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1

Proof testing of an explosion containment vessel  

SciTech Connect

A steel containment vessel was fabricated and proof tested for use by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at their M-9 facility. The HY-100 steel vessel was designed to provide total containment for high explosives tests up to 22 lb (10 kg) of TNT equivalent. The vessel was fabricated from an 11.5-ft diameter cylindrical shell, 1.5 in thick, and 2:1 elliptical ends, 2 in thick. Prior to delivery and acceptance, three types of tests were required for proof testing the vessel: a hydrostatic pressure test, air leak tests, and two full design charge explosion tests. The hydrostatic pressure test provided an initial static check on the capacity of the vessel and functioning of the strain instrumentation. The pneumatic air leak tests were performed before, in between, and after the explosion tests. After three smaller preliminary charge tests, the full design charge weight explosion tests demonstrated that no yielding occurred in the vessel at its rated capacity. The blast pressures generated by the explosions and the dynamic response of the vessel were measured and recorded with 33 strain channels, 4 blast pressure channels, 2 gas pressure channels, and 3 displacement channels. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a short summary of the methodology used to predict the design blast loads, a brief description of the transducer locations and measurement systems, some of the hydrostatic test strain and stress results, examples of the explosion pressure and dynamic strain data, and some comparisons of the measured data with the design loads and stresses on the vessel.

Esparza, E.D. [Esparza (Edward D.), San Antonio, TX (United States); Stacy, H.; Wackerle, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-10-01

2

Containment of explosions in spherical vessels  

SciTech Connect

A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

Duffey, T.A.; Greene, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Baker, W.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lewis, B.B. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

1992-12-31

3

Containment of explosions in spherical vessels  

SciTech Connect

A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

Duffey, T.A.; Greene, J.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Baker, W.E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lewis, B.B. (APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

4

Containment of explosions in spherical vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

Duffey, T. A.; Greene, J. M.; Baker, W. E.; Lewis, B. B.

5

Response of containment vessels to explosive blast loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of steel containment vessels to the blast loading produced by the detonation of high explosives is investigated by experiments, computations, and analysis. The vessels are thin-wall shell structures that are nearly spherical. All explosive charges are solid spheres, centrally initiated and centrally positioned within the vessels. Most of the work concerns vessels that contain, in addition to the

R. R. Karpp; T. A. Duffey; T. R. Neal

1983-01-01

6

EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.  

SciTech Connect

The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

Rudolphi, John Joseph

2012-04-01

7

Seal Monitoring System for an Explosive Containment Vessel  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are developing high-performance explosive firing vessels to contain (one time) explosive detonations that contain toxic metals and hazardous gases. The filament-wound polymer composite vessels are designed to contain up to 80 lb (TNT equivalent) explosive in a 2-meter sphere without leakage. So far, two half-scale (1-meter diameter) vessels have been tested; one up to 150% of the design explosive limit. Peak dynamic pressures in excess of 280 MPa (40 Ksi) in the vessel were calculated and measured. Results indicated that there was a small amount of gas and particle leakage past the first two of the seven o-ring seals. However, the remaining five seals prevented any transient leakage of the toxic gases and particulates out of the vessel. These results were later confirmed by visual inspection and particulate analysis of swipes taken from the sealing surfaces.

Pastrnak, J W; Henning, C D; Switzer, V A; Grundler, W; Holloway, J R; Morrison, J J; Hafner, R S

2004-06-28

8

Explosive Safety Container.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The container is in the form of a plastic block with a hole for containing an explosive. The plastic is loaded into a tubular vessel such as glass or polyethylene. The plastic block is made of a plastic material which does not shatter like metal.

M. F. T. Zimmer L. K. Asaoka

1965-01-01

9

Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber ...

R. A. Benham S. H. Fischer M. E. Kipp R. R. Martinez

1999-01-01

10

Shipping containers for small samples of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Two sizes of shipping containers for high explosives have been designed and tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The containers have been tested by detonating a powerful, HMX-based explosive in the containers. The containers were approved for shipping 70% of the minimum weight of explosive that could cause vessel failure.

Hildner, R.A.; Urizar, M.J.

1981-12-01

11

Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

2001-06-12

12

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2013-10-01

13

Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact  

SciTech Connect

Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber to impact by fragments from the largest explosive charge expected to be placed in these chambers (M426, 8 inch, chemical, 7 lbs Comp B) is evaluated. Numerical (CTH) and empirical (ConWep) codes are used to characterize the munition fragments, and assess the consequences of their impact and penetration on the walls of these vessels. Both pristine and corroded configurations of the munition have been considered, with and without liquid agent fill. When the munition burster charge detonates, munition case fragments impact and perforate the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel wall, resulting in extensive breakup of this inner chamber and the formation of additional fragments. These residual munition case and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to crater the Explosive Containment Chamber inner wall layer, with accompanying localized permanent deformation (bulging) of both the inner and outer chamber walls. The integrity of the Explosive Containment Chamber was retained under all of the APV / munition configurations considered in this study, with no evidence that primary (munition) or secondary (munition and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel) fragments will perforate the inner chamber wall. Limited analyses of munition detonation without the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel present indicate that some munition span fragments could form under those conditions that have sufficient mass and velocity to perforate the inner wall of the Explosive Containment Chamber.

Benham, R.A.; Fischer, S.H.; Kipp, M.E.; Martinez, R.R.

1999-02-01

14

Soft container for explosive nuts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible fabric fits over variety of assembly shapes to contain debris produced by detonations or safety tests. Bag material is woven multifilament polyamide or aramid. Belt loops hold bag to clamp. Ring supports explosive nut structure and detonator wires, and after nut is mounted, bag and clamp are slipped over ring and fastened.

Glenn, D. C.; Drummond, W. E.; Miller, G.

1981-01-01

15

Explosion pressures of hydrocarbon-air mixtures in closed vessels.  

PubMed

An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of several gaseous fuel-air mixtures was performed, at various initial pressures within 0.3-1.2 bar and ambient initial temperature. Explosion pressures and explosion times are reported for methane-, n-pentane-, n-hexane-, propene-, butene-, butadiene-, cyclohexane- and benzene-air mixtures. The explosion pressures measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm) and in three cylindrical vessels with different diameter/height ratios are examined in comparison with the adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, fuel concentration and heat losses during propagation (determined by the size and shape of the explosion vessel and by the position of the ignition source) on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed for some of the examined systems. PMID:16386834

Razus, Domnina; Movileanu, Codina; Brinzea, Venera; Oancea, D

2006-07-31

16

Some aspects of fire and explosion hazards of large LPG storage vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of experimental and theoretical investigations of fire and explosion hazards of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage vessels are presented. The evaporation intensity from LPG pools and the thermal radiation intensity distribution on the surface of cylindrical vessels containing LPG as a result of pool fires placed near the vessel were measured. Available mathematical models were verified and new models

Yu. N. Shebeko; I. M. Smolin; A. Ya. Korolchenko; A. P. Shevchuk; A. N. Borodkin; V. L. Malkin; O. A. Simonov; L. V. Gurinovich; S. A. Popov; V. A. Kolosov; E. V. Smirnov

1995-01-01

17

33 CFR 401.72 - Reporting-explosive and hazardous cargo vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Reporting-explosive and hazardous cargo vessels. 401.72...Dangerous Cargo § 401.72 Reportingexplosive and hazardous cargo vessels. (a) Every explosive vessel or hazardous cargo vessel...

2013-07-01

18

Electrically Conductive Containment Vessel for Molten Aluminum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreac...

C. E. Holcombe D. G. Scott

1984-01-01

19

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2013-10-01

20

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...explosive) materials on magazine vessels. 176.194 Section 176.194...MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class...

2013-10-01

21

Soft Container for Explosive Nuts: Flexible fabric bag fits over a variety of assembly shapes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Blasts from explosive nuts and other pyrotechnic devices are contained by a bag sewn from fabric. Unlike conventional metal vessels for blast containment, the bag is...

1982-01-01

22

Explosion characteristics of LPG-air mixtures in closed vessels.  

PubMed

The experimental study of explosive combustion of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)-air mixtures at ambient initial temperature was performed in two closed vessels with central ignition, at various total initial pressures within 0.3-1.3bar and various fuel/air ratios, within the flammability limits. The transient pressure-time records were used to determine several explosion characteristics of LPG-air: the peak explosion pressure, the explosion time (the time necessary to reach the peak pressure), the maximum rate of pressure rise and the severity factor. All explosion parameters are strongly dependent on initial pressure of fuel-air mixture and on fuel/air ratio. The explosion characteristics of LPG-air mixtures are discussed in comparison with data referring to the main components of LPG: propane and butane, obtained in identical conditions. PMID:19056172

Razus, Domnina; Brinzea, Venera; Mitu, Maria; Oancea, D

2009-06-15

23

Explosion of a road tanker containing liquified natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of a road tanker transporting LNG (one person killed, two injured) is studied. The analysis shows that the explosion, which followed a two-step mode as for the failure of the vessel, could have been a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). The overpressure and thermal radiation have been estimated and related to the effects observed. Only a relatively

Eullia Planas-Cuchi; Nria Gasulla; Albert Ventosa; Joaquim Casal

2004-01-01

24

Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

Chael, Eric Paul

2009-12-01

25

Mitigation of Explosions in a Vented Vessel Connected to a Duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the problem of mitigation of the explosion initiated in a vessel and vented through a duct.A solution has been studied which allows quiet evacuation of the explosion gases, without combustion intensification in the vessel and enhancement of explosion overpressures, characteristic in such a system. This can be obtained by retardation of the flame front penetrating into

B. PONIZY; B. VEYSSIERE

2000-01-01

26

Calculating Contained Firing Facility (CFF) explosive  

SciTech Connect

The University of California awarded LLNL contract No. B345381 for the design of the facility to Parsons Infrastructure Technology, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated fxings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg of explosive at the same height and located anywhere within 2 feet of the edge of a region on the floor called the anvil. Other requirements were that the chamber be able to accommodate the penetrations of the existing bullnose of the Bunker 801 flash X-ray machine and the roof of the underground camera room. These requirements and provisions for blast-resistant doors formed the essential basis for the design. The design efforts resulted in a steel-reinforced concrete snucture measuring (on the inside) 55 x 5 1 feet by 30 feet high. The walls and ceiling are to be approximately 6 feet thick. Because the 60-Kg charge is not located in the geometric center of the volume and a 35-K:: charge could be located anywhere in a prescribed area, there will be different dynamic pressures and impulses on the various walls floor, and ceiling, depending upon the weights and locations of the charges. The detailed calculations and specifications to achieve the design criteria were performed by Parsons and are included in Reference 1. Reference 2, Structures to Resist the E xts of Accidental L%plosions (TMS- 1300>, is the primary design manual for structures of this type. It includes an analysis technique for the calculation of blast loadings within a cubicle or containment-type structure. Parsons used the TM5- 1300 methods to calculate the loadings on the various fling chamber surfaces for the design criteria explosive weights and locations. At LLNL the same methods were then used to determine the firing zones for other weights and elevations that would give the same or lesser loadings. Although very laborious, a hand calculation of the different variables is possible, and an example is given in Appendix C. Fortunately, a code called SHOCK is available to perform these calculations rapidly, and the code runs on a personal computer. The original code was developed by the fii Amman and Whitney, which they called Paimpres; this was modified to its present form by the U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. Parsons used the SHOCK code extensively, as well as several single- and multiple-degree-of-freedom codes, which were provided by the U.S. Corps of Engineers. In addition, Parsons based their analysis/design on procedures stipulated in the publication DOE/TIC- 11268, A Manual for the Prediction ofBlast and Fragment Load s on SlrzuAwes. Loadings on structures in Reference 2 and in calculations performed with the SHOCK code are based on weights of explosives in pounds of TNT equivalent. The equivalency of an explosive (for its blast effects on structures) is calculated by the ratio of its heat to detonation to that of TNT. We intend to use the explosive C-4 for testing the response of the firing chamber. Various values of the ratio for C-4 are available: Reference 2 lists numbers leading to a ratio of 1.15, while I. 13 is the ratio calculated from numbers given in the LLNL, Explosives Handbook (Reference 3). Parsons used a ratio value of 1.3 for generic high explosive-to-TNT equivalency. For design purposes, Reference 2 recommends a 20 percent increase in explosive weight. Parsons adopted this recommendation. Therefore, for calculational purposes, 60 Kg of generic high explosive was taken to be equivalent to 206.3 pounds of TNT. That is, 60 Kg x 2.204 lb/Kg x 1.3 x 1.2 = 206.3 lb (TNT).

Lyle, J W.

1998-10-20

27

Explosion characteristics of nano-aluminum powderair mixtures in 20 L spherical vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 20L spherical explosion vessel, the explosion characteristics of nano-aluminum powders with different sizes were investigated. Compared with micro-scale aluminum powders explosion, nano-powders explosion processes and mechanisms were analyzed based on the auxiliary analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the maximum explosion pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise mainly depended on

Qingzhao Li; Baiquan Lin; Wenxia Li; Cheng Zhai; Chuanjie Zhu

2011-01-01

28

65 FR 81365 - Safety Zone; Potential Explosive Atmosphere, Vessel Highland Faith, Port of New York/New Jersey.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2115-AA97 Safety Zone; Potential Explosive Atmosphere, Vessel Highland Faith, Port of New York/New Jersey. AGENCY: Coast...Purpose There is an ongoing potential explosive atmosphere in the Port of New York/New Jersey on the vessel HIGHLAND...T01-253 Safety Zone; Potential Explosive Atmosphere, Vessel Highland Faith, Port of New......

2000-12-26

29

Results of the Triggered TROI Steam Explosion Experiments with a Narrow Interaction Vessel  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the interaction vessel geometry has been studied on the energetics of a steam explosion in the TROI experiment. The interaction vessel was 30 cm in diameter (1-D geometry). Two types of corium composition were used as a melt. One was spontaneously non-explosive 80 : 20 corium (UO{sub 2} : ZrO{sub 2}) and the other was spontaneously explosive 70 : 30 eutectic corium. A test with 80 : 20 corium was carried out without an external triggering. Another test with 80 : 20 corium was also carried out with an external trigger. In addition, two tests with 70 : 30 corium were carried out with an external trigger. The external trigger was applied just before the contact between the melt and the bottom of the interaction vessel. This time was thought to be the triggering time of a spontaneous steam explosion. The external trigger was a chemical explosive of PETN 1.0 g. However, none of these tests led to steam explosions even with an external triggering. Since eutectic corium led to spontaneous or triggered steam explosions in a previous test using a 60 cm wide interaction vessel (3-D geometry), it is quite probable that a geometry effect of the interaction vessel could exist. The reason for no steam explosions in the narrow (1-D) interaction vessel is believed to be a relatively high void fraction in the vessel when compared with the 3-D vessel. Due to the high void fraction, a steam explosion could not propagate to the surroundings of the melt where the water was depleted. (authors)

Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Hong, S.H.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D. [Thermal-Hydraulics and Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong, Taejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

30

Temperature and pressure influence on explosion pressures of closed vessel propane-air deflagrations.  

PubMed

An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures was performed, for systems with various initial concentrations and pressures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.2 bar). The explosion pressures and explosion times were measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm), at various initial temperatures (T(0)=298-423 K) and in a cylindrical vessel (Phi=10 cm; h=15 cm), at ambient initial temperature. The experimental values of explosion pressures are examined against literature values and compared to adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, initial temperature and fuel concentration on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, the explosion pressures are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, both the measured and calculated (adiabatic) explosion pressures are linear functions of reciprocal value of initial temperature. Such correlations are extremely useful for predicting the explosion pressures of flammable mixtures at elevated temperatures and/or pressures, when direct measurements are not available. PMID:19818553

Razus, Domnina; Brinzea, Venera; Mitu, Maria; Oancea, Dumitru

2010-02-15

31

Explosion of gaseous ethylene-air mixtures in closed cylindrical vessels with central ignition.  

PubMed

Explosions of gaseous ethylene-air mixtures with various concentrations between 3.0 and 14.0 vol.% and initial pressures between 0.20 and 1.10 bar were experimentally investigated at ambient initial temperature, using several elongated cylindrical vessels with length to diameter ratio between 1.0 and 2.4. The maximum explosion pressures p(max), the explosion times ?(max), the maximum rates of pressure rise, (dp/dt)(max) and the severity factors of centrally ignited explosions K(G) are examined in comparison with similar data obtained in a spherical vessel. The measured deflagration indices are strongly influenced by the length to diameter ratio of the vessels, initial pressure and composition of the flammable mixtures. Even when important heat losses are present, linear correlations p(max)=f(p(0)) and (dp/dt)(max)=f(p(0)) were found for all examined fuel-air mixtures, in all closed vessels. The heat losses appearing in the last stage of explosions occurring in asymmetrical vessels were estimated from the differences between the experimental and adiabatic maximum explosion pressures. These heat losses are higher when the asymmetry ratio L/D is higher and were found to depend linearly on the initial pressure. PMID:22858131

Movileanu, Codina; Gosa, Vasile; Razus, Domnina

2012-10-15

32

Explosion Containment: Progress, Scaling Laws, and Material Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Battelle Ordnance Technology Section has been involved for several years with the development of Navy (Tri-Service) technology for the containment of explosions in portable spherical chambers. The central topic of this paper concerns the room temperat...

J. J. White B. D. Trott

1982-01-01

33

A study of the behaviour of a protected vessel containing LPG during pool fire engulfment.  

PubMed

Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods for protection against fires of vessels containing liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) (safety relief valves, intumescent fire retardant coatings, thermal isolation) have been carried out. A simple mathematical model has been proposed, which describes dependences of various parameters on time. These parameters are temperature, pressure and mass of LPG, temperatures of the vessel's walls and thermal protection layer. The case of total fire engulfment of the vessel with LPG was considered. Experiments have been executed, which were aimed on the investigation of the behaviour of vessels with LPG (50 l), equipped with protective devices during total fire engulfment. It was found out that the safety valve prevented an explosion of the vessels without any other protective measures. The presence of the intumescent fire retardant coating caused a significant delay in operation of the safety valve. A rather good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was obtained. It has been revealed that the considered methods for protection of LPG vessels are promising in regard to prevention of explosions in these vessels at the fire engulfment. PMID:10946118

Shebeko, Y N; Bolodian, I A; Filippov, V N; Navzenya, V Y; Kostyuhin, A K; Tokarev, P M; Zamishevski, E D

2000-10-01

34

Explosive containment and propagation evaluations for commonly used handling and storage containers  

SciTech Connect

A series of explosive tests were performed to establish containment integrity data for commonly used handling and storage containers of energetic materials at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M. The tests consisted of two phases: (1) each container was tested for explosive integrity and propagation, and (2) the data were used to evaluate a nominal donor-receptor test matrix for verifying the confinement integrity of a typical explosives service locker.

LeBlanc, R.

1994-01-01

35

Capacity of Steel and Concrete Containment Vessels with Corrosion Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrosion damage has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures, and this could degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loading...

J. L. Chery J. A. Smith

2001-01-01

36

Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel  

DOEpatents

This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

Powell, J.G.

1993-11-16

37

Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel  

DOEpatents

This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

Powell, James G. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01

38

Development of A595 Explosion-Resistant Container Design. Numerical, Theoretical and Experimental Justification of the Container Design Parameters  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental study on the AT595 metal-composite container designed in VNIIEF within the framework of international collaboration with SNL (USA). This container must completely contain products of an 8-kg-TNT detonation cased in 35 kg of inert surrounding material. Numerical and theoretical studies have been carried out of the containment capacity and fracture of small-scale open cylinder test units and container pressure vessel models subjected to different levels of specific explosive load (beneath, equal to and above the required design load defined for this container), and two AT595 containers have been tested for the design load and a higher load.

Abakumov, A. I.; Devyatkin, I. V.; Meltsas, V. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Portnyagina, G. F.; Rusak, V. N.; Solovyev, V. P.; Syrunin, M. A.; Treshalin, S. M.; Fedorenko, A. G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation)

2006-08-03

39

Development of A595 Explosion-Resistant Container Design. Numerical, Theoretical and Experimental Justification of the Container Design Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental study on the AT595 metal-composite container designed in VNIIEF within the framework of international collaboration with SNL (USA). This container must completely contain products of an 8-kg-TNT detonation cased in 35 kg of inert surrounding material. Numerical and theoretical studies have been carried out of the containment capacity and fracture of small-scale open cylinder test units and container pressure vessel models subjected to different levels of specific explosive load (beneath, equal to and above the required design load defined for this container), and two AT595 containers have been tested for the design load and a higher load.

Abakumov, A. I.; Devyatkin, I. V.; Meltsas, V. Yu.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Portnyagina, G. F.; Rusak, V. N.; Solovyev, V. P.; Syrunin, M. A.; Treshalin, S. M.; Fedorenko, A. G.

2006-08-01

40

Preliminary results for a Russian designed explosive resistant container  

SciTech Connect

The Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Experimental Physics has completed a contract with Sandia National Laboratories to explore conceptual development of a family of containers capable of withstanding an internal explosion. The goal was containment of both the explosive force and hazardous by-products of a generic conventional explosive device. The Institute studied two designs, one for 2 kg and one for 50 kg of explosive. The designs were based on numerical calculations to extrapolate prior Russian design and experimental work to encompass these two cases. The Institute`s analyses indicate that they achieved excellent results for both a spherical and a cylindrical container made from a stainless steel/fiberglass composite construction. Both designs incorporate unique design features for door closures, internal shrapnel resistance, and shock attenuation. The project identified testing requirements, potential design feature improvements, as well as a sensitivity to the mass of packaging material around the explosive. We are pursuing these issues in a follow-on contract that is being negotiated.

Carbiener, K.E.

1996-12-01

41

Spall Fracture of Metallic Circular Plates, Vessel Endplates and Conical Frustums Driven by Direct Explosive Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic fracture experiments are conducted for circular plates, vessel endplates and conical frustums of A2017-7075 aluminum alloys and 304 stainless steel, using a testing apparatus developed applying wire-row explosion technique to initiation, where tensile stress waves are generated producing spall in the specimens by the direct incidence of plane detonation waves of the explosive PETN. A VISAR system is adopted to observe the free-surface velocity histories of the specimens. The signals for basic circular plate specimens indicate the characteristics of the failure for tested materials, effects of explosive thickness variations and the configuration of specimens. Hydro codes are satisfactorily applied to simulate the experimental signal data and observed damage phenomena of recovered specimens. Next, an explosive-filled cylindrical vessel with an endplate at the one end is initiated at the other end surface and expanded by axially propagating explosive detonation to fracture. Both the VISAR signals and numerical simulation indicate a pullback signal of spallation at the endplate. Finally conic frustums are also loaded by plane detonation, showing different type of spall failure due to the additional reflected waves from the slopping side surfaces.

Hiroe, T.; Fujiwara, K.; Hata, H.; Tsutsumi, D.

2007-12-01

42

Spall Fracture of Metallic Circular Plates, Vessel Endplates and Conical Frustums Driven by Direct Explosive Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic fracture experiments are conducted for circular plates, vessel endplates and conical frustums of A2017-7075 aluminum alloys and 304 stainless steel, using a testing apparatus developed applying wire-row explosion technique to initiation, where tensile stress waves are generated producing spall in the specimens by the direct incidence of plane detonation waves of the explosive PETN. A VISAR system is adopted to observe the free-surface velocity histories of the specimens. The signals for basic circular plate specimens indicate the characteristics of the failure for tested materials, effects of explosive thickness variations and the configuration of specimens. Hydro codes are satisfactorily applied to simulate the experimental signal data and observed damage phenomena of recovered specimens. Next, an explosive-filled cylindrical vessel with endplate at the one end is initiated at the other end surface and expanded by axially propagating explosive detonation to fracture. Both the VISAR signals and numerical simulation indicate a pullback signal of spallation at the endplate. Finally conic frustums are also loaded by plane detonation, showing different type of spall failure due to the additional reflected waves from the slopping side surfaces.

Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito; Hata, Hidehiro; Tsutsumi, Daiki

2007-06-01

43

High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.  

PubMed

The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen. PMID:25010457

Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

2014-08-15

44

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. 174.16...174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD...to contain or suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from...

2013-07-01

45

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

1999-06-15

46

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-06-15

47

Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-16

48

Heat removal characteristics of a primary containment vessel external spray  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the heat release characteristics of a primary containment vessel (PCV) external spray (one of the PCV cooling systems utilizing the steel PCV wall as the heat transfer medium), the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the falling liquid film on the PCV surface have been investigated experimentally. Then, the performance of the PCV external spray cooling system was evaluated using the

Yoshiyuki Kataoka; Tadashi Fujii; Michio Murase

1996-01-01

49

Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same  

DOEpatents

An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01

50

Steady State Solutions for a Thermal Explosion in a Cylindrical Vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady state solutions of a heat balance equation modeling a thermal explosion in a cylindrical vessel are obtained. The heat balance equation reduces to a Lane-Emden equation of the second-kind when steady state solutions are investigated. Analytical solutions to this Lane-Emden equation of the second-kind are obtained by implementation of the Lie group method. The classical Lie group method is used to obtain the well-known solution of Frank-Kamenetskii for the temperature distribution in a cylindrical vessel. Using an extension of the classical Lie group method a non-local symmetry is obtained and a new solution describing the temperature distribution after blow-up is obtained.

Harley, C.; Momoniat, E.

51

Stress and Sealing Performance Analysis of Containment Vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing the containment vessel subjected to the combined loading of closure-bolt torque and internal pressure. The detailed stress distributions in the O-rings generated by both the torque load and the internal pressure can be evaluated by using this method. Consequently, the sealing performance of the O-rings can be determined. The material of the

TSU-TE

2005-01-01

52

Calculating contained firing facility (CFF) explosive firing zones  

SciTech Connect

The University awarded a contract for the design of the Contained Firing Facility (CFF) to Parsons Infrastructure & Technology, Inc. of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated firings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg of explosive at the same height and located anywhere within 2 feet of the edge of a region on the floor called the anvil. Other requirements were that the chamber be able to accommodate the penetrations of the existing bullnose of the Bunker 801 flash X-ray machine and the roof of the underground camera room. For the sole purpose of calculating the explosive firing zones, it is assumed that the above requirements will be met by the completed facility. These requirements and provisions for blast resistant doors formed the essential basis for the design. The design efforts resulted in a steel-reinforced concrete structure measuring (on the inside) 55 x 51 feet by 30 feet high. The walls and ceiling are to be approximately 6 feet thick. Because the 60 Kg charge is not located in the geometric center of the volume and a 35 Kg charge could be located anywhere in a prescribed area, there will be different dynamic pressures and impulses on the various walls, floor, and ceiling depending upon the weights and locations of the charges. Parsons used the TM5- 1300 methods to calculate the loadings on the various firing chamber surfaces for the design criteria explosive weights and locations. At LLNL the same methods were then used to determine the firing zones for other weights and elevations that would give the same or lesser loadings. Although very laborious, a hand calculation of the various variables is possible and an example is given in Appendix C. A code called ?SHOCK? is available to perform these calculations rapidly and a version runs on a personal computer. Parsons used the SHOCK code extensively as well as several single and multiple degree of freedom codes which were provided by the U.S. Corps of Engineers. In addition, Parsons based their analysis/design on procedures stipulated in the publication DOE/TIC- 11268, A Manual for the Prediction of Blast and Fragment Loadings on Structures. Loadings on structures in Reference 2 and in calculations performed with the SHOCK code are based on weights of explosives in pounds of TNT equivalent. The equivalency of an explosive (for its blast effects on structures) is calculated by the ratio of its heat to detonation to that of TNT. We intend to use C-4 for testing the response of the firing chamber. Various values of the ratio for C-4 are available, Reference 2 lists numbers leading to a ratio of 1.15, while 1.13 is the ratio calculated from numbers given in the LLNL Explosives Handbook, (Reference 3). Parsons used a ratio value of 1.3 for generic high explosive to TNT equivalency. For design purposes, Reference 2 recommends a 20% increase in explosive weight. Parsons adopted this recommendation. For calculational purposes, 60 Kg of generic high explosive was taken to be equivalent to 206.3 pounds of TNT. Explosive firing zone maps are given for six elevations. The SHOCK code calculations for the 206.3 Lb. charge of TNT are given for the floor and roof of the firing chamber to illustrate the technique and because this charge results in the highest loading on the respective surfaces. This is followed by calculations for the 120.3 Lb. charge giving the maximum pressures on the East and West walls (no builnose accounted for). One of a series of code calculations is given to illustrate the reduced area feature of the code. In this case, a virtual blast door on the inside of the chamber wall is being considered. The two remaining plots are the calculated peak average pressures and impulses on the virtual door from charges of various weights as they are moved along a bisecting normal line to the door.

