-related accident. In this hypothetical accident, a chemical explosion equivalent to over 50 kilos of TNT destroys unassembled nuclear weapons components, and may potentially result in some amount of plutonium reaching the environment. Previous attempts to simulate this accident have centered around the one-dimensional node and branch approach of the MELCOR code. This approach may be adequate in calculating pressure driven flow through narrow rampways and leak sites, however, its one-dimensionality does not allow it to accurately calculate the multi-dimensional aspects of heat transfer. This research effort uses an axi-symmetric stream function---vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations to model a Pantex cell building following a successfully contained chemical explosion. This allows direct calculation of the heat transfer within the cell room during the transient. The tool that was developed to perform this analysis is called PET (Post-Explosion Transient), and it simulates natural convection thermal hydraulics taking into account temperature-related fluid density differences, variable fluid transport properties, and a non-linear equation of state. Results obtained using the PET code indicate that previous analyses by other researchers using the MELCOR code have been overly conservative in estimating the effects of cell room heat transfer. An increase in the calculated heat transfer coefficient of approximately 20% is indicated. This has been demonstrated to significantly decrease the projected consequences of the hypothetical accident.

Manson, Steven James

108

Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs is that the 6CVS credits the inner O-ring seal as the containment boundary while the SRNL design credits the outer O-ring seal. Since the leak test must be done with the inner O-ring in place, the containment vessel does not have a pathway for getting the helium into the vessel during the leak test. The leak testing contractor was not able to get acceptable leak rates with the specified O-ring, but they were able to pass the leak test with a slightly larger O-ring. ANL asked the SRNL to duplicate the leak test vendor's method to determine the cause of the high leak rates. The SRNL testing showed that the helium leak indications were caused by residual helium left within the 6CVS Closure Assembly by the leak test technique, and by helium permeation through the Viton O-ring seals. After SRNL completed their tests, the leak testing contractor was able to measure acceptable leak rates by using the slightly larger O-ring size, by purging helium from the lid threads, and by being very quick in getting the bell jar under a full vacuum. This paper describes the leak test vendor's test technique, and other techniques that could be have been used to successfully leak test the 6CVS's.

Trapp, D.; Crow, G.

2011-06-06

109

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation...carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1...chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition,...

2012-10-01

110

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation...carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1...chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition,...

2011-10-01

111

DESIGN OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR SHIPMENT OF TRITIUM GAS  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design summary of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This new package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The new design is based on changes in the regulatory requirements. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials that enhance the package's ability to withstand dynamic loading and thermal effects. This paper will specifically summarize the design philosophy and engineered features of the BTSP containment vessel closure. The closure design incorporates a concave closure lid, metallic C-Ring seals for containing tritium gas, a metal bellows valve and an elastomer O-Ring for leak testing. The efficient design minimizes the overall vessel height and protects the valve housing from damage during postulated drop and crush scenarios. Design features will be discussed.

Eberl, K; Paul Blanton, P

2007-07-03

112

Experimental and numerical correlation of a scaled containment vessel subjected to an internal blast load  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently in the design phase of a large Containment System that will be used to contain hydrodynamic experiments. The system in question is being designed to elastically withstand a 50 kg internal high explosive (PBX-9501) detonation. A one-tenth scaled model of the containment system was fabricated and used to obtain experimental results of both pressure loading and strain response. The experimental data are compared with numerical predictions of pressure loading and strain response obtained from an Eulerian hydrodynamic code (MESA-2D) and an explicit, non-linear finite element code (LLNL DYNA3D). The two-dimensional pressure predictions from multiple hydrodynamic simulations are used as loading in the structural simulation. The predicted pressure histories and strain response compare well with experimental results at several locations.

Romero, C.; Benner, J.C.; Berkbigler, L.W.

1997-02-01

113

49 CFR 176.190 - Departure of vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.190 Departure of vessel. When loading of Class 1 (explosive) materials is completed, the vessel...

2012-10-01

114

Headspace concentrations of explosive vapors in containers designed for canine testing and training: theory, experiment, and canine trials.  

PubMed

It is a common misconception that the amount of explosive is the chief contributor to the quantity of vapor that is available to trained canines. In fact, this quantity (known as odor availability) depends not only on the amount of explosive material, but also the container volume, explosive vapor pressure and temperature. In order to better understand odor availability, headspace experiments were conducted and the results were compared to theory. The vapor-phase concentrations of three liquid explosives (nitromethane, nitroethane and nitropropane) were predicted using the Ideal Gas Law for containers of various volumes that are in use for canine testing. These predictions were verified through experiments that varied the amount of sample, the container size, and the temperature. These results demonstrated that the amount of sample that is needed to saturate different sized containers is small, predictable and agrees well with theory. In general, and as expected, once the headspace of a container is saturated, any subsequent increase in sample volume will not result in the release of more vapors. The ability of canines to recognize and alert to differing amounts of nitromethane has also been studied. In particular, it was found that the response of trained canines is independent of the amount of nitromethane present, provided it is a sufficient quantity to saturate the container in which it is held. PMID:22421324

Lotspeich, Erica; Kitts, Kelley; Goodpaster, John

2012-03-13

115

CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

2011-02-14

116

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF VESSEL-SPANNING BUBBLES IN CYLINDRICAL & ANNULAR & OBROUND & AND CONICAL CONTAINERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske & Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske & Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers, is included in Appendix A. Results from the experiments confirm that the gravity yield parameter, Y{sub G}, correctly

DHALIWAL TK

2010-01-01

117

PWR dry containment issue characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe accident issues have been characterized for pressurized water reactors with large dry containments. A description of PWR dry containment performance under severe accident conditions is provided. Reviews and discussions of early containment failure due to direct containment heating (DCH), in-vessel steam explosions, hydrogen burns and steam spikes, late containment failure due to gradual overpressurization and basemat meltthrough, and containment

1990-01-01

118

Preliminary analysis of large penetration enclosures for containment vessels subject to beyond design basis loadings  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulations of the macro-deformations of the sealing surfaces (gasketed junctures) of a PWR steel containment vessel's equipment hatch subjected to accident loadings have been performed. Results for the equipment hatch juncture indicate that the rotations of the hatch cover and penetration sleeve must be accounted for when performing leakage analysis because they can affect the compression of the gasket even though the gasket is in a pressure-seated configuration. Results from a leakage analysis indicated that excessive leakage can occur if the surface roughness is high and/or the compression set is high.

Kulak, R.F.; Hsieh, B.J.; Ash, J.E.; Kennedy, J.M.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-01-01

119

Processing of Lewisite munitions in the explosive destruction system.  

SciTech Connect

The Explosive Destruction System (EDS) is a transportable system designed to treat chemical munitions. The EDS is transported on an open trailer that provides a mounting surface for major system components and an operator's work platform. The trailer is towed by a prime mover. An explosive containment vessel contains the shock, munition fragments, and the chemical agent during the munition opening process, and then provides a vessel for the subsequent chemical treatment of the agent. A fragmentation suppression system houses the chemical munition and protects the containment vessel from high velocity fragments. An explosive accessing system uses shaped charges to cut the munition open and attack the burster. A firing system detonates the shaped charges. A chemical feed system supplies neutralizing reagents and water to the containment vessel. A waste handling system drains the treated effluent.

Shepodd, Timothy J.; Didlake, John E., Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W., PhD; Weiss, Tricia (Chemical Materials Agency)

2005-03-01

120

Venting gas and dust explosions - A review  

SciTech Connect

The author has divided this book into three main chapters - the first chapter gives a general overview of enclosed and vented explosions describing the influences of such factors as size and shape of the vessel, turbulence and ignition energy. The second and third chapters contain a description of the methods for calculating vent areas applicable to gas and dust explosions. Methods are tested against published data and conclusions are drawn as to methods and range of application.

Lunn, G.A.

1984-01-01

121

Minol IV, A New Explosive Composition Containing Ammonium Nitrate-Potassium Nitrate Solid Solution. Part I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minol II (40% ammonium nitrate, 20% aluminum) is useful as an explosive fill for bombs, because its use substitutes cheap, and abundant, ammonium nitrate (AN) for more expensive, and sometimes scarce, TNT. However, Minol II exhibits poor dimensional stabi...

A. L. Bertram C. Boyars J. R. Holden

1973-01-01

122

EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

Smith, A.

2010-02-16

123

Numerical simulation by the molecular collision theory of two-phase mixture explosion characteristics in closed or vented vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work consists in presenting a simple modelling (the molecular collision theory), easily usable in an industrial environment in order to predict the evolution of thermodynamical characteristics of the combustion of two-phase mixtures in a closed or a vented vessel. Basic characteristics of the modelling have been developed for ignition and combustion of propulsive powders and adapted

J. M. Pascaud; J. Brossard; J. M. Lombard

1999-01-01

124

Impact limiter design for a lightweight tritium hydride vessel transport container  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed an impact-limiting system for a small, lightweight radioactive material shipping container. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is developing this Type B package for the shipment of tritium, replacing the outdated LP-50 shipping container. Regulatory accident resistance requirements for Type B packages, including this new tritium package, are specified in 10 CFR 71 (NRC 1983). The regulatory requirements include a 9-meter free drop onto an unyielding target, a 1-meter drop onto a mild steel punch, and a 30-minute 800{degrees} C fire test. Impact limiters are used to protect the package in the free-drop accident condition in any impact orientation without hindering the package`s resistance to the thermal accident condition. The overall design of the new package is based on a modular concept using separate thermal shielding and impact mitigating components in an attempt to simplify the design, analysis, test, and certification process. Performance requirements for the tritium package`s limiting system are based on preliminary estimates provided by WSRC. The current tritium hydride vessel (THV) to be transported has relatively delicate valving assemblies and should not experience acceleration levels greater than approximately 200 g`s. A thermal overpack and outer stainless steel shell, to be designed by WSRC, will form the inner boundary of the impact-limiting system (see Figure 1). The mass of the package, including cargo, inner container, thermal overpack, and outer stainless steel shell (not including impact limiters) should be approximately 68 kg. Consistent with the modular design philosophy, the combined thermal overpack and containment system should be considered essentially rigid, with the impact limiters incurring all deformation.

Harding, D.C.; Longcope, D.B.; Neilsen, M.K.

1995-12-31

125

Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

2002-02-25

126

HALFTON: A high-explosive containment experiment in partially saturated tuff  

SciTech Connect

The HALFTON experiment explored the phenomena of high explosive detonations in 90% water-saturated tuff rock. The explosive source was a 453 kg TNT sphere which was grouted in a drift in G Tunnel, Nevada Test Site. Active gages measured stresses and motions in the range of 1.3 to 5.3 cavity radii and showed a peak stress decay as range raised to the {minus}2.77 power. Additional stress gages were fielded to investigate the gage inclusion problem.

Smith, C.W.

1996-03-01

127

Nuclear fusion driven by Coulomb explosion of homonuclear and heteronuclear deuterium- and tritium-containing clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionization and Coulomb explosion of homonuclear Dn and Tn (n=959-8007) and heteronuclear (D2O)n and (T2O)n (n=459-2171) clusters in very intense (I=5×1014-5×1018 W cm-2) laser fields is studied using classical dynamics simulations. The efficiency of the d+d and d+t nuclear fusion driven by the Coulomb explosion (NFDCE) is explored. The d+d NFDCE of (D2O)n heteronuclear clusters is enhanced by energetic

Isidore Last; Joshua Jortner

2001-01-01

128

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES  

SciTech Connect

The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

2007-06-06

129

Thermal radiation effect on thermal explosion in gas containing fuel droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of thermal radiation on the dynamics of a thermal explosion of a flammable gas mixture with the addition of volatile fuel droplets is studied. This is based on an original physical model of self-ignition. The thermal radiation energy exchange between the evaporating surface of the fuel droplets and burning gas is described using the P-1 model with Marshak

Igor Goldfarb; Vladimir Gol'dshtein; Grigory Kuzmenko; Sergei Sazhin

1999-01-01

130

Delayed thermal explosion in flammable gas containing fuel droplets: Asymptotic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of thermal explosion in a flammable gas mixture with addition of volatile fuel droplets is studied based on the asymptotic method of integral manifolds. The model for the radiative heating of droplets takes into account the semitransparency of droplets. A simplified model for droplet heat-up is used. The results of the analysis are applied to the modelling of

Igor Goldfarb; Sergei Sazhin; Ann Zinoviev

2004-01-01

131

Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

1993-07-01

132

Analytical Prediction of the Seismic Response of a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) is investigating the seismic behavior of a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) through scale-model testing using the high-performance shaking table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory. A series of tests representing design-level seismic ground motions was initially conducted to gather valuable experimental measurements for use in design verification. Additional tests will be conducted with increasing amplifications of the seismic input until a structural failure of the test model occurs. In a cooperative program with NUPEC, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), is conducting analytical research on the seismic behavior of RCCV structures. As part of this program, pretest analytical predictions of the model tests are being performed. The dynamic time-history analysis utilizes a highly detailed concrete constitutive model applied to a three-dimensional finite element representation of the test structure. This paper describes the details of the analysis model and provides analysis results.

James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.; Tsurumaki, S.

1999-03-19

133

Influences of welding processes on fatigue life of cruciform joints of pressure vessel grade steels containing LOP defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of two welding processes, namely, shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux cored arc welding (FCAW), on fatigue life of cruciform joints, containing lack of penetration (LOP) defects, have been studied. Load carrying cruciform joints were fabricated from high strength, quenched and tempered steels of pressure vessel (ASTM 517 ‘F’) grade. Fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out

V Balasubramanian; B Guha

2000-01-01

134

A Neutron Based Scanner to Detect Explosives in Small, Sealed Containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scanning system has been designed for portal protection applications, with the capability of detecting explosive materials after an initial scan of 30 seconds. The scanner operates using the principle of neutron induced return gamma-ray spectrometry. This system utilizes high purity germanium detectors, a neutron generator based on deuterium-tritium fusion and a unique neutron reflector and guide design. The neutron reflector amplifies the flux and alters the energy spectrum of neutrons produced by the generator. A depleted uranium reflector is shown to perform 7.3 times better than no reflector, and is found to perform 1.5 times better than a tungsten reflector using MCNP simulation. This improvement is due to neutron knockout and induced fission occurring in depleted uranium. The system is capable of detecting 300 g of explosives with 90% detection probability, which includes a 15% rescan rate after a 30 second initial scan.

Koltick, D.; Sword, E.

2009-03-01

135

Feasibility of a method to identify targets that are likely to contain conventional explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to remotely identify vehicles or other targets that might be harboring conventional explosives is described. The method utilizes multiple responses from a target that is interrogated by gamma-ray and neutron pulses and employs a template-matching procedure that reduces the collected information into a figure-of-merit. The template-matching procedure seeks to identify suspect targets based on deviations between a response

W. L. Dunn; K. Banerjee; A. Allen; J. van Meter

2007-01-01

136

Thermal radiation effect on thermal explosion in gas containing fuel droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of thermal radiation on the dynamics of a thermal explosion of a flammable gas mixture with the addition of volatile fuel droplets is studied. This is based on an original physical model of self-ignition. The thermal radiation energy exchange between the evaporating surface of the fuel droplets and burning gas is described using the P-1 model with Marshak boundary conditions. The original system of equations describing the effects of heating, evaporation and the combustion of fuel droplets is simplified to enable their analysis using asymptotic methods. The mathematical formulation is eventually reduced to a singularly perturbed system of ordinary differential equations. This allows us to apply the advanced geometric asymptotic technique (integral manifold method) for the qualitative analysis of the behaviour of the solution. Possible types of dynamic behaviour of the system are classified and parametric regions of their existence are determined analytically. The main attention is concentrated on the situations where delays might occur before the final ignition. Our study is focused on the impact of thermal radiation on the delay time. The dimensionless parameter responsible for the impact of thermal radiation is singled out and analysed. The dependence of the delay characteristics on the physical parameters of the problem under consideration is analysed. An explicit expression for the minimum time delay of the thermal explosion of fuel droplets in the presence of thermal radiation is derived and applied to the thermal explosion of n-decane and tetralin droplets. It is pointed out that the effects of thermal radiation can be significant, especially at high temperatures, and cannot be ignored in the analysis of this phenomenon.

Goldfarb, Igor; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Grigory; Sazhin, Sergei

1999-12-01

137

Predicting runaway reaction in a solid explosive containing a single crack  

SciTech Connect

Mechanically damaged high explosive (HE) undergoing defiagration has recently been shown capable of generating combustion pressures and flame speeds dramatically in excess of those observed in undamaged HE. Flame penetration of HE cracks large enough to support the reaction zone serves to increase the burning surface area and the rate of gas production. Cracks confine the product gas, elevating the local pressure and reducing the reaction zone thickness such that the flame can enter smaller-width cracks. As the reaction zone decreases sufficiently to enter the smallest cracks, the flame surface area will grow appreciably, rapidly pressurizing the cracks. This runaway of pressure and burning area, termed combustion bootstrapping, can dramatically accelerate the combustion mode and in the most extreme cases may result in deflagration-to-detonation transition [3, 4]. The current study is intended to help predict the conditions required for the onset of reaction runaway in a narrow slot in HE. We review experiments [5] where flames were observed to propagate though a narrow slot (intended to simulate a well-formed crack) in high explosive at velocities up to 10 km/s, reaching pressures in excess of 1 kbar. Pressurization of the slot due to gas-dynamic choking is then used to predict the onset of runaway reaction. This model agrees with experimental pressure measurements of observed reaction runaway in slots.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

138

78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The list includes all mixtures containing any of the materials on the...after ``Black powder based explosive mixtures'' on the List of Explosive Materials...Explosive Materials under their chemical, mixture or common names, ATF believes that...

2013-10-28

139

Explosive Auto-Enhancement Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosive auto-enhancement device for providing higher detonation pressure than can be achieved with conventional explosives by the use of magnetic precompression for enhancing the detonation wave. A cylindrical armature containing an explosive charge ...

E. T. Toten E. Zimet

1980-01-01

140

High Explosives Handbook. Volume 1. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This High Explosives Handbook provides information related to the design of nuclear systems. This volume contains information on Primary explosives, High explosives, Squibs and Primacord, Adhesives, Fillers, and coatings used with explosives and Solid Pro...

1967-01-01

141

Chemical and explosives point detection through opaque containers using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a novel technique used to identify the chemical Raman signature of threat materials within a few seconds through common non-metallic containers, including those containers which may not yield to inspection by conventional backscatter Raman. In particular, some opaque plastic containers and coloured glass bottles can be difficult to analyze using conventional backscatter Raman because the signal from the contents is often overwhelmed by the much stronger Raman signal and/or fluorescence originating from the container itself. SORS overcomes these difficulties and generates clean Raman spectra from both the container and the contents with no prior knowledge of either. This is achieved by making two, or more, Raman measurements at various offsets between the collection and illumination areas, each containing different proportions of the fingerprint signals from the container and content materials. Using scaled subtraction, or multivariate statistical methods, the two orthogonal signals can be separated numerically, thereby providing a clean Raman spectrum of the contents without contamination from the container. Consequently, SORS promises to significantly improve threat detection capability and decrease the falsealarm rate compared with conventional Raman spectroscopy making it considerably more suitable as an alarm resolution methodology (e.g. at airports). In this paper, the technique and method are described and a study of offset value optimization is described illustrating the difference between one and two fixed spatial offsets. It is concluded that two fixed offsets yield an improvement in the SORS measurement which will help maximize the threat detection capability.

Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

2011-05-01

142

Dump Storage Temperatures of Fuel Air Explosive (FAE) Weapons in Shipping Containers - Desert.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology and results of the actual high temperature exposure regime on an FAE weapon in its shipping container is described. The maximum shipping container temperature measured was 166F, which resulted in an FAE dispenser temperature of 130F. A sta...

H. C. Schafer

1971-01-01

143

Vessel-Spanning Bubble Formation in K-Basin Sludge Stored in Large-Diameter Containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The K Basin sludge to be retrieved and stored in the large diameter containers (LDCs) contains some fraction of uranium metal that generates hydrogen gas, which introduces potential upset conditions. One postulated upset condition is a rising plug of sludge supported by a hydrogen bubble that is driven into the vent filters at the top of the container. In laboratory

Guillermo Terrones; Phillip A. Gauglitz

2002-01-01

144

Temperature measurements on a HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements have been made on HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel number 6-2-3-1. These measurements are intended to give a view of the vessel temperature response under conditions similar to operational conditions, starting from worst case. The vessel`s temperature must be above the minimum operating temperature when used to contain an explosive event to ensure that the vessel material has the desired crack arrest properties. Several series of temperature measurements have been conducted over 24 and 48 hour periods during February 1998. These tests were intended to demonstrate that after running the heaters in the environmental shelter for some time, (1) the vessel warms up to temperatures well above the minimum operating temperature, (2) that through-thickness temperature gradients are negligible, and (3) that the temperature differences from one part of the vessel to another are small.

Lohsen, R.A.

1998-05-07

145

Development and operational experiences of an automated remote inspection system for interior of primary containment vessel of a BWR  

SciTech Connect

A prototype was developed for an automated remote inspection system featuring continuous monitoring of the working status of major components inside the primary containment vessel of a boiling water reactor. This inspection system consists of four units, or vehicles, which are towed by a trolley chain along a monorail; a complex coaxial cable for data transmission and for power supply; and an operator's console. A TV camera, microphone, thermometer, hygrometer, and ionization chamber are mounted on the various units. After several months' testing under high-ambient temperature, the system was installed in the Tokai-2 power station of Japan Atomic Power Company for in situ tests.