Lyle, J W

1999-02-03

53

Calculating Contained Firing Facility (CFF) explosive firing zone  

SciTech Connect

The University of California awarded LLNL contract No. B345381 for the design of the facility to Parsons Infrastructure & Technology, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The Laboratory specified that the firing chamber be able to withstand repeated fxings of 60 Kg of explosive located in the center of the chamber, 4 feet above the floor, and repeated firings of 35 Kg of explosive at the same height and located anywhere within 2 feet of the edge of a region on the floor called the anvil. Other requirements were that the chamber be able to accommodate the penetrations of the existing bullnose of the Bunker 801 flash X-ray machine and the roof of the underground camera room. These requirements and provisions for blast-resistant doors formed the essential basis for the design. The design efforts resulted in a steel-reinforced concrete snucture measuring (on the inside) 55 x 5 1 feet by 30 feet high. The walls and ceiling are to be approximately 6 feet thick. Because the 60-Kg charge is not located in the geometric center of the volume and a 35-K:: charge could be located anywhere in a prescribed area, there will be different dynamic pressures and impulses on the various walls? floor, and ceiling, depending upon the weights and locations of the charges. The detailed calculations and specifications to achieve the design criteria were performed by Parsons and are included in Reference 1. Reference 2, Structures to Resist the E@xts of Accidental L%plosions (TMS- 1300>, is the primary design manual for structures of this type. It includes an analysis technique for the calculation of blast loadings within a cubicle or containment-type structure. Parsons used the TM5- 1300 methods to calculate the loadings on the various fling chamber surfaces for the design criteria explosive weights and locations. At LLNL the same methods were then used to determine the firing zones for other weights and elevations that would give the same or lesser loadings. Although very laborious, a hand calculation of the different variables is possible, and an example is given in Appendix C. Fortunately, a code called ?SHOCK? is available to perform these calculations rapidly, and the code runs on a personal computer. The original code was developed by the fii Amman and Whitney, which they called ?Paimpres?; this was modified to its present form by the U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. Parsons used the SHOCK code extensively, as well as several single- and multiple-degree-of-freedom codes, which were provided by the U.S. Corps of Engineers. In addition, Parsons based their analysis/design on procedures stipulated in the publication DOE/TIC- 11268, A Manual for the Prediction ofBlast and Fragment Load&s on SlrzuAwes. Loadings on structures in Reference 2 and in calculations performed with the SHOCK code are based on weights of explosives in pounds of TNT equivalent. The equivalency of an explosive (for its blast effects on structures) is calculated by the ratio of its heat to detonation to that of TNT. We intend to use the explosive C-4 for testing the response of the firing chamber. Various values of the ratio for C-4 are available: Reference 2 lists numbers leading to a ratio of 1.15, while I. 13 is the ratio calculated from numbers given in the LLNL, Explosives Handbook (Reference 3). Parsons used a ratio value of 1.3 for generic high explosive-to-TNT equivalency. For design purposes, Reference 2 recommends a 20 percent increase in explosive weight. Parsons adopted this recommendation. Therefore, for calculational purposes, 60 Kg of generic high explosive was taken to be equivalent to 206.3 pounds of TNT. That is, 60 Kg x 2.204 lb/Kg x 1.3 x 1.2 = 206.3 lb (TNT).

Lyle, J W

1998-10-20

54

Explosion Systems Based on High Explosives Containing High Modular Ceramic Tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The opportunity for increasing of average velocity of detonation in explosion systems containing alumina tubes was tested experimentally. We used pure alumina tubes having sound velocity equal to 10 km/s, which were mounted along the symmetry axis of HE charge of cast TNT/RDX 36/64. Detonation was initiated in all experiments by plane shock wave generator. Rotation mirror camera was used to record the experimental data. Results of experiments have shown, that under convergence of alumina tube to symmetry axis the high velocity stream of ceramic particles with velocity equal to 11.0 - 12.4 km/s and average density equal to 0.3 - 0.4 g/sm^3 is realized. This stream passes the detonation front and initiates detonation in the HE. Thus, the average detonation velocity in explosion system is up to 10 km/s. In addition, we observed the pulsing of the velocity of ceramic stream. Perhaps, this phenomenon is connected with nonstationarity of detonation process at the interface between HE/alumina.

Balagansky, I. A.; Naumov, V. V.; Kobilkin, I. F.; Nosenko, N. I.

1997-07-01

55

An explosion of a CNG fuel vessel in an urban bus.  

PubMed

An investigation is presented of the explosion of a CNG (compressed natural gas) fuel vessel, called a liner, in an urban bus. The explosion happened at a gas station 10 min after filling was completed. There were no traces of soot and flames at the failed liner, which would be indicative of explosion by ignition of the gas. The filling process of the station was automatically monitored and recorded in a computer. There was no unusual record of the filling system that indicated excess pressure at the time of the accident. There were cracks on the liner that were initiated at the outer surface of the cylindrical shell located at a point 4 cm above the lower dome where cracks did not originate easily as a result of overload. Chemical analysis was performed on a specimen that was cut from the liner, and there was no peculiarity in the mix. Mechanical analysis was performed on the specimens and showed that the hardness was not in the specified range because of inadequate heat treatment of the metal. The hardness of the liner was strictly controlled in the manufacturing process. All the liners that were manufactured at the same period with the failed liner were recalled for examination. PMID:20141553

Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Seung-Won; Moon, Jung-Eun; Lee, Kyu-Jung

2010-03-01

56

Strain gage instrumentation on a nuclear reactor containment vessel  

SciTech Connect

CTE installed 894 bonded strain gages on two nuclear reactor containment vessels at Diablo Canyon, California, for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. For testing purposes, an internal load was applied by pressurizing the vessel to 37.2 N/cm/sup 2/ (54 psig). Combinations of uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial strain gages measured hoop stresses, longitudinal stresses and local stresses at penetrations and hatches. The success of this instrumentation effort was indicated by the survival of 97.8% of the bonded strain gages to produce good data. The fact that these strain gages were installed under severe environmental conditions at a construction job site for two or six years prior to the structural test demonstrates highly successful transducer manufacturing and installation procedures.

Labno, J.

1980-09-01

57

Use of steel fiber reinforced concrete in containment and explosive-resistant structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of several investigations of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) under explosive loading are presented. Tests using high explosives were performed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers to compare reinforced concrete slabs using conventional concrete to similar slabs using SFRC. The conventional slabs containing SFRC retained their integrity even though severely damaged. Similar results were obtained with explosive tests

Henager

1983-01-01

58

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers. 176.170...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

2013-10-01

59

DETONATION PROPERTIES OF EXPLOSIVES CONTAINING NANOMETRIC ALUMINUM POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanometric aluminum powder is known to react more rapidly than conventional, micron-size aluminum grades in propellant and explosive compositions. Defence Research and Development Canada - Valcartier (DRDC-V) and the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) are collaborating to assess the potential of nanometric aluminum powders in explosive compositions. Various plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) and TNT-based formulations have been developed to compare

Patrick Brousseau; Helen E. Dorsett; Matthew D. Cliff; C. John Anderson

60

Instrumentation of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model  

SciTech Connect

A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. At present, two tests are being planned: a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) that is representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design; and a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper discusses plans and the results of a preliminary investigation of the instrumentation of the PCCV model. The instrumentation suite for this model will consist of approximately 2000 channels of data to record displacements, strains in the reinforcing steel, prestressing tendons, concrete, steel liner and liner anchors, as well as pressure and temperature. The instrumentation is being designed to monitor the response of the model during prestressing operations, during Structural Integrity and Integrated Leak Rate testing, and during test to failure of the model. Particular emphasis has been placed on instrumentation of the prestressing system in order to understand the behavior of the prestressing strands at design and beyond design pressure levels. Current plans are to place load cells at both ends of one third of the tendons in addition to placing strain measurement devices along the length of selected tendons. Strain measurements will be made using conventional bonded foil resistance gages and a wire resistance gage, known as a {open_quotes}Tensmeg{close_quotes}{reg_sign} gage, specifically designed for use with seven-wire strand. The results of preliminary tests of both types of gages, in the laboratory and in a simulated model configuration, are reported and plans for instrumentation of the model are discussed.

Hessheimer, M.F.; Rightley, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1995-09-01

61

The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within a Mound-designed calorimeter. In order to qualify the WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels for use at WETF, steps have been taken to ensure the appropriate design, adequate testing, quality in fabrication, and acceptable documentation.

Kane J. Fisher

2000-03-01

62

Neither normal nor diseased placentas contain lymphatic vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundScant data on placental lymphatic vessels have pointed to the absence of lymphatic circulation. A recent study on mesenchymal dysplasia (MD), however, has identified pathologic lymphangiogenesis using the D2-40 lymphatic marker. These conflicting data have prompted us to investigate whether lymphatic vessels are present in normal developing placentas and in placental disorders characterized by cistern formation.

E. Castro; W. Tony Parks; C. Galambos

2011-01-01

63

Design and implementation of a visual monitoring system to ensure safety in the water surrounding a container vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Container vessels navigate among the worlds ports, frequently passing through narrow and congested waters. Due to the many layers of containers on a container vessels decks, it is difficult for the crew to be aware of all fishing vessels and other obstacles in a container vessels radar observation blind zone. This greatly increases the risk of collisions and other accidents. Given such great challenges to safe navigation and safety management with container vessels, their security risks are severe. An effective visual monitoring system can improve the safety of the water area surrounding container vessel by eliminating a vessels observation blind zone, providing an effective safety measure for vessels navigating fishing zones and other troublesome areas. The system has other functions, such as accident recording, ship security, and monitoring of loading and unloading operations, thus ensuring the ship operates safely. Six months trial operation showed that the system facilitates safe navigation of container vessels.

Jin, Yong-Xing; Wang, Ze-Sheng; Chen, Jin-Biao; Bu, Ping

2008-09-01

64

Modeling solid thermal explosion containment on reactor HNIW and HMX.  

PubMed

2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane (HNIW), also known as CL-20 and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), are highly energetic materials which have been popular in national defense industries for years. This study established the models of thermal decomposition and thermal explosion hazard for HNIW and HMX. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data were used for parameters determination of the thermokinetic models, and then these models were employed for simulation of thermal explosion in a 437L barrel reactor and a 24 kg cubic box package. Experimental results indicating the best storage conditions to avoid any violent runaway reaction of HNIW and HMX were also discovered. This study also developed an efficient procedure regarding creation of thermokinetics and assessment of thermal hazards of HNIW and HMX that could be applied to ensure safe storage conditions. PMID:20018444

Lin, Chun-Ping; Chang, Chang-Ping; Chou, Yu-Chuan; Chu, Yung-Chuan; Shu, Chi-Min

2010-04-15

65

Neutron Radiography Flow Visualization of Liquid Metal Injected into an Empty Vessel and a Vessel Containing Saturated Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron radiography was used to observe the behavior of molten lead-bismuth alloy injected into a thin (10-mm) semicircular vessel, which was empty or contained saturated water. The fluid velocity distribution for the melt injected into the empty vessel was successfully measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The numerical analysis for this case using the FLOW-3D code revealed that the wall

Yasuteru Sibamoto; Hideo Nakamura; Yoshinari Anoda

2001-01-01

66

Thermal explosion simulation of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide in three types of vessel under the same volume by explosion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO), which has highly reactive and exothermically unstable characteristics, has been extensively\\u000a employed in the chemical industries. It has also caused many thermal explosions and runaway reaction accidents in manufacturing\\u000a processes during the last three decades in Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and China. The goal of this study was to simulate thermal\\u000a upset by MEKPO for an

Kun-Yue Chen; Wei-Ting Chen; Chen-Wei Chiu; Tsung-Chih Wu; Chi-Min Shu

67

Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs

D. Trapp; G. Crow

2011-01-01

68

Small scale experiments on boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions: Vessel over-pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) is a type of physical explosion that has caused massive damage in the petrochemical industry. In this paper, a study has been made of the conditions that could lead to a BLEVE. A device was built to simulate the occurrence of suddenly initiated release through a top orifice. As there is some danger

Si-Ning Chen; Jin-Hua Sun; Guan-Quan Chu

2007-01-01

69

Estimation of Metal Acceleration by an SF5 Containing Explosive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-inch cylinder expansion test was performed on a composition containing HMX, an energetic binder and 19 percent of a compound containing SF5 groups. The experimental cylinder wall energies were compared with calculated data for an analogous compositi...

G. W. Lawrence H. G. Adolph

1991-01-01

70

USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST  

SciTech Connect

Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

2011-06-03

71

Responses of Four Rock Mediums to Contained Nuclear Explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground nuclear tests in tuff, alluvium, rock salt, and granite have yielded data essential to the evaluation of the effects of contained nuclear detonations. The data in- dicate that for these mediums the cavity radius is predictable within 20 per cent without regard to the physical or chemical properties of the rock in the immediate shot environment. Properties of the

Charles R. Boardman; David D. Rabb; Richard D. McArthur

1964-01-01

72

Time of explosive decay of a daemon-containing nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We start from the hypothesis that the dark matter of the Galactic disc contains Planckian particles carrying a negative electric charge of up to Z=10, which we call dark electric matter objects (daemons). Daemons are capable of catalysing proton-fusion reactions, which may account for the observed solar neutrino deficiency. The inevitable poisoning of the catalytic property of daemons as they

E. M. Drobyshevski

2000-01-01

73

Numerical Studies of Large Penetrations and Closures for Containment Vessels Subjected to Loadings Beyond the Design Basis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerical simulations of the macro-deformations of the sealing surfaces (gasketed junctures) of a PWR steel containment vessel's equipment hatch and a BWR Mk II containment vessel head have been performed. Results for the equipment hatch juncture indicate...

R. F. Kulak B. J. Hsieh J. M. Kennedy J. E. Ash G. A. McLennan

1984-01-01

74

Use of steel fiber reinforced concrete in containment and explosive-resistant structures  

SciTech Connect

The results of several investigations of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) under explosive loading are presented. Tests using high explosives were performed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers to compare reinforced concrete slabs using conventional concrete to similar slabs using SFRC. The conventional slabs containing SFRC retained their integrity even though severely damaged. Similar results were obtained with explosive tests on slabs by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, impact loading by a pendulum-type impact machine, ballistic impact by small arms fire, impulsive loading on beams and a drop weight impact test. Use of SFRC in a reactor containment structure is reviewed. Design aids and potential applications of SFRC for blast resistance in structures are listed.

Henager, C.H.

1983-05-01

75

Prediction of impact sensitivity of nitroaliphatic, nitroaliphatic containing other functional groups and nitrate explosives.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new method for prediction of impact sensitivity of nitroaliphatic, nitroaliphatic containing other functional groups and nitrate explosives. The new procedure is based on some structural parameters of C(a)H(b)N(c)O(d) explosives. Three essential parameters would be needed in this scheme which contain a+b/2-d and the number of nitrogens as well as the number of RC(NO(2))(2)CH(2) structural parameters attached to oxygen of carboxylate functional groups where R is alkyl groups. The results are compared with experimental data and some empirical correlations. Predicted impact sensitivities for 58 explosives have a root mean square (rms) of deviation from experiment of 27 cm, which show good agreement with respect to measured values as compared to previous empirical models. PMID:17434263

Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

2007-09-30

76

Passive explosion suppression by blast-induced atomisation from water containers.  

PubMed

The experimental findings of a combined wind tunnel and field-scale explosion study of blast-induced water release and its effect on blast suppression are reported. The release of water, and its subsequent atomisation, from containers both with open and partly enclosed surfaces, was first studied in a wind tunnel. An array of water containers were then placed at differing positions from the ignition point, together with flame acceleration obstacle arrays at fixed positions, inside a 5.1 m long by 0.3 m(2) cross-section explosion duct. The droplet size and the minimum flame speed necessary for the container array to suppress the explosion were found to depend upon the number of containers in the array and on their shape and size. One particular container array extinguished the flame when placed at any position beyond 1.7 m from the ignition point. When extinction was observed the internal over-pressure was substantially reduced and the external over-pressure completely eliminated. This study suggests a new approach toward passive explosion suppression. PMID:12169416

Catlin, Clive

2002-10-01

77

Time of explosive decay of a daemon-containing nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We start from the hypothesis that the dark matter of the Galactic disc contains Planckian particles carrying a negative electric charge of up to Z=10, which we call dark electric matter objects (daemons). Daemons are capable of catalysing proton-fusion reactions, which may account for the observed solar neutrino deficiency. The inevitable poisoning of the catalytic property of daemons as they capture heavy nuclei (A>=20) in the interior of the Sun is used to estimate the decay time of a daemon-containing nucleus (nucleon) in quantum-relativistic processes, which remain largely unknown. This time is ?ex~10-7s. This may mean that the lower limit on the mass of an intranucleonic particle interacting with a daemon is ~108-1010GeV and, possibly, even ~1014-1015GeV. The desirability of a search for multiple events occurring with an interval ~?ex along the `slow' daemon trajectories on operating installations dedicated to detection of the proton decay is pointed out.

Drobyshevski, E. M.

2000-01-01

78

Calculation of Iodine Removal by Spray in LWRs Containment Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code MIRA-PB for predicting the iodine removal by containment spray in LOCA was prepared on the basis of MIRA-P\\/MIRA-B code developed in Battelle Columbus Laboratories. MIRA-PB considers behavior of inorganic iodine, organic iodide, and iodic aerosol and simultaneous removal by natural deposition, liquid-film absorption, spray washout, filtration and leakage to the environment. The iodine removal by the containment

Gunji NISHIO; Mitsugu TANAKA

1979-01-01

79

Development of steam explosion simulation code JASMINE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steam explosion is considered as a phenomenon which possibly threatens the integrity of the containment vessel of a nuclear power plant in a severe accident condition. A numerical calculation code JASMINE (JAeri Simulator for Multiphase INteraction and ...

J. Sugimoto K. Moriyama N. Yamano T. Kudo Y. Maruyama

1995-01-01

80

Explosive acceleration of liquid from a cylindrical container using the implosive technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tthe acceleration of a liquid from a cylindrical container by the products of instantaneous detonation of a superimposed explosive charge (implosion method) is studies numerically in a two-dimensional formulation. Analytical formulas for the asymptotic velocities of liquid expansion and acceleration of the container body were obtained using numerical calculations in a one-dimensional approximation. The effect of the fracture of the body on the velocity of liquid expansion was studied in a two-dimensional formulation.

Bykov, V. A.; Gryaznov, E. F.; Okhitin, V. N.

2011-07-01

81

A procedure for analyzing the flight of missiles from explosions of cylindrical vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fragmentation of storage tanks or other equipment of the process industry, for example caused by boiling liquid expanding explosions (BLEVEs), and the consequent missile generation is a problem in industrial safety whose importance is underlined by accidents such as that of Mexico City. It is inscribed in what is called the Domino Effect. A method is presented to calculate

U. Hauptmanns

2001-01-01

82

Operational Evaluation of a Computer Loading Program for Container Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers an evaluation of a computer program developed by Hydronautics, Inc., under DOC Contract 5-38023 that provides for the automated sequencing of containers for containership loading and unloading. It includes a brief overview of the ship l...

D. Scott G. Meade S. Thoolen

1978-01-01

83

Test Results Using a Bell Jar to Measure Containment Vessel Pressurization  

SciTech Connect

A bell jar is used to determine containment vessel pressurization due to outgassing of plutonium materials. Fifteen food cans containing plutonium bearing materials, including plutonium packaged in direct contact with plastic and plutonium contaminated enriched oxide have been tested to date.

Hensel, S.J.

2002-05-10

84

Neutron Radiography Flow Visualization of Liquid Metal Injected into an Empty Vessel and a Vessel Containing Saturated Water  

SciTech Connect

Neutron radiography was used to observe the behavior of molten lead-bismuth alloy injected into a thin (10-mm) semicircular vessel, which was empty or contained saturated water. The fluid velocity distribution for the melt injected into the empty vessel was successfully measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The numerical analysis for this case using the FLOW-3D code revealed that the wall heat transfer attenuates the rotational speed of swirls that were formed during the melt injection. The melt-coolant interaction experiment demonstrated several features of molten fuel and coolant interactions in the reactor pressure vessel lower head. The violent vapor expansion occurred at the initial melt impact on the saturated pool water. A one-dimensional model predicted the observed behavior well by assuming the adiabatic expansion immediately after an instantaneous heat transfer during the first melt coolant contact. A crust was formed between the melt and coolant by the heterogeneous distribution of the coolant and pool melt. The convective velocity distribution in the pool melt was measured well by the PIV.

Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2001-01-15

85

Review of expanded aluminum products for explosion suppression in containers holding flammable liquids and gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over three decades, products made from expanded aluminum have been available for explosion suppression in fuel tanks and containers. You can find various products on the internet with names like Explosafe, Deto-Stop, Ex-Co or Explo Control, No-Ex, EM2, and others. It appears that Explosafe was the first product to appear in the late 1970s.The expanded aluminum consists of thin

A. M. Birk

2008-01-01

86

A simple method for the prediction of the detonation performances of metal-containing explosives.  

PubMed

Accurate prediction to the detonation performances of different kinds of energetic materials has attracted significant attention in the area of high energy density materials (HEDMs). A common approach for the estimation of CHNO explosives is the Kamlet-Jacobs (K-J) equation. However, with the development of energetic materials, the components of explosives are no longer restricted to CHNO elements. In this study, we have extended the K-J equation to the calculation of certain metal-containing explosives. A new empirical method, in which metal elements are assumed to form metallic oxides, has been developed on the basis of the largest exothermic principle. In this method, metal oxides can be deemed as inert solids that release heat other than gases. To evaluate the prediction accuracy of new method, a commercial program EXPLO5 has been employed for the calculation. The difference involved in the ways of treating products has been taken into account, and the detonation parameters from two methods were subject to close comparison. The results suggest that the mean absolute values (MAVs) of relative deviation for detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P) are less than 5%. Overall, this new method has exhibited excellent accuracy and simplicity, affording an efficient way to estimate the performance of explosives without relying on sophisticated computer programs. Therefore, it will be helpful in designing and synthesizing new metallic energetic compounds. PMID:24884865

Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Jichuan; Su, Hui; Li, Shenghua; Zhang, Shaowen; Pang, Siping

2014-06-26

87

The nylon scintillator containment vessels for the Borexino solar neutrino experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrino event rate in the Borexino scintillator is very low ( 0.5 events per day per ton) and concentrated in an energy region well below the 2.6 MeV threshold of natural radioactivity. The intrinsic radioactive contaminants in the photomultipliers (PMTs), in the Stainless Steel Sphere, and in other detector components, play special requirements on the system required to contain the scintillator. The liquid scintillator must be shielded from the Stainless Steel Sphere and from the PMTs by a thick barrier of buffer fluid. The fluid barrier, in addition, needs to be segmented in order to contain migration of radon and daughters emanated by the Stainless Steel Sphere and by the PMTs. These requirements were met by designing and building two spherical vessel made of thin nylon film. The inner vessel contains the scintillator, separating it from the surrounding buffer. The buffer region itself is divided into two concentric shells by the second, outer nylon vessel. In addition, the two nylon vessels must satisfy stringent requirements for radioactivity and for mechanical, optical and chemical properties. This paper describes the requirements of the the nylon vessels for the Borexino experiment and offers a brief overview of the construction methods adopted to meet those requirements.

Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Pocar, A.; Shutt, T.

2014-06-01

88

Probabilistic assessment of a containment vessel's survivability to facilitate decision making and enhance quality assurance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a probabilistic approach for assessing the design and safety of an HSLA-100 Steel Confinement Vessel for particular types of detonations. Likelihood of failure for three different scenarios is considered. They are the likelihood a fragment, (1) penetrates half the containment vessel's thickness, (2) perforates through the containment vessel, and (3) perforates a secondary safety vessel given it's perforated the containment vessel. Uncertainties to be quantified include a fragment's geometry, orientation, and velocity. The governing equation for the likelihood of failure is the probability a large enough fragment exits, that it travels fast enough, and is in the proper orientation. The mathematical formulation of this probability expression is presented. The likelihood of failure is based on existing experimental evidence, theory, and expert judgment. Simulations are performed using Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling. The assessment model is used to verify and validate numerical predictions in the well-defined-well-documented, (WDWD) domain. Using Bayesian methods, confidence in numerical predictions is assessed within the WDWD domain so inferences beyond the domain can be made with confidence using only numerical analysis. The assessment model's influence diagram is evolved into a decision analysis model. Validation problems are presented to exercise the decision model.

Dolin, Ronald M.

2001-01-01

89

Calculation and experimental study of the seismic stability of container vessels in atomic electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of a mathematical and experimental study of a typical design of AES (atomic electric power plant) container vessels under different forms of excitation of their foundations including seismic. Satisfactory agreement is found between the calculated and experimental values of the dynamic characteristics and the stress-strain parameters.

Belostotskii, A.M.; Kamzolkin, V.L.; Ripp, N.E.; Yudin, V.M.

1983-01-01

90

Effect of Taggant Vapor Adsorption and Containment on the Pedetonation Detection of Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Predetonation detection of explosives in realistic scenarios may be accomplished by detecting vapors emitted by the explosive. These vapors could be either the vapor emitted from the inherent compounds present in the explosive or the vapor emitted by a sp...