Ozaki, N.; Chikara, S.; Fumio, T.; Katsuhiro, M.; Katsutoshi, S.; Ken-Ichiro, S.; Masaaki, F.; Masayoshi, S.

1983-07-01

146

Analysis of complex vessel experiments using the Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian containment code ALICE-II  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the ALICE-II analysis of and comparison with complex vessel experiments. Tests SM-2 through SM-5 were performed by SRI International in 1978 in studying the structural response of 1/20 scale models of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor to a simulated hypothetical core-disruptive accident. These experiments provided quality data for validating treatments of the nonlinear fluid-structure interactions and many complex excursion phenomena, such as flow through perforated structures, large material distortions, multi-dimensional sliding interfaces, flow around sharp corners, and highly contorted fluid boundaries. Correlations of the predicted pressures with the test results of all gauges are made. Wave characteristics and arrival times are also compared. Results show that the ALICE-II code predicts the pressure profile well. Despite the complexity, the code gave good results for the SM-5 test.

Wang, C.Y.; Ku, J.L.; Zeuch, W.R.

1984-03-01

147

49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360 Specification 2R; inside containment...

2012-10-01

148

49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360 Specification 2R; inside containment...

2011-10-01

149

DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes the Department's explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. It is divided into the following sections: introduction, operational safety, explosives and personnel limits and personnel control, training, quantity-distance and level of protection criteria for explosives activities, operating procedures, formulation scaleup, and insensitive high explosives qualification. (DLC)

Not Available

1983-12-01

150

Explosive demolition of activated concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the removal of a radiologically contaminated concrete pad. This pad was removed during 1979 by operating personnel under the direction of the Waste Management Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The concrete pad was the foundation for the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) reactor vessel. The pad consisted of a cylindrical concrete slab 15 ft in diameter, 2 ft thick, and reinforced with steel bar. It was poured directly onto basalt rocks approximately 20 ft below grade. The entire pad contained induced radioactivity and was therefore demolished, boxed, and buried rather than being decontaminated. The pad was demolished by explosive blasting.

Smith, D. L.

1980-04-01

151

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

152

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

153

Numerical studies of large penetrations and closures for containment vessels subjected to loadings beyond the design basis  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulations of the macro-deformations of the sealing surfaces (gasketed junctures) of a PWR steel containment vessel's equipment hatch and a BWR Mk II containment vessel head have been performed. Results for the equipment hatch juncture indicate that the rotations of the hatch cover and penetration sleeve must be accounted for when performing leakage analysis because they can effect the compression of the gasket even though the gasket is in a pressure-seated configuration. Results from a leakage analysis indicated that excessive leakage can occur if the surface roughness is high and/or the compression set is high. Results for the Mk II head show that both the temperature and pressure loadings must be taken into account to obtain realistic responses. The temperature difference between the flanges and bolts has the important net effect of keeping the gasketed juncture closed, that is in metal-to-metal contact. Due to the high accident temperature, the gasket itself was found to achieve 100% compression set and thus could not perform its sealing function within the juncture.

Kulak, R.F.; Hsieh, B.J.; Kennedy, J.M.; Ash, J.E.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-01-01

154

Substance P-containing nerve fibres in large peripheral blood vessels of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibres were localized by the indirect immunohistochemical method in the adventitia and the adventitial-medial border of large peripheral arteries and veins of the rat. Arteries showed a richer substance P-containing innervation than veins. The superior mesenteric artery was densely innervated, whereas no substance P-containing fibres were found around the carotid artery. Substance P produced a vasoconstriction of

F. Barja; R. Mathison; H. Huggel

1983-01-01

155

Containment vs confinement trade study, small HTGR plant PCRV [prestressed concrete reactor vessel] concept  

SciTech Connect

This trade study has been conducted to evaluate the differences between four different HTGR nuclear power plants. All of the plants use a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) to house the core and steam generation equipment. The reactor uses LEU U/Th fuel in prismatic carbon blocks. All plant concepts meet the utility/user requirements established for small HTGR plants. All plants will be evaluated with regard to their ability to produce safe, economical power to satisfy Goals 1, 2, and 3 of the HTGR program and by meeting the MUST criteria established in the concept evaluation plan. Capital costs for each plant were evaluated on a differential cost basis. These costs were developed according to the ``NUS`` code of accounts as defined in the Cost Estimating and Control Procedure, HP-20901. Accounts that were identical in scope for all four plants were not used for the comparison. Table 1-1 is a list of capital cost accounts that were evaluated for each plant.

NONE

1985-03-01

156

A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-08-01

157

Diamond production as a result of electrical explosions of graphite-containing samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to achieve the region of thermodynamic stability of diamond is described. Pressures in the range 10 30 GPa and temperatures in the range 2000 4000 K may be obtained by current pulse heating of a special graphitecontaining sample. Numerical modeling of some regimes of capacitor bank discharge through the sample showed that this is possible by current pulses with a duration 2 10 ?s and a magnitude of about 1 MA and higher. In doing so, the conductivity of the sample is of great importance. The analysis of numerical modeling results indicates that the best values of diamond synthesis parameters are achieved for metallic samples. Nonporous material containing small graphite particles having a size in the range of 10 100 ?m was used. The best results are achieved when graphite constitutes no more than about 30% by volume of the sample. The method was tested under laboratory conditions. In these experiments, hexagonal diamond particles were obtained. The mean size of diamond crystallites was about 0.1 0.2 ?m or smaller.

Bushman, A. V.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Korobenko, V. N.; Rakhel, A. D.; Savvatimskii, A. I.; Fortov, V. E.

1993-05-01

158

A strategy for dealing with risks due to hydrogen explosions in the containments of pressurized-water reactors of Russian design (WWERs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two danger levels are related to the explosion of the hydrogen generated and released in the reactor containment during a loss-of-coolant accident in a water-cooled nuclear power plant. A strategy for dealing with the hydrogen risks should be based on three main rules. This analysis compares the impact that different designs of containment systems have on the hydrogen problem in

Fineschi

1991-01-01

159

Problems of Heat Transfer within the Containing Vessel of High Performance LMFBR Spent Fuel Shipping Casks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary assessment of heat transfer problems internal to a LMFBR spent fuel shipping cask is reported. The assessment is based upon previous results obtained in full-scale, electrically heated mockups of an LMFBR assembly located in a containing pip...

R. B. Pope D. K. Gartling W. P. Schimmel D. W. Larson

1976-01-01

160

Problems of heat transfer within the containing vessel of high performance LMFBR spent fuel shipping casks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary assessment of heat transfer problems internal to a LMFBR spent fuel shipping cask is reported. The assessment is based upon previous results obtained in full-scale, electrically heated mockups of an LMFBR assembly located in a containing pipe, and also upon analytical and empirical studies presented in this paper. It is shown that a liquid coolant will be required

R. B. Pope; D. K. Gartling; W. P. Jr. Schimmel; D. W. Larson

1976-01-01

161

Integrated leak rate test of the FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) containment vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third integrated leak rate test (ILRT) performed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) demonstrated that effective leak rate measurements could be obtained at a pressure of 2 psig. In addition, innovative data reduction methods demonstrated the ability to accurately account for diurnal variations in containment pressure and temperature. Further development of methods used in this test indicate significant

M. L. Grygiel; R. H. Davis; D. L. Polzin; W. D. Yule

1987-01-01

162

Stress concentration factors for an internally pressurized circular vessel containing a radial U-notch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the stress concentration factors for an internally pressurized cylinder containing a radial U-notch along its length. This work studies the cases where the external to internal radius ratio (?) is equal to 1.26, 1.52, 2.00, and 3.00 and the notch radius to internal radius ratio (?) is fixed and equal to 0.026. The U-notch depth varies from

E. A. de Carvalho

2005-01-01

163

Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series  

SciTech Connect

The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Phenomenology

1994-08-01

164

Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues  

SciTech Connect

A technique being evaluated for standoff explosives detection is laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a real-time sensor technology that uses components that can be configured into a ruggedized standoff instrument. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has been coupling standoff LIBS spectra with chemometrics for several years now in order to discriminate between explosives and nonexplosives. We have investigated the use of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for explosives detection. We have extended our study of PLS-DA to more complex sample types, including binary mixtures, different types of explosives, and samples not included in the model. We demonstrate the importance of building the PLS-DA model by iteratively testing it against sample test sets. Independent test sets are used to test the robustness of the final model.

De Lucia, Frank C. Jr.; Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W

2008-11-01

165

Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround, and Conical Containers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske & Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske & Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annu...

T. K. Dhaliwal

2010-01-01

166

Explosion and detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the explosion and detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether (DME) were experimentally investigated. A spherical pressure vessel with an internal volume of 180L was used as the explosion vessel. Therefore, tubes 10m in length with internal diameters of 25mm and 50mm were used as detonation tubes. In addition, we compared the characteristics of DME with those of propane

Toshio Mogi; Sadashige Horiguchi

2009-01-01

167

46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 ...Operational Requirements § 153.921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load...this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written...

2011-10-01

168

46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 ...Operational Requirements § 153.921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load...this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written...

2012-10-01

169

Explosives tester with heater  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10

170

Increased angiogenesis and blood vessel maturation in acellular collagen–heparin scaffolds containing both FGF2 and VEGF  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important issue in tissue engineering is the vascularisation of the implanted construct, which often takes several weeks. In vivo, the growth factors VEGF and FGF2 show a combined effect on both angiogenesis and maturation of blood vessels. Therefore, we hypothesise that the addition of these growth factors to an acellular construct increases blood vessel formation and maturation. To systematically

Suzan T. M. Nillesen; Paul J. Geutjes; Ronnie Wismans; Joost Schalkwijk; Willeke F. Daamen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt

2007-01-01

171

A strategy for dealing with risks due to hydrogen explosions in the containments of pressurized-water reactors of Russian design (WWERs)  

SciTech Connect

Two danger levels are related to the explosion of the hydrogen generated and released in the reactor containment during a loss-of-coolant accident in a water-cooled nuclear power plant. A strategy for dealing with the hydrogen risks should be based on three main rules. This analysis compares the impact that different designs of containment systems have on the hydrogen problem in Eastern European nuclear power plants with pressurized-water reactors of Russian design (WWERs). WWERs are compared with Western nuclear plants to encourage international cooperation in finding a solution for the hydrogen problem in existing plants, wherever they may be. Recommendations are presented for systems to avoid or mitigate the effects of hydrogen explosions in the WWER containments. Complete pre-inerting is impossible and post-inerting entails an expensive filtered venting. Recombiners should be installed in all plants to avoid deflagrations as far as possible. In the largest WWER containments a deliberate ignition system could be installed in addition to recombiners, whereas in the smallest ones deliberate ignition could even be detrimental. 32 refs.

Fineschi, F. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

1991-07-01

172

Ultrasonic, Non-Invasive Classification/Discrimination of Liquid Explosives (LEs) and Threat Liquids from Non-Threat Liquids in Sealed Containers  

SciTech Connect

Government agencies and homeland security organizations are searching for more effective approaches for dealing with the increasing demand for inspections involving potential threat liquids and hazardous chemicals, including liquid explosives (LEs). The quantity and variability of hand-held and cargo-sized containers being shipped worldwide drives the need for rapid and effective ways for conducting non-intrusive inspections of liquid-filled containers of a diverse range of types, shapes and sizes. Such inspections need to quickly classify/discriminate between liquids within containers and also ascertain the presence of unexpected objects within a container. The science base, methodology and prototype device for classification/discrimination between classes of liquids has been developed. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device for classification/discrimination of a wide variety of liquids (including threat liquids and their precursors), providing noninvasive liquid classification/discrimination capabilities using a nondestructive ultrasonic measurement approach for inspecting sealed containers. The Container Screening Device (CSD) employs frequency-modulated (FM) chirp excitation and pulse-compression signal processing techniques to measure ultrasonic velocity and a relative attenuation value for liquids within a container, and is capable of determining other acoustic properties from through-transmission, contact measurements over a wide frequency range. Recent algorithm developments are beginning to address the issues of container wall variations and thickness. A description of the basic science, measurement approach and sources of variability in the measurement will be presented and laboratory measurements acquired from a suite of commercial products and precursor liquids used in the manufacturing of Homemade Explosives (HMEs) will be given.

Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Tucker, Brian J.; Samuel, Todd J.; Morales, Romarie

2009-07-20

173

Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.

R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas

1999-08-01

174

Response of a LWR pressure vessel to severe-accident loadings  

SciTech Connect

In the recent emphasis on nuclear safety, structural studies of nuclear reactor vessels have been directed toward evaluating their response during severe loading incidents or accidents including even core meltdown - however improbable these accidents may be. The present paper will address some of these problems. The ultimate load carrying capacity of an unflawed nuclear pressure vessel is estimated. The measure of the maximum pressure that the vessel can resist during quasistatic loading is a useful quantitative estimate of overall vessel strength. The paper than analyzes two structural problems during a hypothetical meltdown. In the initial stage, the molten core mixture drops into the lower portion of the pressure vessel, resulting in both temperature and pressure rises. Subsequently, a vapor explosion may occur as a result of the molten metal coming in sudden contact with the water in the lower portion of the vessel. The explosion is postulated to propel a slug of molten metalup the vessel barrel that eventually impacts the upper head of the vessel potentially generating missiles in the containment building. The reactor vessel at Indian Point, New York is used as a prototype of this analysis.

Ju, F.D.; Bennett, J.G.; Anderson, C.A.

1982-01-01

175

Time-sequenced X-ray Observation of a Thermal Explosion  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of a thermally-initiated explosion is studied using a multiple-image x-ray system. HMX-based PBX 9501 is used in this work, enabling direct comparison to recently-published data obtained with proton radiography [1]. Multiple x-ray images of the explosion are obtained with image spacing of ten microseconds or more. The explosion is simultaneously characterized with a high-speed camera using an interframe spacing of 11 {micro}s. X-ray and camera images were both initiated passively by signals from an embedded thermocouple array, as opposed to being actively triggered by a laser pulse or other external source. X-ray images show an accelerating reacting front within the explosive, and also show unreacted explosive at the time the containment vessel bursts. High-speed camera images show debris ejected from the vessel expanding at 800-2100 m/s in the first tens of {micro}s after the container wall failure. The effective center of the initiation volume is about 6 mm from the geometric center of the explosive.

Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Kercher, J R; Springer, H K; Henson, B F; Glascoe, E A; Greenwood, D W; Garza, R G; Wong, B M; Batteux, J D; Maienschein, J L

2009-08-03

176

29 CFR 570.51 - Occupations in or about plants or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...terms explosives and articles containing explosive components mean and include ammunition, black powder, blasting caps, fireworks, high explosives, primers, smokeless powder, and explosives and explosive materials as defined in 18 U.S.C....

2013-07-01

177

Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R

2012-01-19

178

49 CFR 176.108 - Supervision of Class 1 (explosive) materials during loading, unloading, handling and stowage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Supervision of Class 1 (explosive) materials during loading...CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials § 176.108 Supervision of Class 1 (explosive) materials during...

2011-10-01

179

49 CFR 176.108 - Supervision of Class 1 (explosive) materials during loading, unloading, handling and stowage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Supervision of Class 1 (explosive) materials during loading...CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials § 176.108 Supervision of Class 1 (explosive) materials during...

2012-10-01

180

DOE explosives safety manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires that all activities be conducted in a manner that protects the safety of the public and provides a safe and healthful workplace for employees. DOE has also prescribed that all personnel be protected in any explosives operation undertaken. The level of safety provided shall be at least equivalent to that of the best industrial practice. The risk of death or serious injury shall be limited to the lowest practicable minimum. DOE and contractors shall continually review their explosives operations with the aim of achieving further refinements and improvements in safety practices and protective features. This manual describes the Department's explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. It is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in explosives safety. In addition, it is essential that applicable criteria and requirements for implementing this policy be readily available and known to those responsible for conducting DOE programs. This document shall be periodically reviewed and updated to establish new requirements as appropriate. Users are requested to submit suggestions for improving the DOE Explosives Safety Manual through their appropriate Operations Office to the Office of Quality Programs.

1990-05-01

181

Stratified Propane–Air Explosions in a Duct Vented Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duct vented geometries are a common feature in modern industrial installations where a vessel is protected from internal explosion pressures, and where the explosion products need to be directed away from sensitive areas. In this research, stratified propane–air concentrations have been investigated using a vented vessel connected to a vent pipe. Concentration, injection position and ignition position were varied and

S. K. Willacy; H. N. Phylaktou; G. E. Andrews; G. Ferrara

2007-01-01

182

LLNL explosives handbook: properties of chemical explosives and explosives and explosive simulants  

SciTech Connect

This handbook presents information and data for high explosives (HEs) of interest to programs at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It is intended to be useful to the scientist or engineer, the novice or expert, who needs to develop a new weapon system, design a physics experiment, or select and/or evaluate an existing explosive. This compilation is limited to production HEs and their components. High explosives are divided into two classes: initial detonating (or primary) and noninitiating (or secondary) explosives. The primary HEs, such as azides and fulminates, are extremely sensitive to ignition by heat, shock, and electrical discharge; ignition leads to high-order detonation of the material - even for milligram quantities. The use of these HEs is therefore limited to squibs and starting materials for low-energy detonators. Because primary explosives have little application at LLNL, this compilation includes only the properties of lead azide and lead styphnate. Secondary HEs as a class comprise single compounds of mixtures; the mixtures contain one or more explosive compounds and one or more of the following ingredients: metals, binders, plasticizers, sensitizers or desensitizers, oxidizers, and a coloring agent. Because many of the secondary high explosives are mixtures, the properties of the additives and binders used are included. The data are the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the compiler. The sources of information include textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. The reader is urged to consult the source document to properly evaluate and interpret the data given in this compilation. The compilation consists of sections on high explosives and mock explosives, formulation nomenclature (codes), data sheets on individual materials, and a bibliography.

Dobratz, B.M.

1981-03-16

183

Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives  

DOEpatents

A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes; Peter J. (Danville, CA); Alcaraz, Armando (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA)

2011-05-10

184

Polyurethane Binder Systems for Polymer Bonded Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) consist of explosive components bound together by a polymeric binder. The most common binder systems in current PBXs are polyurethane based and contain plasticisers and other chemicals that alter processability, mechanical...

M. A. Daniel

2006-01-01

185

On the use of expert judgments to estimate the pressure increment in the Sequoyah containment at vessel breach  

SciTech Connect

The use of expert judgments in probabilistic risk assessments has become common. Simple aggregation methods have often been used with the result that expert biases and interexpert dependence are often neglected. Sophisticated theoretical models for the use of expert opinions have been proposed that offer ways of incorporating expert biases and dependence, but they have not found wide acceptance because of the difficulty and rigor of these methods. Practical guidance on the use of the versatile Bayesian expert judgment aggregation model is provided. In particular, the case study of pressure increment due to vessel breach in the Sequoyah nuclear power plant is chosen to illustrate how phenomenological uncertainty can be addressed by using the Bayesian aggregation model. The results indicate that the Bayesian aggregation model is a suitable candidate model for aggregating expert judgments, especially if there is phenomenological uncertainty. Phenomenological uncertainty can be represented through the dependence parameter of the Bayesian model. This is because the sharing of assumptions by the experts tends to introduce dependence between the experts. The extent of commonality in the experts' beliefs can be characterized by assessing their interdependence. The results indicate that uncertainty is possibly underestimated by ignoring dependence.

Chhibber, S.; Apostolakis, G.E.; Okrent, D. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science)

1994-01-01

186

Biophysical effects of pulsed lasers in the retina and other tissues containing strongly absorbing particles: shockwave and explosive bubble generation.  

PubMed

Damage by pulsed lasers to the retina or other tissues containing strongly absorbing particles may occur through biophysical mechanisms other than simple heating. Shockwaves and bubbles have been observed experimentally, and depending on pulse duration, may be the cause of retinal damage at threshold fluence levels. We perform detailed calculations on the shockwave and bubble generation expected from pulsed lasers. For a variety of different laser pulse durations and fluences, we tabulate the expected strength of the shockwave and size of the bubble that will be generated. We also explain how these results will change for absorbing particles with different physical properties such as absorption coefficient, bulk modulus, or thermal expansion coefficient. This enables the assessment of biological danger, and possible medical benefits, for lasers of a wide range of pulse durations and energies, incident on tissues with absorbing particles with a variety of thermomechanical characteristics. PMID:16409094

Faraggi, Eshel; Gerstman, Bernard S; Sun, Jinming

187

Chemical Explosion Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A database containing information on chemical explosions, recorded and located by the International Data Center (IDC) of the CTBTO, should be established in the IDC prior to entry into force of the CTBT. Nearly all of the large chemical explosions occur in connection with mining activity. As a first step towards the establishment of this database, a survey of presumed mining areas where sufficiently large explosions are conducted has been done. This is dominated by the large coal mining areas like the Powder River (U.S.), Kuznetsk (Russia), Bowen (Australia) and Ekibastuz (Kazakhstan) basins. There are also several other smaller mining areas, in e.g. Scandinavia, Poland, Kazakhstan and Australia, with large enough explosions for detection. Events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IDC that are located in or close to these mining areas, and which therefore are candidates for inclusion in the database, have been investigated. Comparison with a database of infrasound events has been done as many mining blasts generate strong infrasound signals and therefore also are included in the infrasound database. Currently there are 66 such REB events in 18 mining areas in the infrasound database. On a yearly basis several hundreds of events in mining areas have been recorded and included in the REB. Establishment of the database of chemical explosions requires confirmation and ground truth information from the States Parties regarding these events. For an explosion reported in the REB, the appropriate authority in whose country the explosion occurred is encouraged, on a voluntary basis, to seek out information on the explosion and communicate this information to the IDC.

Johansson, Peder; Brachet, Nicolas

2010-05-01

188

Explosive-Powder Compaction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a pressure-control system and a test fixture to study the behavior of explosive materials during compaction. Both the pressure-control system and the test fixture are self-contained and portable. Explosive materi...

A. P. Montoya M. L. Reichenbach

1981-01-01

189

Reactor vessel support system  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

1982-01-01

190

Destruction of peroxide explosives.  

PubMed

Chemicals containing multiple peroxide functionalities, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), or hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), can be explosive. They are impractical and are not used by legitimate military groups because they are shock and heat sensitive compared to military explosives. They are attractive to terrorists because synthesis is straightforward, requiring only a few easily obtained ingredients. Physical removal of these synthesis products is highly hazardous. This paper discusses methods to degrade peroxide explosives chemically, at room temperature. A number of mixtures containing metals (e.g., zinc, copper) and metal salts (e.g., zinc sulfate, copper chloride) were found effective, some capable of destroying TATP solutions in a few hours. Strong acids proved useful against solid peroxide materials; however, on a 1 g scale, addition of concentrated sulfuric acid caused TATP to detonate. Thus, this technique should only be used to destroy small-laboratory quantities. PMID:19737243

Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Huang, Jiaorong; Luo, Wei

2009-09-01

191

Experiments on Combustion Kernel Growth in Gaseous Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tempo-spatial evolution of the combustion kernel in gas phase explosions was experimentally investigated using Schlieren photography. Methane and propane -air explosions were initiated in a cylindrical explosion vessel at a range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.6 to 1.4. All explosions were initiated using 25 mj ignition energy at ambient conditions. The kernel growth rate, and cellular flame structure are observed and analyzed.

Saqr, Khalid M.; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ujir, Haffis; Sies, Mohsin M.

2010-06-01

192

Experiments on Combustion Kernel Growth in Gaseous Explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tempo-spatial evolution of the combustion kernel in gas phase explosions was experimentally investigated using Schlieren photography. Methane and propane -air explosions were initiated in a cylindrical explosion vessel at a range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.6 to 1.4. All explosions were initiated using 25 mj ignition energy at ambient conditions. The kernel growth rate, and cellular flame structure

Khalid M. Saqr; Mazlan Abdul Wahid; Haffis Ujir; Mohsin M. Sies

2010-01-01

193

Detection of Explosive Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High explosives present a challenge for detection methods because of their range of physical properties, which range from volatile liquids to nonvolatile solids. They share the common feature of possessing both oxidizing and reducing chemical properties within a single molecule or an intimate chemical mixture. Our research group has been focused on the synthesis of new luminescent polymers, which undergo electron transfer quenching by a variety of organic high explosives, such as TNT, RDX, and PETN. The application to imaging trace explosive particle residues will be described. Density functional calculations show an excellent correlation between the sensor response and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the explosive analyte. For volatile high explosives, such as organic peroxides (e.g. TATP), vapor sensors based on chemically sensitive transistors containing different metal phthalocyanines have been explored. The mechanism of current response in these films has been shown to be a result of surface Lewis acid-base chemistry or redox catalysis at the metal centers. The link between surface chemistry and electronic resonse has led to a simple peroxide specific vapor sensor array.

Trogler, William

2008-03-01

194

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.

1996-04-09

195

Explosives sensor  

SciTech Connect

A compact and supersensitive device that can rapidly detect minute trace vapors from concealed explosives has been developed by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The new explosives sensor can detect and chemically identify organic nitrogen-oxygen compounds which are the building blocks of explosives such as TNT, plastiques, and nitroglycerine. The device could be used to scan persons entering airport terminals, nuclear power plants, defense installations, or other sensitive locations, providing greater security against potential terrorism. This device works on a glow discharge principle, and is more specifically called an ''Atmospheric Sampling Glow Discharge Ionization'' (ASGDI) source. The new detector is a highly automated, miniaturized version of research mass spectrometers widely used to trace constituents of chemical mixtures. Detail of this device's construction and advantages are discussed in this paper. 2 figs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

196

PWR dry containment issue characterization  

SciTech Connect

Severe accident issues have been characterized for pressurized water reactors with large dry containments. A description of PWR dry containment performance under severe accident conditions is provided. Reviews and discussions of early containment failure due to direct containment heating (DCH), in-vessel steam explosions, hydrogen burns and steam spikes, late containment failure due to gradual overpressurization and basemat meltthrough, and containment bypass (interfacing systems LOCA) events are included. An assessment of potential improvements such as RCS depressurization, reactor cavity reflooding, hydrogen control, containment venting and accident management strategy is presented. The review and discussion are largely based on existing information obtained from the nuclear industry and the NRC's severe accident research programs. Additional analyses related to operator actions were performed and are presented in the Appendices. 49 refs., 11 figs., 23 tabs.

Yang, J.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

197

Fuel fire test results for RX-08-FK in a toroidal composite vessel  

SciTech Connect

A fuel first test was conducted on October 15, 1992, during which a toroidal composite vessel containing 6.5 kg of RX-08-FK Paste Extrudable Explosive was subjected to a dynamic (transient) thermal environment. The vessel was mounted inside a closed, but vented, thin-walled steel cylinder, and the entire assembly was then engulfed in a fuel fire. Approximately 5 minutes into the test, the PEX began to burn. At the time reaction of PEX occurred, temperatures of the inside wall of the steel cylinder were 815C and temperatures on outside wall of the composite vessel ranged from 163--454C. Subsequently, temperatures in excess of 950C were reached inside the cylinder for tens of minutes. Based on criteria set forth in MIL-STD-1648A(AS), the RX-08-FK-loaded vessel passed the fuel fire test, because no violent reaction beyond burning was observed.

Black, W.; Bretl, D.; von Holtz, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Didlake, J.; Ferrario, M.; Spingarn, J.; Schwegel, J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

198

Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System  

SciTech Connect

The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

Clements, D.A.

1994-08-01

199

Investigation of radial shear in the wall-base juncture of a 1:4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model  

SciTech Connect

Construction of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is underway as part of a cooperative containment research program at Sandia National Laboratories. The work is co-sponsored by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Preliminary analyses of the Sandia 1:4 Scale PCCV Model have determined axisymmetric global behavior and have estimated the potential for failure in several areas, including the wall-base juncture and near penetrations. Though the liner tearing failure mode has been emphasized, the assumption of a liner tearing failure mode is largely based on experience with reinforced concrete containments. For the PCCV, the potential for shear failure at or near the liner tearing pressure may be considerable and requires detailed investigation. This paper examines the behavior of the PCCV in the region most susceptible to a radial shear failure, the wall-basemat juncture region. Prediction of shear failure in concrete structures is a difficult goal, both experimentally and analytically. As a structure begins to deform under an applied system of forces that produce shear, other deformation modes such as bending and tension/compression begin to influence the response. Analytically, difficulties lie in characterizing the decrease in shear stiffness and shear stress and in predicting the associated transfer of stress to reinforcement as cracks become wider and more extensive. This paper examines existing methods for representing concrete shear response and existing criteria for predicting shear failure, and it discusses application of these methods and criteria to the study of the 1:4 scale PCCV.

Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-04-01

200

Stability of explosives traces on different supports: detectability by EVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

EVD detection relies on the deposition of explosives traces on the surface of the investigated object. The explosive traces are usually deposited during the preparation process, i.e. packing of the explosive device into the container. If the packaging procedure dates back several weeks, the explosives traces must be stable during this time to be detectable. This necessary stability is given

Peter Kolla

1997-01-01

201

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22

202

Explosive complexes  

SciTech Connect

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16

203

Transuranic drum hydrogen explosion tests  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste can produce flammable ({gt}4%) mixtures of hydrogen gas in 55 gallon vented waste storage drums. Explosion testing was conducted at the E. I. duPont Explosion Hazards Laboratory to determine the minimum concentration at which a drum lid removal occurs. A secondary objective was to investigate the maximum pressure and rate of pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. Prior to beginning any drum explosion tests, small-scale pressure vessel tests and drum mixing tests were completed. The pressure vessel tests established a relationship between hydrogen concentration and the maximum pressure and pressure rise. These small-scale tests were used to establish the concentration range over which a drum lid removal might occur. Mixing tests were also conducted to determine the equilibration times for two different hydrogen-air mixtures in a TRU drum. Nine successful drum explosion tests were conducted over a hydrogen concentration range of 13--36% (v/v), test results suggest total integrity failure via drum lid removal will not occur below 15% (v/v). Controlled small-scale pressure vessel tests were conducted over a range of 5--50% (v/v) to determine the pressure and pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. No similar relationship could be established for the drum explosion tests due to the variability in drum lid sealing and retaining ring closure. Mixing tests conducted at 5% and 25% (v/v) indicate adding pure hydrogen to the middle of a drum causes some initial stratification along the drum length, but the air and hydrogen become well-mixed after 50 minutes. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

1991-06-01

204

High-nitrogen explosives  

SciTech Connect

The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

2002-01-01

205

Fasciocutaneous vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the conventional view of the arterial blood supply of skin, two systems of vessels are recognised; the direct cutaneous arteries and the musculocutaneous perforators. The existence of a third system consisting of fasciocutaneous perforators, is a relatively new concept. These vessels supply the skin by passing along the fascial septa between adjacent muscles. A particular feature of these

G. C. Cormack; B. G. H. Lamberty

1984-01-01

206

Explosive-powder compaction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a pressure-control system and a test fixture to study the behavior of explosive materials during compaction. Both the pressure-control system and the test fixture are self-contained and portable. Explosive materials are compacted in a bridged header charge holder assembly by means of a test fixture and a pneumatic cylinder arrangement. Forces are measured with load

A. P. Montoya; M. L. Reichenbach

1981-01-01

207

Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems  

DOEpatents

Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

1999-09-28

208

Projectile-generating explosive access tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile

Juan-Carlos Jakaboski; Chance G. Hughs; Steven N. Todd

2011-01-01

209

GAS EXPLOSION VENTING IN ELONGATED ENCLOSURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced explosion pressures for methane and propane have been measured in cylindrical vessels (diameter 1.1m) with length to diameter ratios in the range 5.5 to 11.8 and vent coefficients in the range 1 to 4. Measurements with propane have also been undertaken in rectangular vessels (2.5m by 2.5m cross-section) for length to width ratios in the range 3 to 12

Pritchard D K; Allsopp J A

210

A Closed Water-Filled Cylinder for Characterizing Non-Ideal Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-ideal explosives containing a significant fraction of slow-reacting components, such as underwater explosives, pose a challenge for conventional testing methods. In contrast to ideal explosives in which a 1\\

Raafat Guirguis; Reid McKeown; John Kelley

1997-01-01

211

Tenderizing Meat with Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

2001-06-01

212

Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and microhardness testing respectively.

Bernier, Evan Thomas

213

Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other

Thomas A Lewis; David A Newcombe; Ronald L Crawford

2004-01-01

214

Possibilities of Liquid Explosives Countermeasures at Airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the possibilities of liquid explosives revelation during routine checking of person and baggage are discussed.\\u000a Both the containers filled with liquid explosives and assembled IEDs can be detected easily. There are a few possibilities\\u000a to distinguish the kind of liquid by common x-ray system at checkpoints. Apart from some particle detectors the explosive\\u000a and flammable liquids can

J. Turecek

215

Pressure development due to turbulent flame propagation in large-scale methane-air explosions  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale methane-air explosion tests conducted in a 1800-ft/sup 3/ vented tube demonstrated that the presence of obstacles can greatly increase the violence of explosions in the vessel. For example, six 0.7-ft. high obstacles created overpressures larger than the theoretical closed-vessel maximum overpressure. The results suggest that safe venting criteria obtained from idealized experiments are totally inadequate for large-scale gaseous explosions in obstacle environments.

Moen, I.O.; Lee, J.H.S.; Hjertager, B.H.; Fuhre, K.; Eckhoff, R.K.

1982-07-01

216

Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

2007-11-01

217

Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment  

SciTech Connect

We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M

2004-10-11

218

Time-resolved measurements of near infrared emission spectra from explosions: Pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate and its mixtures containing silver and aluminum particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of chemical transients and thermodynamic conditions are difficult to obtain yet fundamentally important in understanding the behavior of explosives. We have constructed a fast near infrared (NIR) spectrometer and have made temporally and spectrally-resolved emission measurements during postdetonation combustion of pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) charges and PETN charges doped with 10 wt % microparticles composed of silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al). We have observed postdetonation PETN emission spectra between 750 and 1500 nm at rates up to 46 992 spectra/s. The instrument captures the highly structured spectra immediately following breakout as well as the longer-lived broadband NIR emission signals from hot particles. The early spectra reveal spectral signatures related to PETN and the reacting constituents of the particles. The later spectra provide a means to infer the gray-body temperature history of the particles.

Koch, Jon D.; Piecuch, Scott; Lightstone, James M.; Carney, Joel R.; Hooper, Joe

2010-08-01

219

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems

Cantwell

1988-01-01

220

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due

Cantwell

1988-01-01

221

Polyurethane Binder Systems for Polymer Bonded Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) consist of explosive components bound together by a polymeric binder. The most common binder systems in current PBXs are polyurethane based and contain plasticisers and other chemicals that alter processability, mechanical properties and chemical stability. This report details the history of PBX binders, components of polyurethane binder systems, their properties and the procedures for obtaining the

Merran A. Daniel

222

Sapphire tube pressure vessel  

SciTech Connect

A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

Outwater, J.O.

2000-05-23

223

Explosive Wave Shaper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosive wave shaping system or wave shaper is disclosed. A 'flying' plate or disk of uniform thickness between the donor explosive and the acceptor explosive. The plate is driven against the acceptor explosive with sufficient force to detonate it. Th...

T. P. Liddiard

1965-01-01

224

Vascular-specific growth factors and blood vessel formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent explosion in newly discovered vascular growth factors has coincided with exploitation of powerful new genetic approaches for studying vascular development. An emerging rule is that all of these factors must be used in perfect harmony to form functional vessels. These new findings also demand re-evaluation of therapeutic efforts aimed at regulating blood vessel growth in ischaemia, cancer and

George D. Yancopoulos; Samuel Davis; Nicholas W. Gale; John S. Rudge; Stanley J. Wiegand; Jocelyn Holash

2000-01-01

225

Ammonium nitrate explosive systems  

DOEpatents

Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

226

Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives  

DOEpatents

A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Pagoria, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-09-27

227

Micromechanics simulations of glass–estane mock polymer bonded explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) are particulate composites containing explosive particles and a continuous binder. The elastic modulus of the particles, at room temperature and higher, is often three to four orders of magnitude higher than that of the binder. Additionally, the explosive particles occupy high volume fractions, often greater than 90%. Both experimental and numerical determination of macroscopic properties of

Biswajit Banerjee; Carl M Cady; Daniel O Adams

2003-01-01

228

Micromechanics simulations of glass-estane mock polymer bonded explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) are particulate composites containing explosive particles and a continuous binder. The elastic modulus of the particles, at room temperature and higher, is often three to four orders of magnitude higher than that of the binder. Additionally, the explosive particles occupy high volume fractions, often greater than 90%. Both experimental and numerical determination of macroscopic properties of

Biswajit Banerjee; Carl M. Cady; Daniel O. Adams

2003-01-01

229

Technical Review Report for the Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessel (PCV)  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessels (PCV). The waiver is to be used to support a limited number of shipments of fuel for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) Project in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Under the waiver, an inventory of existing national security PCVs will be converted to standard PCVs. Both types of PCVs are currently approved for use by the Office of Nuclear Energy. LLNL has previously reviewed the national security PCVs under Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Addendum No. 1, Revision c, dated June 2007 (Addendum 1). The safety analysis of the package is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Mound 1KW Package (i.e., the Mound 1KW SARP, or the SARP) where the standard PCVs have been reviewed by LLNL. The Mound 1KW Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) number USA/9516/B(U)F-85 for the transportation of Type B quantities of plutonium heat source material. The waiver requests an exemption, claiming safety equivalent to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.12, Specific Exemptions, and will lead to a letter amendment to the CoC. Under the waiver, the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems, NE-34, is seeking an exemption from 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1), Previously Approved Package,[5] which states: '(d) NRC will approve modifications to the design and authorized contents of a Type B package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided--(1) The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests specified in {section}71.71 and 71.73.' The LLNL staff had previously reviewed a request from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to reconfigure national security PCVs to standard PCVs. With a nominal 50% reduction in both the height and the volume, the LLNL staff initially deemed the modifications to be significant, which would not be allowed under the provisions of 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1)--see above. As a follow-up, the DOE requested additional clarification from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC concluded that the reconfiguration would be a new fabrication, and that an exemption to the regulations would be required to allow its use, as per the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.19(c)(1), Previously Approved Package: '(c) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, or a fissile material package previously approved by the NRC with the designation '-85' in the identification number of the NRC CoC, may be used under the general license of {section}71.17 with the following additional conditions: (1) Fabrication of the package must be satisfactorily completed by December 31, 2006, as demonstrated by application of its model number in accordance with 71.85(c).' Although the preferred approach toward the resolution of this issue would be for the applicant to submit an updated SARP, the applicant has stated that the process of updating the Model Mound 1KW Package SARP is a work that is in progress, but that the updated SARP is not yet ready for submittal. The applicant has to provide a submittal, proving that the package meets the '-96' requirements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, in order to fabricate approved packagings after December 31, 2006. The applicant has further stated that all other packaging features, as described in the currently approved Model Mound 1KW Package SARP, remain unchanged. This report documents the LLNL review of the waiver request. The specific review for each SARP Chapter is documented.

West, M; Hafner, R

2008-05-05

230

Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.  

PubMed

Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow. PMID:22622036

Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

2012-05-24

231

Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. PMID:19833524

Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

2009-09-23

232

Bioremediation of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

1995-09-01

233

49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...including a substituted ammonium or quaternary ammonium salt; or (2) An acidic substance, including a salt of a weak base and a strong acid. (c) A leaking or damaged package or article containing an explosive. (d) Propellants that are...

2009-10-01

234

49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...including a substituted ammonium or quaternary ammonium salt; or (2) An acidic substance, including a salt of a weak base and a strong acid. (c) A leaking or damaged package or article containing an explosive. (d) Propellants that are...

2010-10-01

235

A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subject to internal explosive detonations  

SciTech Connect

Thin cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations expand outwardly at strain-rates on the order 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. At approximately 150% strain, multiple plastic instabilities appear on the surface of these shells in a quasi-periodic pattern. These instabilities continue to develop into bands of localized shear and eventually form cracks that progress in a way that causes the shell to break into fragments. The entire process takes less than 100 microseconds from detonation to complete fragmentation. Modeling this high strain-rate expansion and generation of instabilities prior to fragmentation is the primary focus of this paper. Applications for this research include hypervelocity accelerators, flux compression generators, and explosive containment vessels for terrorist threats and power plants.

Martineau, R.L.; Anderson, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1998-12-31

236

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

2009-01-01

237

Design of explosive logic elements  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos has been exploring explosive logic systems to see if they might provide advantages in weapon safety or weapon command and control. We use the extrudable explosive EXTEX (80% PETN, 20% Sylgard) for this work. These systems contain at least one but usually several discrete logic elements, and the worth - the reliability - of the system is directly dependent on the reliability of these elements. We perceive that the troubles encountered in the early attempts to use explosive logic can be attributed to the lack of a truly reliable design for one or more of the elements being used. At Los Alamos, we express this as the need for a Safety/Reliability Window. In this short presentation, that concept will be emphasized. The development of three elements for which working windows are available will be discussed.

Meyers, W.H.

1984-01-01

238

Projectile-generating explosive access tool  

DOEpatents

An explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance G. (Tijeras, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2011-10-18

239

Projectile-generating explosive access tool  

DOEpatents

A method for generating a projectile using an explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G; Todd, Steven N

2013-06-11

240

Totally Confined Explosive Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for eliminating the noise and debris of explosive welding techniques by totally enclosing and applying the explosive pressure through the wall of an enclosure. This method eliminates the problem of scattering debris, and personnel ha...

L. J. Bement

1973-01-01

241

Intermittent Explosive Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Intermittent explosive disorder By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intermittent-explosive-disorder/DS00730 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications ...

242

Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels. Resulting induced vessels did match in morphology to the target vessels. Several other covalently bound signals were then analyzed in the assay and resulting morphology of vessels was compared in several studies which further highlighted the utility of the micropocket assay in conjunction with the image based tool for vessel morphological quantification. Finally, an alternative method to provide rapid vasculature to the constructs, which relied on pre-seeded hydrogels encapsulated endothelial cells was also developed and shown to allow anastamosis between induced host vessels and the implanted construct within 48 hours. These results indicate great promise in the rational design of synthetic, bioactive hydrogels, which can be used as a platform to study microvascular induction for regenerative medicine and angiogenesis research. Future applications of this research may help to develop therapeutic strategies to ameliorate human disease by replacing organs or correcting vessel morphology in the case of ischemic diseases and cancer.