E. M. Ferreri G. I. Senum M. W. Greene R. N. Dietz R. P. Gergley

1979-01-01

91

CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded

N. Gupta; A. Smith

2011-01-01

92

Explosives tester  

DOEpatents

An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

2011-01-11

93

Vessel-Spanning Bubble Formation in K-Basin Sludge Stored in Large-Diameter Containers  

SciTech Connect

The K Basin sludge to be retrieved and stored in the large diameter containers (LDCs) contains some fraction of uranium metal that generates hydrogen gas, which introduces potential upset conditions. One postulated upset condition is a rising plug of sludge supported by a hydrogen bubble that is driven into the vent filters at the top of the container. In laboratory testing with actual K Basin sludge, vessel-spanning bubbles that lifted plugs of sludge were observed in 3-inch-diameter graduated cylinders. This report presents a series of analytical assessments performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to address the potential for the generation of a vessel spanning bubble in the LDCs. The assessments included the development and evaluation of static and dynamic bubble formation models over the projected range of K Basin sludge physical properties. Additionally, the theory of circular plates was extrapolated to examine conditions under which a plug of sludge would collapse and release a spanning bubble.

Terrones, Guillermo; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

2002-03-01

94

Recent Results from the Sandia Steam-Explosion Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sandia steam explosion program involves experiments at small and intermediate scale, and modelling and analysis, including estimates for the failure probability of the reactor pressure vessel and the containment building. Recent intermediate scale res...

N. A. Evans D. E. Mitchell L. S. Nelson M. L. Corradini

1982-01-01

95

Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs is that the 6CVS credits the inner O-ring seal as the containment boundary while the SRNL design credits the outer O-ring seal. Since the leak test must be done with the inner O-ring in place, the containment vessel does not have a pathway for getting the helium into the vessel during the leak test. The leak testing contractor was not able to get acceptable leak rates with the specified O-ring, but they were able to pass the leak test with a slightly larger O-ring. ANL asked the SRNL to duplicate the leak test vendor's method to determine the cause of the high leak rates. The SRNL testing showed that the helium leak indications were caused by residual helium left within the 6CVS Closure Assembly by the leak test technique, and by helium permeation through the Viton O-ring seals. After SRNL completed their tests, the leak testing contractor was able to measure acceptable leak rates by using the slightly larger O-ring size, by purging helium from the lid threads, and by being very quick in getting the bell jar under a full vacuum. This paper describes the leak test vendor's test technique, and other techniques that could be have been used to successfully leak test the 6CVS's.

Trapp, D.; Crow, G.

2011-06-06

96

DESIGN OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR SHIPMENT OF TRITIUM GAS  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design summary of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This new package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The new design is based on changes in the regulatory requirements. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials that enhance the package's ability to withstand dynamic loading and thermal effects. This paper will specifically summarize the design philosophy and engineered features of the BTSP containment vessel closure. The closure design incorporates a concave closure lid, metallic C-Ring seals for containing tritium gas, a metal bellows valve and an elastomer O-Ring for leak testing. The efficient design minimizes the overall vessel height and protects the valve housing from damage during postulated drop and crush scenarios. Design features will be discussed.

Eberl, K; Paul Blanton, P

2007-07-03

97

The effect of friction on simulated containment of underground nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The strength of the residual stress field is used as an important indicator in assessing the containment of underground nuclear explosions. Containment analysis using the COTTAGE geology shows considerable cracking in the hard Paleozoic layer, just below the cavity. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of total shear stress applied to a closed fracture surface to normal applied compressive total stress. Without any friction, the Paleozoic residual stress field is weakest. As the friction coefficient is increased from 0 to 0.5, the Paleozoic residual stress field is strengthened. A further increase of the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.8 shows strengthened where cracks are closed and weakening where cracks remain open. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Attia, A.V.

1990-11-01

98

Numerical analysis of two dimensional natural convection heat transfer following a contained explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pantex facility near Amarillo, Texas, is the only U.S. site charged with the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Concerns over the safety of weapons handling procedures are now being revisited, due to the enhanced safety requirements of the peace time disassembly effort. This research is a detailed examination of one possible nuclear weapons-related accident. In this hypothetical accident, a chemical explosion equivalent to over 50 kilos of TNT destroys unassembled nuclear weapons components, and may potentially result in some amount of plutonium reaching the environment. Previous attempts to simulate this accident have centered around the one-dimensional node and branch approach of the MELCOR code. This approach may be adequate in calculating pressure driven flow through narrow rampways and leak sites, however, its one-dimensionality does not allow it to accurately calculate the multi-dimensional aspects of heat transfer. This research effort uses an axi-symmetric stream function---vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations to model a Pantex cell building following a successfully contained chemical explosion. This allows direct calculation of the heat transfer within the cell room during the transient. The tool that was developed to perform this analysis is called PET (Post-Explosion Transient), and it simulates natural convection thermal hydraulics taking into account temperature-related fluid density differences, variable fluid transport properties, and a non-linear equation of state. Results obtained using the PET code indicate that previous analyses by other researchers using the MELCOR code have been overly conservative in estimating the effects of cell room heat transfer. An increase in the calculated heat transfer coefficient of approximately 20% is indicated. This has been demonstrated to significantly decrease the projected consequences of the hypothetical accident.

Manson, Steven James

99

Experimental and numerical correlation of a scaled containment vessel subjected to an internal blast load  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently in the design phase of a large Containment System that will be used to contain hydrodynamic experiments. The system in question is being designed to elastically withstand a 50 kg internal high explosive (PBX-9501) detonation. A one-tenth scaled model of the containment system was fabricated and used to obtain experimental results of both pressure loading and strain response. The experimental data are compared with numerical predictions of pressure loading and strain response obtained from an Eulerian hydrodynamic code (MESA-2D) and an explicit, non-linear finite element code (LLNL DYNA3D). The two-dimensional pressure predictions from multiple hydrodynamic simulations are used as loading in the structural simulation. The predicted pressure histories and strain response compare well with experimental results at several locations.

Romero, C.; Benner, J.C.; Berkbigler, L.W.

1997-02-01

100

Uncertainty quantification of a containment vessel dynamic response subjected to high-explosive detonation impulse loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in cooperation with Southwest Research Institute, has been developing capabilities to provide reliability-based structural evaluation techniques for performing weapon component and system reliability assessments. The development and applications of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) is an important ingredient in the overall weapon reliability assessments. Focus, herein, is placed on the uncertainty quantification associated with the

E. A. Rodriguez; J. E. Pepin; B. H. Thacker; David S. Riha

2002-01-01

101

Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

Heuze, F.E.

1982-05-01

102

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF VESSEL-SPANNING BUBBLES IN CYLINDRICAL & ANNULAR & OBROUND & AND CONICAL CONTAINERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske & Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske & Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers, is included in Appendix A. Results from the experiments confirm that the gravity yield parameter, Y{sub G}, correctly

DHALIWAL TK

2010-01-01

103

Temperature and pressure influence on maximum rates of pressure rise during explosions of propane-air mixtures in a spherical vessel.  

PubMed

The maximum rates of pressure rise during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures are reported, for systems with various initial concentrations, pressures and temperatures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.3 bar; T(0)=298-423 K). Experiments were performed in a spherical vessel (?=10 cm) with central ignition. The deflagration (severity) index K(G), calculated from experimental values of maximum rates of pressure rise is examined against the adiabatic deflagration index, K(G, ad), computed from normal burning velocities and peak explosion pressures. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, both the maximum rates of pressure rise and the deflagration indices are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, the maximum rates of pressure rise and deflagration indices are slightly influenced by the initial temperature; some influence of the initial temperature on maximum rates of pressure rise is observed only for propane-air mixtures far from stoichiometric composition. The differentiated temperature influence on the normal burning velocities and the peak explosion pressures might explain this behaviour. PMID:21514044

Razus, D; Brinzea, V; Mitu, M; Movileanu, C; Oancea, D

2011-06-15

104

Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein  

SciTech Connect

There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

1998-09-01

105

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

106

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

107

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

2013-10-01

108

Impact limiter design for a lightweight tritium hydride vessel transport container  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed an impact-limiting system for a small, lightweight radioactive material shipping container. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is developing this Type B package for the shipment of tritium, replacing the outdated LP-50 shipping container. Regulatory accident resistance requirements for Type B packages, including this new tritium package, are specified in 10 CFR 71 (NRC 1983). The regulatory requirements include a 9-meter free drop onto an unyielding target, a 1-meter drop onto a mild steel punch, and a 30-minute 800{degrees} C fire test. Impact limiters are used to protect the package in the free-drop accident condition in any impact orientation without hindering the package`s resistance to the thermal accident condition. The overall design of the new package is based on a modular concept using separate thermal shielding and impact mitigating components in an attempt to simplify the design, analysis, test, and certification process. Performance requirements for the tritium package`s limiting system are based on preliminary estimates provided by WSRC. The current tritium hydride vessel (THV) to be transported has relatively delicate valving assemblies and should not experience acceleration levels greater than approximately 200 g`s. A thermal overpack and outer stainless steel shell, to be designed by WSRC, will form the inner boundary of the impact-limiting system (see Figure 1). The mass of the package, including cargo, inner container, thermal overpack, and outer stainless steel shell (not including impact limiters) should be approximately 68 kg. Consistent with the modular design philosophy, the combined thermal overpack and containment system should be considered essentially rigid, with the impact limiters incurring all deformation.

Harding, D.C.; Longcope, D.B.; Neilsen, M.K.

1995-12-31

109

Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

2002-02-25

110

HALFTON: A high-explosive containment experiment in partially saturated tuff  

SciTech Connect

The HALFTON experiment explored the phenomena of high explosive detonations in 90% water-saturated tuff rock. The explosive source was a 453 kg TNT sphere which was grouted in a drift in G Tunnel, Nevada Test Site. Active gages measured stresses and motions in the range of 1.3 to 5.3 cavity radii and showed a peak stress decay as range raised to the {minus}2.77 power. Additional stress gages were fielded to investigate the gage inclusion problem.

Smith, C.W.

1996-03-01

111

Delayed thermal explosion in flammable gas containing fuel droplets: Asymptotic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of thermal explosion in a flammable gas mixture with addition of volatile fuel droplets is studied based on the asymptotic method of integral manifolds. The model for the radiative heating of droplets takes into account the semitransparency of droplets. A simplified model for droplet heat-up is used. The results of the analysis are applied to the modelling of

Igor Goldfarb; Sergei Sazhin; Ann Zinoviev

2004-01-01

112

Polynitroaliphatic explosives containing the pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5) group: The selection and study of a model compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation concerning the effect of the pentafluoro-sulfanyl (SF5) group on the properties of explosive nitro compounds is described. The investigation includes: (a) the preparation of several polynitro SF5 model compounds; (b) the selection of the best model compound (based on overall properties such as melting point, stability, ease of synthesis, etc.); (c) the subjection of this compound to calorimetric

M. E. Sitzmann; W. H. Gilligan; D. L. Ornellas; J. S. Thrasher

1990-01-01

113

A Neutron Based Scanner to Detect Explosives in Small, Sealed Containers  

SciTech Connect

A scanning system has been designed for portal protection applications, with the capability of detecting explosive materials after an initial scan of 30 seconds. The scanner operates using the principle of neutron induced return gamma-ray spectrometry. This system utilizes high purity germanium detectors, a neutron generator based on deuterium-tritium fusion and a unique neutron reflector and guide design. The neutron reflector amplifies the flux and alters the energy spectrum of neutrons produced by the generator. A depleted uranium reflector is shown to perform 7.3 times better than no reflector, and is found to perform 1.5 times better than a tungsten reflector using MCNP simulation. This improvement is due to neutron knockout and induced fission occurring in depleted uranium. The system is capable of detecting 300 g of explosives with 90% detection probability, which includes a 15% rescan rate after a 30 second initial scan.

Koltick, D.; Sword, E. [Physics Department, Purdue University 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2009-03-10

114

A Neutron Based Scanner to Detect Explosives in Small, Sealed Containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scanning system has been designed for portal protection applications, with the capability of detecting explosive materials after an initial scan of 30 seconds. The scanner operates using the principle of neutron induced return gamma-ray spectrometry. This system utilizes high purity germanium detectors, a neutron generator based on deuterium-tritium fusion and a unique neutron reflector and guide design. The neutron reflector amplifies the flux and alters the energy spectrum of neutrons produced by the generator. A depleted uranium reflector is shown to perform 7.3 times better than no reflector, and is found to perform 1.5 times better than a tungsten reflector using MCNP simulation. This improvement is due to neutron knockout and induced fission occurring in depleted uranium. The system is capable of detecting 300 g of explosives with 90% detection probability, which includes a 15% rescan rate after a 30 second initial scan.

Koltick, D.; Sword, E.

2009-03-01

115

Explosive projection of liquid from a thick-walled cylindrical container  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of projection of a layer of an ideal liquid enclosed into a cylindrical elastoplastic shell by products of instantaneous detonation of a high explosive charge is studied numerically in a two-dimensional plane formulation. The processes of shell fracture and liquid exhaustion through the resultant slots are considered. Numerical results are analyzed, and analytical relations for angular distributions of radial velocity and mass of the liquid escaping through the slots are derived.

Bykov, V. A.; Gryaznov, E. F.; Okhitin, V. N.

2009-05-01

116

Evaluation of the Energy Conversion Ratio of Vapor Explosions for the Assessment of Nuclear Reactor Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of energy conversion ratio of vapor explosion is an important problem for evaluating the integrity of reactor containment and pressure vessel in severe accident. The propagation and expansion stages of vapor explosion are numerically simulated based on both hydrodynamic and thermal fragmentation mechanisms. The thermal fragmentation model gives much higher pressure peak and higher energy conversion ratio than

Jie LIU; Seiichi KOSHIZUKA; Yoshiaki OKA

2005-01-01

117

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF VESSEL-SPANNING BUBBLES IN CYLINDRICAL & ANNULAR & OBROUND & AND CONICAL CONTAINERS  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske & Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske & Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers, is included in Appendix A. Results from the experiments confirm that the gravity yield parameter, Y{sub G}, correctly includes container size and can be applied to full-scale containers to predict the possibility of the formation of a stable vessel spanning bubble. The results also indicate that a vessel spanning bubble will likely form inside the STSC for KE, KW, and Settler sludges if the shear strengths of these sludges exceed 1820, 2080, and 2120 Pa, respectively. A passive mechanism installed in the STSC is effective at disrupting a rising sludge plug and preventing the sludge from plugging the vent filter or being forced out of the container. The Sludge Treatment Project for Engineered Container and Settler Sludge (EC/ST) Disposition Subproject is being conducted in two phases. Phase 1 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the radioactive sludge currently stored in the K West (KW) Basin into Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and transport the STSCs to T-Plant for interim storage. Phase 2 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the sludge from interim storage, treat and package sludge for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The STSC is a cylindrical container; similar to previously used large diameter containers. A STSC (Figure 1) with a diameter of 58 inches will be used to transport KE and KW originating sludge (located in Engineered Containers 210, 220, 240, 250, and 260) to T-Plant. A STSC with an annulus (Figure 2) will be used to transport Settler Tank sludge, located in Engineered Container 230. An obround small canister design was previously considered to retrieve sludge from the basin. The obround design was selected in Small Canister Design Selection, PRC-STP-00052. However, the small canister was not selected for transporting the sludge. The STSC was selected for sludge loading and transport to T-Plant as discussed in Decision Report for Direct Hydraulic Loading of Sludge into Sludge Transport and Storage Containers, PRC-STP-00112. The STSC will be directly loaded with sludge as described in the Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance, HNF-41051.

DHALIWAL TK

2010-01-28

118

Dissolution of a new explosive formulation containing TNT and HMX: comparison with octol.  

PubMed

GIM (Greener Insensitive Material) is a new explosive formulation made of HMX (51.5%), TNT (40.7%), and a binder, ETPE (7.8%), which is currently investigated by the Canadian Department of National Defense for a wider use by the Army. In the present study, dissolution of GIM in water was measured and compared to the dissolution of octol (HMX/TNT: 70/30). Although the presence of ETPE did not prevent completely TNT and HMX from dissolving, GIM appeared to dissolve more slowly than octol. The ETPE was shown to prevent the formulation particles from collapsing and to retard the dissolution of both TNT and HMX by limiting their exposure to water. In both octol and GIM, the dissolution rate of the particles was governed by the compound(s) that are slower to dissolve, i.e. HMX in octol, and HMX and ETPE in GIM. A model based on Fick's diffusion law allowed fitting well the dissolution data of octol but was less appropriate to fit the data of GIM likely due to a physical rearrangement of the solid upon dissolution. The present findings demonstrate that ETPE in GIM decreases the risks of explosives leakage from particles of the new formulation and should facilitate the collecting of non-exploded GIM particles in training sites. PMID:19815337

Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Deschamps, Stphane; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal

2010-02-15

119

Differential Binding of Drugs Containing the NGR Motif to CD13 Isoforms in Tumor Vessels, Epithelia, and Myeloid Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NGR peptide motif is an aminopeptidase N (CD13) ligand that targets angiogenic blood vessels. NGR-containing peptides have proven useful for delivering cytotoxic drugs, proapoptotic peptides, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF) to tumor vasculature. Given that CD13 is not only expressed in the angiogenic endothelium but also in other cell types, the mechanism(s) for the tumor-homing properties of NGR-drug conjugates

Flavio Curnis; Gianluigi Arrigoni; Angelina Sacchi; Lucia Fischetti; Wadih Arap; Renata Pasqualini; Angelo Corti

2002-01-01

120

Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. RESULTS: In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung

Judith Schniedermann; Moritz Rennecke; Kerstin Buttler; Georg Richter; Anna-Maria Stdtler; Susanne Norgall; Muhammad Badar; Bernhard Barleon; Tobias May; Jrg Wilting; Herbert A Weich

2010-01-01

121

Optically detonated explosive device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

122

Passive Explosion Barrier for Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A passive explosion barrier is provided for use in mining operations in suppressing mine explosions. The barrier basically comprises a receptacle or tub which contains an explosion suppressing substance, such as water, and is mounted on a frame adjacent t...

I. Liebman R. Pro J. Corry

1979-01-01

123

Development and operational experiences of an automated remote inspection system for interior of primary containment vessel of a BWR  

SciTech Connect

A prototype was developed for an automated remote inspection system featuring continuous monitoring of the working status of major components inside the primary containment vessel of a boiling water reactor. This inspection system consists of four units, or vehicles, which are towed by a trolley chain along a monorail; a complex coaxial cable for data transmission and for power supply; and an operator's console. A TV camera, microphone, thermometer, hygrometer, and ionization chamber are mounted on the various units. After several months' testing under high-ambient temperature, the system was installed in the Tokai-2 power station of Japan Atomic Power Company for in situ tests.

Ozaki, N.; Chikara, S.; Fumio, T.; Katsuhiro, M.; Katsutoshi, S.; Ken-Ichiro, S.; Masaaki, F.; Masayoshi, S.

1983-07-01

124

Variable Energy Explosive Driver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an apparatus for providing a variable explosive energy source. The apparatus has an outer annular body with a wall containing a plurality of radial explosive chambers. A rotatable circular body positioned within the annul...

G. A. Greene

1974-01-01

125

Impact limiter design for a lightweight tritium hydride vessel transport container  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed an impact-limiting system for a small, lightweight radioactive material shipping container. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is developing this Type B package for the shipment of tritium, replacing the outdated LP-50 shipping container. Regulatory accident resistance requirements for Type B packages, including this new tritium package, are specified in 10 CFR 71 (NRC

D. C. Harding; D. B. Longcope; M. K. Neilsen

1995-01-01

126

Ship Response Results from the First Operational Season Aboard the Container Vessel S.S. Boston.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advent of containership operation has made advisable a project involved in instrumenting a container to develop data that will provide increased reliability and economy in future designs. A technical report is made, describing the instrumentation util...

R. A. Fain B. H. Schofield J. Q. Cragin

1970-01-01

127

Impact limiter design for a lightweight tritium hydride vessel transport container.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed an impact-limiting system for a small, lightweight radioactive material shipping container. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is developing this Type B package for the shipment of tritium, repla...

D. C. Harding D. B. Longcope M. K. Neilsen

1995-01-01

128

Thermal decomposition of explosives with full containment in one-dimensional geometries. [TNT, TATB, PETN, BTF, and HMX  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some experiments designed to accurately determine the time interval required to produce the reactive event in confined explosives and propellants subjected to temperatures which will cause decomposition. Geometry and boundary conditions are both well defined so that these experiments on the rapid thermal decomposition of high explosives are amenable to predictive modeling.

C. M. Tarver; R. R. McGuire; E. W. Wrenn; K. R. Brein

1978-01-01

129

Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series  

SciTech Connect

The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Phenomenology

1994-08-01

130

Shrapnel impact probability and diagnostic port failure analysis for LLNL`s explosives testing contained firing facility (CFF)  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory` s (LLNL) Contained Firing Facility (CFF) is a facility to be constructed for explosives testing of up to 60 kg of explosives at LLNL` s Site 300 Explosives Test Site. The CFF will be a large, rectangular, reinforced concrete firing chamber, lined with steel for shrapnel protection. The CFF will contain several glass ports for cameras, lasers, and other diagnostic equipment to be used for data collection during planned explosives detonations. Glass is used due to the need for the greatest possible optical clarity. This study was performed during the CFF final design stage to determine probabilities and consequences (bounding and best estimate) of impact of shrapnel, due to concerns about the possible effects of rebounding shrapnel on these glass diagnostic ports. We developed a customized version of the Persistence of Vision{trademark} Ray-Tracer (POV-Ray{trademark}) version 3.02 code for the Macintosh TM Operating System (MacOS{trademark}). POV-Ray creates three- dimensional, very high quality (photo-realistic) images with realistic reflections, shading, textures, perspective, and other effects using a rendering technique called ray-tracing. It reads a text file that describes the objects and lighting in a scene and generates an image of that scene from the viewpoint of a camera, also described in the text file. The customized code (POV-Ray Shrapnel Tracker, V3.02 - Custom Build) generates fragment trajectory paths at user designated angle intervals in three dimensions, tracks these trajectory paths through any complex three-dimensional space, and outputs detailed data for each ray as requested by the user, including trajectory source location, initial direction of each trajectory, vector data for each surface/trajectory interaction, and any impacts with designated model target surfaces during any trajectory segment (direct path or reflected paths). This allows determination of the three-dimensional trajectory of each simulated particle, as well as overall and individual fragment probabilities of impact with any designated target(s) in the three-dimensional model. It also allows identification of any areas of particular concern due to grouping (in discrete areas) of fragment paths that lead to hits on the target areas of concern. The default code output includes data for specified fragment paths up through four reflections, with the number of target hits for each path segment listed. Output is grouped by target number, arbitrarily assigned in order as the target objects are declared in the input model text file. Hits on the targets are listed by path segments (e.g., direct path, one bounce, two bounces, etc.). The code has the capability to output a separate data file containing full x, y, and z directional data for each fragment path, to output just the data for a user specified number of reflections, or to output data for just the paths that lead to hits on the specified targets. The code assumes that the shrapnel originates from a point source located at the defined camera position in the model. The shrapnel pieces are assumed to be ideal, spherical, point-sized objects. Travel paths are assumed to be short and at high speed, i.e., gravitational curvature of the shrapnel paths is ignored. Reflections are assumed to be ideal, i.e., the reflection angle is equal to the incident angle. Both irregular fragment shapes and rotational momentum of the fragments would be expected to cause individual fragments to deviate from the ideal fragment paths. However, the aggregate real-world fragment paths would not be expected to significantly deviate from the ideal paths because of the averaging out of the deviations. Any collisions or other interactions between fragments are ignored. The analysis code has the capability to simulate non-ideal reflections caused by irregular fragment shapes by introducing either regular or random surface roughness or bumpiness. However, no simulation method available in the analysis code has been identified to simulate the effects of rotational energy.

Price, D. E., LLNL

1998-05-22

131

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

132

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

133

Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues  

SciTech Connect

A technique being evaluated for standoff explosives detection is laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a real-time sensor technology that uses components that can be configured into a ruggedized standoff instrument. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has been coupling standoff LIBS spectra with chemometrics for several years now in order to discriminate between explosives and nonexplosives. We have investigated the use of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for explosives detection. We have extended our study of PLS-DA to more complex sample types, including binary mixtures, different types of explosives, and samples not included in the model. We demonstrate the importance of building the PLS-DA model by iteratively testing it against sample test sets. Independent test sets are used to test the robustness of the final model.

De Lucia, Frank C. Jr.; Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W

2008-11-01

134

Vapor explosions: A review of experiments for accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

A vapor explosion is a physical event in which a hot liquid (fuel) transfers its internal energy to a colder, more volatile liquid (coolant); thus the coolant vaporizes at high pressures and expands analyses work on its surroundings. In postulated severe accidents in current fission reactors, vapor explosions are considered if this molten {open_quotes}fuel{close_quotes} contacts residual water in-vessel or ex-vessel because these physical explosions have the potential to contribute to reactor vessel failure and possibly containment failure and release of radioactive fission products. Current safety analyses and probabilistic studies consider this process with the use of explosion models. Eventually these models must be compared with available experimental data to determine their validity. This study provides a comprehensive review of vapor explosion experiments for eventual use in such comparisons. Also, when there are insufficient data, experiments are suggested that can provide the needed information for future comparisons. This view may be useful for light-water-reactor as well as noncommercial reactor safety studies. 115 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Corradini, M.L.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

1991-07-01

135

Flame dynamics in a vented vessel connected to a duct: 1. Mechanism of vessel-duct interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a parametric experimental study of explosion initiated in a vessel and vented through a duct. The aim is to clarify the mechanism of the vessel-duct mutual interaction during explosion and its role in determining the overpressure in the vessel. For a vessel of fixed size, the chosen parameters are the diameter and length of the discharge duct

B. PONIZY; J. C. LEYER

1999-01-01

136

Performance of Emulsion Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some performance of a number of emulsion explosives containing glass micro-baloons were studied experimentally and theoretically. For each of the explosives, detonation velocity was measured and calculated and ballistic mortar tests and cylinder expansion tests were carried out. The results obtained enables a comparison of the usefulness of both testing methods. The influence of some metal nitrates contained in the

S. Cudzilo; P. Kohlicek; V. A. Trzcinski; S. Zeman

2002-01-01

137

Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisi...

D. A. Clements

1994-01-01

138

Complementary X-ray tomography techniques for histology-validated 3D imaging of soft and hard tissues using plaque-containing blood vessels as examples.  

PubMed

A key problem in X-ray computed tomography is choosing photon energies for postmortem specimens containing both soft and hard tissues. Increasing X-ray energy reduces image artifacts from highly absorbing hard tissues including plaque, but it simultaneously decreases contrast in soft tissues including the endothelium. Therefore, identifying the lumen within plaque-containing vessels is challenging. Destructive histology, the gold standard for tissue evaluation, reaches submicron resolution in two dimensions, whereas slice thickness limits spatial resolution in the third. We present a protocol to systematically analyze heterogeneous tissues containing weakly and highly absorbing components in the original wet state, postmortem. Taking the example of atherosclerotic human coronary arteries, the successively acquired 3D data of benchtop and synchrotron radiation-based tomography are validated by histology. The entire protocol requires ?20 working days, enables differentiation between plaque, muscle and fat tissues without using contrast agents and permits blood flow simulations in vessels with plaque-induced constrictions. PMID:24853926

Holme, Margaret N; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Weitkamp, Timm; Beckmann, Felix; Lobrinus, Johannes A; Rikhtegar, Farhad; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Zanette, Irene; Saxer, Till; Mller, Bert

2014-06-01

139

Review of Large Scale and Small Scale Underwater Thermal Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a review of large scale propagating thermal explosions and small scale single drop explosions. The review of large scale propagating thermal explosions identifies potential thermal explosive systems, as well as the experimental condit...

M. Rizk

1990-01-01

140

Explosive Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explosive welding occurs when adjacent surfaces of appropriately positioned metals are properly thrust together by energy released from an explosive source. The procedure consists essentially of locating the metal members being welded between an explosive...

H. J. Addison

1964-01-01

141

1D plane numerical model for boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depressurization of a vessel containing saturated or subcooled liquid may occur in a variety of industrial processes and often poses a potentially hazardous situation. A 1D plane numerical model was developed for estimating the thermodynamic and the dynamic state of the boiling liquid during a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) event. Based on the choice of the initial

G. A. Pinhasi; A. Ullmann; A. Dayan

2007-01-01

142

Procedure for the assessment of the integrity of nuclear pressure vessels and piping containing defects. Final report. [PWR; BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents results of a 20-month program to establish the validity of a simple engineering procedure to assess ductile fracture of nuclear pressure vessels and piping. The work was conducted at the Babcock and Wilcox Research and Development Division under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. The accomplishments reported are: the extension of the R-6 method to

J. M. Bloom; S. N. Malik

1982-01-01

143

Animating explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce techniques for animating explosions and their effects. The primary effect of an explosion is a disturbance that causes a shock wave to propagate through the surrounding medium. The disturbance determines the behavior of nearly all other secondary effects seen in explosion. We simulate the propagation of an explosion through the surrounding air using a computational

Gary D. Yngve; James F. O'Brien; Jessica K. Hodgins

2000-01-01

144

THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

Sherburne, Carol [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Remediation, LLC; Osterberg, Paul [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Johnson, Tom [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Frawely, Thomas [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

2013-01-23

145

Simultaneous identification and quantification of nitro-containing explosives by advanced chemometric data treatment of cyclic voltammetry at screen-printed electrodes.  

PubMed

The simultaneous determination of three nitro-containing compounds found in the majority of explosive mixtures, namely hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), is demonstrated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches involving the coupling of electrochemical measurements and advanced chemometric data processing. Voltammetric responses were obtained from a single bare screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which exhibited marked mix-responses towards the compounds examined. The responses obtained were then preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the resulting coefficients were input to an artificial neural network (ANN) model. Subsequently, meaningful data was extracted from the complex voltammetric readings, achieving either the correct discrimination of the different commercial mixtures (100% of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) or the individual quantification of each of the compounds under study (total NRMSE of 0.162 for the external test subset). PMID:23598222

Cet, Xavier; O' Mahony, Aoife M; Wang, Joseph; Del Valle, Manel

2013-03-30

146

Time-sequenced X-ray Observation of a Thermal Explosion  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of a thermally-initiated explosion is studied using a multiple-image x-ray system. HMX-based PBX 9501 is used in this work, enabling direct comparison to recently-published data obtained with proton radiography [1]. Multiple x-ray images of the explosion are obtained with image spacing of ten microseconds or more. The explosion is simultaneously characterized with a high-speed camera using an interframe spacing of 11 {micro}s. X-ray and camera images were both initiated passively by signals from an embedded thermocouple array, as opposed to being actively triggered by a laser pulse or other external source. X-ray images show an accelerating reacting front within the explosive, and also show unreacted explosive at the time the containment vessel bursts. High-speed camera images show debris ejected from the vessel expanding at 800-2100 m/s in the first tens of {micro}s after the container wall failure. The effective center of the initiation volume is about 6 mm from the geometric center of the explosive.

Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Kercher, J R; Springer, H K; Henson, B F; Glascoe, E A; Greenwood, D W; Garza, R G; Wong, B M; Batteux, J D; Maienschein, J L

2009-08-03

147

TIME-SEQUENCED X-RAY OBSERVATION OF A THERMAL EXPLOSION  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of a thermally-initiated explosion is studied using a multiple-image x-ray system. HMX-based PBX 9501 is used in this work, enabling direct comparison to recently-published data obtained with proton radiography [1]. Multiple x-ray images of the explosion are obtained with image spacing of ten microseconds or more. The explosion is simultaneously characterized with a high-speed camera using an interframe spacing of 11 mus. X-ray and camera images were both initiated passively by signals from an embedded thermocouple array, as opposed to being actively triggered by a laser pulse or other external source. X-ray images show an accelerating reacting front within the explosive, and also show unreacted explosive at the time the containment vessel bursts. High-speed camera images show debris ejected from the vessel expanding at 800-2100 m/s in the first tens of mus after the container wall failure. The effective center of the initiation volume is about 6 mm from the geometric center of the explosive.

Tringe, J. W.; Molitoris, J. D.; Kercher, J. R.; Springer, H. K.; Glascoe, E. A.; Greenwood, D. W.; Garza, R. G.; Wong, B. M.; Batteux, J. D.; Maienschein, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States); Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States)

2009-12-28

148

DOE explosives safety manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation (on site), processing, or testing of explosives, or assemblies containing explosives. It contains guidelines and standards for these operations in order to safeguard personnel and to prevent property damage. Criteria established by this manual are specific to high explosives but also apply to propellants and pyrotechnics when these materials can undergo explosive reactions. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives and the safe management of such operations. Design criteria for facilities used in conjunction with explosives operations are addressed only indirectly. Design criteria for explosives facilities are contained in DOE 6430.1, ''General Design Criteria Manual.'' It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with this manual's provisions, except as required by law. Facility conditions determined to be noncompliant shall be resolved among the DOE Field Operations Office (FOO), Program Office, and the Office of Operational Safety (OOS). The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ''shall,'' ''must,'' or ''will,'' are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ''should'' are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management. 2 refs.

Not Available

1987-08-01

149

Requirements on future containments to avoid evacuation and relocation outside the plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributions to the risk of nuclear reactors result essentially from severe accidents leading to core melting and subsequent phenomena that may result in the end in the failure of the reactor pressure vessel and the outer containment. Accident phenomena subsequent to core elting having a potential for containment failure are: -hydrogen generation,-steam explosion,-melt-through of the pressure vessel at high pressure,

G Ke?er

1995-01-01

150

Slow cook-off test results for RX-08-FK in a toroidal composite vessel: Test one.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A slow cook-off test was conducted, during which a toroidal composite vessel containing 6.5 kg of RX-08-FK Paste Extrudable Explosive was subjected to a gradually increasing thermal environment of 3.3(degrees)C/hr (after an initial 8 hr soak at 74(degrees...

D. Bretl F. Helm E. von Holtz J. Didlake M. Ferrario

1992-01-01

151

New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suggested and tested were some mix explosives---powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)---for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30--70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

Andreevskikh, Leonid

2011-06-01

152

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01

153

Recent results from the Sandia steam-explosion program. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia steam explosion program involves experiments at small and intermediate scale, and modelling and analysis, including estimates for the failure probability of the reactor pressure vessel and the containment building. Recent intermediate scale results show that molten corium A + R is as explosive as the molten simulant iron-alumina, with an average kinetic energy conversion ratio of approximately 2%. In addition, several iron-alumina tests produced rapidly sequential double steam explosions in which it appeared that the first explosion enhanced the coarse mixing process. Results at small scale indicate that the maximum pressure-volume product (the net work output) from the steam explosion of a single melt droplet increased four to five times for a ten-fold increase in ambient pressure. With the initial assumption that contact between molten core and coolant will produce a steam explosion, and futher assuming that such contact occurs in-vessel in the lower plenum, a Monte Carlo technique was used to calculate failure probabilities for a typical PWR.

Evans, N.A.; Mitchell, D.E.; Nelson, L.S.; Corradini, M.L.

1982-01-01

154

Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

phreatomagmatic explosions can result from the interaction of ascending magma with groundwater. Experiments over a wide range of energies show that for a given energy there is a depth below which an explosion will be contained within the subsurface (not erupt), and there is a corresponding shallower depth that will optimize ejecta dispersal. We combine these relationships with constraints on the energies of phreatomagmatic explosions at maar-diatreme volcanoes and show that most eruptions are likely sourced by explosions in the uppermost ~200 m, and even shallower ones (<100 m) are likely to dominate deposition onto tephra rings. Most explosions below ~200 m will not erupt but contribute to formation of, and to the vertical mixing of materials within, a diatreme (vent structure), with only rare very high energy explosions between ~200 and 500 m erupting. Similar constraints likely apply at other volcanoes that experience phreatomagmatic explosions.

Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Sonder, Ingo

2014-05-01

155

49 CFR 173.59 - Description of terms for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bursting charge. Components, explosive train, n.o.s. Articles containing...detonation or deflagration within an explosive train. Contrivance, water-activated...used to start deflagration of an explosive train. They may be actuated...

2010-10-01

156

49 CFR 173.59 - Description of terms for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bursting charge. Components, explosive train, n.o.s. Articles containing...detonation or deflagration within an explosive train. Consumer firework. ...used to start deflagration of an explosive train. They may be actuated...

2013-10-01

157

49 CFR 173.59 - Description of terms for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bursting charge. Components, explosive train, n.o.s. Articles containing...detonation or deflagration within an explosive train. Contrivance, water-activated...used to start deflagration of an explosive train. They may be actuated...

2009-10-01

158

14 CFR 417.417 - Propellants and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flame producing devices in an explosive or propellant facility without...liquid propellants, electro-explosive devices, or systems containing... (iii) Fire and smoke detection systems; (iv) Safe means...facility used to store or process explosives to prevent inadvertent...

2014-01-01

159

DOE explosives safety manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires that all activities be conducted in a manner that protects the safety of the public and provides a safe and healthful workplace for employees. DOE has also prescribed that all personnel be protected in any explosives operation undertaken. The level of safety provided shall be at least equivalent to that of the best industrial practice. The risk of death or serious injury shall be limited to the lowest practicable minimum. DOE and contractors shall continually review their explosives operations with the aim of achieving further refinements and improvements in safety practices and protective features. This manual describes the Department's explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. It is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in explosives safety. In addition, it is essential that applicable criteria and requirements for implementing this policy be readily available and known to those responsible for conducting DOE programs. This document shall be periodically reviewed and updated to establish new requirements as appropriate. Users are requested to submit suggestions for improving the DOE Explosives Safety Manual through their appropriate Operations Office to the Office of Quality Programs.

1990-05-01

160

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives

Hargis Philip Joseph Jr; Lawrence R. Thorne; Carol Celeste Phifer; John Ethan Parmeter; Randal L. Schmitt

2006-01-01

161

Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives  

DOEpatents

A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes; Peter J. (Danville, CA); Alcaraz, Armando (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA)

2011-05-10

162

The Relation of Batteries to Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All batteries contain chemical materials which can be made to explode under certain conditions. This report defines applicable explosives terminology and discusses these definitions in terms of explosives, thermal runaway and fires associated with aqueous...

C. Freeman

1980-01-01

163

33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section...West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage...When occupied by a vessel handling explosives, no other vessel may enter the...

2013-07-01

164

Performance of nuclear power-plant protective barriers under internal explosion and external impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Containment of the radioactive and explosive reactor products in today's nuclear power plants is effected at four structural levels. At the first level protection is provided by the fuel-element jackets and the process-channel tubes, and at the second level by the reactor vessel and the primary heat-exchange piping. The third level is usually the ferroconcrete radiation shield. At the

V. N. Mineev; V. V. Koren'kov; Yu N. Tyunyaev

1990-01-01

165

An Orientation to Explosive Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

Harris, Betty W.

1987-01-01

166

Experiments on Combustion Kernel Growth in Gaseous Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tempo-spatial evolution of the combustion kernel in gas phase explosions was experimentally investigated using Schlieren photography. Methane and propane -air explosions were initiated in a cylindrical explosion vessel at a range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.6 to 1.4. All explosions were initiated using 25 mj ignition energy at ambient conditions. The kernel growth rate, and cellular flame structure are observed and analyzed.

Saqr, Khalid M.; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ujir, Haffis; Sies, Mohsin M.

2010-06-01

167

Explosive Entrances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive Technology, Inc. manufactured explosives first used by NASA to separate stages of the Gemini launch vehicle. When firemen need to get into a burning building or chop a hole to provide ventilation, axes can be devastatingly slow. Controlled explosives developed to separate manned upper stages of space rockets in case of mishap have been adapted to cutting emergency exits and demolishing unsafe buildings and bridges. Detonation cuts through thick steel girders or other materials more cleanly than torches or saws. This device can also cut emergency holes in airplanes and trains so surviving passengers can escape.

1976-01-01

168

Structural response to a steam explosion in a PWR  

SciTech Connect

Beginning with the assumption that a hypothetical steam-explosion occurs in the pressure vessel of a pressurized water reactor, the structural consequences are investigated. A simplified model of an individual installation is used for the investigation. Finite element and finite difference analyses of water-head impact conditions are described. Analysis of the possibility of ejection of a control rod drive assembly as a missile is investigated. Conclusions indicate that the only containment threatening consequence is the possible but unlikely generation and flight of such a missile and that large, i.e., whole head sized missiles, appear precluded.

Woodfin, R.L.; Voelker, L.E.

1980-01-01

169

Explosive Magnetohydrodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental studies on the production of short duration pulses of electrical power by MHD principles in a radial flow channel are presented. Plasma currents in excess of 10000 amperes were measured in a radially expanding explosive driven plasma. The pla...

M. S. Jones F. H. Webb P. Webster S. Handlin R. Harrison

1965-01-01

170

Explosive welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The results of our research have shown that when plane charges of granular explosives are employed it is necessary to take into account the change in detonation velocity D as a function of the initial density?0 and the thickness of the charged0.The relations D=f(?0), D=f(d0) have been obtained experimentally and used to determine the impact parameters in explosive welding.2.The use

A. A. Deribas; V. M. Kudinov; F. I. Matveenkov; V. A. Simonov

1967-01-01

171

Supplement Analysis to the 1999 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Proposed Disposition of Certain Large Containment Vessels  

SciTech Connect

This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) (DOE 1999a) adequately addresses the environmental effects of introducing a proposed project for the clean-out and decontamination (DECON) of certain large containment vessels into the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA) 3, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. After undergoing the clean-out and DECON steps, the subject containment vessels would be disposed of at LANL's TA-54 low-level waste (LLW) disposal site or, as appropriate, at a DOE or commercial offsite permitted LLW-regulated landfill; after actinides were recovered from the DECON solution within the CMR Building, they would be moved to LANL's TA-55 Plutonium Facility and undergo subsequent processing at that facility for reuse. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement (EIS) when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are changed circumstances or new or changed information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 10211.314(c) of the DOE's regulations for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementation that states: ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis''. This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the proposed project action with the LANL operations capabilities evaluated in the 1999 SWEIS in support DOE's long-term hydrodynamic testing program at LANL, as well as the waste disposal capabilities evaluated in the SWEIS in support of LANL operations. It also provides an explanation of any differences between the proposed action and activities described in the SWEIS analysis. The SWEIS analyzed the impacts of performing plutonium (Pu) and actinide activities, including hydrodynamic testing support activity, at the Plutonium Facility and at the CMR Building.

N /A

2004-02-12

172

Halting explosions with technology  

SciTech Connect

An account is given of an ignition suppression system developed under contract for the US Bureau of Mines. The machine mounted system utilises an ultra-violet flame detector, a cannister containing a dry powder extinguishing agent and a cannon-type dispersion unit. The results of explosion-suppression tests are given.

Not Available

1985-05-01

173

Fuel fire test results for RX-08-FK in a toroidal composite vessel  

SciTech Connect

A fuel first test was conducted on October 15, 1992, during which a toroidal composite vessel containing 6.5 kg of RX-08-FK Paste Extrudable Explosive was subjected to a dynamic (transient) thermal environment. The vessel was mounted inside a closed, but vented, thin-walled steel cylinder, and the entire assembly was then engulfed in a fuel fire. Approximately 5 minutes into the test, the PEX began to burn. At the time reaction of PEX occurred, temperatures of the inside wall of the steel cylinder were 815C and temperatures on outside wall of the composite vessel ranged from 163--454C. Subsequently, temperatures in excess of 950C were reached inside the cylinder for tens of minutes. Based on criteria set forth in MIL-STD-1648A(AS), the RX-08-FK-loaded vessel passed the fuel fire test, because no violent reaction beyond burning was observed.

Black, W.; Bretl, D.; von Holtz, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Didlake, J.; Ferrario, M.; Spingarn, J.; Schwegel, J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

174

A new mosaic pattern in glioma vascularization: exogenous endothelial progenitor cells integrating into the vessels containing tumor-derived endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests that glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) transdifferentiating into vascular endothelial cells (ECs) possibly contributes to tumor resistance to antiangiogenic therapy. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), showing active migration and incorporation into neovasculature of glioma, may be a good vehicle for delivering genes to target GSCs transdifferentiation. Here, we found a new mosaic pattern that exogenous EPCs integrated into the vessels containing the tumor-derived ECs in C6 glioma rat model. Further, we evaluated the effect of these homing EPCs on C6 glioma cells transdifferentiation. The transdifferentiation frequency of C6 glioma cells and the expressions of key factors on GSCs transdifferentiation, i.e. HIF-1?, Notch1, and Flk1 in gliomas with or without EPCs transplantation showed no significant difference. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging could track the migration and incorporation of EPCs into glioma in vivo, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. The number of magnetically labeled EPCs estimated from T2 maps correlated well with direct measurements of labeled cell counts by flow cytometry. Taken together, our findings may provide a rational base for the future application of EPCs as a therapeutic and imaging probe to overcome antiangiogenic resistance for glioma and monitor the efficacy of this treatment. PMID:24722469

Chen, Xiao; Fang, Jingqin; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Heng; Du, Xuesong; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Xue; Yang, Yizeng; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiguo

2014-04-15

175

A new mosaic pattern in glioma vascularization: exogenous endothelial progenitor cells integrating into the vessels containing tumor-derived endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests that glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) transdifferentiating into vascular endothelial cells (ECs) possibly contributes to tumor resistance to antiangiogenic therapy. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), showing active migration and incorporation into neovasculature of glioma, may be a good vehicle for delivering genes to target GSCs transdifferentiation. Here, we found a new mosaic pattern that exogenous EPCs integrated into the vessels containing the tumor-derived ECs in C6 glioma rat model. Further, we evaluated the effect of these homing EPCs on C6 glioma cells transdifferentiation. The transdifferentiation frequency of C6 glioma cells and the expressions of key factors on GSCs transdifferentiation, i.e. HIF-1?, Notch1, and Flk1 in gliomas with or without EPCs transplantation showed no significant difference. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging could track the migration and incorporation of EPCs into glioma in vivo, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. The number of magnetically labeled EPCs estimated from T2 maps correlated well with direct measurements of labeled cell counts by flow cytometry. Taken together, our findings may provide a rational base for the future application of EPCs as a therapeutic and imaging probe to overcome antiangiogenic resistance for glioma and monitor the efficacy of this treatment.

Wang, Shunan; Liu, Heng; Du, Xuesong; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Xue; Yang, Yizeng; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiguo

2014-01-01

176

Workbook for predicting pressure wave and fragment effects of exploding propellant tanks and gas storage vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology needed to predict damage and hazards from explosions of propellant tanks and bursts of pressure vessels, both near and far from these explosions is introduced. Data are summarized in graphs, tables, and nomographs.

Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Bessey, R. L.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Oldham, G. A.

1975-01-01

177

Steam explosion research at Sandia  

SciTech Connect

Based upon current analysis of a specific PWR and experimental results, generation of large mass missiles by a steam explosion is unlikely, while small mass missiles, although more likely, probably would not pose a threat to the containment. The conservative upper bound probability of containment failure due directly to steam explosions is estimated to be no greater than 0.01 while the best estimate value is probably two orders of magnitude smaller.

Berman, M.; Corradini, M.L.; Mitchell, D.E.; Nelson, L.S.

1980-01-01

178

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.

1996-04-09

179

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

180

One-dimensional transient model for analyzing large-scale steam explosion experiments. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

In the unlikely event of a core meltdown accident, an important safety issue is the potential for steam explosions and their effects on the accident progression. Steam explosion phenomena can be divided into three stages: (a) mixing of the molten fuel and water; (b) triggering and spatial propagation of rapid fuel fragmentation through the fuel-coolant mixture; and (c) expansion of the steam against the surroundings. The consequences of such an expansion may be missile generation or static pressurization of the vessel or containment and fuel debris dispersal. This paper describes a recently developed one-dimensional, transient computer model which attempts to describe the triggering, propagation, and expansion of large-scale steam explosions.

Corradini, M.L.

1980-01-01

181

Supernova explosions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent history of theoretical investigations of the supernova mechanism is considered, giving attention also to a number of nuclear physical problems which have yet to be solved in connection with the thermonuclear detonation. A variety of different processes of nucleo-synthesis are expected to occur in association with the supernova explosions. Aspects of the chemical evolution of the galaxy are discussed including the cosmic ray production of lithium, beryllium, and boron in the interstellar medium. Various hypotheses to account for the very large amount of light that comes from a supernova explosion are also examined.

Cameron, A. G. W.

1971-01-01

182

Engineering Design Handbook. Explosives Series. Explosive Trains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook presents theoretical and practical data pertaining to explosive trains. It includes consideration of the various elements which, in considerable variation, may constitute the explosive train of an item. The main charge of an explosive item, s...

1974-01-01

183

Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System  

SciTech Connect

The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

Clements, D.A.

1994-08-01

184

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22

185

Population Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of experiments explore the effects of increased population growth on a population of Fast Plants. Through these inquiries, students will better understand the many substantial and pertinent issues surrounding human population explosion on Earth.These experiments can be adjusted toward middle, high school or post-secondary levels.

Program, The W.

186

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16

187

Soda Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on activity lets participant explore chemical reactions as they create a soda explosion with lots of bubbles. The bubbles in soda are made of carbon dioxide gas. Using lifesaver mint candy, create a fun, foaming mess. Experimenting in an outside space is suggested.

Connecticut, Science C.

1999-01-01

188

Pressure vessel burst test program. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status is disucssed of a program to study the characteristics of blast waves and fragmentation generated by ruptured gas-filled pressure vessels. Current methods for assessing vessel safety and burst parameters are briefly reviewed, and pneumatic burst testing operations and testing results are examined. A comparison is made with current methods for burst assessment. It is tentatively concluded that, at close distances, vessel burst overpressures are less than those of high-explosive (HE) blasts with equivalent energy and are greater than HE far from the vessel. The impulse appears to be the same for both vessel bursts and equivalent energy HE blasts. The functional relationship between shock velocity and overpressure ratio appears to be the same for vessel bursts as for HE blasts. The initial shock overpressure appears to be much less than vessel pressure and may be found using the one-dimensional shock tube equation.

Cain, Maurice R.; Sharp, Douglas E.; Coleman, Michael D.

1991-01-01

189

High-nitrogen explosives  

SciTech Connect

The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

2002-01-01

190

Pressure vessel flex joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

Kahn, Jon B. (inventor)

1992-01-01

191

78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive mixtures. Potassium nitroaminotetrazole...Sodium nitrate explosive mixtures. Sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate explosive mixture. Sodium picramate. Special...

2013-10-28

192

A Closed Water-Filled Cylinder for Characterizing Non-Ideal Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-ideal explosives containing a significant fraction of slow-reacting components, such as underwater explosives, pose a challenge for conventional testing methods. In contrast to ideal explosives in which a 1\\

Raafat Guirguis; Reid McKeown; John Kelley

1997-01-01

193

27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

2013-04-01

194

49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of this subpart. (b) An explosive mixture or device containing a chlorate and also...including a substituted ammonium or quaternary ammonium salt; or (2) An acidic...inch), or a toy torpedo containing a mixture of potassium chlorate, black...

2010-10-01

195

49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of this subpart. (b) An explosive mixture or device containing a chlorate and also...including a substituted ammonium or quaternary ammonium salt; or (2) An acidic...inch), or a toy torpedo containing a mixture of potassium chlorate, black...

2009-10-01

196

Tenderizing Meat with Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

2001-06-01

197

Analysis of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of explosives is of major importance in several analytical fields:1. Forensic identification of explosives is a major problem in the criminalistic investigation of a bombing which involves connecting the type of explosive used with the suspect. The detection and identification of explosive residues in debris material constitutes a highly difficult task. The thermal instability of most explosives, along

Jehuda Yinon; John C. Hoffsommer

1977-01-01

198

Blood Vessel Tension Tester  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

1978-01-01

199

Time-resolved measurements of near infrared emission spectra from explosions: Pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate and its mixtures containing silver and aluminum particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of chemical transients and thermodynamic conditions are difficult to obtain yet fundamentally important in understanding the behavior of explosives. We have constructed a fast near infrared (NIR) spectrometer and have made temporally and spectrally-resolved emission measurements during postdetonation combustion of pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) charges and PETN charges doped with 10 wt % microparticles composed of silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al). We have observed postdetonation PETN emission spectra between 750 and 1500 nm at rates up to 46 992 spectra/s. The instrument captures the highly structured spectra immediately following breakout as well as the longer-lived broadband NIR emission signals from hot particles. The early spectra reveal spectral signatures related to PETN and the reacting constituents of the particles. The later spectra provide a means to infer the gray-body temperature history of the particles.

Koch, Jon D.; Piecuch, Scott; Lightstone, James M.; Carney, Joel R.; Hooper, Joe

2010-08-01

200

Blast deflector traps smoke and debris from explosive trains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blast deflector protects interior areas and personnel from the smoke and debris of explosive trains. It contains open-cell foam to absorb the pressure loads generated by explosive charges and control the smoke and debris.

Wilkowski, J. C.

1968-01-01

201

Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition  

DOEpatents

A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

Wagner, Martin G. (Wilmington, DE) [Wilmington, DE

1992-01-14

202

Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and microhardness testing respectively.

Bernier, Evan Thomas

203

Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

1980-05-09

204

Reactor vessel annealing system  

DOEpatents

A system for annealing a vessel (14) in situ by heating the vessel (14) to a defined temperature, composed of: an electrically operated heater assembly (10) insertable into the vessel (14) for heating the vessel (14) to the defined temperature; temperature monitoring components positioned relative to the heater assembly (10) for monitoring the temperature of the vessel (14); a controllable electric power supply unit (32-60) for supplying electric power required by the heater assembly (10); a control unit (80-86) for controlling the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60); a first vehicle (2) containing the power supply unit (32-60); a second vehicle (4) containing the control unit (80-86); power conductors (18,22) connectable between the power supply unit (32-60) and the heater unit (10) for delivering the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10); signal conductors (20,24) connectable between the temperature monitoring components and the control unit (80-86) for delivering temperature indicating signals from the temperature monitoring components to the control unit (80-86); and control conductors (8) connectable between the control unit (80-86) and the power supply unit (32-60) for delivering to the power supply unit (32-60) control signals for controlling the level of power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10).