Gould, Daniel Joseph

243

Bioremediation of high explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite

C. L. Kitts; M. A. Alvarez; J. L. Hanners; K. L. Ogden; L. Vanderberg-Twary; P. J. Unkefer

1995-01-01

244

Totally Confined Explosive Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The s...

L. J. Bement

1974-01-01

245

75 FR 5545 - Explosives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...terminating the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR...of the Act, OSHA promulgated its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29...

2010-02-03

246

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

SciTech Connect

As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

Cantwell, J.E.

1988-01-01

247

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

Cantwell, J.E. (Caltex Petroleum Corp., P.O. Box 619500, Dallas, TX (US))

1988-10-01

248

Containment Prospectus for the TRUMPET Experiments  

SciTech Connect

TRUMPET is a series of dynamic subcritical experiments planned for execution in the U1a.102D alcove of the U1a Complex at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The location of LLNL drifts at the U1a Complex is shown in Figure 1. The data from the TRUMPET experiments will be used in the Stockpile Stewardship Program to assess the aging of nuclear weapons components and to better model the long-term performance of weapons in the enduring stockpile. The TRUMPET series of experiments will be conducted in an almost identical way as the OBOE series of experiments. Individual TRUMPET experiments will be housed in an experiment vessel, as was done for OBOE. These vessels are the same as those utilized for OBOE. All TRUMPET experiments will occur in the zero room in the U1a.102D alcove, which is on the opposite side of the U1a.102 drift from U1a.102C, which housed the OBOE experiments. The centerlines of these two alcoves are separated by only 10 feet. As with OBOE experiments, expended TRUMPET experiment vessels will be moved to the back of the alcove and entombed in grout. After the TRUMPET series of experiments is completed, another experiment will be sited in the U1a.102D alcove and it will be the final experiment in the zero room, as was similarly done for the OBOE series of experiments followed by the execution of the PIANO experiment. Each experimental package for TRUMPET will be composed of high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. Each experimental package will be placed in an experimental vessel within the TRUMPET zero room in the U1a.102D alcove. The containment plan for the TRUMPET experiments utilizes a two-nested containment vessel concept, similar to OBOE and other subcritical experiments in the U1a Complex. The first containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102D drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U1a.100 drift. While it is likely that the experiment vessel will contain the SNM from the experiment, the containment plan for the TRUMPET experiments only assumes that the experiment vessel provides shock mitigation and serves as a sink for the heat produced by the detonation of the HE. It is possible that one or more of the experiment vessels may seep SNM into the zero room from a failure of a seal on the vessel. This containment plan covers the entire series of TRUMPET experiments. At this time, we don't know exactly how many experiments will actually be conducted in the TRUMPET series. However, we know that the maximum planned number of experiments in the TRUMPET series is 20. This number may be modified on the basis of results obtained from each TRUMPET experiment. After the final experiment in the TRUMPET series is completed, a larger experiment will be conducted in the U1a.102D alcove. A separate containment plan will be developed and presented to the Containment Review Panel (CRP) for that larger experiment. As with OBOE, this containment plan is intended to cover all TRUMPET experiments. We will not develop a separate containment plan for each experiment. Before each experiment we will present a statement to the CRP that each TRUMPET experiment falls within the parameters presented in this document. If an experiment falls outside the parameters in this document, a containment plan for that experiment will be developed and presented to the CRP for a full containment review.

Pawloski, G A

2004-02-05

249

Stability of explosives traces on different supports: detectability by EVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EVD detection relies on the deposition of explosives traces on the surface of the investigated object. The explosive traces are usually deposited during the preparation process, i.e. packing of the explosive device into the container. If the packaging procedure dates back several weeks, the explosives traces must be stable during this time to be detectable. This necessary stability is given for the high explosives TNT, PETN and RDX. Problems arise with substances, that have high vapor pressures like EGDN, NG and DNT.

Kolla, Peter

1997-02-01

250

Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner  

SciTech Connect

Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

1995-07-01

251

Calorimetry studies of explosion heat of non-ideal explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heats of explosion of non-ideal RDX-based compositions in four various atmospheres (argon, nitrogen, air and argon\\/oxygen\\u000a mixture) were measured. Charges of phlegmatized RDX containing 30% of two types of aluminium powders, coarse aluminium oxide,\\u000a or fine lithium fluoride particles were fired in a calorimetric bomb of 5.6 dm3 in volume. The influence of inert and reactive additives and the atmosphere

W. Kici?ski; W. A. Trzci?ski

2009-01-01

252

Passive filtered containment vent  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved containment vessel for a reactor is described, the containment vessel including imperforate containment walls defining a fully enclosed housing for the elements of the reactor, at least one of the walls including portions defining at least one vent opening therein, and a pressure relief system including at least one container for a supply of scrubbing liquid for reaction

1989-01-01

253

Evolution of turbulent fields in explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosions always contain turbulent mixing regions, e.g.: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets and unstable interfaces. The inherent unsteadiness of turbulent mixing in explosions, and the lack of sufficient data, pose insurmountable difficulties for turbulence modeling of such flows. Proposed here is a direct numerical simulation approach where the three-dimensional (3-D) conservation laws are integrated via a high-order Godunov method.

A. L. Kuhl; J. B. Bell; R. E. Ferguson; K. Y. Chien; J. P. Collins; M. L. Lyons

1993-01-01

254

Origin of the sound generated by Strombolian explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During strombolian eruptions, large bubbles break at the surface of the lava column and produce sound. Acoustic pressure recorded during several explosions on the Eastern vent of Stromboli volcano, shows a pattern consistent between explosions. The well-marked oscillation contains only very low frequencies (around 7 Hz), and is followed by a signal containing now both higher frequencies and lower frequency

S. Vergniolle; G. Brandeis

1994-01-01

255

Immunohistochemical localization of the VIP1 receptor (VPAC1R) in rat cerebral blood vessels: relation to PACAP and VIP containing nerves.  

PubMed

The two structurally related peptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), are present in cerebral vascular nerve fibers. Biologic actions of VIP are exerted through two receptors, VPAC1 and VPAC2, having similar binding affinity for both VIP and PACAP. In the current study, the authors have developed a specific antibody against the rVPAC1 receptor to examine the localization of rVPAC1 immunoreactivity in cerebral arteries and arterioles of the rat by immunohistochemistry using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Specificity of the antiserum was ensured by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry of cells transfected with cDNA encoding the different PACAP-VIP receptor subtypes. The rVPAC1 receptor immunoreactivity was localized to the plasmalemma of circularly orientated smooth muscle cells on superficial cerebral arteries and arterioles taken from the basal surface of the brain. By double immunostaining VIP immunoreactive nerve fibers and, to a lesser extent, those containing PACAP were shown to have intimate contact with the receptor protein. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and PACAP containing cerebrovascular nerve fibers were found in separate nerve populations with different distribution pattern and density. In brain sections processes of cortical VIP-, but not PACAP-, containing neurons seemed to innervate the rVPAC1 receptor of pial arterioles on the brain surface. The current findings provide the neuroanatomical substrate for a role of VIP and maybe PACAP in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. PMID:10950381

Fahrenkrug, J; Hannibal, J; Tams, J; Georg, B

2000-08-01

256

Effects of platelet-rich plasma-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles in enhancing endothelial and smooth muscle cell growth and inducing collateral vessels in a rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of isogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) as a delivery system for proteins in PRP on growth of endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro and as an alternative treatment for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and critical limb ischemia. Frozen and thawed PRP contains high concentrations of growth factors that are adsorbed by F/P MPs. Human aorta endothelial cells (AECs) and SMCs were grown in a medium with PRP. Addition of F/P MPs significantly enhanced the proliferative effects of PRP on AECs and SMCs at 37 °C for >10 days. Intramuscular administration of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 2 mL, control), F/P MPs (12 mg in 2 mL PBS), PRP (2 mL), or PRP (2 mL) containing F/P MPs (12 mg) was then performed in a rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia prepared by resection of the left femoral artery. Blood flow and pressure were measured on days 0, 14, and 28, and angiography to assess arteriogenesis was performed on day 28. PRP-containing F/P MPs strongly induced functional collateral vessels in the rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia, indicating possible use of these microparticles in therapy for PAD. PMID:23161557

Fujita, Masanori; Horio, Takuya; Kishimoto, Satoko; Nakamura, Shingo; Takikawa, Megumi; Nakayama, Takefumi; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hattori, Hidemi; Tachibana, Shoichi; Ishihara, Masayuki

2012-11-14

257

Direct imaging of explosives.  

PubMed

Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, approximately 200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field. PMID:11003510

Knapp, E A; Moler, R B; Saunders, A W; Trower, W P

258

Phytoremediation of Toxic Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Widespread contamination of the environment by explosives resulting from the manufacture, disposal and testing of munitions\\u000a is becoming a matter of increasing concern. Most explosives are considered to be a major hazard to biological systems due\\u000a to their toxic and mutagenic effects. Interest on the bioremediation of lands contaminated with explosives has recently been\\u000a focused on phytoremediation. Unfortunately, whilst plants

Nand Lal; Neerja Srivastava

259

Modeling of buried explosions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been and continues developing techniques for modeling buried explosions using a large geotechnical centrifuge. When fully developed, the techniques should permit the accurate modeling of large explosions in complex geometries. Our intentional application is to study the phenomena of explosive cavity formation and collapse. However, the same methods should also be applicable to simulation of bursts shallow enough to produce craters, and perhaps even of airbursts in situations where soil overburden is important. We have placed primary emphasis on test bed construction methods and on accurate measurement of the ground shock produced by the explosions. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Gaffney, E.S.; Wohletz, K.H.; House, J.W.; Brown, J.A.

1987-01-01

260

Determination of Explosive Blast Loading Equivalencies with AN Explosively Driven Shock Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values were measured for C4, ANFO, and two perchlorate explosives. Explosive equivalencies from these values were found to agree with prior theory and experiment.

Jackson, Scott I.; Morris, John S.; Hill, Larry G.

2009-12-01

261

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: COMPOSITING EXPLOSIVES/ORGANICS CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory scale and pilot scale studies were conducted to evaluate composting to treat sediments and soils containing explosive and organic compounds. Sediment and soil from lagoons at Army ammunition plants, located in Louisiana, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania contained high...

262

An Eulerian–Lagrangian approach for simulating explosions of energetic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the simulation of explosions of “energetic devices” is described. In this context, an energetic device is a metal container filled with a high explosive (HE). Examples include bombs, mines, rocket motors or containers used in storage and transport of HE material. Explosions may occur due to detonation or deflagration of the HE material, with initiation resulting from

J. E. Guilkey; T. B. Harman; B. Banerjee

2007-01-01

263

Containment heat removal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined

G. E. Wade; G. Barbanti; P. F. Gou; A. S. Rao; L. C. Hsu

1992-01-01

264

Linked Data Bases Contain Parts Explosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A data base has been developed to provide an automated audit of all components, modules, and subsystems for a Global Positioning System that consists of a constellation of 18 satellites. The data base includes detailed fabrication, test, and operational p...

J. Carkeet D. Jones

1985-01-01

265

Linked data bases contain parts explosion  

SciTech Connect

A data base has been developed to provide an automated audit of all components, modules, and subsystems for a Global Positioning System that consists of a constellation of 18 satellites. The data base includes detailed fabrication, test, and operational performance data. The objective is to mitigate the effects of an avalanche of paper audits from a production program involving a proliferation of subcomponents and to facilitate quality control of an extremely complex system. Four separate SYSTEM 2000 data bases that use redundant pointers are linked to provide many-to-many relationships and to minimize mainframe resource requirements. Updates of the four data bases are facilitated by a color-form entry capability on the IBM PC. Retrievals are simplified by a menu-driven query capability.

Carkeet, J.; Jones, D.

1985-09-01

266

Explosively pumped laser light  

DOEpatents

A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

267

Entropy in supernova explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The explosion of a supernova forms because of the collapse to a neutron star. In addition an explosion requires that a region of relatively high entropy be in contact with the neutron star and persisting for a relatively protracted period of time. The hig...

S. A. Colgate

1990-01-01

268

Inside an Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From afar, an explosion may seem like one of the most incredible examples of chaotic interaction. But once you look closer, as in this video from QUEST, you will find that large-scale explosions require very precise interactions to occur in just the right sequence.

Kqed

2009-10-30

269

Bioremediation of explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive manufacture, packing, and the use of explosives has often resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground waters near these activities. Congressional mandate has now required that such sites be remediated. An especially promising technology for this explosives problem is biotechnology. When applicable, biotechnology is cheap and provides complete conversion of hazardous compounds to harmless biomass or carbon

P. J. Unkefer; M. A. Alvarez; J. L. Hanners; C. J. Unkefer; M. Stenger; E. A. Margiotta

1990-01-01

270

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01

271

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

272

BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest

Vormelker

2008-01-01

273

Reaction of preshocked explosives  

SciTech Connect

In experiments in which an explosive is subjected to two successive shocks ({approximately}2.5 and {approximately}6.0 GPa), detonation of the explosive is delayed. High compaction resulting from shock compression of an explosive probably results in the removal of voids from the material. To the extent that these voids comprise the hotspots in the material, the shock-compressed explosive might be expected to behave as a homogeneous material, and initiate more like a liquid explosive than like a normal solid PBX. While some evidence is available from the data record to support this idea that detonation develops in a homogeneous manner, predominant aspects of the data indicate heterogeneous development of detonation in the preshocked material.

Mulford, R.N.

1998-07-31

274

Explosion-Induced Implosions of Cylindrical Shell Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of the explosion-induced implosion of cylindrical shell structures in a high-pressure water environment was performed. The shell structures are filled with air at atmospheric pressure and are placed in a large water-filled pressure vessel. The vessel is then pressurized to various levels P?=?Pc, where Pc is the natural implosion pressure of the model and ? is a factor that ranges from 0.1 to 0.9. An explosive is then set off at various standoff distances, d, from the model center line, where d varies from R to 10R and R is the maximum radius of the explosion bubble. High-speed photography (27,000 fps) was used to observe the explosion and resulting shell structure implosion. High-frequency underwater blast sensors recorded dynamic pressure waves at 6 positions. The cylindrical models were made from aluminum (diameter D = 39.1 mm, wall thickness t = 0.89 mm, length L = 240 mm) and brass (D = 16.7 mm, t = 0.36 mm, L=152 mm) tubes. The pressure records are interpreted in light of the high-speed movies. It is found that the implosion is induced by two mechanisms: the shockwave generated by the explosion and the jet formed during the explosion-bubble collapse. Whether an implosion is caused by the shockwave or the jet depends on the maximum bubble diameter and the standoff distance.

Ikeda, C. M.; Duncan, J. H.

2010-11-01

275

46 CFR 67.205 - Requirement for vessel identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-General Provisions § 67.205 Requirement...identification. (a) Every instrument presented for filing and recording must contain sufficient information to clearly identify...

2011-10-01

276

46 CFR 67.205 - Requirement for vessel identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-General Provisions § 67.205 Requirement...identification. (a) Every instrument presented for filing and recording must contain sufficient information to clearly identify...

2012-10-01

277

46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Guard Symbol. (f) Compressed gas or hazardous liquid...vessel tests. Cargo tanks of pressure vessel configuration...containing liquefied, compressed gases or hazardous...chapter. (g) Bulk storage tanks. Each bulk...

2011-10-01

278

46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. ...Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. ...406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be...

2009-10-01

279

46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. ...Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. ...406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be...

2010-10-01

280

Fast Flux Test Facility Reactor Vessel Removal Study  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the feasibility of removing the FFTF reactor vessel from its current location in the reactor cavity inside the Containment vessel to a transporter for relocation to a burial pit in the 200 Area.

BOWMAN, B.R.

2002-10-23

281

Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

1991-07-01

282

Experimental study of hydrocarbon emissions from closed vessel explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two combustion bombs are used to determine the exhaust hydrocarbon emission after laminar flame propagation through the reactors. Propane and air are used as fuel and oxidizer, and gas chromatography is used to analyze the emission gases. Data are taken over an initial pressure range from 50 kPa to 400 kPa and from an equivalence ratio of 0.7 to the

A. A. Adamczyk; E. W. Kaiser; J. A. Cavolowsky; G. A. Lavoie

1981-01-01

283

Simulation of high explosive explosion using adaptive material point method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of high explosive explosion problems is a big challenge to traditional numerical methods because explosion usually involves ex- tremely large deformation and multi-material interaction of different phases. Re- centlydevelopedmeshfreemethodsshowmuchadvantagesovermesh-basedmethod for problems associated with very large deformation. Some of them have been successfully applied to impact and explosion problems, such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Similar to SPH, material

Shang Ma; Xiong Zhang; Yanping Lian; Xu Zhou

2009-01-01

284

Feasibility study for a containment to resist core-melt accidents  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study has been performed for a light water reactor containment able to resist even severe accidents by passive means. Upper-bound design loads have been considered for all physically possible scenarios after a core-melt accident as determined by Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The essential layout of this containment is presented. Based on the main system features of a German 1,300-MW Convoy reactor type, internal static pressure, hydrogen detonation, failure of the pressure vessel under high pressure, and steam explosion, respectively, have been regarded as well as such external loads as an airplane crash, earthquake, gas explosion, and so forth. The containment can remove the decay heat by purely passive means, and it is believed that the design can be realized at reasonable costs.

Butsch, J.; Schlueter, F.H.; Eibl, J. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Massivbau

1995-09-01

285

Characterization of Detonation Products of RSI-007 Explosive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a production quality RSI-007 explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The free surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for the interferometry measurements. Detailed shock reverberations are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further determine the release state in different pressure regimes.

Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Chhabildas, Lalit

2011-06-01

286

Characterization of detonation products of RSI-007 explosive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a high-purity CL-20 based explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The back surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for interferometry measurements. Detailed reverberations corresponding to shock arrival and release are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further refine the release states.

Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Breaux, Bradley; Vineski, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Lambert, David; Chhabildas, Lalit

2012-03-01

287

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1986-05-29

288

Vapor cloud explosion analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new method (now commonly referred to as the Baker-Strehlow Method) for estimating pressure and impulse generated by vapor cloud explosions. Strehlow`s blast curves and concepts from the Multi-Energy method for determination of explosion energy are applied in this technique. New correlations for maximum flame speed based on obstacle density, fuel reactivity, and cloud confinement allow selection of the appropriate blast curve. Application of these correlations removes much of the subjectivity present in existing explosion estimates. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Baker, Q.A. [Wilfred Baker Engineering Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Tang, Ming Jun [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Scheier, E.A. [Occidental Chemical Corp., Dallas, TX (United States); Silva, G.J. [Occidental International Exploration & Production CO., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

289

Flash Ignition and Initiation of Explosives-Nanotubes Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent astounding discoveries of ignition in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) after exposure to an ordinary photographic flash, (1) other formulations of carbons containing noble metals, (2) and polyaniline nanofibers (3) prompted us to explore a possible further instigation of explosive materials. Here, we report that an ignition and initiation process, further leading to actual detonation, does occur for explosives

M. Riad Manaa; Alexander R. Mitchell; Raul G. Garza; Philip F. Pagoria; Bruce E. Watkins

2005-01-01

290

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AFTERBURNING OF THERMOBARIC EXPLOSIVE PRODUCTS IN AIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

To predict the blast performance of thermobaric warhead, numerical modeling of secondary burning after detonation of thermobaric explosives is investigated. We select TNT containing small quantity of aluminum as a candidate thermobaric explosive. The combustion process is modeled by the fast reaction for gas and aluminum vapor and the finite-rate burning for aluminum particle. The simulations are performed by the

C.-K. Kim; J.-S. Hwang; K.-S. Im

291

Upper explosive limit of dusts: Experimental evidence for its existence under certain circumstances  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of the explosibility of cornstarch using the 20-liter vessel shows that, for a narrow size fraction near its limiting particle size for explosibility, an upper explosive limit exists. Upper explosive limits were also observed with both cornstarch and Pittsburgh Standard coal dust at low oxygen concentrations. These upper limits occur at accessible dust concentrations. A simple mechanism, the oxygen depletion phenomenological concept, is described. The optimum dust concentration, calculated using this mechanism, gives reasonable agreement with the experimental values, as well as explaining the variation of optimum concentration with particle size and oxygen concentration.

Mintz, K.J. (CANMET, Energy, Mines, and Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Mining Research Labs.)

1993-07-01

292

Numerical modeling of insensitive high-explosives initiation  

SciTech Connect

The initiation of propagating, diverging detonation is usually accomplished by small conventional initiators. As the explosive to be initiated becomes more shock insensitive, the initators must have larger diameters to be effective. Very shock-insensitive explosives have required initiators larger than 2.5 cm. We have numerically examined the process of initiation of propagating detonation as a function of the shock sensitivity of the explosive using the two-dimensional Lagrangian reactive hydrodynamic code 2DL and the Forest Fire rate to describe the shock initiation process of heterogeneous explosives. The initiation of propagating detonation in shock-insenstive explosives containing triamino trinitrobenzene results in large regions of partially decomposed explosive even when initiated by large initiators. The process has been observed experimentally and reproduced numerically.

Bowman, A.L.; Mader, C.L.