Miller, Phillip E. (Greensburg, PA); Katz, Leonoard R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Nath, Raymond J. (Murrysville, PA); Blaushild, Ronald M. (Export, PA); Tatch, Michael D. (Randolph, NJ); Kordalski, Frank J. (White Oak, PA); Wykstra, Donald T. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kavalkovich, William M. (Monroeville, PA)

1991-01-01

205

Threat localization in QR explosive detection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of explosives for the purpose of aviation security is an important task for preventing terrorism acts and smuggling.\\u000a A number of methods for explosive screening have been developed. For the purpose of aviation security, the inspections are\\u000a performed on passengers, their carry-on luggage, checked baggage, and cargo containers. An effective explosive detection system\\u000a should be capable of reporting

H. Robert; P. J. Prado

2004-01-01

206

Passive Explosion Barrier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates generally to explosion barriers for mines, or the like, and more particularly to a passive explosion barrier that is responsive to relatively low velocity, as well as intermediate and high velocity explosion generated wind, ...

Liebman Corry

1975-01-01

207

Blood Vessels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the circulatory system is composed of a series of tubes carries the vital elements and the wastes that keep us strong and healthy. Take a look at these amazing vessels and how they work together. Ever cut yourself on the toe? How about the finger? The ear? Ever get a bloody nose? How about a scrape on the knee? If these things have ever happened to you then you already know that blood vessels carry blood to EVERY part of the body. They start out ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2007-11-20

208

Sapphire tube pressure vessel  

DOEpatents

A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01

209

Simulating thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives (HEs) are heated at a rate of 1 C/h until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydrotime scale. During the preignition phase, quasistatic mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydrodynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in larger scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HEs are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

Yoh, Jack J.; McClelland, Matthew A.; Maienschein, Jon L.; Wardell, Jeffrey F.; Tarver, Craig M.

2005-04-01

210

Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment  

SciTech Connect

We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M

2004-10-11

211

Polyurethane Binder Systems for Polymer Bonded Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) consist of explosive components bound together by a polymeric binder. The most common binder systems in current PBXs are polyurethane based and contain plasticisers and other chemicals that alter processability, mechanical properties and chemical stability. This report details the history of PBX binders, components of polyurethane binder systems, their properties and the procedures for obtaining the

Merran A. Daniel

212

Explosive Mixtures Detonating at Low Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Same explosive mixtures detonating at a low velocity and not containing high explosives were experimentally investigated. As a system providing detonation capability, a mixture of ammonium nitrate and powdered aluminium was employed. Glass or urea-form- aldehyde resin beads or lead oxides were used to reduce detonation parameters. Detonation velocity and critical diameter were measured for mixtures differentiated in composition

Andrzej Maranda; Stanis?aw Cudzi?o

2001-01-01

213

Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels  

PubMed Central

Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domaincontaining leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fatespecifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S.; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J.; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J.; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L.

2012-01-01

214

A compatibility study of containment materials in FEFO, bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal  

SciTech Connect

We report on a program to evaluate the compatibility of energetic fluids with candidate containment materials. The energetic fluids are constituents of various extrudable explosives developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These paste-like explosives consist of explosive particulates (HMX, TATB for example) suspended in mixtures of energetic liquids and are designed to remain extrudable over a wide temperature range for many years. It is important to preclude or minimize interactions between the constituents of the paste and the containment materials since such interactions could result in decreased reliability or failure of the containment vessel as well as intrinsic changes in the flow or explosive characteristics of the paste. In this report we focus on one specific paste formulation: RX-52-AE (Transferable Insensitive Explosive, TIE), composed principally of the solid explosive TATB and the energetic liquid, FEFO. Compatibility between a number of organic and metallic materials with neat FEFO has been evaluated. The 300 series stainless steels, Al 6061-T6, and Monel 400 showed evidence of surface attack (oxidation or pitting). Polished gold coupons became discolored and XPS analysis revealed the formation gold cyanide. Platinum, iridium, titanium, tantalum and Ta-10% W showed little evidence of reaction. Among the organic materials, the per-fluorinated materials showed only slight interaction with the FEFO while the polyethylene, polyester and Aclar{reg_sign} materials were attacked by the liquid. These interactions were manifested in changes in color, net weight gain and mechanical properties. The changes were exaggerated by higher temperatures.

Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Moddeman, W.E.; Foster, P.

1995-02-01

215

Chromospheric explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

1986-01-01

216

Supernova Explosions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are reminded that the Universe is made up of elements and that the heavier elements are created inside of a star, as they learned in the "Elements and You" activity. They are introduced to the life cycle of a star and to the way in which a star's mass affects its process of fusion and eventual death. Students discuss the physical concept of equilibrium as a balancing of forces and observe an experiment to demonstrate what happens to a soda can when the interior and exterior forces are not in equilibrium. An analogy is made between this experiment and core collapse in stars, to show the importance of maintaining equilibrium in stars. Finally, students participate in an activity which demonstrates how mass is ejected from a collapsed star in a supernova explosion, thereby dispersing heavier elements throughout the Universe. This activity is part of a series that has been designed specifically for use with Girl Scouts, but the activities can be used in other settings. Most of the materials are inexpensive or easily found. It is recommended that a leader with astronomy knowledge lead the activities, or at least be available to answer questions, whenever possible.

217

68 FR 4406 - Commerce in Explosives (2000R-9P)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...discretion to accurately determine whether new explosive materials are flash powders. Furthermore...industry members have relocated their explosives storage magazines to new locations. This has caused difficulty...through (b)(5), respectively. New paragraph (b)(2) provides that...acquisition kept by manufacturers of explosive materials must contain the......

2003-01-29

218

Ammonium nitrate explosive systems  

DOEpatents

Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

219

A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subject to internal explosive detonations  

SciTech Connect

Thin cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations expand outwardly at strain-rates on the order 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. At approximately 150% strain, multiple plastic instabilities appear on the surface of these shells in a quasi-periodic pattern. These instabilities continue to develop into bands of localized shear and eventually form cracks that progress in a way that causes the shell to break into fragments. The entire process takes less than 100 microseconds from detonation to complete fragmentation. Modeling this high strain-rate expansion and generation of instabilities prior to fragmentation is the primary focus of this paper. Applications for this research include hypervelocity accelerators, flux compression generators, and explosive containment vessels for terrorist threats and power plants.

Martineau, R.L.; Anderson, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1998-12-31

220

The vortex explosion transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In type-II superconductors an applied magnetic field B, between the lower and upper critical values, produces a mixed state containing Abrikosov vortices. These vortices contain a quantum of magnetic flux h/2e and consist of a core with depressed order parameter and a pattern of perpetually circulating supercurrents. When B is applied parallel to a thin film, the circulating supercurrents get squeezed by the film surfaces causing the vortex core to become unstable and explode all the way across the film when the thickness d is below the critical value of dc = 4.4? here ? is the superconducting coherence length. For temperatures above the explosion condition dc(T) > d, the applied B cannot induce single parallel vortices, however perpendicular vortices can be generated spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. We observe a transition from non-dissipative to dissipative behavior at the explosion condition and find that the dynamics of the spontaneous perpendicular vortices can be tuned by the pairbreaking effect of the applied parallel field.

Kunchur, M. N.; Liang, M.; Gurevich, A.

2013-02-01

221

46 CFR 147.95 - Explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Explosive ships' signals and emergency equipment, including pyrotechnic distress signals and line throwing equipment, must be stowed...watertight containers or wood lined magazine chests. (2) All pyrotechnic distress signals, rockets, and line throwing guns...

2013-10-01

222

Dynamics of detonations and explosions: Explosion phenomena; International Colloquium on Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, 12th, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, July 23-28, 1989, Technical Papers  

SciTech Connect

The present colloquium on the dynamics of explosions and reactive systems discusses vapor cloud explosions, blast wave reflections and interactions, and vapor explosions. Attention is given to scaling of vapor cloud explosions after turbulent jet release, the effect of asymmetric ignition on the vapor cloud spatial blast, the mechanism of flame acceleration along a tube with obstacles, and an explosion in a vented vessel connected to a duct. Also discussed are shock waves produced by reflected detonations, a turbulent wall jet in a Mach reflection flow, and the formation of zones with high particle concentrations in dusty gas. Topics discussed include shock waves from a vapor explosion in a shock tube, the dynamics of explosive interactions between molten tin and water in stratified geometry, and steam explosion studies with molten iron-alumina generated by thermite reactions.

Kuhl, A.L.; Leyer, J.-C.; Borisov, A.A.; Sirignano, W.A.; (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA; Poitiers, Universite, France; AN SSSR, Moscow, USSR; California, University, Irvine)

1991-01-01

223

Bioremediation of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

1995-09-01

224

Properties and Preparation of Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Oxyliquits; Nitro compounds; Ammonium nitrate explosives; Smoking powders and powders and powdered dynamons; Nitroethers (Nitrates); Nitroglycerin explosives; Smokeless powders; Chlorate and perchlorate explosives; Cardox and hydrox cartridges; ...

N. E. Yaremenko B. Y. Svetlov

1970-01-01

225

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

2009-01-01

226

Design of explosive logic elements  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos has been exploring explosive logic systems to see if they might provide advantages in weapon safety or weapon command and control. We use the extrudable explosive EXTEX (80% PETN, 20% Sylgard) for this work. These systems contain at least one but usually several discrete logic elements, and the worth - the reliability - of the system is directly dependent on the reliability of these elements. We perceive that the troubles encountered in the early attempts to use explosive logic can be attributed to the lack of a truly reliable design for one or more of the elements being used. At Los Alamos, we express this as the need for a Safety/Reliability Window. In this short presentation, that concept will be emphasized. The development of three elements for which working windows are available will be discussed.

Meyers, W.H.

1984-01-01

227

Simulation of Steam Explosion with a General Purpose CFD Code  

SciTech Connect

An ex-vessel steam explosion may occur when during a severe reactor accident the reactor vessel fails and the molten core pours into the water in the reactor cavity. A steam explosion is a fuel coolant interaction process where the heat transfer from the melt to water is so intense and rapid that the timescale for heat transfer is shorter than the timescale for pressure relief. This can lead to the formation of shock waves and production of missiles at later times, during the expansion of the highly pressurized water vapor, that may endanger surrounding structures. In contrast to specialized steam explosion CFD codes, where the steam explosion is modeled on micro-scale using fundamental averaged multiphase flow conservation equations, in the presented approach the steam explosion is modeled in a simplified manner as an expanding high-pressure pre-mixture of dispersed molten fuel, liquid water and vapor. Applying the developed steam explosion model, a comprehensive analysis of the ex-vessel steam explosion in a typical PWR reactor cavity was done using the CFD code CFX-10. At four selected locations, which are of importance for the assessment of the vulnerability of cavity structures, the pressure histories were recorded and the corresponding pressure impulses calculated. The pressure impulses determine the destructive potential of the steam explosion and represent the input for the structural mechanical analysis of the cavity structures. The simulation results show that the pressure impulses depend mainly on the steam explosion energy conversion ratio, whereas the influence of the pre-mixture vapor volume fraction, which is a parameter in our model and determines the maximum steam explosion pressure, is not significant. (authors)

Leskovar, Matjaz; Koncar, Bostjan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2006-07-01

228

Process for preparing explosive  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for preparing a gas bubble sensitized explosive composition. The present process comprises preparing an explosive composition comprising a water-in-oil emulsion and mechanically entraining gas bubbles into the explosive composition. Low viscosity emulsion explosives are able to be sensitized by this process. There is a preference for wax free emulsions to be used. The process is applicable to emulsion explosives comprising ammonium nitrate particles. By providing a process for the mechanical entrainment of stable gas bubbles we allow explosive compositions to be sensitized on-site by readily available mixing means.

1990-06-26

229

Flame dynamics in a vented vessel connected to a duct: 2. Influence of ignition site, membrane rupture, and turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosion in a vented vessel connected to a duct was investigated under different experimental conditions. The effects of ignition site, membrane rupture and the turbulence generated in the vessel during the early stages of the explosion have been examined. The results prove that the burn-up occurring in the duct (discussed in Part 1) is by far the most important factor

B. Ponizy; J. C. Leyer

1999-01-01

230

59 FR- Contractors' Safety for Ammunition and Explosives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and ammunition with inert projectiles. Liquid propellants are not included. (4) Group...contain white phosphorus or flammable liquid or gel. (8) Group H. Ammunition containing...Ammunition containing explosives and flammable liquids or gels, with or without...

1994-12-16

231

Chemical-decomposition models for the thermal explosion of confined HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT explosives  

SciTech Connect

Chemical decomposition models have been deduced from the available chemical kinetic data on the thermal decomposition of HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT. A thermal conduction model is used in which the thermal conductivity of the reacting explosive decreases linearly with the mass fraction reacted to that of the gaseous products. These reactive heat flow models are used to predict the time to explosion versus reciprocal temperature curves from several heavily confined explosive tests. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and calculated explosion times for the pure explosives HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT, mixtures such as RX-26-AF (HMX/TATB), Octol (HMX/TNT), and Comp B (RDX/TNT), and for PBX 9404, an HMX-based explosive containing an energetic nitrocellulose binder.

McGuire, R.R.; Tarver, C.M.

1981-03-26

232

Totally confined explosive welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

Bement, L. J. (inventor)

1978-01-01

233

Understanding Vented Gas Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. T...

R. Lautkaski

1997-01-01

234

Large panel design for containment air baffle  

DOEpatents

The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel.

Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

235

Large panel design for containment air baffle  

DOEpatents

The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel. 9 figs.

Orr, R.S.

1992-12-08

236

Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 34 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to explosive fracturing for construction projects (tunnels, pipelines, dams), rock drilling for explosive fracturing, surface mining, rock fragmentation, environmental impacts, storage and transport of high explosives, underwater blasting, toxic fumes, and explosives malfunctions. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-12-31

237

Independence day explosion on lovers key.  

PubMed

The display of fireworks is a popular holiday celebration in the United States. Because injuries due to recreational fireworks-related explosions among private consumers are relatively common, the sale of fireworks is regulated by the federal government and is also limited by state and local laws. In contrast, because fireworks display companies are under tight safety regulations, explosions in the professional pyrotechnics industry are uncommon occurrences, and the literature contains rare reports of injuries and fatalities resulting from such explosions. We report the 2003 Fourth of July commercial fireworks explosion on Lovers Key in southwest Florida that resulted in five fatalities. Events occurring during the investigation of the scene of this explosion illustrate the unique considerations and hazards for medicolegal death investigators, law enforcement and other investigative agencies. Additionally, this case demonstrates unusual aspects of the postmortem examinations performed on victims of fireworks-related incidents. PMID:17767662

Harding, Brett A; Wolf, Barbara C

2007-09-01

238

Explosive Boiling of a Depressurized Volatile Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The explosive boiling that occurs when a pressure-liquefied gas is suddenly vented to the atmosphere has been investigated\\u000a experimentally at small scale. The test liquid (refrigerant-22), initially in equilibrium with its vapor, is suddenly depressurized\\u000a by bursting a foil diaphragm. The competition between the rates of vaporization and venting can lead to substantial repressurization\\u000a within the vessel. The influence of

R. Barbone; D. L. Frost; A. Makris; J Nerenberg

239

Inverse problem in explosion and combustion  

SciTech Connect

The principal task of our studies is to provide a rational interpretation of the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic events taking place in a closed vessel upon detonation of an explosive charge and subsequent turbulent combustion of its products, acting as fuel for an exothermic reaction with air. Under such circumstances, the latter has been compressed by a reverberating shock front of the blast wave generated by the explosion. The paper presents the chemical and thermodynamic background and its numerical results, deduced for this purpose from mass spectroscopic data and pressure records, acquired upon explosion of a 0.8 kg charge of TNT in a 17 m{sup 3} chamber filled with air--a diagnostic analysis identified by the title. The evolution of the flow field and its structure are presented in a companion paper.

Oppenheim, A K; Sum, T-H; Kuhl, A L

2001-02-05

240

Affairs of the Heart: Exploring Vessel Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PBS site contains hands-on activities that model obstructed blood vessels. Materials are simple--straws, clay, and water--and the experiments are easy to do. You'll model how blood pressure changes when a blood vessel is obstructed and also how elevated blood pressure can damage a weakened artery. This site contains links to related PBS videos.

2007-11-14

241

72 FR 18791 - Explosives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...industry has changed significantly. New forms of explosives have been developed (e.g., emulsions...employed to create, handle and use explosives (e.g., new kinds of bulk delivery vehicles...transportation, handling, and use of explosives. This new requirement is intended to ensure...

2007-04-13

242

Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste will be removed from confinement vessels remaining from 1970s-era experiments. Los Alamos has 9+ spherical confinement vessels remaining from experiments. Each vessel contains 500 lbs of radioactive debris such as actinide metals and oxides, metals, powdered silica, graphite, and wires and hardware. In order to dispose of the vessels, debris and contamination must be removed. Neutron assay system

Katherine C. Frame; Mark M. Bourne; William J. Crooks; Louise Evans; Douglas R. Mayo; David K. Miko; William R. Salazar; Sy Stange; Jose I. Valdez; Georgiana M. Vigil

2012-01-01

243

Mixing in explosions  

SciTech Connect

Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

Kuhl, A.L.

1993-12-01

244

Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner  

SciTech Connect

Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

1995-07-01

245

Possibilities of Gradual Use of the Thermal Energy Produced by Nuclear Explosions; POSSIBILITES D'UTILISATION PROGRESSIVE DE L'ENERGIE THERMIQUE LIBEREE PAR DES EXPLOSIONS NUCLEAIRES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of the energy output from explosions carried out either ; underground or in appropriate containers and the use of nuclear explosions for ; the recovery of geothermal energy are examined. (auth);

Herrinck

1962-01-01

246

Visual Observation of Vapor Film Collapse Behavior During Vapor Explosion  

SciTech Connect

During severe accident of a light water reactor, various thermal hydraulic phenomena including vapor explosion could threaten the integrity of the containment vessel. Thermal detonation model is proposed to describe the vapor explosion. According to the model, several processes should be sequentially satisfied for the trigger phenomena of the vapor explosion. One of the most important processes for the trigger phenomena is the vapor film collapse around high temperature molten material droplets. In the present study, the vapor film collapse behavior around high temperature solid particle submerged into water was experimentally investigated by attacking a pressure pulse to the vapor film on a high temperature sold particle. The interfacial phenomena between vapor and water were measure by using a high-speed video camera of the maximum speed of 40,500 fps. The visual data obtained were processed with visual data processing techniques. That is, the average vapor film thickness was estimated, dynamic behaviors of the interfaces were analyzed with PIV technique and the interface movement was estimated with the digital auto correlation techniques from the visual data obtained. Furthermore, the transients of the temperature and pressure were simultaneously measured. The interfacial temperatures between vapor and water, and between molted liquid and water are analytically estimated by solving the heat conduction equation with the data obtained as the boundary conditions. It is clarified that vapor collapse by pressure pulse occurs homogeneously around the vapor film surface on a high temperature particle. Microscopic information are obtained from the visual data by using visual data processing technique, PIV technique and digital auto-correlation technique. At the time the vapor film surface changes to white, the saturation temperature exceeds the interfacial temperature. The microscopic vapor film collapse behavior indicates the possibility of the phase change at the vapor film collapse. (authors)

Yutaka Abe; Hideki Nariai [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

2002-07-01

247

Terahertz spectroscopy techniques for explosives detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopy in the terahertz frequency range has demonstrated unique identification of both pure and military-grade explosives.\\u000a There is significant potential for wide applications of the technology for nondestructive and nonintrusive detection of explosives\\u000a and related devices. Terahertz radiation can penetrate most dielectrics, such as clothing materials, plastics, and cardboard.\\u000a This allows both screening of personnel and through-container screening. We review

Megan R. Leahy-Hoppa; Michael J. Fitch; Robert Osiander

2009-01-01

248

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15

249

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

250

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

251

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

1994-03-15

252

Collapsing Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers

Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

1994-01-01

253

Explosives detection: potential problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most explosive detection technologies have been focused on nitro-based military explosives becuase they have figured in international terrorist incidents. Not only are they readily available through purchase or theft or from sponsoring states, but methods for home synthesis are widely available. Many of explosive detection technolgies now under development target a specific characteristic of military or commercial explosives (e.g. mass density, nitrogen density). However, as counterterrorist measures make traditional explosives more difficult to obtain or more risky to use, we should anticipate terrorists may turn to nontraditional explosives. There are hundreds of energetic compounds and many common explosives which, while they do not meet exacting military demands, might be effective terrorist tools. Although explosive handbooks list hundreds of explosives, this talk focuses on only a handful. These have been chosen because they do not follow the classic patterns of military explosives or because they are easily obtainable. This paper will also point out energetic systems that can produce violently exothermic reactions without the aid of traditional initiating systems, such as batteries or detonators.

Oxley, Jimmie C.

1995-09-01

254

THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a fuse wire. A gas combination is considered flammable when a pressure rise of 7% of the initial absolute pressure is observed. The specified testing methodology is consistent with guidelines established in ASTM E-918-83 (2005) 'Standard Practices for Determining Limits of Flammability of Chemicals at Elevated Temperature and Pressure'.

Sherburne, C.

2012-01-12

255

46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. ...Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. ...406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be...

2010-10-01

256

46 CFR 154.409 - Dynamic loads from vessel motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Dynamic loads from vessel motion. ...Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.409 Dynamic loads from vessel motion. ...406 (a)(3) and (b), the dynamic loads must be...

2009-10-01

257

Unique Design of Doublet and Big Dee Vacuum Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Doublet III tokamak now in its fourth year of operation at General Atomic Company, has its plasma contained in a kidney-shaped toroidal vacuum vessel, a configuration that presented unique design challenges. Most tokamak vacuum vessels are constructed...

J. E. Miller

1981-01-01

258

Small-scale explosive seam welding. [using ribbon explosive encased in lead sheath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique small scale explosive seam welding technique is reported that has successfully joined a variety of aluminum alloys and alloy combinations in thicknesses to 0.125 inch, as well as titanium in thicknesses to 0.056 inch. The explosively welded joints are less than one-half inch in width and apparently have no long length limitation. The ribbon explosive developed in this study contains very small quantities of explosive encased in a flexible thin lead sheath. The evaluation and demonstration of this welding technique was accomplished in three phases: evaluation and optimization of ten major explosive welding variables, the development of four weld joints, and an applicational analysis which included photomicrographs, pressure integrity tests, vacuum effects, and fabrication of some potentially useful structures in aluminum and titanium.

Bement, L. J.

1972-01-01

259

Modeling of buried explosions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been and continues developing techniques for modeling buried explosions using a large geotechnical centrifuge. When fully developed, the techniques should permit the accurate modeling of large explosions in complex geometries. Our intentional application is to study the phenomena of explosive cavity formation and collapse. However, the same methods should also be applicable to simulation of bursts shallow enough to produce craters, and perhaps even of airbursts in situations where soil overburden is important. We have placed primary emphasis on test bed construction methods and on accurate measurement of the ground shock produced by the explosions. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Gaffney, E.S.; Wohletz, K.H.; House, J.W.; Brown, J.A.

1987-01-01

260

Vesiculation and basaltic explosive volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basaltic explosive volcanism takes place over a range of scales from weak Strombolian discrete explosions to Plinian eruptions of moderate intensity (103-107 kg-s-1. Vesicles (and microlite) populations are sensitive indications of complex conduit processes in most of these basaltic eruptions, implying a delicate balance between mechanical coupling and uncoupling of the gas phase from the rising melt. Bubble number densities vary from 102 to 108 bubbles per cm3 reflecting contrasting rates of decompression scaling with eruptive intensity. During Strombolian eruptions, the conduit contains a complex mixture of fluid phases: slugs of uncoupled large bubbles, newly arrived, vesiculating melt accompanying the gas slugs, more mature melt resident in the conduit through the passage of multiple gas slugs, and populations of smaller gas bubbles that show variable degrees of mechanically coupling to the melt phases. This heterogeneity is present on time scales as short as single explosions but the proportions of the phase shift on time scales of days to months, reflecting the relative timing and size of gas slugs. Studied Plinian melts (e.g., Tarawera 1886, Etna 122 BC) contain significantly larger numbers of markedly smaller bubbles and a conspicuous population of microlites. The microlites play a key role in modifying effective viscosity of the melt phase which feeds back to promote disequilibrium degassing and "closed system' behavior.

Houghton, B. F.; Sable, J. E.; Lautze, N. C.

2006-12-01

261

High-Explosive Field Tests, Explosion Phenomena and Environmental Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methodologies are formulated to predict to magnitudes of high-explosive explosions phenomena for various high-explosive charge sizes and configurations and to relate these magnitudes to impacts on the natural physical and biological environment and on hum...

K. E. Gould

1981-01-01

262

CONTROL OF FLAME TRANSMISSION FROM A VESSEL TO A DISCHARGE DUCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution allowing quiet evacuation of gases in a vented explosion propagating from a vessel into a discharge duct has been studied. It consists in placing a wire-net insert at the duct entrance in order to delay flame penetration into the duct and prevent the occurrence of a secondary explosion. Experimental results demonstrate that the secondary pressure rise in the

NICOLAS HENNETON; BOGDAN PONIZY; BERNARD VEYSSIRE

2006-01-01

263

48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1) Means liquid and solid propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i...Inert components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

2013-10-01

264

29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 1915.172 Section 1915...EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable,...

2010-07-01

265

29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 1915.172 Section 1915...EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable,...

2009-07-01

266

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

2006-10-01

267

Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated.

Heung, L.K.

1995-01-01

268

Methodology for Assessing a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) Blast Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite Vessels are now used to store a variety of fluids or gases including cryogenic fluids under pressure. Sudden failure of these vessels under certain conditions can lead to a potentially catastrophic vapor expansion if thermal control is not maintained prior to failure. This can lead to a "Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion" or BLEVE.

Keddy, Chris P.

2012-01-01

269

Blast from explosive evaporation of carbon dioxide: experiment, modeling and physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosive evaporation of a superheated liquid is a relevant hazard in the process industry. A vessel rupture\\u000aduring storage, transport or handling may lead to devastating blast effects. In order to assess the risk associated with this hazard or to design protective measures, an accurate prediction model for the blast generated after vessel rupture is needed. For this reason a

M. M. Van der Voort; A. C. Van den berg; D. J. E. M. Roekaerts; M. Xie; P. C. J. De Bruijn

2012-01-01

270

Compact explosion diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system to automatically generate compact explosion diagrams. Inspired by handmade illustrations, our approach reduces the complexity of an explosion diagram by rendering an exploded view only for a subset of the assemblies of an object. However, the exploded views are chosen so that they allow inference of the remaining unexploded assemblies of the entire 3D model.

Markus Tatzgern; Denis Kalkofen; Dieter Schmalstieg

2010-01-01

271

Estimates of explosive yield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive yield as a function of propellant type and accident conditions was discussed along with the characteristics of propellant explosions. Three types of fuel-hypergolic, liquid oxygen-hydrocarbon, and liquid oxygen-liquid-hydrogen were considered. Data are also given on three modes (failure modes) of mixing: confinement by missile, confinement by ground surface, and high velocity impact.

1977-01-01

272

The Cambrian Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Bristol page discusses in detail the Cambrian Explosion event that occurred about 545 million years ago. This site covers what the 'explosion' was and when it happened, the Cambrian environment, what caused this event to occur, fossil groups and their significance, and controversies surrounding this theory as well as recent discoveries.

273

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and

Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

2005-01-01

274

Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the War a general investigation was commenced at the Road Research Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives-the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by adjusting the constitution-and their relation to primers of different

D. Croney

1948-01-01

275

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

276

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01

277

The TPX vacuum vessel and in-vessel components  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is a superconducting tokamak with double-null diverters. TPX is designed for 1,000-second discharges with the capability of being upgraded to steady state operation. High neutron yields resulting from the long duration discharges require that special consideration be given to materials and maintainability. A unique feature of the TPX is the use of a low activation, titanium alloy vacuum vessel. Double-wall vessel construction is used since it offers an efficient solution for shielding, bakeout and cooling. Contained within the vacuum vessel are the passive coil system, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs), magnetic diagnostics, and the internal control coils. All PFCs utilize carbon-carbon composites for exposed surfaces.

Heitzenroeder, P.; Bialek, J.; Ellis, R.; Kessel, C.; Liew, S.

1994-07-01

278

Filament-wound composite vessels material technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programs are reviewed that were conducted to establish a technology base for applying advanced fibers or resins to high performance filament-wound pressure vessels for containment of cryogens and high pressure gases. Materials evaluated included boron, graphite, PRD 49-1 and 3/epoxy and S-glass/polyimide composites. Closed-end cylindrical, and oblate spheroid-shaped vessels were fabricated in 4- and 8-inch diameter sizes. Vessels were subjected to single-cycle burst, low-cycle fatigue, and sustained loading tests over a -423 F to room temperature range for epoxy composites and a -423 to 500 F temperature range for the polyimide composites. Vessels tested at cryogenic and/or 500 F had thin (3 to 20 mils) metallic liners whereas vessels tested at room temperature had elastomeric liners. Correlations between acoustic emissions and burst and cyclic properties of PRD 49-1 filament-wound vessels are discussed.

Lark, R. F.

1973-01-01

279

Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

Maienschein, J. L.

2014-05-01

280

BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

Vormelker, P

2008-09-22

281

Vapor explosions in a stratified geometry  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an experimental investigation of stratified vapor explosions and scalling conducted by constructing test sections of two different sizes and using two different fluid pairs. The horizontal lengths of the interaction vessels are 20 and 50 cm (geometric scale ratio: 2:5). The two liquid pairs are water and liquid nitrogen, and water and Freon-12, with water being the hot liquid. The interactions are either triggered by an external trigger or allowed to occur spontaneously depending on the liquid pair and initial conditions. The major experimental variables are initial water temperature, liquid layer depths, and magnitude of the external trigger pressure. Interaction pressures, mechanical work release, and depth of intermixing are measured. The water/Freon-12 pair produces more violent interactions than the water/liquid nitrogen. In both cases, the explosion propagation speeds are supersonic, ranging from 40 to 250 m/s. The small depths ({le}1 cm) of liquid-liquid mixing during the explosion propagation are observed in both liquid pairs. A simple model for the depth of intermixing is derived, and the result shows reasonable agreement with the experimental observations. The length of the liquid layer interface and the depth of the top liquid appear to be the key geometric parameters in stratified vapor explosions.

Bang, K.H.; Corradini, M.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, 1500 Johnson Drive, Madison, WI (US))

1991-05-01

282

Gunshot and Explosion Injuries  

PubMed Central

Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7.8% in the GSW group compared with 5.3% in the explosion group. A larger proportion of gunshot victims died during the first day (97% versus 58%). Conclusions: GSW and injuries from explosions differ in the body region of injury, distribution of severity, LOS, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and time of inpatient death. These findings have implications for treatment and for preparedness of hospital resources to treat patients after a terrorist attack in any region of the world. Tailored protocol for patient evaluation and initial treatment should differ between GSW and explosion victims. Hospital organization toward treating and admitting these patients should take into account the different arrival and injury patterns.

Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

2004-01-01

283

Screening sealed bottles for liquid explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particularly disturbing development affecting transportation safety and security is the increasing use of terrorist devices which avoid detection by conventional means through the use of liquid explosives and flammables. The hazardous materials are generally hidden in wine or liquor bottles that cannot be opened routinely for inspection. This problem was highlighted by the liquid explosives threat which disrupted air traffic between the US an the Far East for an extended period in 1995. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening systems capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system, magnetic resonance (MR) is used to interrogate the liquid. MR produces an extremely rich data set and many characteristics of the MR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple MR signatures can be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat. The Quantum Magnetics Liquid Explosives Screening System is currently operational. Following extensive laboratory testing, a field trial of the system was carried out at the Los Angeles International Airport.

Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Kim, Y.-W.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Ficke, L.; Chhoa, T. K.; Moeller, C. R.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Burnett, Lowell J.; Czipott, Peter V.; Pence, J. S.; Skvoretz, David C.

1997-01-01

284

Development of a technique using MCNPX code for determination of nitrogen content of explosive materials using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma 10.8 MeV following radioactive neutron capture by 14N nuclei. We aimed to study the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) along with improved nuclear equipment to detect and identify explosives, illicit substances or landmines. A 252Cf radio-isotopic source was embedded in a cylinder made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the cylinder was then placed in another cylindrical container filled with water. Measurements were performed on high nitrogen content compounds such as melamine (C3H6N6). Melamine powder in a HDPE bottle was placed underneath the vessel containing water and the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The results were simulated with MCNP4c code calculations. The theoretical calculations and experimental measurements were in good agreement indicating that this method can be used for detection of explosives and illicit drugs.

Nasrabadi, M. N.; Bakhshi, F.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A.

2011-12-01

285

Nuclear explosive, a potential asset to chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of underground nuclear explosions as an asset for the production of interesting basic materials, particularly gases, was explored. The 3 main processes by which gases are produced during such an explosion are irradiation, mechanical release due to breaking up of the containment material, and by in situ chemical reactions caused by the thermal and pressure energies of the

P. Cohen; M. Dupuis; S. M. Picq

1968-01-01

286

A new seismic discriminant for earthquakes and explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the spread of nuclear weapons technology, more regions of the world need to be monitored in order to verify nuclear nonproliferation and limited test-ban treaties. Seismic monitoring is the primary means to remotely sense contained underground explosions ``Bolt, 1976; Dahlman and Israelson, 1977''. Both underground explosions and earthquakes generate seismic energy, which propagates through the Earth as elastic waves.

Bradley B. Woods; Donald V. Helmberger

1993-01-01

287

Size reduction of hemispherical explosive shells by waterjet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water jet process has been developed to reduce hemispherical explosive shells to a form that can be recycled. A funnel shaped wet box was modified to hold the shells in place and contain all the explosive chips and slurry generated by the waterjet process. Size reduction was accomplished by cutting in spiral patterns starting at the center of the

J. A. Crutchmer; B. T. Do; P. A. Goodfellow

1995-01-01

288

The ignition temperature of solid explosives exposed to a fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a system containing solid explosive is engulfed in a fire it receives a heat flux that causes the temperature of the system to rise monotonically. The temperature rise can often be approximated by a linear rise for extended periods of time. When some portion of the explosive, usually near the surface, reaches its ignition temperature it will begin to

Creighton

1993-01-01

289

Quadractic Model of Thermodynamic States in SDF Explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the thermodynamic states encountered during Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. Such explosions contain up to six components: three fuels (PETN, TNT and Aluminum) and their products corresponding to stoichiometric combustion with air. We establish the loci in thermodynamic state space that correctly describes the behavior of the components. Results are fit with quadratic functions that serve as fast equations of

A L Kuhl; B Khasainov

2007-01-01

290

PELAN 2001: current status of the PELAN explosives detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

PELAN (Pulsed ELemental Analysis with Neutrons) is a portable system for the detection of explosives, weighing less than 45 kg. It is based on the principle that explosives and other contraband contain various chemical elements such as H, C, N, O, etc. in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from other innocuous substances. Neutrons are produced with a pulsed 14

Phillip C. Womble; George Vourvopoulos; Ivan Novikov; Jonathon Paschal

2001-01-01

291

Characterization of detonation products of RSI-007 explosive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a high-purity CL-20 based explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The back surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for interferometry measurements. Detailed reverberations corresponding to shock arrival and release are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further refine the release states.

Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Breaux, Bradley; Vineski, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Lambert, David; Chhabildas, Lalit

2012-03-01

292

New method for calculating densities of nitroaromatic explosive compounds.  

PubMed

A new model has been introduced for simple calculation of crystal density of an important class of organic explosives, namely nitroaromatic energetic compounds. This model is based on the fundamental correlation. The introduced procedure has been applied to 60 well-known and new synthesized organic nitroaromatic explosives. The results show that the present method gives comparable prediction respect to well-developed group additivity method for estimation of crystal density of organic explosives. The introduced simple method can be applied to any complex nitroaromatic explosive that contains the elements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen with no difficulties. PMID:17174024

Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

2007-06-25

293

Characterization of Detonation Products of RSI-007 Explosive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a production quality RSI-007 explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The free surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for the interferometry measurements. Detailed shock reverberations are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further determine the release state in different pressure regimes.

Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Chhabildas, Lalit

2011-06-01

294

Optically measured explosive impulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

2014-06-01

295

The Physics of Nova Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nova outburst is the consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf and is the largest hydrogen powered explosion in the Universe. The fuel is supplied by the secondary star in a close binary system while the strong electron degeneracy of the massive white dwarf acts as a container for the gas during the early stages of the explosion. Because the gas cannot expand until nearly the peak of the explosion, the temperature in the nuclear burning region will exceed 10^8K under all circumstances. As a result a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into ?^+-unstable nuclei. I will discuss the effects on the evolution of the presence of these nuclei in the thermonuclear burning region. Recent observational studies have shown that there are two classes of novae; one which occurs on a white dwarf with a core composition of carbon and oxygen, and a second class that occurs on a white dwarf with a core consisting of oxygen, neon, and magnesium. In my talk I will concentrate on the latter class since these novae are predicted to produce the most interesting nucleosynthesis. I will report on hydrodynamic calculations that examine the consequences of the accretion process on 1.0M_solar, 1.25M_solar, and 1.35M_solar white dwarfs and which predict that novae can produce ^22Na, ^26Al, and other intermediate mass nuclei in interesting amounts. I will then discuss the results of new observational determinations of nova abundances which demonstrate that the predicted nucleosynthesis is occurring in the explosion. Finally, I will present the results of recent calculations, done with updated nuclear reaction rates and opacities, and discuss the causes of the quantitative differences with respect to published work.

Starrfield, Sumner

1996-05-01

296

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes re-freezing the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge

M. N. Makhov

2004-01-01

297

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes ``re-freezing'' the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge

M. N. Makhov

2004-01-01

298

Improved Coward explosive triangle for determining explosibility of mixture gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is very important to determine the explosibility of the mixture gas in the coal mine sealed area after a gas explosion occurred. If the combustible mixture gas has high explosive tendency, the potential re-occurring explosion would cause rescue workers death when they proceed with their rescue operations in the accident mine. Therefore, no one is allowed to go down

Jian-wei Cheng; Sheng-qiang Yang

2011-01-01

299

Measurements and ALE3D Simulations for Violence in a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment with LX10 and AerMet 100 Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We completed a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) and performed ALE3D simulations for the HMX-based explosive, LX-10, confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) vessel. The explosive was heated at 1 C\\/h until cookoff at 182 C using a controlled temperature profile. During the explosion, the expansion of the tube and fragment velocities were measured with strain gauges, Photonic-Doppler-Velocimeters (PDVs),

M A McClelland; J L Maienschein; J J Yoh; M R deHaven; O T Strand

2005-01-01

300

Casualty Data Analysis of the World Merchant Fleet for Reported Fire and Explosion Incidents Resulting in Marine Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World wide merchant vessel fire and explosion casualty data were analyzed to determine the contribution of these casualties to the marine pollution problem. The source of information is the Lloyd's Casualty Information System Data Base. The major findings...

M. J. Gentile R. P. Dickenson

1995-01-01

301

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

302

Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

Dubasov, Yuri V.

2010-05-01

303

75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive mixtures. Potassium nitroaminotetrazole...Sodium nitrate explosive mixtures. Sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate explosive mixture. Sodium picramate. Special...

2010-11-17

304

76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive mixtures. Potassium nitroaminotetrazole...Sodium nitrate explosive mixtures. Sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate explosive mixture. Sodium picramate. Special...

2011-10-19

305

77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive mixtures. Potassium nitroaminotetrazole...Sodium nitrate explosive mixtures. Sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate explosive mixture. Sodium picramate. Special...

2012-09-20

306

46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812 Shipping...Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2013-10-01

307

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2013-10-01

308

The ignition temperature of solid explosives exposed to a fire  

SciTech Connect

When a system containing solid explosive is engulfed in a fire it receives a heat flux that causes the temperature of the system to rise monotonically. The temperature rise can often be approximated by a linear rise for extended periods of time. When some portion of the explosive, usually near the surface, reaches its ignition temperature it will begin to burn. If the explosive is unconfined, or can breach its confinement at low pressure, it will burn, not explode. Typically the burn front will propagate through a slab or shell at speeds on the order of a centimeter a minute. If the explosive is confined, the gas resulting from its burning will generate pressures high enough to rupture the confinement, but the peak pressure will generally be only a fraction of the pressure from a true detonation. When a system is not engulfed in the fire, but is close enough to be heated slowly by the fire, the behavior will be different. If the explosive is heated slowly it will have a nearly uniform temperature and ignition will occur inside the explosive. This almost always causes an explosion, even when the explosive as a whole is unconfined. The reason for this behavior is not well understood but slow heating of an explosive generally results in a more violent explosion than fast heating. These two situations are recognized by fast and slow cookoff tests used with munitions. Many munitions pass the fast cookoff test with heating rates around 2 K/min. Slow cookoff tests with heating rates around 4 K/hr generally result in an explosion. (The equations in this paper assume absolute temperatures in Kelvins, equal to Celsius + 273.16.) Mathematical models predicting the time to explosion are usually based on the assumption that the explosive has a uniform initial temperature and that the outer surface is suddenly raised to some temperature and held there. The earliest such models where those of Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii.

Creighton, J.R.

1993-09-01

309

Explosive nucleosynthesis: prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions - the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high-intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of supernovae 1987A and 1998bw (GRB980425?), and /? Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

Arnett, D.

2000-08-01

310

Explosives Vapor Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vaporous emissions from seventeen explosives were investigated by gas chromatographic and combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques using a novel collection device. The vapor emission rates were followed as a function of time untile t...

F. H. Jarke S. M. Gordon

1982-01-01

311

Molecular Models for Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of fo...

J. P. Ritchie S. M. Bachrach

1987-01-01

312

Explosives Detecting Immunosensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To meet environmental remediation goals, there is a need for rapid, quantitative detection of hazardous pollutants such as explosives. Biosensors provide a rapid, specific, sensitive, portable, and inexpensive means to fulfill those needs. The Naval Resea...

A. Kusterbeck L. Shriver-Lake

2000-01-01

313

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

314

Vacuum Pump Explosion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made into explosions and backfires occurring in vacuum pumps used on Navy oxygen component test stands. Research and testing uncovered several fire and toxicity hazards on these pumps which carry gaseous oxygen flows. Corrective recom...

H. H. Yuen T. D. Weikel

1972-01-01

315

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

SciTech Connect

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2011-01-01

316

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Reber, Edward L.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Jewell, J. Keith; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Klinger, Jeffery B.

2005-12-01

317

Countering Improvised Explosive Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have no greater responsibility than providing for the safety and security for our citizens, allies, and partners, while providing an economic environment that promotes opportunity and prosperity. The use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) threatens...

B. Obama

2013-01-01

318

Explosively Separable Casing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding gr...

A. K. Jacobson R. E. Rychnovsky C. N. Visbeck

1983-01-01

319

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

ScienceCinema

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2013-05-28

320

Evaluation of the HSST program intermediate pressure vessel tests in terms of light-water-reactor pressure vessel safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight 6-in.-thick 39-in.-OD steel pressure vessels containing carefully ; prepared and sharpened surface cracks have been tested to provide an improved ; quantitative basis for evaluating the safety margins against fracture of nuclear ; reactor pressure vessels. The cylindrical regions of the test vessels were ; fabricated from either A508 class 2 forging steel or A533, grade B, class 1

J. G. Merkle; G. D. Whitman; R. H. Bryan

1975-01-01

321

Nuclear explosive safety study process  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

NONE

1997-01-01

322

Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Hypernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the characteristics of nucleosynthesis in ``hypernovae,'' i.e., supernovae with very large explosion energies (>~1052 ergs). We carry out detailed nucleosynthesis calculations for these energetic explosions and compare the yields with those of ordinary core-collapse supernovae. We find that both complete and incomplete Si-burning takes place over more extended, lower density regions, so that the alpha-rich freezeout is enhanced

Takayoshi Nakamura; Hideyuki Umeda; Koichi Iwamoto; Ken'ichi Nomoto; Masa-aki Hashimoto; W. Raphael Hix; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

2001-01-01

323

Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 28 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to drilling for explosive fracturing, pre-blast surveys, blasting regulations, underground and surface mining, tunneling, efficiency and optimization of explosive fracturing, blasting accidents, blast damage control, environmental control, and the use of explosive fracturing in remedial action. Many papers were processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-12-31

324

Proceedings of the nineteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Confernce on Explosives and Blasting techniques is the nineteenth in a series piblished by the International Society of Explosives Engineers (ISEE). It contains papers on a wide range of explosives applications. Forty-three papers were selected for inclusion in the energy data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01

325

Shock evolution after shaped charge jet impact and its relevance to explosive initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a shaped charge jet impacts a target containing explosive, the explosive may be initiated by one of three shocks: the impact shock, a bow shock that forms in the inert plate covering the exlosive, or a bow shock that forms in the explosive. In this paper, numerical calculations are used to determine how thick the cover plate must be

R. Frey; W. Lawrence; M. Chick

1995-01-01

326

61 FR 36790 - Safety Standards for Explosives at Metal and Nonmetal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allow equipment to come in contact with explosive loading equipment and explosive containers, thereby exerting impact. In the proposal, MSHA would have added a new requirement for underground mines to...which the process of loading and firing explosives is interrupted. In the proposal, MSHA would have added new requirements for all mines to...

1996-07-12

327

Thermal stability of a plastic bonded explosive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the thermal stability of a plastic bonded explosive containing an oxidizer cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), binder and plasticizer was required in order to satisfy the requirement of NAVORD OD 44811 and to obtain safety information for handling and use. The thermal stability of the PBX was determined by dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in sealed\\/unsealed sample pans and by

Albert S Tompa; Robert F Boswell

2000-01-01

328

Explosive Welding and Cladding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive welding or cladding is usually performed on relative thick plates by means of a large scale parallel plate set-up. At TNO-PML several of the explosive welding configurations that were developed mainly in the nineteen sixties and seventies are being investigated for their potential use in modern industrial applications. Configurations for explosive cladding of curved surfaces such as tubes and rods are also being examined. This can be used to make special bimetallic heat exchanger tubes, or for the protection of electrodes that are used in electrolysis. Explosive line and seam welding are important bonding techniques that allow the welding of both similar and dissimilar metal plates and sheets. Here, bonding occurs over a small overlapping fraction of the two surfaces. This requires only a small amount of explosive (e.g. 5 g/m for line welds in thin ductile sheets). Explosive foil cladding can be used as an alternative coating technique. Plates that are clad with a foil on one or both sides were fabricated in one process step. They can be further machined or deformed using conventional techniques, due to the ductility of the bond and clad material.

Meuken, D.; Carton, E. P.

2004-07-01

329

Volcanic explosion on Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VOLCANIC EXPLOSION ON IO: Voyager 1 acquired this image of Io on March 4 at 5:30 p.m. (PST) about 11 hours before closest approach to the Jupiter moon. The distance to Io was about 490,000 kilometers (304,000 miles). An enormous volcanic explosion can be seen silhouetted against dark space over Io's bright limb. The brightness of the plume has been increased by the computer as it is normally extremely faint, whereas the relative color of the plume (greenish white) has been preserved. At this time solid material had been thrown up to an altitude of about 100 miles. This requires an ejection velocity from the volcanic vent of about 1200 miles per hour, material reaching the crest of the fountain in several minutes. The vent area is a complex circular structure consisting of a bright ring about 300 kilometers in diameter and a central region of irregular dark and light patterns. Volcanic explosions similar to this occur on the Earth when magmatic gases expand explosively as material is vented. On Earth water is the major gas driving the explosion. Because Io is thought to be extremely dry, scientists are searching for other gases to explain the explosion. JPL manages and controls the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1979-01-01

330

Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

331

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

332

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15

333

Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch  

DOEpatents

An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed. 7 figs.

Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

1987-07-14

334

Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch  

DOEpatents

An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

1986-05-02

335

Explosive Train Scale Shock Testing of New Energetic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Insensitive munitions (IM) improve the survivability of both weapons and their associated platforms which can lead to a reduction in casualties, mission losses and whole life costs. All weapon systems contain an explosive train which needs to meet IM crit...

G. T. Flegg P. J. Frankl T. T. Griffiths

2010-01-01

336

Insensitive Explosive Composition of Halogenated Copolymer and Triaminotrinitrobenzene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A highly insensitive and heat resistant plastic-bonded explosive containing 90 wt % triaminotrinitrobenzene and 10 wt % of a fully saturated copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride is readily manufactured by the slurry process. (ERA c...

T. M. Benziger

1976-01-01

337

Explosion of Comet Holmes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on observations and theoretical interpretation of the explosion on comet 17P/Holmes 2007 Oct 23. Observed used the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrograph (5-40 microns), the Spitzer imaging photometer (24 and 70 microns), the Palomar Observatory 60-inch telescope, and frequent optical images from the Holloway comet observatory. The 2007 Nov 10 infrared spectral mapping revealed spatially diffuse emission with detailed mineralogical features, including those of small crystalline olivine grains. The 2008 Feb 27 spectra, and the central core of the 2007 Nov 10 spectral map, are nearly featureless, due to prevalence much larger grains that were ejected from the nucleus more slowly. The images and spectra in 2008 Mar can be segmented into three components: (1) a hemispherical shell due to the fastest (262 m/s), smallest (2 micron) debris; (2) a `blob' or `pseudonucleus' offset from the true nucleus, due to intermediate speed (93 m/s) and size (8 micron) particles; and (3) a `core' centered on the nucleus due to slower (9 m/s), larger (200 micron) ejecta. This decomposition of the mid-infrared observations also explains the temporal evolution of the mm-wave flux. The orientation of the leading edge of the ejecta shell and the ejecta `blob,' relative to the nucleus, do not change as the orientation of the Sun changes; instead, the configuration is imprinted by the orientation of the initial explosion. Using digitized versions of E. E. Barnard's images of the 1892 explosion of comet Holmes, we find remarkably similar properties of the explosion, including the direction of the ejecta remaining constant (rather than moving with the Sun). The earlier explosion was less energetic by a factor of about 20, meaning that the first and second most energetic cometary explosions witnessed by man are the 2007 and 1892 explosions of comet Holmes, in that order.

Reach, William T.; Vaubaillon, J.; Lisse, C. M.; Holloway, M.; Rho, J.

2009-09-01

338

Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform  

ScienceCinema

This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

None

2012-12-31

339

Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform  

SciTech Connect

This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

None

2010-06-01

340

Gas gun for dynamic loading of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has long been a need to understand the impact response of explosive materials, and continual improvements result from the design of careful, well-instrumented experiments. This article summarizes details of the design and construction of a laboratory facility capable of launching projectiles at explosive targets at velocities up to 1500 m s-1. There are two types of experiment that are required. In the first, a gun launches a plate of great planarity at an equally flat target. This geometry is known as plate impact and a target loaded in this manner experiences a state of one-dimensional strain. This loading is accomplished by launching plane impactors onto targets aligned to micron tolerances, normal to the impact axis to less than 0.5 mrad of tilt. In the second, it is required to attain the ability to recover impacted explosive targets that have been loaded in one-dimensional strain for subsequent microstructural assessment. The development of this capability will be described in a subsequent publication. The system is capable of containing reactive targets, where design must allow for complete detonation of the target (up to 250 g of explosive). The facility has been completed, is operational, and has been approved for use by the appropriate authorities. An example of a particle velocity sensor in use within a plastic-bonded explosive is given as illustration.

Bourne, N. K.

2004-01-01

341

Explosively separable casing  

DOEpatents

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

Jacobson, Albin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rychnovsky, Raymond E. (Livermore, CA); Visbeck, Cornelius N. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

342

Electromagnetic Field Effects in Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H.; Lee, R. J.

2009-12-01

343

Pressure vessel bottle mount  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

2001-01-01

344

Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel  

SciTech Connect

The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellarator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 degrees centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

Fred Dahlgren; Art Brooks; Paul Goranson; Mike Cole; Peter Titus

2004-09-28

345

Explosion and Explosives. Vol 32, No. 6, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Future role of explosive experts; Studies on detonation pressure; Measurement of static charge of initiating explosives; A thin lead azide detonating fuse of thread type; The determination of the extent of cure by the attenuated total reflection...

1972-01-01

346

Explosion and Explosives, Volume 32, Number 6, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Future role of explosive experts; Studies on detonation pressure; Measurement of static charge of initiating explosives; A thin lead azide detonating fuse of thread type; The determination of the extent of cure by the attenuated total reflection...

1972-01-01

347

Viscosity Measurements of Malleable Explosive (MEX), a New Demolition Explosive,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rheological characterisation of Malleable Explosive (MEX), a new explosive intended for demolition use, is presented. A Brookfield viscometer with T-bar spindles and Helipath stand is used to investigate the viscosity of MEX at shear rates similar to ...

H. H. Billon M. A. Parry

1988-01-01

348

A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.  

PubMed

The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. PMID:22858504

Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

2012-10-01

349

Continuous steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C. [Stake Technology Ltd., Norval, Ontario (Canada)

1995-02-01

350

Bioremediation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The extensive manufacture, packing, and the use of explosives has often resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground waters near these activities. Congressional mandate has now required that such sites be remediated. An especially promising technology for this explosives problem is biotechnology. When applicable, biotechnology is cheap and provides complete conversion of hazardous compounds to harmless biomass or carbon dioxide. The focus of this paper will be on our present understanding of the microbial metabolism of the explosives, TNT and RDX, which have been used most extensively in the United States. To assure that an efficient process is developed for TNT biodegradation, we are conducting appropriate lab scale tests with TNT contaminated soil. First, we are testing their efficiency in soil/water slurries; we are also testing their efficiency in a column system designed to simulate composting conditions. A pilot scale test of this bacterial degradation will be conducted as soon as weather permits. 36 refs., 5 figs.