1981-01-01

293

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

294

Permeability of Concrete for Reactor Containment Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Review of the literature pertaining to water, water vapour and gas transmission through concrete revealed conflicting views on the mechanisms involved and the influence of mix design parameters such as initial porosities and water/cement ratio. Considerat...

R. H. Mills

1983-01-01

295

Development of a technique using MCNPX code for determination of nitrogen content of explosive materials using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma 10.8 MeV following radioactive neutron capture by 14N nuclei. We aimed to study the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) along with improved nuclear equipment to detect and identify explosives, illicit substances or landmines. A 252Cf radio-isotopic source was embedded in a cylinder made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the cylinder was then placed in another cylindrical container filled with water. Measurements were performed on high nitrogen content compounds such as melamine (C3H6N6). Melamine powder in a HDPE bottle was placed underneath the vessel containing water and the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The results were simulated with MCNP4c code calculations. The theoretical calculations and experimental measurements were in good agreement indicating that this method can be used for detection of explosives and illicit drugs.

Nasrabadi, M. N.; Bakhshi, F.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A.

2011-12-01

296

The ignition temperature of solid explosives exposed to a fire  

SciTech Connect

When a system containing solid explosive is engulfed in a fire it receives a heat flux that causes the temperature of the system to rise monotonically. The temperature rise can often be approximated by a linear rise for extended periods of time. When some portion of the explosive, usually near the surface, reaches its ignition temperature it will begin to burn. If the explosive is unconfined, or can breach its confinement at low pressure, it will burn, not explode. Typically the burn front will propagate through a slab or shell at speeds on the order of a centimeter a minute. If the explosive is confined, the gas resulting from its burning will generate pressures high enough to rupture the confinement, but the peak pressure will generally be only a fraction of the pressure from a true detonation. When a system is not engulfed in the fire, but is close enough to be heated slowly by the fire, the behavior will be different. If the explosive is heated slowly it will have a nearly uniform temperature and ignition will occur inside the explosive. This almost always causes an explosion, even when the explosive as a whole is unconfined. The reason for this behavior is not well understood but slow heating of an explosive generally results in a more violent explosion than fast heating. These two situations are recognized by fast and slow cookoff tests used with munitions. Many munitions pass the fast cookoff test with heating rates around 2 K/min. Slow cookoff tests with heating rates around 4 K/hr generally result in an explosion. (The equations in this paper assume absolute temperatures in Kelvins, equal to Celsius + 273.16.) Mathematical models predicting the time to explosion are usually based on the assumption that the explosive has a uniform initial temperature and that the outer surface is suddenly raised to some temperature and held there. The earliest such models where those of Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii.

Creighton, J.R.

1993-09-01

297

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

298

Explosives Vapor Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vaporous emissions from seventeen explosives were investigated by gas chromatographic and combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques using a novel collection device. The vapor emission rates were followed as a function of time untile t...

F. H. Jarke S. M. Gordon

1982-01-01

299

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

2005-12-01

300

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

2004-10-01

301

Vacuum Pump Explosion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made into explosions and backfires occurring in vacuum pumps used on Navy oxygen component test stands. Research and testing uncovered several fire and toxicity hazards on these pumps which carry gaseous oxygen flows. Corrective recom...

H. H. Yuen T. D. Weikel

1972-01-01

302

Nuclear explosive driven experiments  

SciTech Connect

Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment.

Ragan, C.E.

1981-01-01

303

Detonation and incineration products of PBX explosives  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments are planned to determine detonation product gases that are released into the environment when high explosives are tested. These experiments will be done in a 1.8-m-diam confinement vessel at ambient air pressure and partial vacuum. A matrix of four shots of PBX 9501, three shots of PBX 9502 and one shot of LX-10 are analyzed to determine the reproducibility and mass balance of materials in the detonation. This paper will only report on the detonation product gases as other experiments are planned.

Fletcher, M.A.; Loughran, E.D.

1992-01-01

304

Nuclear explosive safety study process  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

NONE

1997-01-01

305

The Explosion at Bailleul  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE reports referred to in NATURE of August 28 (p. 511) of the effects observed at Denmark Hill, Norwich, and elsewhere by the explosion of a munition dump at Bailleul at 1.10 p.m. G.M.T. on August 8 suggest that these effects were due mainly to earth tremors caused by the explosion, since the rattling of windows, extending in one case

Spencer Pickering

1919-01-01

306

Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

2007-03-01

307

Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive  

DOEpatents

A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

Stroud, John R. (Livermore, CA); Ornellas, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

308

Energy Output of Insensitive High Explosives by Measuring the Detonation Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detonation products of high explosives are dependent on pressure and also on the confinement under which the detonation reaction proceeds. To determine the detonation products of less sensitive high explosives such as trinitrotoluene\\/nitroguanidine and polymer bonded explosive charges with polybutadiene binder containing cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, together with or without aluminium, experiments have been performed in a stainless steel chamber of

C. Storm; F. Volk; W. Byers Brown; P. Gray

1992-01-01

309

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15

310

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

311

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PRESSURE VESSELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pros and cons of using prestressed concrete pressure vessels, based ; on observations of model tests, for the next British nuclear power station are ; reviewed. The characteristics, present development, and design methods are ; considered. The results indicate that the prestressed concrete pressure vessel ; is more practicable, safe, and economical than the steel vessel. (N.W.R.)

S. Gill; I. W. Hannah

1962-01-01

312

Positioning device for vessels  

SciTech Connect

The ''Poltavemal 'Khimmash'' Production Association has manufactured and commissioned a positioning device for tilting vertical enameled vessels to the horizontal position after assembly and testing and for transporting the vessels to the painting and packing locations. Commissioning of the device helped to avoid damage to the enamel coating of the vessels and resulted in an annual saving of 9547 rubles.

Malyshkin, A.I.; Kuznetsova, N.V.

1983-01-01

313

Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives.  

PubMed

The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other countries is of similar magnitude. In recent years, growing concern about the health and ecological threats posed by man-made chemicals have led to studies of the toxicology of explosives, which have identified toxic and mutagenic effects of the common military explosives and their transformation products (Bruns-Nagel et al., 1999a; Fuchs et al., 2001; Homma-Takeda et al., 2002; Honeycutt et al., 1996; Rosenblatt et al., 1991; Spanggord et al., 1982; Tan et al., 1992 and Won et al., 1976). Because the cleanup of areas contaminated by explosives is now mandated because of public health concerns, considerable effort has been invested in finding economical remediation technologies. Biological treatment processes are often considered, since these are usually the least expensive means of destroying organic pollution. This review examines the most important groups of chemicals that must be treated at sites contaminated by explosives processing, the chemical and biological transformations they undergo, and commercial processes developed to exploit these transformations for treatment of contaminated soil. We critically examine about 150 papers on the topic, including approximately 60 published within the past 5 years. PMID:15016438

Lewis, Thomas A; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Ronald L

2004-04-01

314

Consequences of material effects on in-vessel retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-vessel retention (IVR) consists in cooling the corium contained in the reactor vessel by natural convection and reactor cavity flooding. This strategy of severe accident management enables the corium to be kept inside the second confinement barrier: the reactor vessel. The general approach which is used to study IVR problems is a “bounding” approach which consists in assuming a specified

Jean Marie Seiler; Bruno Tourniaire; Françoise Defoort; Karine Froment

2007-01-01

315

Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction comprising: (a) a nuclear reactor core having a bottom platform support structure; (b) a reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core; (c) a containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and having a sidewall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side

Sharbaugh

1987-01-01

316

49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from making contact with metal packagings. Articles containing explosive...partitioning in the inner or outer packaging, molded plastics or receptacles may be used for this purpose. (4) When the packaging includes water that...

2010-10-01

317

Molecular models for explosives  

SciTech Connect

Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of formation, etc. for explosives. As a result of this extensive experimental work, a large and ever increasing number of observed properties of explosives are available. Given sufficient data, models for the prediction of molecular properties can be developed and calibrated. Nevertheless, many desirable molecular properties can be obtained with considerable effort and, in many cases, experimental measurements are not possible for practical reasons; e.g., bond dissociation energies are very difficult to obtain for explosives. Consequently, theoretical methods for obtaining these properties are quite desirable. In addition, it is oftentimes desired to estimate the properties of unknown molecules. Consequently, methods for the estimation of molecular properties, which might seem quite crude by other standards, can be of considerable practical value. We present in this paper some of our recent efforts at extending and developing molecular models for explosives. These efforts fall into three main areas: Estimation of crystal densities of organic nitrates and perchlorates by an entirely empirical group additivity method; calculation of molecular heats of formation and bond dissociation energies (BDE's) by a semi-empirical molecular orbital method (AM1); and the electronic structure of nitrobenzene as obtained from non-empirical (sometimes called ab initio molecular orbital calculations. 10 refs.

Ritchie, J.P.; Bachrach, S.M.

1987-01-01

318

Explosively separable casing  

SciTech Connect

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

Jacobson, A.K.; Kychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

1985-02-19

319

Explosion phenomenology in jointed rocks: New insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the effects of high-explosive and nuclear explosions in rock masses. We first highlight the strong influence of geological discontinuities, such as joints and faults, on ground motion characteristics, using two examples. Then, we briefly introduce the Discrete Element method, as a new technique for numerical simulations. It is shown to be far superior to continuum-based approaches, when dealing with the dynamics of discontinuous media such as jointed rocks. Finally, we present a two-dimensional simulation of the ground effects from a generic contained nuclear explosion, which bears some similarity to the SHOAL event in granite. This calculation is intended to emphasize the influence of the near-source geology on the distribution of energy, and on the motion at various azimuths in the medium. These results are relevant to questions arising in the context of Treaty Verification by seismic means.

Heuzé, François E.; Butkovich, Theodore R.; Walton, Otis R.; Maddix, Denise M.

320

Viscoelastic models for explosive binder materials  

SciTech Connect

An improved model of the mechanical properties of the explosive contained in conventional munitions is needed to accurately simulate performance and accident scenarios in weapons storage facilities. A specific class of explosives can he idealized as a mixture of two components: energetic crystals randomly suspended in a polymeric matrix (binder). Strength characteristics of each component material are important in the macroscopic behavior of the composite (explosive). Of interest here is the determination of an appropriate constitutive law for a polyurethane binder material. This paper is a continuation of previous work in modeling polyurethane at moderately high strain rates and for large deformations. Simulation of a large deformation (strains in excess of 100%) Taylor Anvil experiment revealed numerical difficulties which have been addressed. Additional experimental data have been obtained including improved resolution Taylor Anvil data, and stress relaxation data at various strain rates. A thorough evaluation of the candidate viscoelastic constitutive model is made and possible improvements discussed.

Bardenhagen, S.G.; Harstad, E.N.; Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Foster, J.C. Jr. [Wright Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

1997-07-01

321

Explosion and Explosives, Volume 32, Number 6, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Future role of explosive experts; Studies on detonation pressure; Measurement of static charge of initiating explosives; A thin lead azide detonating fuse of thread type; The determination of the extent of cure by the attenuated total reflection...

1972-01-01

322

Explosion and Explosives. Vol 32, No. 6, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Future role of explosive experts; Studies on detonation pressure; Measurement of static charge of initiating explosives; A thin lead azide detonating fuse of thread type; The determination of the extent of cure by the attenuated total reflection...

1972-01-01

323

Bioremediation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The extensive manufacture, packing, and the use of explosives has often resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground waters near these activities. Congressional mandate has now required that such sites be remediated. An especially promising technology for this explosives problem is biotechnology. When applicable, biotechnology is cheap and provides complete conversion of hazardous compounds to harmless biomass or carbon dioxide. The focus of this paper will be on our present understanding of the microbial metabolism of the explosives, TNT and RDX, which have been used most extensively in the United States. To assure that an efficient process is developed for TNT biodegradation, we are conducting appropriate lab scale tests with TNT contaminated soil. First, we are testing their efficiency in soil/water slurries; we are also testing their efficiency in a column system designed to simulate composting conditions. A pilot scale test of this bacterial degradation will be conducted as soon as weather permits. 36 refs., 5 figs.

Unkefer, P.J.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Unkefer, C.J.; Stenger, M.; Margiotta, E.A.

1990-01-01

324

An explosion in Tunguska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on 30 June 1908 is given, including that of a meteor impact, asteroid impact, atomic explosion (F. Zigel and other), comet impact (V.G. Fesenkov and other). The theory sustained by author is that of a methan gas explosion initialazed by a meteor in a volume of about 0.25-2.5 billions m3 of methan. The shape of the place could be explained by few gaseous pouches, which could explode in a chain reaction. A review of similar explosions on the level of ground is given in the USSR as well as elsewhere. The soil fluidization is reviewed during earthquakes and similar phenomena. The original hypothesis by author was published in the "Lumea" N 41 magazin (Romania) on October 12 1989. The author disagree with atomic hypotesis enounced by F. Zigel, while the main factor of the explosion is the formation of one or few methan pouches above the soil. The programe of one of the most important international workshops (Tunguska 96 in Bologna on July 14-17) is attached. The site by Ioan Nistor gives a collection of informations about the event from elsewhere as well as the "gaseous pouches" hypothesis by the author.

Nistor, Ioan

325

Method for temporary shielding of reactor vessel internals  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for shielding stored internals for reactor vessel annealing. It comprises removing nuclear fuel from the reactor vessel containment building; removing and storing upper and lower core internals under water in a refueling canal storage area; assembling a support structure in the refueling canal between the reactor vessel and the stored internals; introducing vertical shielding tanks individually through a hatch in the containment building and positioning each into the support structure; introducing horizontal shielding tanks individually through a hatch in the containment building and positioning each above the stored internals and vertical tanks; draining water from the refueling canal to the level of a flange of the reactor vessel; placing an annealing apparatus in the reactor vessel; pumping the remaining water from the reactor vessel; and annealing the reactor vessel.

Grimm, N.P.; Sejvar, J.

1991-04-23

326

Microcantilever detector for explosives  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

327

Coal Dust Explosions and Their Suppression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The problem of coal dust explosions; Basic information about the explosibility of coal dust; Main parameters of the explosibility of coal dust; Limit explosibility of coal dust and its dependence upon the basic parameters; The effect of the init...

W. Cybulski

1975-01-01

328

Explosives Test and Evaluation Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is provided as a reference document for explosive hardware. The successful development of explosive devices used in ordnance or other defense or space application requires a rigorous test and evaluation program to assure high reliability in us...

D. D. Kerstetter

1972-01-01

329

Friction Sensitivity of Primary Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Bundesanstalt fur Materialprufung (BAM) small friction tester, manufactured in West Germany, has been used to rank primary explosives in their order of friction sensitivity. Primary explosives RD 1333 lead azide, dextrinated lead styphnate, polyvinyl-al...

J. Harris

1982-01-01

330

Analysis of wave curvature experiments for monomodal explosives with different crystal quality and particle size characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Wood-Kirkwood theory reaction zone thickness determinations and computer simulations of wave curvature experiments of two sets of explosives are presented. One set included explosives composed of RDX with different crystal quality characteristics. The other set of explosives was composed of monomodal explosives made from fine, coarse and very coarse sieved RDX and bimodal explosives made from combining the fine and very coarse RDX. The calculated reaction zone thickness was found to be greater for explosives with higher RDX crystal quality and for those of higher mean particle size. A simplified two-term ignition and growth reactive model parameterized by embedded gauge experiments was used in CTH hydrocode simulations of the wave curvature experiments for the explosives where crystal quality was varied. The simulations under-predicted the axial position lag seen in experiment and predicted as seen in experiment, that the explosive containing the higher quality crystals had a greater axial position lag.

Sutherland, G. T. [Technology Development Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States); Lemar, E. R.; Marcus, M. H. [Energetics Technology Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States)

2007-12-12

331

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

332

Safe explosives for shaped charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was demonstrated that high-performance shaped charges could be developed using as the explosive charge mixtures of ingredients that are not, by themselves, considered explosives. At least one of the ingredients needed to be a liquid, stored separately, that could be quickly injected into the shaped charge cavity to generate the active explosive. Precision copper shaped charge cones in diameters

K. J. Scribner; J. O. Davis

1977-01-01

333

Hand held explosives detection system  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

334

Electromagnetic field effects in explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: measurements of conductivity; enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Hayes...()^1 showed a strong correlation of peak electrical conductivity with carbon content of

Douglas Tasker

2009-01-01

335

Explosives signatures and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable

Jonathan M. Oyler

2008-01-01

336

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

337

Bioremediation of Explosive Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses several methods currently available for the treatment of nitramine- type explosive contaminants in soil environments as well give a brief description of several research projects that were recently conducted in this area. The review begins by first discussing where RDX, HMX, TNT and CL-20 contaminants come from and what avenues through which they can travel to enter

Matt Mahler

338

Explosions and blast injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful explosions have the potential to inflict many different types of injuries on victims, some of which may be initially occult. Flying debris and high winds commonly cause conventional blunt and penetrating trauma. Injuries caused by blast pressures alone result from complex interactions on living tissues. Interfaces between tissues of different densities or those between tissues and trapped air result

John M. Wightman; Sheri L. Gladish

2001-01-01

339

Explosions During Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an idealized model of the effects of energy release by supernovae during galaxy formation, we consider an explosion at the center of a halo which forms at the intersection of filaments in the plane of a cosmological pancake by gravitational instability during pancake collapse. Such halos resemble the virialized objects found in N-body simulations in a CDM universe and, therefore, serve as a convenient, scale-free test-bed model for galaxy formation. ASPH/P3M simulations reveal that such explosions are anisotropic. The energy and metals are channeled into the low density regions, away from the pancake plane. The pancake remains essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas located inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding the pancake. Infall quickly replenishes this ejected gas and gradually restores the gas fraction as the halo mass continues to grow. Estimates of the collapse epoch and SN energy-release for galaxies of different mass in the CDM model can relate these results to scale-dependent questions of blow-out and blow-away and their implication for early IGM heating and metal enrichment and the creation of dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxies.

Martel, H.; Shapiro, P. R.

2001-03-01

340

Ecotoxicology of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, 'Ecotoxicology of Explosives' provides comprehensive and critical

Rebecca Ann Efroymson; Neil R Giffen; Valerie Morrill; Thomas Jenkins

2009-01-01

341

CBC: Halifax Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the evening of December 6, 1917, a massive explosion rocked the harbor of the rapidly growing city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, located in eastern Canada. Caused by the collision of two ships (one of which was carrying a tremendous amount of explosive material), the explosion killed over 1500 people outright, and devastated the settlements around the area. Working with various historical groups, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has created this engrossing multimedia look into the events leading up to that dreadful incident, along with offering a broader historical perspective on the development of the city of Halifax and the aftermath of these tragic events. Starting from the main page, visitors will learn about Halifax's history, along with having the opportunity to view significant interactive features, such as maps of the area and recently-discovered archival footage of the city and its environs. The interactive features here are quite amazing, as visitors can view video clips of survivors' recollections, and watch footage of various commemoration activities associated with the explosion.

342

LLNL explosives handbook: properties of chemical explosives and explosives and explosive simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook presents information and data for high explosives (HEs) of interest to programs at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It is intended to be useful to the scientist or engineer, the novice or expert, who needs to develop a new weapon system, design a physics experiment, or select and\\/or evaluate an

Dobratz

1981-01-01

343

The combustion of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

Son, S. F. (Steven F.)

2001-01-01

344

Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel  

SciTech Connect

The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellarator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 degrees centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

Fred Dahlgren; Art Brooks; Paul Goranson; Mike Cole; Peter Titus

2004-09-28

345

Experimental investigation of external explosion in the venting process*  

PubMed Central

Experimental investigations were conducted on the process of combustion and explosion vent in a 200 mm (diameter)×400 mm (length) vertical cylindrical vessel. When CH4-air mixture gases were used and the vent diameter was 55 mm, conditions of ? (equivalent ratio)=0.8, ?=1.0 and ?=1.3 and two ignition positions (at the cylinder center and bottom) were selected. The venting processes and the correlated factors are discussed in this paper.