Unkefer, P.J.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Unkefer, C.J.; Stenger, M.; Margiotta, E.A.

1990-01-01

351

Drill vessels float in aerated water  

SciTech Connect

Model tests, calculations, and case studies prove that a floating vessel will not sink due to gas reducing the water density in or adjacent to a subsea blowout. Several floating drill vessels have been lost as a result of subsea blowouts. Reports have circulated that the rig sank into something similar to a hole in the ocean caused by gas bubbles suspended in the water reducing its specific gravity. These erroneous reports, believed as truth by many people, have resulted in the modification of operations resulting in decreased safety. Several subsea well control operations have caused accidents and losses because the riser was not disconnected. This action was taken in fear of sinking in aerated water. The losses occurred because the vessel winched itself off the drill site to get away from the subsea well before disconnecting. Due to the high riser/BOP angle, the riser could not be disconnected and well control was later lost and the gas/oil flowed directly to the rig floor where massive fire/explosion damage occurred. If there had been a better understanding of water density, the rig personnel could have closed all hatches, shut-down all engines, disconnected the riser and released mooring lines at one end of the rig, and safely removed the rig out of the aerated water. This paper presents some of the technical data and references available which prove that a floating vessel will not sink due to loss of water density.

Hammett, D.S.

1985-01-01

352

An explosion in Tunguska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on 30 June 1908 is given, including that of a meteor impact, asteroid impact, atomic explosion (F. Zigel and other), comet impact (V.G. Fesenkov and other). The theory sustained by author is that of a methan gas explosion initialazed by a meteor in a volume of about 0.25-2.5 billions m3 of methan. The shape of the place could be explained by few gaseous pouches, which could explode in a chain reaction. A review of similar explosions on the level of ground is given in the USSR as well as elsewhere. The soil fluidization is reviewed during earthquakes and similar phenomena. The original hypothesis by author was published in the "Lumea" N 41 magazin (Romania) on October 12 1989. The author disagree with atomic hypotesis enounced by F. Zigel, while the main factor of the explosion is the formation of one or few methan pouches above the soil. The programe of one of the most important international workshops (Tunguska 96 in Bologna on July 14-17) is attached. The site by Ioan Nistor gives a collection of informations about the event from elsewhere as well as the "gaseous pouches" hypothesis by the author.

Nistor, Ioan

353

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 segments together. Each 60 segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

354

Attosecond molecular Coulomb explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular Coulomb explosion has been utilized as a precise temporal clock for probing ultrafast motion of nucleus and electrons during chemical reactions. With an intense attosecond pulse train in the extreme ultraviolet region, we were able to image attosecond molecular Coulomb explosion via two photon double ionization process. The present autocorrelation measurement, from which the duration of the attosecond pulse train was determined to be 300 as, serves as the first step toward a pump-and-probe measurement of molecular dynamics with attosecond temporal resolution.

Okino, Tomoya; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Furusawa, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

2006-12-01

355

Explosive Welding with Nitroguanidine.  

PubMed

By using the explosive nitroguanidine, continuous welds can be made between similar and dissimilar metals. Since low detonation pressures are attainable, pressure transfer media are not required between the explosive and the metal surface. The need for either a space or an angle between the metals is eliminated, and very low atmospheric pressures are not required. Successful welds have been made between tantalum and 4140 steel, 3003H14 aluminum and 4140 steel, and 304 stainless steel and 3003H14 aluminum. PMID:17833901

Sadwin, L D

1964-03-13

356

Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint

Tabetha Osborn; Sindhu Kaimal; Jason Causey; William Burns; Scott Reeve

2009-01-01

357

Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

Fleming, David C.

2002-01-01

358

Pressure sensor for sealed containers  

DOEpatents

A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

Hodges, Franklin R. (Loudon, TN)

2001-01-01

359

Effects of multiple. 30-caliber bullet impacts on steel-encased explosives: Experimental Report I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one experiments have been performed in a series where typical explosive formulations for weapons were encased in steel vessels and impacted by up to six .30-caliber bullets fired at 1.2-s intervals. We have observed that detonation can occur on the second bullet impact if the high-explosive configuration (detonator, booster, and main charge) is complete and tested at an elevated temperature.

Honodel

1984-01-01

360

A method of analysis for gas explosions: H 2Se case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for conducting a simplified gas-explosion analysis when there are uncertainties about the amount of fuel involved and the mode of combustion. The methodology is illustrated by a case study of an explosion of a cloud of hydrogen-selenide (H2Se), nitrogen and air. Hydrogen-selenide (H2Se) diluted with N2 is used in a reactor vessel to produce solar

G. Ciccarelli; V. M. Fthenakis; J. L. Boccio

1999-01-01

361

IMPROVEMENTS IN SUBTERRANEAN NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested to let a non-military nuclear explosion take place in an ; evacuated subterranean space, created by digging or by a preliminary explosion. ; It is stated that due to the evacuation, less nuclear energy is mechanically ; wasted in the form of shock waves. Thus, the thermal output of the explosion is ; increased whereas subterranean destruction

Rougeron; P. M. C. M

1959-01-01

362

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a

Robert H. Dinegar; John Kirkham

1982-01-01

363

New explosive seam welding concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

Bement, L. J.

1973-01-01

364

Environmental fate of explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal practices associated with military production of weapons, especially before and during World War II, have resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground water with high explosives such as TNT, RDX and HMX. Development of remediation and risk management strategies for these contaminated sites as well as development of approaches for sustainable use of active training and weapons

Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon

2002-01-01

365

Explosively Welded Scarf Joint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention describes a method for producing a modified scarf weld which is not limited due to small gage of the parts to be welded. It uses the simple technique of explosive welding to bond and simultaneously shape sheet material so that an essentiall...

L. J. Bement

1972-01-01

366

Aspherical supernova explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core collapse supernovae (SN) are the final stages of stellar evolution in massive stars during which the central region collapses, forms a neutron star (NS), and the outer layers are ejected. Recent explosion scenarios assumed that the ejection is due to energy deposition by neutrinos into the envelope, but detailed models do not produce powerful explosions. There is new and mounting evidence for an asphericity and, in particular, for axial symmetry in several supernovae which may be hard to reconcile within the spherical picture. This evidence includes the observed high polarization and its variation with time, pulsar kicks, high velocity iron-group and intermediate-mass elements material observed in remnants, direct observations of the debris of SN 1987A, etc. Some of the new evidence is discussed in more detail. To be in agreement with the observations, any successful mechanism must invoke some sort of axial symmetry for the explosion. We consider jet-induced/dominated explosions of core collapse supernovae. Our study is based on detailed 3-D hydrodynamical and radiation transport models. We find that the observations can be explained by low velocity, massive jets which stall well within the SN envelope. Such outflows may be produced by MHD-mechanisms, convective dominated accretion disks on the central object or asymmetric neutrino emissions. Asymmetric density/chemical distributions and, for SN 2002ap, off-center energy depositions have been identified as crucial for the interpretation of the polarization.

Hflich, Peter A.; Baade, Dietrich; Khokhlov, Alexei M.; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J. Craig

367

75 FR 5545 - Explosives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 [Docket No. OSHA-2007-0032 (formerly Docket Nos. OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health...

2010-02-03

368

Managing the data explosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

Hooper, Richard, P.; Aulenbach, Brent, T.

1993-01-01

369

Fundamentals of Explosive Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the basic mechanism of adhesion in all welding processes, and a brief review of fusion and pressure welding techniques is given. A completely new method of welding which employs high explosives is briefly described and explained in terms of the principle used in the hollow charge, which wm developed during days of war to defeat

B. Crossland; A. S. Bahrani

1968-01-01

370

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

371

Portable Raman explosives detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics,\\u000a as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy,\\u000a both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

David S. Moore; R. Jason Scharff

2009-01-01

372

Tuff reaction vessel experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory leaching test has been performed as part of a project to evaluate the suitability of tuff rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Glass samples of the kind that will be used to store nuclear waste were placed in water inside tuff vessels, and then the tuff vessels were placed in

F. Bazan; J. H. Rego

1986-01-01

373

Muliscale Vessel Enhancement Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiscale second order local structure of an image (Hessian )i s ex- amined with the purpose of developing a vessel enhancement filter. A vesselness mea- sure is obtained on the basis of all eigenvalues of the Hessian. This measure is tested on two dimensional DSA and three dimensional aortoiliac and cerebral MRA data. Its clinical utility is shown by

Alejandro F. Frangi; Wiro J. Niessen; Koen L. Vincken; Max A. Viergever

1998-01-01

374

Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such

Lohr, Tresa Rae

2006-01-01

375

Stellarator Helical Vacuum Vessel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that...

E. J. Yavornik

1983-01-01

376

Biotransformation of Explosives by Reticulitermes flavipes -Associated Termite Endosymbionts.  

PubMed

Background/Aims: Termites have an important role in the carbon and nitrogen cycles despite their reputation as destructive pests. With the assistance of microbial endosymbionts, termites are responsible for the conversion of complex biopolymers into simple carbon substrates. Termites also rely on endosymbionts for fixing and recycling nitrogen. As a result, we hypothesize that termite bacterial endosymbionts are a novel source of metabolic pathways for the transformation of nitrogen-rich compounds like explosives. Methods: Explosives transformation capability of termite (Reticulitermes flavipes)-derived endosymbionts was determined in media containing the chemical constituents nitrotriazolone (NTO) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) that comprise new insensitive explosive formulations. Media dosed with 40 g/ml of explosive was inoculated with surface-sterilized, macerated termites. Bacterial isolates capable of explosives transformation were characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: Termite-derived enrichment cultures demonstrated degradation activity towards the explosives NTO, RDX, as well as the legacy explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Three isolates with high similarity to the Enterobacteriaceae(Enterobacter, Klebsiella) were able to transform TNT and NTO within 2 days, while isolates with high similarity to Serratia marcescens and Lactococcus lactis were able to transform RDX. Conclusion: Termite endosymbionts harbor a range of metabolic activities and possess unique abilities to transform nitrogen-rich explosives. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24854223

Indest, Karl J; Eaton, Hillary L; Jung, Carina M; Lounds, Caly B

2014-01-01

377

Dual shell pressure balanced vessel  

DOEpatents

A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

378

Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial confinement. The Frozen Rock Experiment in 2006 found only minor differences in seismic coupling for explosions in frozen and unfrozen rock. The seismo-acoustic source function was the focus of the above- and below-ground Humble Redwood explosions (2007, 2009 ) in New Mexico and detonations of rocket motor explosions in Utah. Acoustic travel time calibration for the IMS was accomplished with the 2009 and 2011 100-ton surface explosions in southern Israel. The New England Damage Experiment in 2009 correlated increased shear wave generation with increased rock damage from explosions. Damage from explosions continues to be an important research topic at Nevada's National Center for Nuclear Security with the ongoing Source Physics Experiment. A number of exciting experiments are already planned for the future and thus continue the effort to improve global detection, location, and identification of nuclear explosions.

Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

2011-12-01

379

Probabilistic modeling of propagating explosions  

SciTech Connect

Weapons containing significant quantities of high explosives (HE) are sometimes located in close proximity to one another. If an explosion occurs in a weapon, the possibility of propagation to one or more additional weapons may exist, with severe consequences possibly resulting. In the general case, a system of concern consists of multiple weapons and various other objects in a complex, three-dimensional geometry. In each weapon, HE is enclosed by (casing) materials that function as protection in the event of a neighbor detonation but become a source of fragments if the HE is initiated. The protection afforded by the casing means that only high-momentum fragments, which occur rarely, are of concern. These fragments, generated in an initial donor weapon are transported to other weapons either directly or by ricochet. Interaction of a fragment with an acceptor weapon can produce a reaction in the acceptor HE and result in a second detonation. In this paper we describe a comprehensive methodology to estimate the probability of various consequences for fragment-induced propagating detonations in arrays of weapons containing HE. Analysis of this problem requires an approach that can both define the circumstances under which rare events can occur and calculate the probability of such occurrences. Our approach is based on combining process tree methodology with Monte Carlo transport simulation. Our Monte Carlo technique very effectively captures important features of these differences. Process tree methodology is described and its use is discussed for a simplified problem and to illustrate the power of Monte Carlo simulation in estimating fragment-induced detonation of an acceptor weapon.

Luck, L.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.

1996-03-01

380

Multilayer Composite Pressure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been devised to enable the fabrication of lightweight pressure vessels from multilayer composite materials. This method is related to, but not the same as, the method described in gMaking a Metal- Lined Composite-Overwrapped Pressure Vessel h (MFS-31814), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 59. The method is flexible in that it poses no major impediment to changes in tank design and is applicable to a wide range of tank sizes. The figure depicts a finished tank fabricated by this method, showing layers added at various stages of the fabrication process. In the first step of the process, a mandrel that defines the size and shape of the interior of the tank is machined from a polyurethane foam or other suitable lightweight tooling material. The mandrel is outfitted with metallic end fittings on a shaft. Each end fitting includes an outer flange that has a small step to accommodate a thin layer of graphite/epoxy or other suitable composite material. The outer surface of the mandrel (but not the fittings) is covered with a suitable release material. The composite material is filament- wound so as to cover the entire surface of the mandrel from the step on one end fitting to the step on the other end fitting. The composite material is then cured in place. The entire workpiece is cut in half in a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry at its mid-length point, yielding two composite-material half shells, each containing half of the foam mandrel. The halves of the mandrel are removed from within the composite shells, then the shells are reassembled and bonded together with a belly band of cured composite material. The resulting composite shell becomes a mandrel for the subsequent steps of the fabrication process and remains inside the final tank. The outer surface of the composite shell is covered with a layer of material designed to be impermeable by the pressurized fluid to be contained in the tank. A second step on the outer flange of each end fitting accommodates this layer. Depending on the application, this layer could be, for example, a layer of rubber, a polymer film, or an electrodeposited layer of metal. If the fluid to be contained in the tank is a gas, then the best permeation barrier is electrodeposited metal (typically copper or nickel), which can be effective at a thickness of as little as 0.005 in (.0.13 mm). The electrodeposited metal becomes molecularly bonded to the second step on each metallic end fitting. The permeation-barrier layer is covered with many layers of filament-wound composite material, which could be the same as, or different from, the composite material of the inner shell. Finally, the filament-wound composite material is cured in an ov

DeLay, Tom

2005-01-01

381

Aerosolization and soil entrainment in explosive fireballs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High explosives can be used to aerosolize and disperse a variety of hazardous materials. The rate at which those materials would settle out of the atmosphere, though, is dependent on their size distribution. Larger particles, therefore, would cause high level, but much more localized contamination, where with the aerosol-sized fraction, contamination would be more diffuse, but also much more widespread. Two sets of experiments have been employed to study explosive aerosolization, and to characterize the thermochemical environment in the fireball to which particulates are exposed. Detonation calorimetry experiments involved detonating small explosive charges in a closed vessel, measuring the amount of heat that was released with different oxygen/nitrogen ratios in the vessel, and characterizing the resulting size distributions and the dispersion of a powdered La 2O3 target throughout different types of soil. Open air trials employed a custom-built, fiber optic probe to sample the light emissions from the interior of a fireball in order to characterize the evolution of its thermal environment over time. The experimental work has identified that for particulates, likely because their mass and inertia allows them deviate from the streamlines of a circulating fluid, their combustion in the turbulent fireball plays a more important role than the combustion of gas species. Thermochemical evidence from the calorimetry experiments supports this, and has found that condensed phase detonation products (as well as entrained black earth, when present), actually react much faster than gaseous species. There is actually a profound, two-way relationship between the fireball and the particles entrained within it, as it also provides the turbulent, high temperature environment that drives particle interactions, allowing them to agglomerate and deposit onto one another. These actually serve to increase overall particle size, so that less material remains aerosol-sized. In addition, the entrainment of soil provides additional sites with which the hazardous particulates interact, and thus enhances agglomeration. Significant secondary effects exist in the fireball, therefore, that influence the amount of material that can be released into the air as aerosols, and thus reduce the amount of hazardous material that can be suspended and transported in the atmosphere. Keywords: explosive dispersal, fireball mechanics, combustion, thermochemistry, aerosols, agglomeration, soil entrainment, calorimetry, spectroscopy

Lebel, Luke Simon

382

Evaluation of blood vessel detection methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of evaluating the performance of algorithms for detecting curvilinear structures in medical images. As an exemplar we consider the detection of vessel trees which contain structures of variable width and contrast. Results for the conventional approach to evaluation, in which the detector output is compared directly with a groundtruth mask, tend to be dominated by the detection of large vessels and fail to capture adequately whether or not finer, lower contrast vessels have been detected successfully. We propose and investigate three alternative evaluation strategies. We demonstrate the use of the standard and new evaluation strategies to assess the performance of a novel method for detecting vessels in retinograms, using the publicly available DRIVE database.

Sadeghzadeh, R.; Berks, M.; Astley, S. M.; Taylor, C. J.

2011-03-01

383

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system  

SciTech Connect

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

2012-02-14

384

Molecular hydrodynamics of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

High explosives release mechanical energy through chemical reactions. Applications of high explosives are vast in the mining and military industries and are beginning to see more civilian applications such as the deployment of airbags in modern automobiles. One of the central issues surrounding explosive materials is decreasing their sensitivity, necessary for their safe handling, while maintaining a high yield. Many practical tests have been devised to determine the sensitivity of explosive materials to shock, to impact, to spark, and to friction. These tests have great value in determining yield and setting precautions for safe handling but tell little of the mechanisms of initiation. How is the mechanical energy of impact or friction transformed into the chemical excitation that initiates explosion? The answer is intimately related to the structure of the explosive material, the size and distribution of grains, the size and presence of open areas such as voids and gas bubbles, and inevitably the bonding between explosive molecules.

Belak, J.

1994-11-01

385

Designing for explosive safety'': The Explosive Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is to be a new major facility in the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Weapons Program. The ECF is a self-contained, secure site on SNL property and is surrounded by Kirtland Air Force Base which is located 6-1/2 miles east of downtown Albuquerque, New Mexico. The ECF will be dedicated to research, development, and testing of detonators, neutron generators, batteries, explosives, and other weapon components. It will have capabilities for conducting explosive test fires, gas gun testing, physical analyses, chemical analyses, electrical testing and ancillary explosive storage in magazines. The ECF complex is composed of a building covering an area of approximately 91,000 square feet, six exterior explosive service magazines and a remote test cell. Approximately 50% of the building space will be devoted to highly specialized laboratory and test areas, the other 50% of the building is considered nonhazardous. Critical to the laboratory and test areas are the blast-structural design consideration and operational considerations, particularly those concerning personnel access control, safety and environmental protection. This area will be decoupled from the rest of the building to the extent that routine tests will not be heard or felt in the administrative area of the building. While the ECF is designed in accordance with the DOE Explosives Safety Manual to mitigate any off-site blast effects, potential injuries or death to the ECF staff may result from an accidental detonation of explosive material within the facility. Therefore, reducing the risk of exposing operation personnel to hazardous and energetic material is paramount in the design of the ECF.

Couch, W.A.

1990-12-01

386

Fragment Impact Characterization of Melt-Cast and PBX Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report new experimental results on the shock to detonation transition characteristics of the melt-cast explosive RDX\\/TNT 60:40, and two PBX explosives, one containing RDX, and the other HMX, with HTPB as the binder in both cases. These experiments employed right-regular cylindrical steel projectiles impacting charges covered by either steel or aluminium barrier plates. Response curves were

Malcolm D. Cook; Peter J. Haskins; Richard I. Briggs; Chris Stennett; Justin Fellows; Phil J. Cheese

2002-01-01

387

Fragment Impact Characterisation of Melt-Cast and PBX Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report new experimental results on the shock to detonation transition characteristics of the melt-cast explosive RDX\\/TNT 60:40, and two PBX explosives, one containing RDX, and the other HMX, with HTPB as the binder in both cases. These experiments employed right-regular cylindrical steel projectiles impacting charges covered by either steel or aluminium barrier plates. Response curves were

Malcolm D. Cook; Peter J. Haskins; Richard I. Briggs; Chris Stennett; Justin Fellows; Philip J. Cheese

2001-01-01

388

Nucleosynthesis in multi-dimensional SN Ia explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on multi-dimensional (2D and 3D) hydrodynamical simulations of the thermonuclear burning phase in type Ia supernovae (hereafter SN Ia). The detailed nucleosynthetic yields of our explosion models are calculated by post-processing the ejecta, using passively advected tracer particles. The nuclear reaction network employed in computing the explosive nucleosynthesis contains 383 nuclear species,

C. Travaglio; W. Hillebrandt; M. Reinecke; F.-K. Thielemann

2004-01-01

389

Explosives detection using photoneutrons produced by X-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of explosives has become a critical issue after recent terrorist attacks. This paper describes research on explosives detection using photoneutrons from a photoneutron convertor that consists of 20kg heavy water in an aluminum container whose shape was optimized to most effectively convert X-rays to photoneutrons. The X-rays were produced by a 9MeV electron accelerator with an average electron

Yigang Yang; Yuanjing Li; Haidong Wang; Tiezhu Li; Bin Wu

2007-01-01

390

Multidimensional detection of explosives and explosive signatures via laser electrospray mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitro- and inorganic-based energetic material is vaporized at atmospheric pressure using nonresonant, 70 femtosecond laser pulses prior to electrospray post-ionization and transfer into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass analysis. Measurements of a nitro-based energetic molecule, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), adsorbed on metal and dielectric surfaces indicate nonresonant vaporization of intact molecules, demonstrating the universality of laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) technique for explosives. In addition, RDX is analyzed at a distance of 2 meters to demonstrate the remote detection capability of LEMS. Finally, the analysis and multivariate statistical classification of inorganic-based explosives containing ammonium nitrate, chlorate, perchlorate, black powder, and an organic-based explosive is presented, further expanding the capabilities of the LEMS technique for detection of energetic materials.

Brady, John J.; Flanigan, Paul M., IV; Perez, Johnny J.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Levis, Robert J.

2012-05-01

391

Explosive welding of pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A.

2006-08-01

392

Optically-energized, emp-resistant, fast-acting, explosion initiating device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical energy, provided from a remote user-operated source, is utilized to initially electrically charge a capacitor in a circuit that also contains an explosion initiating transducer in contact with a small explosive train contained in an attachable housing. Additional optical energy is subsequently supplied in a preferred embodiment to an optically responsive phototransistor acting in conjunction with a silicon controlled

David A. Benson; Glenn W. Kuswa

1987-01-01

393

Simulating Explosive Volcanic Eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive volcanic eruptions represent a significant geological hazard. Depending on the setting and the circumstances of the eruption, the hazard may consist of pyroclastic flows, ash falls from plumes, lahars, or floods from sudden melting of glaciers. Numerical modelling of volcanic eruptions is an art still in infancy, but notable strides have been made in the last few years. We list four distinct recent approaches. Pelanti and Leveque (2006) used a finite-volume code to simulate the hot dusty gas of an explosive volcanic jet by coupling the compressible fluid equations of a gas to equations for the pressure-less flow of dust. Dartevelle and Valentine (2007) modelled an explosive eruption that occurred through a geothermal borehole as an analogue of natural volcanic eruptions, using a multiphase gas-particle code. Ogden, Glatzmeier and Wohletz (2008) used a single-fluid Eulerian code to model unsteady flow in an overpressured column. These four different numerical approaches have different realms of applicability and respective advantages and disadvantages. We will discuss some of these, and will also present some all-new simulations with the adaptive-mesh multi-material finite-volume code Sage. We have simulated an erupting column of magma arising from depth, penetrating layered media, and emerging at the surface. When pockets of water are encountered at depth and heated suddenly, the resulting supercritical fluid aids the vertical penetration, eventually exploding violently at the surface. When a dry magma column encounters water or ice at the surface, explosive fragmentation is also observed.

Gisler, G. R.

2010-12-01

394

UNDERGROUND EXPLOSION EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements were made of surface and subsurface effects of an ; underground explosion of a 1.2-kt nuclear burst. The measurements included free-; field earth and air-blast effects, as well as loading on underground structural ; devices. From the 76 channels installed on TEAPOT Shot 7, 75 usable records were ; obtained. The free-field quantities measured include air-blast pressure, earth ;

D. C. Sachs; L. M. Swift

1958-01-01

395

QGP fireball explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange\\u000ahadrons as an observable for both the formation of quark-gluon plasma, and of\\u000athe ensuing explosive disintegration of deconfined matter fireball formed in\\u000arelativistic heavy ion collisions at 160--20A GeV. We describe the physical\\u000aproperties of QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an\\u000aanalysis of

J. Letessier; G. Torrieri; S. Hamieh; J. Rafelski

2000-01-01

396

Analysis of propagating explosions  

SciTech Connect

Weapons are often in close proximity to one another during transport or storage. If one weapon explodes, there is a possibility that the fragments generated will initiate a subsequent explosion in one or more neighboring weapons. Propagating explosions of this sort have the potential for severe consequences either because of the total amount of explosives that react or because the response of individual weapons may be particularly energetic. In this paper, we consider a well-defined problem in which the nature of the progression to all possible end states can be studied. We wish to determine the expected number of weapons to detonate along with other useful quantities. We examine the possible end states that the system can reach and show that we can represent the propagation process as a series of discrete time transitions. The transition probabilities from one state to the next then will depend only on the present state of the system. We present results of simulations that illustrate the effect of varying the detonation probability parameters.

Luck, L.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.

1996-07-01

397

Dust cluster explosion  

SciTech Connect

A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

2012-09-15

398

Adhesion of explosives.  

PubMed

It is of increasing importance to understand how explosive particles adhere to surfaces in order to understand how to remove them for detection in airport or other security settings. In this study, adhesion forces between royal demolition explosive (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in their crystalline forms and aluminum coupons with three finishes, acrylic melamine (clear coating), polyester acrylic melamine (white coating) automotive finishes, and a green military-grade finish, were measured and modeled. The force measurements were performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) method. Explosive particles were mounted on AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought in and out of contact with the surfaces of interest while the required force needed to pull out of contact was recorded. An existing Matlab-based simulator was used to describe the observed adhesion force distributions, with excellent agreement. In these simulations, the measured topographies of the interacting surfaces were considered, although the geometries were approximated. The simulations were performed using a van der Waals force-based adhesion model and a composite effective Hamaker constant. It was determined that certain combinations of roughness on the interacting surfaces led to preferred particle-substrate orientations that produced extreme adhesion forces. PMID:23510004

Chaffee-Cipich, Michelle N; Sturtevant, Bryce D; Beaudoin, Stephen P

2013-06-01

399

Explosive Welding of Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler. Reduction of pipe diameter after dynamic loading and explosive welding was 2%.

Burtseva, Olga

2007-06-01

400

Explosives signatures and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

2008-05-01

401

Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

Pound, C.R.