Du, Zhi-min; Jin, Xin-qiao; Cui, Dong-ming; Ye, Jing-fang

2005-01-01

346

Plastic explosive RDX: Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and handling of plastics explosive RDX. Production, decomposition, toxicology studies, and desensitizing techniques are discussed. RDX detection in munitions plant wastewater and air samples is described along with methods of eliminating this explosive from the effluent. Molecular dynamics, sensitivity to shock and heat, burning behavior, and explosion velocity are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

347

Plastic explosive RDX: Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and handling of plastics explosive RDX. Production, decomposition, toxicology studies, and desensitizing techniques are discussed. RDX detection in munitions plant wastewater and air samples is described along with methods of eliminating this explosive from the effluent. Molecular dynamics, sensitivity to shock and heat, burning behavior, and explosion velocity are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

348

Biodegradation of nitro-explosives.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination by nitro compounds is associated principally with the explosives industry. However, global production and use of explosives is unavoidable. The presently widely used nitro-explosives are TNT (Trinitrotoluene), RDX (Royal Demolition Explosive) and HMX (High Melting Explosive). Nevertheless, the problems of these nitro-explosives are almost parallel due to their similarities of production processes, abundance of nitro-explosives and resembling chemical structures. The nitro-explosives per se as well as their environmental transformation products are toxic, showing symptoms as methaemoglobinaemia, kidney trouble, jaundice etc. Hence their removal/degradation from soil/water is essential. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of TNT and RDX have been reported, while for HMX anaerobic or anoxic degradation have been described in many studies. A multisystem involvement using plants in remediation is gaining importance. Thus the information about degradation of nitro-explosives is available in jigsaw pieces which needs to be arranged and lacunae filled to get concrete degradative schemes so that environmental pollution from nitro-explosives can be dealt with more successfully at a macroscale. An overview of the reports on nitro-explosives degradation, future outlook and studies done by us are presented in this review. PMID:15242292

Kanekar, Pradnya; Dautpure, Premlata; Sarnaik, Seema

2003-09-01

349

Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

Hurley, Christoph

350

Molecular hydrodynamics of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

High explosives release mechanical energy through chemical reactions. Applications of high explosives are vast in the mining and military industries and are beginning to see more civilian applications such as the deployment of airbags in modern automobiles. One of the central issues surrounding explosive materials is decreasing their sensitivity, necessary for their safe handling, while maintaining a high yield. Many practical tests have been devised to determine the sensitivity of explosive materials to shock, to impact, to spark, and to friction. These tests have great value in determining yield and setting precautions for safe handling but tell little of the mechanisms of initiation. How is the mechanical energy of impact or friction transformed into the chemical excitation that initiates explosion? The answer is intimately related to the structure of the explosive material, the size and distribution of grains, the size and presence of open areas such as voids and gas bubbles, and inevitably the bonding between explosive molecules.

Belak, J.

1994-11-01

351

Large-scale dust explosion experiments to determine the effects of scaling on explosion parameters. [Coal dusts and cornstarch  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on experiments performed in a 1.5-m-diameter, 5.7-m-high (volume, 10.3 m{sup 3}) cylindrical vessel with cornstarch and coal dusts for comparison with explosion parameters in smaller vessels. The maximum explosion pressures for cornstarch and coal dusts were found to be in reasonably agreement with those reported for smaller vessels. The usual method of size-normalizing the rate of pressure rise through the cube root of the volume does not appear to be applicable to high aspect ratio cylinders; the length of the cylinder was used for this purpose. The results thus obtained were in reasonable agreement with those available in literature for cornstarch, but too high for coal dust. The effect of fan-induced turbulence was found to be small on explosion pressure, but substantial on the rate of pressure rise. The burning velocities calculated from the measured flame speeds were of the order of 0.3 m/s for both cornstarch and coal dusts, with no significant dependence on concentration.

Kumar, R.K.; Bowles, E.M. (AECL Research, Whiteshell Lab., Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (CA)); Mintz, K.J. (Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, CANMET, Ottawa K1A 0G1 (CA))

1992-06-01

352

Dual shell pressure balanced vessel  

DOEpatents

A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

353

Designing for explosive safety'': The Explosive Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is to be a new major facility in the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Weapons Program. The ECF is a self-contained, secure site on SNL property and is surrounded by Kirtland Air Force Base which is located 6-1/2 miles east of downtown Albuquerque, New Mexico. The ECF will be dedicated to research, development, and testing of detonators, neutron generators, batteries, explosives, and other weapon components. It will have capabilities for conducting explosive test fires, gas gun testing, physical analyses, chemical analyses, electrical testing and ancillary explosive storage in magazines. The ECF complex is composed of a building covering an area of approximately 91,000 square feet, six exterior explosive service magazines and a remote test cell. Approximately 50% of the building space will be devoted to highly specialized laboratory and test areas, the other 50% of the building is considered nonhazardous. Critical to the laboratory and test areas are the blast-structural design consideration and operational considerations, particularly those concerning personnel access control, safety and environmental protection. This area will be decoupled from the rest of the building to the extent that routine tests will not be heard or felt in the administrative area of the building. While the ECF is designed in accordance with the DOE Explosives Safety Manual to mitigate any off-site blast effects, potential injuries or death to the ECF staff may result from an accidental detonation of explosive material within the facility. Therefore, reducing the risk of exposing operation personnel to hazardous and energetic material is paramount in the design of the ECF.

Couch, W.A.

1990-12-01

354

QGP fireball explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange\\u000ahadrons as an observable for both the formation of quark-gluon plasma, and of\\u000athe ensuing explosive disintegration of deconfined matter fireball formed in\\u000arelativistic heavy ion collisions at 160--20A GeV. We describe the physical\\u000aproperties of QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an\\u000aanalysis of

J. Letessier; G. Torrieri; S. Hamieh; J. Rafelski

2000-01-01

355

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

356

Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual  

SciTech Connect

The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

Genoni, R.P.

1993-10-01

357

Explosives signatures and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

2008-05-01

358

Adhesion of explosives.  

PubMed

It is of increasing importance to understand how explosive particles adhere to surfaces in order to understand how to remove them for detection in airport or other security settings. In this study, adhesion forces between royal demolition explosive (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in their crystalline forms and aluminum coupons with three finishes, acrylic melamine (clear coating), polyester acrylic melamine (white coating) automotive finishes, and a green military-grade finish, were measured and modeled. The force measurements were performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) method. Explosive particles were mounted on AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought in and out of contact with the surfaces of interest while the required force needed to pull out of contact was recorded. An existing Matlab-based simulator was used to describe the observed adhesion force distributions, with excellent agreement. In these simulations, the measured topographies of the interacting surfaces were considered, although the geometries were approximated. The simulations were performed using a van der Waals force-based adhesion model and a composite effective Hamaker constant. It was determined that certain combinations of roughness on the interacting surfaces led to preferred particle-substrate orientations that produced extreme adhesion forces. PMID:23510004

Chaffee-Cipich, Michelle N; Sturtevant, Bryce D; Beaudoin, Stephen P

2013-05-17

359

Nuclear Fusion induced by Coulomb Explosion of Heteronuclear Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new mechanism for the production of high-energy ( E>3 keV) deuterons, suitable to induce dd nuclear fusion, based on multielectron ionization and Coulomb explosion of heteronuclear deuterium containing molecular clusters, e.g., (D2O)n, in intense ( 1016-2×1018 W\\/cm2) laser fields. Cluster size equations for E, in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations, reveal important advantages of Coulomb explosion of

Isidore Last; Joshua Jortner

2001-01-01

360

Dissolver vessel bottom assembly  

DOEpatents

An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

Kilian, Douglas C. (Kennewick, WA)

1976-01-01

361

Post explosion analysis of explosives by mass spectrometric methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Analysis of trace amounts of explosives from post-explosion debris–one of the most difficult problems in forensic chemistry-is still carried out in many laboratories by chromatographic methods only. In recent years several new methods have been applied to the analysis of explosives. These include mass spectrometric methods (GC\\/MS, LC\\/MS and MS\\/MS) and NMR methods. The possible application of these methods

Shmuel Zitrin

1986-01-01

362

The upper explosion limit of lower alkanes and alkenes in air at elevated pressures and temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper explosion limit (UEL) of ethane–air, propane–air, n-butane–air, ethylene–air and propylene–air mixtures is determined experimentally at initial pressures up to 30bar and temperatures up to 250°C. The experiments are performed in a closed spherical vessel with an internal diameter of 200mm. The mixtures are ignited by fusing a coiled tungsten wire, placed at the centre of the vessel, by

F. Van den Schoor; F. Verplaetsen

2006-01-01

363

Numerical Modeling of Underwater Explosion Properties for Nonideal Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater experiments for an ideal explosive, TNT, and two nonideal explosives, CETR emulsion and DXD-04, were performed, and numerically simulated. For TNT, calculations done by using program-burn models based on the rate-independent Chapman-Jouguet theory were in a good agreement with experimental results, which validated the wide use of program-burn models for ideal explosives. For CETR emulsion and DXD-04, experimental observations could be reproduced with high precision only when reaction rates were employed. These results demonstrated that detonation in nonideal explosives can be modeled only by using properly calibrated reaction rates.

Lee, Jaimin

364

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes ``re-freezing'' the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the ``re-freezing'' temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude ``re-freezing'' of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

Makhov, M. N.

2004-07-01

365

Evaluation of blood vessel detection methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of evaluating the performance of algorithms for detecting curvilinear structures in medical images. As an exemplar we consider the detection of vessel trees which contain structures of variable width and contrast. Results for the conventional approach to evaluation, in which the detector output is compared directly with a groundtruth mask, tend to be dominated by the detection of large vessels and fail to capture adequately whether or not finer, lower contrast vessels have been detected successfully. We propose and investigate three alternative evaluation strategies. We demonstrate the use of the standard and new evaluation strategies to assess the performance of a novel method for detecting vessels in retinograms, using the publicly available DRIVE database.

Sadeghzadeh, R.; Berks, M.; Astley, S. M.; Taylor, C. J.

2011-03-01

366

Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

Pound, C.R.

2001-09-17

367

Calibration methods for explosives detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airport security has become an important concern to cultures in every corner of the world. Presently, efforts to improve airport security have brought additional technological solutions, in the form of advanced instrumentation for the detection of explosives, into use at airport terminals in many countries. This new generation of explosives detectors is often used to augment existing security measures and provide a more encompassing screening capability for airline passengers. This paper describes two calibration procedures used for the Thermedics' EGIS explosives detectors. The systems were designed to screen people, electronic components, luggage, automobiles, and other objects for the presence of concealed explosives. The detectors have the ability to detect a wide range of explosives in both the vapor state or as surface adsorbed solids, therefore, calibrations were designed to challenge the system with explosives in each form.

MacDonald, Stephen J.; Rounbehler, David P.

1992-05-01

368

Reactor vessel sectioning demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1\\/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques

Lundgren

1981-01-01

369

77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures....

2012-09-20

370

76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures....

2011-10-19

371

75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures....

2010-11-17

372

75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane...Nitroguanidine explosives. Nitronium perchlorate propellant mixtures. Nitroparaffins...composition. Pentolite. Perchlorate explosive mixtures. Peroxide...Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures....

2010-01-08

373

Near-Source Scattering of Explosion-Generated Rg: Insight From Difference Spectrograms of NTS Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies of the generation of low-frequency Lg from explosions indicate that the Lg wavetrain from explosions contains significant contributions from (1) the scattering of explosion-generated Rg into S and (2) direct S waves from the non-spherical spall source associated with a buried explosion. The pronounced spectral nulls observed in Lg spectra of Yucca Flats (NTS) and Semipalatinsk explosions (Patton and Taylor, 1995; Gupta et al., 1997) are related to Rg excitation caused by spall-related block motions in a conical volume over the shot point, which may be approximately represented by a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) source (Patton et al., 2005). Frequency-dependent excitation of Rg waves should be imprinted on all scattered P, S and Lg waves. A spectrogram may be considered as a three-dimensional matrix of numbers providing amplitude and frequency information for each point in the time series. We found difference spectrograms, derived from a normal explosion and a closely located over-buried shot recorded at the same common station, to be remarkably useful for an understanding of the origin and spectral contents of various regional phases. This technique allows isolation of source characteristics, essentially free from path and recording site effects, since the overburied shot acts as the empirical Green's function. Application of this methodology to several pairs of closely located explosions shows that the scattering of explosion-generated Rg makes significant contribution to not only Lg and its coda but also to the two other regional phases Pg (presumably by the scattering of Rg into P) and Sn. The scattered energy, identified by the presence of a spectral null at the appropriate frequency, generally appears to be more prominent in the somewhat later-arriving sections of Pg, Sn, and Lg than in the initial part. Difference spectrograms appear to provide a powerful new technique for understanding the mechanism of near-source scattering of explosion-generated Rg and its contribution to various regional phases.

Gupta, I.; Chan, W.; Wagner, R.

2005-12-01

374

Towards an Empirically Based Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before been tested. The focus of our work is on the local and regional distances (< 2000 km) and phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg) necessary to see small explosions. We are developing a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum that is compatible with the earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation models developed using the Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC) techniques (Walter and Taylor, 2002). The explosion parametric model will be particularly important in regions without any prior explosion data for calibration. The model is being developed using the available body of seismic data at local and regional distances for past nuclear explosions at foreign and domestic test sites. Parametric modeling is a simple and practical approach for widespread monitoring applications, prior to the capability to carry out fully deterministic modeling. The achievable goal of our parametric model development is to be able to predict observed local and regional distance seismic amplitudes for event identification and yield determination in regions with incomplete or no prior history of underground nuclear testing. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R; Ruppert, S; Matzel, E; Hauk, T; Gok, R

2009-08-31

375

Suppression Effect on Explosive Percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Percolation transitions (PTs) of networks, leading to the formation of a macroscopic cluster, are conventionally considered to be continuous transitions. However, a modified version of the classical random graph model was introduced in which the growth of clusters was suppressed, and a PT occurs explosively at a delayed transition point. Whether the explosive PT is indeed discontinuous or continuous becomes controversial. Here, we show that the behavior of the explosive PT depends on detailed dynamic rules. Thus, when dynamic rules are designed to suppress the growth of all clusters, the discontinuity of the order parameter tends to a finite value as the system size increases, indicating that the explosive PT could be discontinuous.

Cho, Y. S.; Kahng, B.

2011-12-01

376

Spectral analysis on explosive percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectral properties of the process of explosive percolation. In particular, we explore how the maximum eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network which governs the spreading efficiency evolves as the density of connection increases. Interestingly, for networks with connectivity that grow in an explosive way, information spreading and mass transport are found to be carried out inefficiently. In the conventional explosive percolation models that we studied, the sudden emergences of large-scale connectivity are found to come with relatively lowered efficiency of spreading. Nevertheless, the spreading efficiency of the explosive model can be increased by introducing heterogeneous structures into the networks.

Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.; Lai, C. H.

2013-03-01

377

Explosive scabbling of structural materials  

DOEpatents

A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

378

Modeling of explosion thermal radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic and radiation processes accompanying explosions of chemical explosives and fuel-air mixtures have been considered. Computer modeling of the radiation from a fire ball of explosion and a flame of diffusion combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel has been performed. The dependences of the heat flux density from the region occupied by explosion and combustion products on its temperature and geometric characteristics have been determined. Thermal load distributions on targets of different orientations in the vicinity of the energy release zone have been obtained. A comparison of the thermal parameters on radiation detectors with the criteria of thermal affection of people and ignition of combustible materials has been made.

Stepanov, K. L.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stankevich, Yu. A.

2011-01-01

379

Intrinsic fluctuations in explosive reactions  

SciTech Connect

A reaction is called explosive when the amount of a reactant becomes infinite in a finite time. When the intrinsic stochastic character of the reaction is taken into account, the explosion time is a random quantity. The authors compute its probability distribution, or at least its average and variance, for various kinds of reactions. If a reaction is unstable, so that a reactant can either explode or disappear, one first has to compute the probability for an explosion to occur at all, and then the average explosion time. Finally, the same ideas are applied to more general Markov processes.

van Kampen, N.G.

1987-03-01

380

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

DOEpatents

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01

381

Towards optoelectronic detection of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of explosives is an important challenge for contemporary science and technology of security systems. We present an application of NOx sensors equipped with concentrator in searching of explosives. The sensors using CRDS with blue — violet diode lasers (410 nm) as well as with QCL lasers (5.26 ?m and 4.53 ?m) are described. The detection method is based either on reaction of the sensors to the nitrogen oxides emitted by explosives or to NOx produced during thermal decomposition of explosive vapours. For TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX the detection limit better than 1 ng has been achieved.

Wojtas, J.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Rutecka, B.; Medrzycki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.

2013-06-01

382

Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.  

PubMed

We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741

Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

2013-06-17

383

Explosions on the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System - these are the eruptions and flaring that occur on the Sun. They can release as much energy as 10 million volcanoes, and throw out material into the solar system with similar mass to Mount Everest! The theories of what can produce such an explosion are based around the magnetic field that confines the gas. These events can produce emission right across the electromagnetic spectrum. The status of our ability to predict these events is discussed.

Harra, Louise K.

2005-10-01

384

Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

Higashimori, K.; Yokoi, N.; Hoshino, M.

2013-06-01

385

46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing...

2012-10-01

386

46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing...

2011-10-01

387

46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing...

2012-10-01

388

Coffer dam for temporary shielding of reactor vessel internals  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for shielding stored internals' radiation in preparation for annealing a reactor vessel in a containment building. It comprises removing nuclear fuel from the reactor vessel; removing and storing upper and lower core internal underwater in a refueling canal; introducing segments individually through a hatch in the containment building; connecting the segments to each other in sealing relation with sealing means between the segments to form a coffer dam; fixedly connecting the coffer dam to an upper flange of the reactor vessel in sealing relation; placing an annealing apparatus in the reactor vessel; pumping water form the reactor vessel and coffer dam; annealing; filling the reactor vessel with water; removing the annealing apparatus.

Bauer, F.I.; Mavretish, R.S.; Grimm, N.P.

1991-08-06

389

Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06

390

On-site Analysis of Explosives in Various Matrices  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed several different strategies and technologies for the on-site detection of explosives. These on-site detection techniques include a colorimetric test, thin layer chromatography (TLC) kit and portable gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The screening of suspicious containers on-site and the search for trace explosive residue in a post-blast forensic investigation are of great importance. For these reasons, LLNL's Forensic Science Center has developed a variety of fieldable detection technologies to screen for a wide range of explosives in various matrices and scenarios. Ideally, what is needed is a fast, accurate, easy-to-use, pocket-size and inexpensive field screening test for explosives.

Reynolds, J G; Nunes, P; Whipple, R E; Alcaraz, A

2006-01-25

391

Biodegradation of the nitramine explosive CL-20.  

PubMed

The cyclic nitramine explosive CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) was examined in soil microcosms to determine whether it is biodegradable. CL-20 was incubated with a variety of soils. The explosive disappeared in all microcosms except the controls in which microbial activity had been inhibited. CL-20 was degraded most rapidly in garden soil. After 2 days of incubation, about 80% of the initial CL-20 had disappeared. A CL-20-degrading bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71, was isolated from enrichment cultures containing garden soil as an inoculum, succinate as a carbon source, and CL-20 as a nitrogen source. Growth experiments revealed that strain JS71 used 3 mol of nitrogen per mol of CL-20. PMID:12620886

Trott, Sandra; Nishino, Shirley F; Hawari, Jalal; Spain, Jim C

2003-03-01

392

Biodegradation of the Nitramine Explosive CL-20  

PubMed Central

The cyclic nitramine explosive CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) was examined in soil microcosms to determine whether it is biodegradable. CL-20 was incubated with a variety of soils. The explosive disappeared in all microcosms except the controls in which microbial activity had been inhibited. CL-20 was degraded most rapidly in garden soil. After 2 days of incubation, about 80% of the initial CL-20 had disappeared. A CL-20-degrading bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71, was isolated from enrichment cultures containing garden soil as an inoculum, succinate as a carbon source, and CL-20 as a nitrogen source. Growth experiments revealed that strain JS71 used 3 mol of nitrogen per mol of CL-20.

Trott, Sandra; Nishino, Shirley F.; Hawari, Jalal; Spain, Jim C.

2003-01-01

393

Explosive components facility certification tests  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01

394

Controlled by Distant Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

2007-03-01

395

Laser machining of explosives  

DOEpatents

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01

396

77 FR 55108 - Explosive Siting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. DATES: Effective November...site where solid propellants, energetic liquids, or other explosives are located to prepare...quantity of solid propellants, energetic liquids, and other explosives located...

2012-09-07

397

14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...each public area, including the launch site boundary; (2) A list of the maximum quantity of energetic liquids, solid propellants and other explosives to be located at each explosive hazard facility, including explosive class and division;...

2013-01-01

398

Development of a non-propagating explosives storage cabinet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL) has completed the design of an Explosive Components Facility (ECF). Construction of the ECF is scheduled to begin in 1992 with completion in 1995. An integral part of the ECF will be on-site storage of explosives in six earth-covered service magazines. Each magazine will contain a non-propagating Explosives Storage Cabinet (ESC) system made up to twenty modular units. In addition to the secure storage of explosives, a primary purpose of the cabinet system is to prevent a sympathetic detonation of the explosives stored in the surrounding units as a result of an accidental detonation of up to 5.0 pounds of explosives (TNT equivalent) stored in a donor unit in the cabinet. Therefore, the maximum creditable event for each service magazine is 5.0 pounds, even though each magazine could contain up to 100 pounds of explosives stored in 5.0 pounds increments. A new material being developed at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) known as SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber CONcrete), had been shown to be highly resistant to back spall from blast loadings, and penetration by high velocity ballistic projectiles and fragments. These, and other characteristics unique to SIFCON, such as very high strength and ductility, appeared to make it an excellent candidate material for the modular units of the ESC. In 1989 SNL contracted with NMERI to develop a SIFCON modular unit for the ESC. Based upon the success of Phase 1 program, a more extensive Phase 2 program was undertaken in 1990 and has been successfully completed. This paper is a summary of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 work, which includes the design, fabrication, and explosive testing of the modular units.

Couch, W. A.; Schneider, B. A.

1991-08-01

399

Multi-reel operational lines laying vessel  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed of converting a single pipeline laying vessel having a main storage reel and a privotal ramp pipe straightening and tensioning assembly to a multi-reel pipe laying vessel for the layout of an operational lines array within which a rigid walled pipeline is contained. The method is described comprising the steps of: removing the pivotal support ramp and pipe straightening and tensioning equipment from the deck of the vessel; installing at least one auxiliary operational lines storage reel on the vessel in the upspooling direction of the pipeline stored on the main reel; installing an operational lines laying device adjacent the stern of the vessel, the laying device including operational lines supporting means adapted for providing moving contact for each of a plurality of operational lines and the means interconnected and adapted for moving the operational lines at a common velocity for permitting layout from the vessel in a downward juxtaposed configuration; and providing the main reel and the auxiliary reels with motive power means having both spooling direction power and unspooling direction braking systems.

Recalde, C.E.

1988-01-26

400

Effects of Multiple .30-Caliber Bullet Impacts on Steel-Encased Explosives: Experimental Report 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-one experiments have been performed in a series where typical explosive formulations for weapons were encased in steel vessels and impacted by up to six .30-caliber bullets fired at 1.2-s intervals. We have observed that detonation can occur on the...

C. A. Honodel

1984-01-01

401

Explosives Detection for Aviation Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

Fainberg, Anthony

1992-03-01

402

Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.  

PubMed

Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide. PMID:12773843

Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

2003-06-01

403

Explosive Sensing Using Polymer Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated polymers are attractive materials that have been used to make a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Recently they have been used as explosive sensors as there is currently an urgent need for high sensitivity explosive detection due to the increased security issues across the world. This review outlines the attractive properties of organic polymers as gain media in lasers,

Yue Wang; Ying Yang; Graham A. Turnbull; Ifor D. W. Samuel

2012-01-01

404

Applying NASA's Explosive SEAM Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length...

L. J. Bement

1991-01-01

405

NONMILITARY USES OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of the sudden release of energy in explosions at ertremely ; high temperature and pressure into the form of useful work, either mechanical, ; chemical, or thermal, must be accomplished in order for such explosions to have ; nomailitary uses. The technical feasibility of such conversion in a number of ; different instances is discussed along with nuisance effects.

1960-01-01

406

After an explosion, what happens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever an explosion or fire occurs in the presence of LP-gas, an investigation is usually necessary to determine the cause and to protect the marketer from unreasonable lawsuits. Haag Engineering Co., Dallas, urges that the evidence be studied carefully so that mistakes do not obliterate evidence before a conclusion is reached. Overall effects of the explosion should be examined to

1975-01-01

407

TRENDS IN NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear explosion monitoring is as important today as it was at the dawn of the atomic age. Over the past several decades the scientific understanding and technological sophistication that underpin monitoring have advanced tremendously. We still face challenges, however, because the United States (U.S.) needs to monitor a growing range of events, from earthquakes to mining explosions that can cause

Dale N. Anderson; Raymond J. Willemann; Harry S. Miley; C. L. Edwards; Preston B. Herrington; J. Mark Harris; Joseph C. Wehlburg; David B. Harris; John J. Zucca; Leslie A. Casey

408

Explosive detection research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of explosives carried by a passenger or included in checked baggage is a priority objective of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Security Research and Development Program. Significant accomplishments have been made in the detection of explosives in checked baggage. A technology, thermal neutron analysis, has been developed and tested extensively in airports with actual passenger baggage. The screening

Malotky

1988-01-01

409

Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors  

SciTech Connect

Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

2008-01-01

410

Enhancing commerical aircraft explosion survivability via active venting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for enhancing aircraft safety in the event of an on-board explosion was studied. The method under study employs deployable vent panels located on the fuselage which are activated by an array of pressure sensors in the aircraft interior. In the event that an explosion is detected, appropriate vent panels are rapidly released from the aircraft. This approach seeks to provide timely relief of explosive pressures within an aircraft to prevent catastrophic structural failure. In this study, the approximate time scale of an explosive detonation and the subsequent sensing and electronic processing was determined. Then, the actuation response times of several vent panel systems were determined through analytical modeling and scale-model experimental testing with good correlation achieved. A scale-model experimental analysis was also conducted to determine the decompression venting time of an aircraft fuselage under a variety of conditions. Two different sized pressure vessels were used in the experimental work and the results correlated quite favorably with an analytical model for decompression times. Finally, a dynamic finite element analysis was conducted to determine the response of a portion of a typical commercial aircraft fuselage subjected to explosive pressure loading. It was determined from this analysis that the pre-stressing of the fuselage from cabin pressurization increases the damage vulnerability of a commercial aircraft fuselage to internal explosions. It was also learned from the structural analysis that the peak fuselage strains due to blast loading occur quickly (within approximately 2 milliseconds) while it was conservatively estimated that approximately 5 to 7 milliseconds would be required to sense the explosion, to actuate selected vent panels, and to initiate the release of cabin pressure from the aircraft. Additionally, since it was determined that predicted fuselage strains for both pressurized and unpressurized load cases remained well below the material strain limit, ultimate failure of the aircraft under blast loading may occur later than originally thought due to secondary explosive pressure reflections and the significant overall increase in cabin pressure after detonation. This delayed onset of failure indicates that an active venting system may indeed be capable of functioning rapidly enough to reduce significant fuselage explosive damage.

Veldman, Roger Lee

2001-10-01

411

The activity of diagnostic enzymes and the concentration of lipids in the blood vessels of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood vessel walls are shown to contain creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and aspartate transaminase activity. The activity of these enzymes in the serum may be enhanced by leakage from damaged blood vessels.

O. M. Mahmoud; E. J. H. Ford

1988-01-01

412

Performance Oriented Shipping Container.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Before packaging hazardous materials such as explosives and/or ordnance, each branch of the United States military must be sure that the packaging container meets the performance criteria specified in Title 49, Part 178 of the United States Code of Federa...

C. W. Landman

1997-01-01

413

Are Monogenetic Basaltic Explosive Volcanoes Good Analogues for Explosive Kimberlite Volcanoes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is uncertainty as to the nature of kimberlite volcanoes because the edifices of ancient kimberlite volcanoes have been largely eroded. Monogenetic basaltic explosive volcanoes, such as scoria or cinder cones and maars, are often proposed as good analogues for kimberlite volcanoes. Basaltic scoria or cinder cones form from explosive eruptions driven by exsolving magmatic gases. The sparsity of country rock xenoliths in the deposits of scoria cones indicates the explosive fragmentation surface lay at or above the pre- eruption ground surface in the vent and conduit system, and therefore a sub-surface diatreme or pipe-like conduit cannot be formed. Basaltic scoria cones are therefore not good analogues for most kimberlite pipes and volcanoes. By contrast, the volcaniclastic kimberlite pipe fill of most kimberlite pipes contains a significant proportion of country rock xenolith and xenocryst debris (10 to 50 modal percent or more), indicating that the fragmentation surface lay below the ground surface, and this was responsible for explosively excavating the subsurface diatreme or pipe like conduit. Some authors propose that this is consistent with kimberlite pipes being the remains of maar volcanoes. The deposits of maar volcanoes usually contain substantial country rock debris suggesting excavation of a significant subsurface conduit has occurred. Maar forming explosive eruptions are phreatomagmatic, driven in large part by explosive superheating of ground water as magma passes upwards through a shallow crustal aquifer. The deposits however commonly show two key characteristics, base surge deposits and accretionary lapilli. Although these occur in some kimberlite deposits, attesting to the occurrence of phreatomagmatic explosive activity in those kimberlite volcanoes, in the absence of such features occurring universally in kimberlite pipes, it is difficult to support a maar volcanic model for kimberlite pipes. If the volatile content in a rising magma is high, volatile exsolution will begin well below the ground surface in the magma conduit. Upon approach to the ground surface, initial opening of a vent is likely involves a vulcanian like blast. Opening of the vent would immediately allow the magma to decompress, so increasing exsolution rates and causing the fragmentation surface to fall deeper into the conduit. Magmatic explosive activity deep below ground surface can therefore excavate a pipe or diatreme like conduit. The vents of stratovolcanoes are often cylindrical conduits tens to hundreds of metres in diameter, at least at the mouth of the vent, similar in scale to kimberlite pipes. There is no evidence that kimberlite volcanoes grew to the dimensions of stratovolcanoes; if they did we would see more of their edifices preserved. The high rate of exsolution of magmatic volatiles from a low viscosity, high volatile bearing, relatively small volume batch of magma, would lead to a relatively short explosive event. The explosive intensity would be high, leading to relatively widespread dispersal of pyroclasts, but in turn not producing a significant edifice around the vent. In some cases however, lower intensity explosive eruptions may have built small cones, such as evidenced by the Fort a la Corne tuff cones.

Cas, R. A.

2009-05-01

414

Laparoscopic vessel sealing technologies.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic vessel sealing devices have revolutionized modern laparoscopy. These devices fall into 2 major categories: advanced bipolar and ultrasonic instruments. The range of tissue effects available with these technologies is more limited than with conventional monopolar electrosurgery; however, both advanced bipolar and ultrasonic devices efficiently seal vessels (?7-mm and ?5-mm diameter, respectively), and most also have built-in tissue transection capabilities. These technologies have been the subject of a range of comparative studies on their relative advantages and disadvantages, and, to date, neither advanced bipolar or ultrasonic devices has been proven to be superior. PMID:23659750

Lyons, Stephen D; Law, Kenneth S K

415

Installation-Restoration Program environmental-technology development. Task order 3. Use of activated carbon for treatment of explosives-contaminated ground water at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Final report Jun 88Aug 89  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Army operates explosives manufacturing plants to produce various forms of explosives used in military ordnance. Manufacturing activities at such plants result in the production of organic wastewaters that contain both explosive residues and other organic chemicals. Several treatment technologies have been developed to treat these wastewaters for final discharge. Past waste handling practices at explosives manufacturing plants

W. J. Wujcik; W. L. Lowe; P. J. Marks

1989-01-01

416

On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives  

SciTech Connect

Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Div.

1997-07-01

417

Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions  

SciTech Connect

The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

1983-01-01

418

Explosive molecular ionic crystals.  

PubMed

In ionic crystals of the form M(+)X(-), certain covalently bonded anion groups X(-) are particularly associated with instability. The heavier metal cations M(+) enhance this. Very sensitive explosives occur within the extended azide family, where X(-) = CNO(-), N(3)(-), NCO(-), or NCS(-) (an isoelectronic set of unsaturated linear triatomic anions). Another such family are the globular oxyanions X(-) = ClO(2)(-), ClO(3)(-), ClO(4)(-), NO(3)(-), and MnO(4)(-). Mishandling of NH(4)NO(3) or NH(4)ClO(4) has caused major disasters. An irreversible cyclic mechanism is proposed for such decomposition, involving mechanoelectronic band-gap excitation and coalescence of X with X(-). From an intracrystalline ion-molecule collision complex, the singly charged dianion X(2)(-), exothermic reactions proceed with high yield. PMID:17787990

Faust, W L

1989-07-01

419

Plastic collapse analysis of longitudinally flawed pipes and vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved collapse loads of thick-walled, crack containing pipes and vessels are suggested. Very deep cracks have a resid- ual strength which is better modelled by a global limit load. In all burst tests, the ductility of pressure vessel steels was sufficiently high whereby the burst pressure could be predicted by limit analysis with no need to apply fracture mechan- ics.

M. Staat

420

Design properties of steels for coal conversion vessels. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the final results of a program to evaluate the fracture properties of pressure vessel steels in simulated coal conversion environments. This represents the first study in which a fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate material properties in the aggressive high temperature and pressure environments typically encountered in coal conversion vessel operations. The overview of properties required

D. E. McCabe; J. D. Landes

1980-01-01

421

Thermochemistry of mixed explosives  

SciTech Connect

In order to predict thermal hazards of high-energy materials, accurate kinetics constants must be determined. Predictions of thermal hazards for mixtures of high-energy materials require measurements on the mixtures, because interactions among components are common. A differential-scanning calorimeter (DSC) can be used to observe rate processes directly, and isothermal methods enable detection of mechanism changes. Rate-controlling processes will change as components of a mixture are depleted, and the correct depletion function must be identified for each specific stage of a complex process. A method for kinetics measurements on mixed explosives can be demonstrated with Composition B is an approximately 60/40 mixture of RDX and TNT, and is an important military explosive. Kinetics results indicate that the mator process is the decomposition of RDX in solution in TNT with a perturbation caused by interaction between the two components. It is concluded that a combination of chemical kinetics and experimental self-heating procedures provides a good approach to the production of predictive models for thermal hazards of high-energy materials. Systems involving more than one energy-contributing component can be studied. Invalid and dangerous predictive models can be detected by a failure of agreement between prediction and experiment at a specific size, shape, and density. Rates of thermal decomposition for Composition B appear to be modeled adequately for critical-temperature predictions with the following kinetics constants: E = 180.2 kJ mole/sup -1/ and Z = 4.62 X 10/sup 16/ s/sup -1/.

Janney, J.L.; Rogers, R.N.

1982-01-01

422

Final report for confinement vessel analysis: Task 1, Correlation of new vessel data with finite element results  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos performed tests of a modified confinement vessel in November 1992 to gain a better understanding of the response of the confinement vessel. The first test was meant to duplicate, with additional instrumentation, tests done previously for correlation with analysis. Task 1 of Subcontract Number 9-XH3-0607K-1 was the correlation of this new vessel test data with the results of finite element analyses. The authors also examined the data for the other test, which was for optical port development. The tests were numbered H-1573 and H-1562 and were fired on November 9 and 10, 1992, respectively. Test H-1573 was identical to the previous 40 lb tests except that a Burke tube was used to support the explosive charge while the explosive was freely suspended in the earlier tests. The second test, H-1562, was for development of the optical port. In addition to the Burke tube, this test also had additional components on the inside of the ports to protect the windows. The following are conclusions and recommendations drawn from assessment and correlation of tests H-1573 and H-1562: (1) yielding was measured at the bottom of the vessel for these tests; (2) the presence of a support tube in the vessel may have caused focusing of the pressure at the bottom, obscuring the response mechanism thought to have caused yielding in earlier tests; (3) the frequencies predicted using the finite element analysis correlated fairly well with the test results, but the analysis did not predict the yielding measured at the {minus}73 degrees locations; (4) excellent pressure measurements were obtained; (5) better methods of obtaining acceleration data for the windows need to be developed; and (6) the authors believe that the window damage is caused by response of the vessel.

Lewis, B.B. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

1993-11-30

423

Viscoelastic models for explosive binder materials  

SciTech Connect

An improved model of the mechanical properties of the explosive contained in conventional munitions is needed to accurately simulate performance and accident scenarios in weapons storage facilities. A specific class of explosives can be idealized as a mixture of two components: energetic crystals randomly suspended in a polymeric matrix (binder). Strength characteristics of each component material are important in the macroscopic behavior of the composite (explosive). Of interest here is the determination of an appropriate constitutive law for a polyurethane binder material. This paper is a continuation of previous work in modeling polyurethane at moderately high strain rates and for large deformations. Simulation of a large deformation (strains in excess of 100{percent}) Taylor Anvil experiment revealed numerical difficulties which have been addressed. Additional experimental data have been obtained including improved resolution Taylor Anvil data, and stress relaxation data at various strain rates. A thorough evaluation of the candidate viscoelastic constitutive model is made and possible improvements discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Bardenhagen, S.G.; Harstad, E.N.; Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Foster, J.C. Jr. [Wright Laboratory, Armament Directorate, Eglin AFB, Florida 32542 (United States)

1998-07-01

424

Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR  

SciTech Connect

The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m/sup 3/. Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m/sup 3/. By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

Borg, I.Y.

1982-08-13

425

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2010-04-01

426

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2009-04-01

427

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2011-04-01

428

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2013-04-01

429

Neutrino mechanism of supernova explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, scientifics have tried to understand the explosion mechanism of stars that is responsible for the simultaneous formation of neutron star and supernova outburst.The main problem is the determination of a source of energy in the ejection of a supernova envelope. The gravitation energy as a source of energy in supernova is placed first. However, subsequent studies led to certain problems in using gravitation energy if the assumption of neutrino difussion was adopted. Situation is changed if one take into consideration large scale convective instability owing to the neutronization of matter in a protoneutron star during the collapse of star with low initial entropy. The three-dimensional hydrodinamic calculation for 75*75*75 grid with step 0.015R(R = 2*10^7 cm) shows that large-scale bubbles with 10^6 cm emerge. When the bubble reaches low density, the neutrinos contained in matter freely escape from it in the regime of volume radiation. The characteristic time of this process is equaled 0.02 s. The shock from the initial bounce when the collapse in the stellar core stops will then be supported by the neutrino emission, resulting in the ejection of an envelope.

Chechetkin, V. M.

430

Modern Oceanographic Research Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most sonars mounted on the hull of oceanographic research vessels transmit acoustic energy downward in relatively well defined angular sectors. In order to assess how such sonar systems might affect marine organisms, particularly marine mammals, we shall review the range of acoustic frequencies used by these sonars and the corresponding level of ensonifi­ cation as a function ofrange from the

Christian de Moustier

431

(Packaging regulations for chemical explosives)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the trip was to visit Nobel Chemicals in Sweden and to confer with the Department of Transportation personnel in Sweden and in England on the technical and regulatory problems in the bulk shipping of the high explosives RDX and HMX. It is customary in the United States (US) to add isopropyl alcohol to the bulk shipment of water-wet high explosives RDX and HMX. The explosives are packed in cloth bags which are placed in plastic-lined fiber drums. The addition of alcohol presumably prevents mildewing of cloth bags and freezing of the wet explosives in cold weather. In Europe, however, these explosives are shipped in polyethylene-lined fiber drums with not less than 15% water only, even in cold weather. Water-wet frozen explosives have not proved to be any more sensitive than its unfrozen counterpart and no mildew problem has been encountered. It looks promising that the US Department of Transportation regulations can be changed to permit the bulk shipment of these explosives in water only without the addition of isopropyl alcohol. This is expected to cut down the packaging cost considerably. In addition, the packaging procedure in the US can be modernized by introducing more mechanical and efficient handling as seen at Nobel Chemicals. 2 figs.

Pal, B.C.

1988-02-17

432

Detection of explosives in soils  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

433

Shock desensitizing of solid explosive  

SciTech Connect

Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

Davis, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

434

Detection of Plastic Explosive Traces in the Human Thermal Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aviation security requires the detection of explosive devices which terrorists, posing as passengers, may conceal beneath their clothing. Our goal is to understand the generation, transport, and collection of trace signals from such concealed explosives, which are found in the natural convective plume produced by the human body. Previous work (APS/DFD96, CG10) has visualized this plume and shown that concealed volatile explosives (e.g. TNT) produce a detectable vapor signal therein. Plastic explosives, on the other hand, have vanishingly low vapor pressures and are thus considered very difficult to detect. Present experiments use a dispersal chamber to collect and sample the plumes of human subjects wearing concealed gauze patches containing milligrams of RDX, the primary component of plastic explosives such as C-4. These experiments address the effects of agitation, clothing, temperature and humidity on trace detectability. Further experiments address the effects of oily vs. dry skin, contaminated clothing vs. gauze patches, and residual contamination left on skin previously in contact with RDX. The key role of airborne contaminated textile fibers is noted. Knowledge thus gained contributes to the design of an explosive detection portal for aviation security screening. (Research supported by FAA Grant 93-G-052.)

Gowadia, Huban A.; Settles, Gary S.

1998-11-01

435

K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

PIEPHO, M.G.

2000-01-10

436

Radiologic diagnosis of explosion casualties.  

PubMed

The threat of terrorist events on domestic soil remains an ever-present risk. Despite the notoriety of unconventional weapons, the mainstay in the armament of the terrorist organization is the conventional explosive. Conventional explosives are easily weaponized and readily obtainable, and the recipes are widely available over the Internet. According to the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over one half of the global terrorist events involve explosions, averaging two explosive events per day worldwide in 2005 (Terrorism Research Center. Available at www.terrorism.com. Accessed April 1, 2007). The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, published by the Institute of Medicine, states that explosions were the most common cause of injuries associated with terrorism (Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads. Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2007). Explosive events have the potential to inflict numerous casualties with multiple injuries. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated by the fact that few providers or medical facilities have experience with mass casualty events in which human and material resources can be rapidly overwhelmed. Care of explosive-related injury is based on same principles as that of standard trauma management paradigms. The basic difference between explosion-related injury and other injury mechanisms are the number of patients and multiplicity of injuries, which require a higher allocation of resources. With this caveat, the appropriate utilization of radiology resources has the potential to impact in-hospital diagnosis and triage and is an essential element in optimizing the management of the explosive-injured patients. PMID:19069034

Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

437

DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials  

DOEpatents

High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

Desmare, Gabriel W. (Amarillo, TX); Cates, Dillard M. (Amarillo, TX)

2002-05-14

438

Explosion and Explosives. Volume 32, Number 2, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic progress and safety; Lead salt of mono-di - and tri-nitro resorcinol (Report II, sensitivity characteristic and some other properties); Observation on detonation phenomenon in rectangular cartridge by x-ray flash method; Explosive nitra...

1971-01-01

439

High Explosive Radio Telemetry System  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews the High Explosive Radio Telemetry (HERT) system, under co-development by Los Alamos National Laboratories and Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. This telemetry system is designed to measure the initial performance of an explosive package under flight environment conditions, transmitting data from up to 64 sensors. It features high speed, accurate time resolution (10 ns) and has the ability to complete transmission of data before the system is destroyed by the explosion. In order to affect the resources and performance of a flight delivery vehicle as little as possible, the system is designed such that physical size, power requirements, and antenna demands are as small as possible.

Bracht, R.R.; Crawford, T.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Mclaughlin, B.M.

1998-11-04

440

An assessment of the flammability and explosion potential of transuranic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion potential of transuranic (TRU) waste, destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot (WIPP), was recently examined in EEG-45. That investigation focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste, particularly acetone, and concluded that an explosion due to the VOCs was unlikely. Recent evidence raises serious concerns about drums containing mixed radioactive hazardous waste bound for the WIPP.

1991-01-01

441

Infrared Spectrometry and Radiometry of High-Explosive Detonations: The Los Alamos Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether the infrared spectra of high-explosive detonations can be used to infer the type of explosive material and/or the containment material employed. Infrared spectra and radiometric traces were measure...

E. H. Rogers R. L. Williams E. N. Frazier D. K. Stone K. C. Herr

1982-01-01

442

The construction and optimization of an ion mobility spectrometer for the analysis of explosives and drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, over 15,000 Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) analyzers are employed at worldwide security checkpoints to detect explosives and illicit drugs. Current portal IMS instruments and other electronic nose technologies detect explosives and drugs by analyzing samples containing the headspace air and loose particles residing on a surface. Canines can outperform these systems at sampling and detecting the low vapor pressure

Hanh Tuyet Lai

2010-01-01

443

The Construction and Optimization on an Ion Mobility Spectrometer for the Analysis of Explosives and Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, over 15,000 Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) analyzers are employed at worldwide security checkpoints to detect explosives and illicit drugs. Current portal IMS instruments and other electronic nose technologies detect explosives and drugs by analyzing samples containing the headspace air and loose particles residing on a surface. Canines can outperform these systems at sampling and detecting the low vapor pressure

Hanh Tuyet Lai

2010-01-01

444

Granular activated carbon pilot treatment studies for explosives removal from contaminated groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing activities at Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs) result in the production of organic wastewaters that contain both explosive residues and other organic chemicals. As a result of past waste practices at such plants, explosive residues may leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater. Two pilot studies were performed to evaluate the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) to treat groundwater

W. J. Wujcik; W. L. Lowe; P. J. Marks; W. E. Sisk

1992-01-01

445

Finite Difference Cratering Support. Magnitude Determination of Cratering and Non-Cratering Nuclear Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ratio of the 'a' phase and 'max' phase of presumed Shagan River contained and cratering explosions are studied across the WWSSN network of short period stations. The amplitude of the 'a' phase of the presumed cratering explosion of Jan 15, 1965 is fou...

K. L. McLaughlin I. N. Gupta R. Wagner

1985-01-01

446

Test results of chemical reactivity test (CRT) analysis of structural materials and explosives  

SciTech Connect

The chemical reactivity test, CRT, is a procedure used to screen the compatibility of component structure materials with explosives. This report contains the results of CRT materials evaluations conducted at Mound Facility. Data about materials combinations are catalogued both under the name of the explosive and the nonexplosive.

Back, P.S.; Barnhart, B.V.; Walters, R.R.; Haws, L.D.; Collins, L.W.

1980-03-21

447

Micromechanics-based determination of effective elastic properties of polymer bonded explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives are particulate composites containing a high volume fraction of stiff elastic explosive particles in a compliant viscoelastic binder. Since the volume fraction of particles can be greater than 0.9 and the modulus contrast greater than 20000, rigorous bounds on the elastic moduli of the composite are an order of magnitude different from experimentally determined values. Analytical solutions

Biswajit Banerjee; Daniel O. Adams

2003-01-01

448

Vessel Comparison on the Seabed Echo: Influence of Vessel Attitude.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During an inter-vessel comparison of the NOAA ships Oscar Dyson and Miller Freeman in the Bering Sea in July 2006, significant vessel-differences in acoustic backscatter from walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) were observed. However, very similar ves...

V. Hjellvik A. De Robertis

2007-01-01

449

Pressurized wet digestion in open vessels.  

PubMed

The High Pressure Asher (HPA-S) was adapted with a Teflon liner for pressurized wet digestion in open vessels. The autoclave was partly filled with water containing 5% (vol/vol) hydrogen peroxide. The digestion vessels dipped partly into the water or were arranged on top of the water by means of a special rack made of titanium or PTFE-coated stainless steel. The HPA-S was closed and pressurized with nitrogen up to 100 bars. The maximum digestion temperature was 250 degrees C for PFA vessels and 270 degrees C for quartz vessels. Digestion vessels made of quartz or PFA-Teflon with volumes between 1.5 mL (auto sampler cups) and 50 mL were tested. The maximum sample amount for quartz vessels was 0.5-1.5 g and for PFA vessels 0.2-0.5 g, depending on the material. Higher sample intake may lead to fast reactions with losses of digestion solution. The samples were digested with 5 mL HNO(3) or with 2 mL HNO(3)+6 mL H(2)O+2 mL H(2)O(2). The total digestion time was 90-120 min and 30 min for cooling down to room temperature. Auto sampler cups made of PFA were used as digestion vessels for GFAAS. Sample material (50 mg) was digested with 0.2 mL HNO(3)+0.5 mL H(2)O+0.2 mL H(2)O(2). The analytical data of nine certified reference materials are also within the confidential intervals for volatile elements like mercury, selenium and arsenic. No cross contamination between the digestion vessels could be observed. Due to the high gas pressure, the diffusion rate of volatile species is low and losses of elements by volatilisation could be observed only with diluted nitric acid and vessels with large cross section. In addition, cocoa, walnuts, nicotinic acid, pumpkin seeds, lubrication oil, straw, polyethylene and coal were digested and the TOC values measured. The residual carbon content came to 0.2-10% depending on the sample matrix and amount. PMID:12802569

Maichin, B; Zischka, M; Knapp, G

2003-06-11

450

Crashworthy sealed pressure vessel for plutonium transport  

SciTech Connect

A rugged transportation package for the air shipment of radioisotopic materials was recently developed. This package includes a tough, sealed, stainless steel inner containment vessel of 1460 cc capacity. This vessel, intended for a mass load of up to 2 Kg PuO/sub 2/ in various isotopic forms (not to exceed 25 watts thermal activity), has a positive closure design consisting of a recessed, shouldered lid fastened to the vessel body by twelve stainless-steel bolts; sealing is accomplished by a ductile copper gasket in conjunction with knife-edge sealing beads on both the body and lid. Follow-on applications of this seal in newer, smaller packages for international air shipments of plutonium safeguards samples, and in newer, more optimized packages for greater payload and improved efficiency and utility, are briefly presented.

Andersen, J.A.

1980-01-01

451

Tougher steels improve pressure vessel performance  

SciTech Connect

Safe operation of pressure vessels requires conservative design and construction practices, and use of materials having adequate safety margins. Pressure vessel safety is of particular concern to petroleum refiners, coal converters, and others in the hydrocarbon processing industries, where high temperatures and hydrogen-containing environments put an added strain on equipment. Because of these concerns, designers and fabricators have imposed increasingly stringent specifications on ASTM A 387 steel plate, which is widely used for pressure vessel applications. One requirement that has had a major impact on the evolution of A 387 steels is the need for improved toughness. As customer requirements have become more stringent, steelmakers have responded with methods that yield lower sulfur content and help control other chemical elements. These efforts have resulted in some significant benefits, including improved toughness and reduced susceptibility to temper embrittlement. Yet, at the same time, producers are realizing they will soon have reached the limit of capability for further improving A 387 steels.

Wilson, A.D. (Lukens Steel Co., Coatesville, PA (United States))

1993-04-01

452

EXPLOSIVE WELDING SIMULATION OF MULTILAYER TUBES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Explosive welding is a process which uses explosive detonation to propel the flyer plate material into the base material to produce a sound joint. Experimental tests have been performed to explosively welded aluminum 5056, aluminum 1015 and stainless steel 304 tubes in one step. The tests have been carried out using various stand-off distances and explosive ratios. Various interface

A. A. Akbari Mousavi; G. Joodaki

453

76 FR 38598 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...21, 2011, concerning modifications to vessel monitoring system (VMS) requirements in Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) fisheries. The proposed rule contained information on public hearings being held in Saint Petersburg, FL, New...

2011-07-01

454

Rdx, HMX and Explosive Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical properties, physical properties, and specification requirements are given for cyclonite (RDX) and homocyclonite (HMX). Also included is a list of explosive compositions produced from RDX, HMX, TNT, and various binding agents. The latter listing i...

1965-01-01

455

Nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes  

SciTech Connect

The US Plowshare programme, designed to develop peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, was vigorous between 1957 to 1973 and was of concern during US and USSR nuclear treaty negotiations within that period. In order to accommodate possible future applications, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) Treaty was signed in 1976. The US programme explored the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and tested their use in industrial applications. Due to waning industrial interest and public concern over environmental issues, the US program was terminated in 1977. The Soviet counterpart to the Plowshare programme, which has involved roughly 100 experiments throughout the USSR, continued until the self-imposed moratorium in 1985. As any peaceful use of nuclear explosives has the potential of furthering weapons research, the US takes the position that all such experiments would have to be banned in a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT).

Borg, I.Y.

1986-07-01

456

Nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes  

SciTech Connect

The US Plowshare program, designed to develop peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, was vigorous between 1957-73 and was of concern during US and USSR nuclear treaty negotiations within that period. In order to accommodate possible future applications, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty was signed in 1976. The US program explored the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and tested their use in industrial applications. Due to waning industrial interest and public concern over environmental issues, the US program was terminated in 1977. The Soviet counterpart to the Plowshare program, which has involved more than 100 experiments throughout the USSR, continued until the self-imposed moratorium in 1985. As any peaceful use of nuclear explosives has the potential of furthering weapons research, the US takes the position that all such experiments would have to be banned in a comprehensive test ban treaty. 24 refs.

Borg, I.Y.

1986-11-01

457

Detonation probabilities of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The probability of a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) following various events is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons dismantlement. In this paper, we describe the development of response curves for insults to PBX 9404, a conventional high-performance explosive used in US weapons. The insults during dismantlement include drops of high explosive (HE), strikes of tools and components on HE, and abrasion of the explosive. In the case of drops, we combine available test data on HEVRs and the results of flooring certification tests to estimate the HEVR probability. For other insults, it was necessary to use expert opinion. We describe the expert solicitation process and the methods used to consolidate the responses. The HEVR probabilities obtained from both approaches are compared.

Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Bement, T.R.

1995-07-01

458

Risk Management of Explosives Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) procedures to manage the safety and control of explosives has been stimulated by ever increasing demands for more efficient operation, and by the requirements of recently extended Health and Safety Legislation...

D. J. Hewkin G. B. Jones I. Self R. A. Drake V. J. Gill

1994-01-01

459

Fundamental Research in Explosive Magnetohydrodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background experimental work with explosive driven MHD generators is reviewed and the major parametric factors are outlined. Previously unpublished data on the effects of the density and composition of gases originally in the channel is reviewed and i...

M. S. Jones

1976-01-01

460

The heterogeneous explosive reaction zone  

SciTech Connect

The calculated reaction zone of PBX-9404 using solid HMX Arrhenius kinetics is stable to perturbations. The calculated reaction zone Von Neumann spike pressure agrees with the experimental observations within experimental uncertainty associated with different experimental techniques. The calculated homogengeous explosive reaction zone thickness is larger than observed for the heterogeneous explosive. The effect of two volume percent air holes on the reaction zone was modeled using the three-dimensional Eulerian reactive hydrodynamic code, 3DE. The air holes perturb the reaction zone. A complicated, time-dependent, multidimensional reaction region proceeds through the heterogeneous explosive. The experimentally observed reaction zone characteristic of heterogeneous explosives are mean values of an irregular, three-dimensional reaction region. 20 refs., 6 figs.

Mader, C.L.; Kershner, J.D.

1989-01-01

461

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

462

Calculations for Explosive Magnetic Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a translation of a Soviet paper which develops generalized criteria for optimum design of an explosive magnetic generator. Studies on techniques for pulsed compression of magnetic fields, with the resultant high pulse power generation, were active...

S. G. Hibben

1976-01-01

463

Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

Yukawa, S.

1990-04-01

464

An analysis of peak overpressures in vented gaseous explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data from vented explosion tests using stoichiometric methane–air and 18% hydrogen–air mixtures in a 63.7m3 chamber with a 2.7 or 5.4m2 vent are presented. Results from experiments conducted using stoichiometric propane–air in 2.42m3 vessel with a 0.26m2 vent are also reported. The tests were focused on the effect of fuel, enclosure size, ignition location, vent size, and obstacles on

J. Chao; C. R. Bauwens; S. B. Dorofeev

2011-01-01

465

Explosion modelling for complex geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature review suggested that the combined effects of fuel reactivity, obstacle density, ignition strength, and confinement result in flame acceleration and subsequent pressure build-up during a vapour cloud explosion (VCE). Models for the prediction of propagating flames in hazardous areas, such as coal mines, oil platforms, storage and process chemical areas etc. fall into two classes. One class involves use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This approach has been utilised by several researchers. The other approach relies upon a lumped parameter approach as developed by Baker (1983). The former approach is restricted by the appropriateness of sub-models and numerical stability requirements inherent in the computational solution. The latter approach raises significant questions regarding the validity of the simplification involved in representing the complexities of a propagating explosion. This study was conducted to investigate and improve the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code EXPLODE which has been developed by Green et al., (1993) for use on practical gas explosion hazard assessments. The code employs a numerical method for solving partial differential equations by using finite volume techniques. Verification exercises, involving comparison with analytical solutions for the classical shock-tube and with experimental (small-scale, medium and large-scale) results, demonstrate the accuracy of the code and the new combustion models but also identify differences between predictions and the experimental results. The project has resulted in a developed version of the code (EXPLODE2) with new combustion models for simulating gas explosions. Additional features of this program include the physical models necessary to simulate the combustion process using alternative combustion models, improvement to the numerical accuracy and robustness of the code, and special input for simulation of different gas explosions. The present code has the capability of predicting venting failures by different combustion models, something that was not shown clearly in the open literature by the previous numerical studies in gas explosions. The work accomplished in this research was undertaken put of the need for an objective method to predict explosion parameters for vapour cloud explosions in confined and semi-confined areas. The thesis describes basic features of a numerical explosion model that has been developed for predicting explosion pressure and flame propagation in confined and semi confined regions. The validation of the code and combustion models against analytical and several experimental data supports the code and its combustion models as a good tool for prediction of VCEs. This thesis starts with a basic description of explosion, assessment methods, theory, turbulent combustion, different combustion models and concludes with a discussion of the results and areas of uncertainty.

Nehzat, Naser

466

Are amino groups advantageous to insensitive high explosives (IHEs)?  

PubMed

There is usually a contradiction between increasing energy densities and reducing sensitivities of explosives. The explosives with both high energy densities and low sensitivities, or the so-called insensitive high explosives (IHEs), are desirable in most cases. It seems from applied explosives that amino groups are advantageous to IHE but the amount of amino groups contained IHEs is very limited. To make this clear, we present systemic examinations of the effects on the two properties stressed in IHEs after introducing amino groups to different molecular skeletons. As a result, the amino groups on resonant sites to nitro groups in conjugated systems can improve distinctly sensitivities and change energy densities in terms of oxygen balance; while the amino groups in unconjugated systems can hardly increase energy densities and usually cause increased sensitivities. It agrees well with a fact that almost all the molecules of applied amino group contained explosives possess conjugated skeletons. We therefore confirm that if amino groups are introduced resonantly to a nitro group in a conjugated system and the introduction improves OB, they are advantageous to IHEs. PMID:22660963

Cao, Xia; Wen, Yushi; Xiang, Bin; Long, Xinping; Zhang, Chaoyang

2012-06-03

467

On coupling factors of explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the seismic effect of an explosion plays an important part in the theory and practice of demolition engineering, antiseismic engineering, nuclear explosion engineering, seismic exploration, and seismic depth sounding. A still unresolved issue in this regard is concerned with the calculation of energy conversion process. An attempt is made to explore this issue by drawing on the research done in the field of seismic depth sounding.

Shao-Quan, Z.

1985-04-01

468

System for analysis of explosives  

DOEpatents

A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-06-29

469

Gas explosion during diathermy gastrotomy.  

PubMed

The first report of rupture of the stomach due to diathermy-elicited gas explosion during gastrotomy in a patient with intestinal ischemia resulting in obstruction and jejunal and gastric dilatation is presented. In the obstructed stomach or small bowel, a proliferation of hydrogen- and methane-producing bacteria can occur, leading to the accumulation of these combustible gases in explosive concentrations. In cases of gastrointestinal tract obstruction, the diathermy knife should not be used in entering the gastrointestinal lumen. PMID:2910765

Joyce, F S; Rasmussen, T N

1989-02-01

470

External ballistic of volcanic explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the kinetic energy of an explosion it is necessary to know the initial velocities of ejected fragments.\\u000a \\u000a Calculations of initial velocities made earlier with few exceptions did not take into account the resistance of the air and\\u000a therefore, greatly underestimated the initial velocities, and consequently the energy of the explosions. A solution of the\\u000a inverse problem

G. S. Steinberg; V. Lorenz

1983-01-01

471

High pressure storage vessel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27

472

Efficiency of a stirred chemical reaction in a closed vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We perform a numerical study of the burning efficiency in a closed vessel. Starting with a little spot of product, we compute\\u000a the time needed to complete the reaction in the container. Inside the vessel there is a cellular flow that transports the\\u000a reactants. Our main result is that if the size of the container is not very large

C. López; Davide Vergni; Angelo Vulpiani

2002-01-01

473

Microbial remediation of explosive waste.  

PubMed

Explosives are synthesized globally mainly for military munitions. Nitrate esters, such as GTN and PETN, nitroaromatics like TNP and TNT and nitramines with RDX, HMX and CL20, are the main class of explosives used. Their use has resulted in severe contamination of environment and strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. The incredible versatility inherited in microbes has rendered these explosives as a part of the biogeochemical cycle. Several microbes catalyze mineralization and/or nonspecific transformation of explosive waste either by aerobic or anaerobic processes. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward explosives and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals. This review summarizes information on the biodegradation and biotransformation pathways of several important explosives. Isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation are also discussed. This may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for clean up of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. The necessity of further investigations concerning the microbial metabolism of these substances is also discussed. PMID:22497284

Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

2012-05-01

474

Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m^3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V^1/3 (dp/pt)max ˜ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ˜ 10^1 -10^2 g/m^3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ˜ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2.

Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

2013-03-01

475

Reactor vessel sectioning demonstration  

SciTech Connect

A technical demonstration was successfully completed of simulated reactor vessel sectioning using the combined techniques of air arc gouging and flame cutting. A 4-ft x 3-ft x 9-in. thick sample was fabricated of A36 carbon steel to simulate a reactor vessel wall. A 1/4-in. layer of stainless steel (SS) was tungsten inert gas (TIG)-welded to the carbon steel. Several techniques were considered to section the simulated reactor vessel; air arc gouging was selected to penetrate the stainless steel, and flame cutting was selected to sever the carbon steel. Three sectioning operations were demonstrated. For all three, the operating parameters were the same; but the position of the sample was varied. For the first cut, the sample was placed in a horizontal position, and it was successfully severed from the SS side. For the second cut, the sample was turned over and cut from the carbon steel side. Cutting from the carbon steel side has the advantages of cost reduction

Lundgren, R.A.

1981-09-01

476

Liquid contents verification for explosives, chemical agents, and dissolved narcotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly important need today is to guard against terrorist attacks at key locations such as airports and public buildings. Liquid explosives can avoid detection at security checkpoints by being concealed as beverages or other benign liquids. Magnetic resonance (MR) offers a safe, non-invasive technology for probing and classifying the liquid contents inside sealed non-metallic containers or packages. Quantum Magnetics

Sankaran Kumar; W. Casey McMichael; Erik E. Magnuson; Young K. Lee; Charles R. Moeller; Peter V. Czipott; Timothy J. Rayner; David E. Newman; Dariusz Wroblewski

2001-01-01

477

A neutron based interrogation system to detect explosive materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron induced elemental analysis using return gamma ray spectrometry is a useful technique to differentiate dangerous materials from common materials. This work describes the implementation of a scanning device designed to detect explosive materials in small, sealed containers. Deploying such a scanning device at a checkpoint is attractive because it allows fully automated decision making, unlike x-ray systems. In addition,

Eric Duane Sword

2009-01-01

478

HIGH PERFORMANCE MELT-CAST PLASTIC-BONDED EXPLOSIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRDC Valcartier has been developing new melt-cast explosives containing nitramines, TNT and a family of energetic thermoplastic elastomers (ETPEs) based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer. It was proven that the ETPEs, added in small amounts to the TNT, modified the glassy behaviour of the compositions and created a new product that showed enough elasticity to pass mechanical Insensitive Munitions tests such

P. Brousseau; G. Ampleman; S. Thiboutot; E Diaz; S. Trudel

479

30 CFR 816.62 - Use of explosives: Preblasting survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.62 Use of explosives: Preblasting...document any preblasting damage and other physical factors that could reasonably be...disagrees with the contents and/or recommendations contained therein, he or she may...

2013-07-01

480

30 CFR 817.62 - Use of explosives: Preblasting survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.62 Use of explosives: Preblasting...document any preblasting damage and other physical factors that could reasonably be...disagrees with the contents and/or recommendations contained therein, he or she may...

2013-07-01

First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7