2001-09-17

402

Small vessel vasculitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pediatric small vessel vasculitides reviewed in this article are HenochSchnlein purpura (HSP) and the anti-neutrophil\\u000a cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides (AAV). The new classification criteria for HSP and Wegeners granulomatosis are\\u000a now validated and will facilitate the conduct of future epidemiological studies and clinical trials. The clinical manifestations\\u000a of small vessel vasculitis in children are described, and current therapies discussed. There

Paul Brogan; Despina Eleftheriou; Michael Dillon

2010-01-01

403

Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature. A typical prototype TSEV (see figure) includes a flat-bottomed stainless-steel cylinder 4 in. (10.16 cm) long, 0.5 in. (1.27 cm) in diameter, having a wall thickness of 0.010 plus or minus 0.002 in. (0.254 plus or minus 0.051 mm). Microbial spores are deposited in the bottom of the cylinder, then the top of the cylinder is closed with a sterile rubber stopper. Hypodermic needles are used to puncture the rubber stopper to evacuate the inside of the cylinder or to purge the inside of the cylinder with a gas. In a typical application, the inside of the cylinder is purged with dry nitrogen prior to a test. During a test, the lower portion of the cylinder is immersed in a silicone-oil bath that has been preheated to and maintained at the test temperature. Test temperatures up to 220 C have been used. Because the spores are in direct contact with the thin cylinder wall, they quickly become heated to the test temperature.

Beaudet, Robert A.; Kempf, Michael; Kirschner, Larry

2006-01-01

404

Vasculitides of large vessels.  

PubMed

Vasculitides are inflammatory diseases affecting large, medium or small sized vessels, caused by various immunological processes and possibly triggered by infectious agents. Vascular medicine is particularly concerned with vasculitides affecting large vessels: Takayasu arteritis (TA) and giant cell arteritis (GCA, temporal arteritis), which are determined by a similar special immunopathology, further aortitis and Behet disease (BD). Recent progress in vascular imaging allows the detection of vessel alterations at an earlier stage and a better control of the course of disease. While cranial symptoms prevail in most elder GCA patients, involvement of larger vessels is increasingly perceived. This especially concerns a subgroup called large vessel GCA in which inflammatory obstructions mainly affect the proximal arm arteries or aorta, predominantly in women of the 6th and 7th decade. Initial therapy is based on corticosteroids. Of other immunosuppressive drugs only methotrexate might be considered in GCA. Disease activity has to be monitored both by laboratory parameters and vascular imaging. Aortitis due to GCA may result in late aneurysms even in patients with good response to medical treatment. Aneurysm development may also be the result of isolated necrotizing aortitis. In Behet disease, vessel involvement is seen in about 20 % of patients. Regarding arteries, aneurysm formation is more frequent than obstruction. Venous thrombosis is often extended and of central location but rarely leads to pulmonary embolism. Although a specific therapy is not established, immunosuppression seems to be of greatest importance and anticoagulation may be withheld. PMID:21500173

Caspary, L

2011-03-01

405

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes ``re-freezing'' the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the ``re-freezing'' temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude ``re-freezing'' of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

Makhov, M. N.

2004-07-01

406

High-speed imaging, acoustic features, and aeroacoustic computations of jet noise from Strombolian (and Vulcanian) explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

imaging of explosive eruptions at Stromboli (Italy), Fuego (Guatemala), and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes allowed visualization of pressure waves from seconds-long explosions. From the explosion jets, waves radiate with variable geometry, timing, and apparent direction and velocity. Both the explosion jets and their wave fields are replicated well by numerical simulations of supersonic jets impulsively released from a pressurized vessel. The scaled acoustic signal from one explosion at Stromboli displays a frequency pattern with an excellent match to those from the simulated jets. We conclude that both the observed waves and the audible sound from the explosions are jet noise, i.e., the typical acoustic field radiating from high-velocity jets. Volcanic jet noise was previously quantified only in the infrasonic emissions from large, sub-Plinian to Plinian eruptions. Our combined approach allows us to define the spatial and temporal evolution of audible jet noise from supersonic jets in small-scale volcanic eruptions.

Taddeucci, J.; Sesterhenn, J.; Scarlato, P.; Stampka, K.; Del Bello, E.; Pena Fernandez, J. J.; Gaudin, D.

2014-05-01

407

Optical measurements of flyer plate acceleration by emulsion explosive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the study on the application of explosive welding technique to the field of the urgent repair of the gas and water pipe networks. The essential parameters related to the explosive welding are scrutinized from the point of view of the minimizing the damage to the steel pipe after welded explosively with a flyer plate. The emulsion explosive is contained in a rectangular hard-paper box whose bottom is the flyer plate with 100 mm length, 25 mm width and 1.5 mm thickness. The flyer motions of the flyer plates accelerated by emulsion explosive are observed by high-speed photography from the side and front view of the flyer plate. The damage to the pipe by the flyer plate is discussed with the results of the observation of flyer motion and explosive welding test under various experimental conditions. Moreover, one way to control the motion of the flyer plate is proposed. We put a PMMA buffer block into the explosive. The flying process of flyer plate is calculated by the finite different scheme based on the ALE method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the experimental and numerical studies.

Kubota, Shiro; Shimada, Hideki; Matsui, Kikuo; Ogata, Yuji; Seto, Masahiro; Masui, Akira; Wada, Yuji; Liu, Zhi-Yue; Itoh, Shigeru

2001-04-01

408

Near-Source Scattering of Explosion-Generated Rg: Insight From Difference Spectrograms of NTS Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies of the generation of low-frequency Lg from explosions indicate that the Lg wavetrain from explosions contains significant contributions from (1) the scattering of explosion-generated Rg into S and (2) direct S waves from the non-spherical spall source associated with a buried explosion. The pronounced spectral nulls observed in Lg spectra of Yucca Flats (NTS) and Semipalatinsk explosions (Patton and Taylor, 1995; Gupta et al., 1997) are related to Rg excitation caused by spall-related block motions in a conical volume over the shot point, which may be approximately represented by a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) source (Patton et al., 2005). Frequency-dependent excitation of Rg waves should be imprinted on all scattered P, S and Lg waves. A spectrogram may be considered as a three-dimensional matrix of numbers providing amplitude and frequency information for each point in the time series. We found difference spectrograms, derived from a normal explosion and a closely located over-buried shot recorded at the same common station, to be remarkably useful for an understanding of the origin and spectral contents of various regional phases. This technique allows isolation of source characteristics, essentially free from path and recording site effects, since the overburied shot acts as the empirical Green's function. Application of this methodology to several pairs of closely located explosions shows that the scattering of explosion-generated Rg makes significant contribution to not only Lg and its coda but also to the two other regional phases Pg (presumably by the scattering of Rg into P) and Sn. The scattered energy, identified by the presence of a spectral null at the appropriate frequency, generally appears to be more prominent in the somewhat later-arriving sections of Pg, Sn, and Lg than in the initial part. Difference spectrograms appear to provide a powerful new technique for understanding the mechanism of near-source scattering of explosion-generated Rg and its contribution to various regional phases.

Gupta, I.; Chan, W.; Wagner, R.

2005-12-01

409

Multi-reel operational lines laying vessel  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed of converting a single pipeline laying vessel having a main storage reel and a privotal ramp pipe straightening and tensioning assembly to a multi-reel pipe laying vessel for the layout of an operational lines array within which a rigid walled pipeline is contained. The method is described comprising the steps of: removing the pivotal support ramp and pipe straightening and tensioning equipment from the deck of the vessel; installing at least one auxiliary operational lines storage reel on the vessel in the upspooling direction of the pipeline stored on the main reel; installing an operational lines laying device adjacent the stern of the vessel, the laying device including operational lines supporting means adapted for providing moving contact for each of a plurality of operational lines and the means interconnected and adapted for moving the operational lines at a common velocity for permitting layout from the vessel in a downward juxtaposed configuration; and providing the main reel and the auxiliary reels with motive power means having both spooling direction power and unspooling direction braking systems.

Recalde, C.E.

1988-01-26

410

Linear accelerator for explosive detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14 MeV, S-band linear accelerator has been designed and built by Beta Development for use in the MIDEP explosive detection program at Titan\\/Spectron Division. The explosive detection technique utilizes photoneutron activation of the nitrogen which is an integral component in most commercial and military explosives. The accelerator was designed to be a small, high power, light weight, and portable

K. Whitham; R. C. Miller; H. Anamkath; J. R. Clifford; R. B. Miller; K. Habiger

1991-01-01

411

Evaluation of embedded FBGs in composite overwrapped pressure vessels for strain based structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) in space and commercial applications, and the explosive nature of pressure vessel ruptures, make it crucial to develop techniques for early condition based damage detection. The need for a robust health monitoring system for COPVs is a high priority since the mechanisms of stress rupture are not fully understood. Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been proposed as a potential solution that may be utilized to anticipate and potentially avoid catastrophic failures. The small size and light weight of optical fibers enable manufactures to integrate FBGs directly into composite structures for the purpose of structural health monitoring. A challenging aspect of embedding FBGs within composite structures is the risk of potentially impinging the optical fiber while the structure is under load, thus distorting the optical information to be transferred. As the COPV is pressurized, an embedded optical sensor is compressed between the expansion of the inner bottle, and the outer overwrap layer of composite. In this study, FBGs are installed on the outer surface of a COPV bottle as well as embedded underneath a composite overwrap layer for comparison of strain measurements. Experimental data is collected from optical fibers containing multiple FBGs during incremental pressurization cycles, ranging from 0 to 10,000 psi. The graphical representations of high density strain maps provide a more efficient process of monitoring structural integrity. Preliminary results capture the complex distribution of strain, while furthering the understanding of the failure mechanisms of COPVs.

Pena, Francisco; Strutner, Scott M.; Richards, W. Lance; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.

2014-03-01

412

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

SciTech Connect

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01

413

Towards optoelectronic detection of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of explosives is an important challenge for contemporary science and technology of security systems. We present an application of NOx sensors equipped with concentrator in searching of explosives. The sensors using CRDS with blue violet diode lasers (410 nm) as well as with QCL lasers (5.26 ?m and 4.53 ?m) are described. The detection method is based either on reaction of the sensors to the nitrogen oxides emitted by explosives or to NOx produced during thermal decomposition of explosive vapours. For TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX the detection limit better than 1 ng has been achieved.

Wojtas, J.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Rutecka, B.; Medrzycki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.

2013-06-01

414

Simplified explosive-weld evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weld surfaces, coated with commercially available molybdenum disulfide, allow visual inspection of significant indications of bond quality. Process reduces number of trial welds, making explosive bonding more competitive.

Mclarty, D. M.

1976-01-01

415

Introduction to gasdynamics of explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Questions concerning the genesis and sustenance of an explosion are investigated, giving attention to the mechanics of explosions, the gasdynamics of explosions, aspects of technological significance, and future prospects. The dynamics of exothermic processes is discussed together with the most prominent effects of explosions. Blast waves are considered, taking into account conservation principles, blast wave transformation, conservative equations in nondimensional form, the equation of state, Eulerian space profiles, Eulerian time profiles, Lagrangian time profiles, boundary conditions and integral relations, and self-similar flow fields.

Oppenheim, A. K.

1973-01-01

416

Modeling of explosion thermal radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic and radiation processes accompanying explosions of chemical explosives and fuel-air mixtures have been considered. Computer modeling of the radiation from a fire ball of explosion and a flame of diffusion combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel has been performed. The dependences of the heat flux density from the region occupied by explosion and combustion products on its temperature and geometric characteristics have been determined. Thermal load distributions on targets of different orientations in the vicinity of the energy release zone have been obtained. A comparison of the thermal parameters on radiation detectors with the criteria of thermal affection of people and ignition of combustible materials has been made.

Stepanov, K. L.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stankevich, Yu. A.

2011-01-01

417

Blood vessel rupture by cavitation  

PubMed Central

Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture.

Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.

2011-01-01

418

Radon free storage container and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radon free containment environment for either short or long term storage of radon gas detectors can be provided as active, passive, or combined active and passive embodiments. A passive embodiment includes a resealable vessel containing a basket capable of holding and storing detectors and an activated charcoal adsorbing liner between the basket and the containment vessel wall. An active

Langner Jr. G. Harold; Mark J. Rangel

1991-01-01

419

Stellarator helical vacuum vessel  

SciTech Connect

A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that can be machined and welded together into a helical configuration. A complication in the design requires that a circular magnet coil be located at the minor toroidal axis and that this coil be embedded within the periphery of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel has a minor toroidal axis diameter of 4 meters, a 68.6-cm shell diameter, and a 1.9-cm wall thickness. It twists about the minor toroidal axis twice in 360/sup 0/C. (An n value of 2). It is proposed that the unit be made of cylindrical segments with the ends of the cylinders cut at appropriate lengths and angles to form the helix. A mathematical derivation of the dimensions necessary to produce the required shapes of the segments has been made. Also, drawings of the vacuum vessel components have been produced on LANL's CTR CAD/CAM system. The procedure developed can be used for any value of n as dictated by physics requirements.

Yavornik, E.J.

1983-01-01

420

Pressure vessel improvement  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A multiple shell pressure vessel is fabricated in modular sections comprising a top head module, a nozzle course module and a bottom shell module, each module utilizing telescoping shells with filled interspaces, each shell being removable for inspection and repair with all modular sections and shells being held in compression by a pair of upper and lower single or multilayer tendon skirts held in place by a number of tension members in combination with hydraulic or mechanical jacks or rams. Both tendons and rams are located outside the pressure vessel. Included is a method of arranging the shell flanges and shell radial supports to reduce or eliminate torsional forces on the flanges and flange seals. A leak detection system monitors for leaks in all shells. A method of adjusting shell stresses during operation uses pumps to adjust the pressure of the filler material in the interspaces between shells. The high thermal conductivity of the outer vessel wall, which is due to good thermal bonding provided by the intershell metallic filler-materials, makes it possible to keep the pressure-carrying outer vessel shells cool during service, by cooling the outer shell by plain water, borated water for nuclear reactor vessels, or other coolant.

1992-02-11

421

Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.  

PubMed

We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741

Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

2013-06-21

422

Effect of "terminal explosion"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the entry into the Earth's atmosphere of a cosmic body at hypersonic speeds. Large aerodynamic charges, the forces of inertia, and heat flow to the body surface lead to mass loss or even destruction of the body. The movement of the fragment cloud caused by the destruction of the body is a separate problem. From observations, we know that the flight of a cosmic body often ends with a terminal flare. We present one possible estimate of the energy in the final stages of the destruction of the body, confirming the possibility of the observed effect of the "terminal explosion" of the meteoroid.

Egorova, L.

2012-01-01

423

Gasdynamics of explosions today.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review is given of blast and detonation wave phenomena and some of their uses in war and peace. It is concluded that great strides have been made over the last three decades toward the physical understanding, the analytical-numerical solution, and the measurement of dynamic and thermodynamic quantities, also taking into consideration severe environments and extremely short durations. Questions of internal ballistics are discussed together with hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes, collapsing cylindrical drivers, spherical implosions, explosive weapons, dynamic response, and equation of state data.

Brode, H. L.; Glass, I. I.; Oppenheim, A. K.

1971-01-01

424

Unique design of Doublet and Big Dee vacuum vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doublet III tokamak now in its fourth year of operation at General Atomic Company, has its plasma contained in a kidney-shaped toroidal vacuum vessel, a configuration that presented unique design challenges. Most tokamak vacuum vessels are constructed of solid walled sections separated by either thin walled bellows (to increase the toroidal resistance) or by poloidal insulation breaks. Such control

J. E. Miller

1982-01-01

425

Using explosion-clad plates of alloy 625 in flue gas desulfurization plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various concepts may be used to line large vessels with high quality corrosion resistant plates. Explosive cladding with alloy 625 on mild steel base plates is one method that is currently used for FGD adsorption towers in the Federal Republic of Germany. Cladding technology, i.e. welding, is very critical for this method, and both the weld filler metals and process

R. Kirchheiner; T. Hoffmann; F. Hofmann

1987-01-01

426

Microstructureproperty relationship in explosively welded duplex stainless steelsteel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex stainless steel (2205 grade) and vessel steel (DIN-P355GH grade) were cladded by explosive welding. The relationship between hardness, tensile shear strength and toughness and microstructure of cladded materials were evaluated. The bond interface of the cladded materials shows a wavy morphology. The hardness was similar in the base and flyer plate near the bond interface while a general increase

R Kaar; M Acarer

2003-01-01

427

On-site Analysis of Explosives in Various Matrices  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed several different strategies and technologies for the on-site detection of explosives. These on-site detection techniques include a colorimetric test, thin layer chromatography (TLC) kit and portable gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The screening of suspicious containers on-site and the search for trace explosive residue in a post-blast forensic investigation are of great importance. For these reasons, LLNL's Forensic Science Center has developed a variety of fieldable detection technologies to screen for a wide range of explosives in various matrices and scenarios. Ideally, what is needed is a fast, accurate, easy-to-use, pocket-size and inexpensive field screening test for explosives.

Reynolds, J G; Nunes, P; Whipple, R E; Alcaraz, A

2006-01-25

428

Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06

429

Biodegradation of the Nitramine Explosive CL-20  

PubMed Central

The cyclic nitramine explosive CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) was examined in soil microcosms to determine whether it is biodegradable. CL-20 was incubated with a variety of soils. The explosive disappeared in all microcosms except the controls in which microbial activity had been inhibited. CL-20 was degraded most rapidly in garden soil. After 2 days of incubation, about 80% of the initial CL-20 had disappeared. A CL-20-degrading bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71, was isolated from enrichment cultures containing garden soil as an inoculum, succinate as a carbon source, and CL-20 as a nitrogen source. Growth experiments revealed that strain JS71 used 3 mol of nitrogen per mol of CL-20.

Trott, Sandra; Nishino, Shirley F.; Hawari, Jalal; Spain, Jim C.

2003-01-01

430

Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

Sokolova, Inna

2014-05-01

431

Pathologic features of suicidal deaths caused by explosives.  

PubMed

Suicidal explosions that lack a terrorist background are only rarely encountered in the field of forensic pathology. The investigation of explosion-related fatalities can be a substantial challenge in medicolegal casework. Determining whether the manner of death is suicide, homicide, or accident in such cases can present an especially difficult task to the forensic pathologist. This study considers the pathologic features of suicidal deaths caused by explosives without a terrorist background. The modus operandi of the decedents reflected familiarity and proficiency, or at least a degree of specialized knowledge, with the construction and use of explosive devices. All explosions were set off in confined spaces. The injury patterns consisted of a combination of primary blast injuries (e.g. decapitation, traumatic amputation of limbs, gross lacerations of the body surface, blast injuries of gas-containing and hollow organs), secondary blast injuries (e.g. splinter-induced penetrating trauma), tertiary blast injuries (e.g. abrasions and contusions), and burn injuries (mostly of the flash type). The previously described symmetric distribution pattern of injuries in suicidal explosions was apparent only to a certain degree in the present series. Our observation of superficially sharp-edged wound margins with bridging in the depths of the lesion in blast-induced lacerations of the skin should deserve further attention in forthcoming cases of explosion-related fatalities because this finding is a diagnostic possibility that may support the theory of an explosion-related fatality under special circumstances, e.g. when the body has been dumped away from the place of death. Because a terrorist attack may be initially suspected in each case of suicide involving explosives, the importance of a joint inquiry based on expertise from police investigators, bomb experts, and forensic pathologists is evident. PMID:12605000

Tsokos, M; Trk, E E; Madea, B; Koops, E; Longauer, F; Szabo, M; Huckenbeck, W; Gabriel, P; Barz, J

2003-03-01

432

Green primary explosives: 5-Nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies  

PubMed Central

The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[FeII(NT)3(H2O)3], cat2[FeII(NT)4(H2O)2], cat3[FeII(NT)5(H2O)], and cat4[FeII(NT)6] with cat = cation and NT? = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2. With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries.

Huynh, My Hang V.; Coburn, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi

2006-01-01

433

Automatic vessel network features quantification using local vessel pattern operator.  

PubMed

Automatic measurement and quantification of blood vessels' features and detection of vessel landmarks are key steps in the computer-aided diagnosis and diseases monitoring. This work proposes a novel and robust method for detecting vessel landmarks, i.e. bifurcation and crossovers, and measurement of different features, i.e. vessel orientation and vessel diameter as well as bifurcation angle, from the detected vessel network using simple and efficient local vessel pattern operator. The proposed method is applied to the publicly available DRIVE, STARE and ARIA databases and compared with existing state-of-the-art approaches. It shows higher accuracy in detection of vessel landmark and estimation of vessel features. PMID:23452930

Fathi, Abdolhossein; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza; Mohammadi, Fardin Abdali

2013-06-01

434

Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

Chastagner, Philippe (3134 Natalie Cir., Augusta, GA 30909-2748)

1994-01-01

435

Explosive components facility certification tests  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01

436

Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

1987-01-01

437

Double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives: Initial study towards improved discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting trace explosive residues at standoff distances in real-time is a difficult problem. One method ideally suited for real-time standoff detection is laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). However, atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen contributes to the LIBS signal from the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing explosive compounds, complicating the discrimination of explosives from other organic materials. While bathing the sample in an inert gas

Frank C. De Lucia; Jennifer L. Gottfried; Chase A. Munson; Andrzej W. Miziolek

2007-01-01

438

A new modification of silicon obtained under the effect of explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed products of explosion of mixtures containing lead and silicon are investigated by x-ray phase, electron microscopic, x-ray spectral, and chemical methods. The exploded mixtures were based on tetrazene or hexogen. The mass content of silicon in the mixtures was 20%. The explosion was initiated by lead azide with a mass of 0.1 g. The condensed products of the explosion

A. N. Tsvigunov; V. G. Khotin; S. E. Kuznetsov; B. S. Svetlov; A. S. Vlasov; G. A. Sveshnikova; A. M. Dotsenko

1995-01-01

439

Detection of plastic explosives in luggage with 14 N nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of14N nuclei has many advantages as a method for detecting nitrogen-containing explosives, the most important are very high chemical\\u000a specificity, true noninvasive operation and detection of bulk explosive in situ only (no vapor or particular capture needed).\\u000a One of the most high explosives is hexogen (RDX) often used by terrorists in plasticized forms. The ring nitrogen

M. Ostafin; B. Nogaj

2000-01-01

440

Controlled by Distant Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cdric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

2007-03-01

441

Laser machining of explosives  

DOEpatents

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA) [Tracy, CA

2000-01-01

442

Safety Standard for Explosives, Propellants, and Pyrotechnics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document prescribes the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) safety standards/procedures for operations involving explosives handling and processing. These operations are an integral part of explosives and explosives-related developme...

1993-01-01

443

Laser-Based Detection Methods for Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many well-known explosive detection techniques such as mass spectrometry and chromatography rely on close-contact sampling of surface residues or explosive vapors. Effective detection of explosive materials using laser-based methods has been demonstrated ...

A. W. Miziolek C. A. Munson J. F. De Lucia J. L. Gottfried K. L. McNesby

2007-01-01

444

Dynamic analysis of large suspended LMFBR reactor vessels  

SciTech Connect

Large breeder reactor vessels are often designed under the top-suspended condition. Since the vessel contains a large volume of liquid sodium as reactor coolant, the structural integrity of the vessel bottom head and its effect on the vessel dynamic response are of great importance to the safety and reliability of the reactor systems. This paper presents a dynamic analysis of the large suspended reactor vessel subjected to the horizontal earthquake excitation with the emphasis on the effect of bottom head vibration on fluid pressure and sloshing response. Unlike the conventional lumped mass method, the present analysis treats the liquid sodium as a continuum medium. As a result, the important effects ignored in the lumped mass method such as fluid coupling, fluid-structure interaction, interaction between sloshing and vessel vibration, etc. can be accounted into the analysis.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.

1983-01-01

445

Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

2007-03-01

446

Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.  

PubMed

Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide. PMID:12773843

Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

2003-06-01

447

Condensed Explosive Gas Dynamic Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The condensed explosive of a gas dynamic laser is a condensed mixture of one or more nonhydrogenous organic explosive compounds, such as TNM, with a sufficient amount of aluminum or zirconium powder to supply energy to the products so that a temperature o...

J. Hershkowitz M. Y. D. Lanzerotti

1978-01-01

448

Explosives Detection for Aviation Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

Anthony Fainberg

1992-01-01

449

Optical Pressure Measurements of Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-speed video and streak-camera imaging are used to measure peak pressures for explosions of spherical charges of C-4. The technique measures the velocity of the air shock produced by the detonation of the explosive charges, converts this velocity to a...

K. L. McNesby M. M. Biss R. A. Benjamin R. A. Thompson

2013-01-01

450

Calculating overpressure from BLEVE explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a certain number of authors have analyzed the prediction of boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) and fireball effects, only very few of them have proposed methodologies for predicting the overpressure from such explosions. In this paper, the methods previously published are discussed and shown to introduce a significant overestimation due to the erroneous thermodynamic assumptionsideal gas behaviour and

E. Planas-Cuchi; J. M. Salla; J. Casal

2004-01-01

451

After an explosion, what happens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever an explosion or fire occurs in the presence of LP-gas, an investigation is usually necessary to determine the cause and to protect the marketer from unreasonable lawsuits. Haag Engineering Co., Dallas, urges that the evidence be studied carefully so that mistakes do not obliterate evidence before a conclusion is reached. Overall effects of the explosion should be examined to

1975-01-01

452

Radiation-induced explosive initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for explosive initiation under the influence of high energy radiation has been developed. The possibility for comparing explosive initiation conditions under the influence of radiation pulse and shock wave loads of microsecond duration has been shown and the initiation conditions as a function of the radiolysis constants have been determined.

Yakovlev, M.

1999-08-01

453

Radiation-induced explosive initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for explosive initiation under the influence of high energy radiation has been developed. The possibility for comparing explosive initiation conditions under the influence of radiation pulse and shock wave loads of microsecond duration has been shown and the initiation conditions as a function of the radiolysis constants have been determined.

M. Yakovlev

1999-01-01

454

Kaliski's explosive driven fusion experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment performed by a group in Poland on the production of DD fusion neutrons by purely explosive means is discussed. A method for multiplying shock velocities ordinarily available from high explosives by a factor of ten is described, and its application to DD fusion experiments is discussed.

1979-01-01

455

Explosive welding of metal plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of explosive welding of metal plates. The properties of a locally prepared mix of 77\\/23 ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) explosive and the dynamics of the plates are investigated and the results from welding tests presented. The strength of the clad plates is measured and ultrasonic inspection performed to identify and locate defects. The

S. A. A. Akbari-Mousavi; L. M. Barrett; S. T. S. Al-Hassani

2008-01-01

456

Recent developments in explosive welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosion welding (EXW) is one of the joining methods consisting of a solid state welding process in which controlled explosive detonation on the surface of a metal. During the collision, a high velocity jet is produced to remove away the impurities on the metal surfaces. Flyer plate collides with base plate resulting in a bonding at the interface of metals.

Fehim Findik

2011-01-01

457

Explosive Welding for Remote Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosive seam welding produces up to 100-percent joint strength. Ribbon explosive activated by remote energy source produces metallurgically sound joint. Success of technique verified for joints between like metals and joints between two different metals. Applications include structural assembly in toxic atmospheres and in radioactive or otherwise hazardous environments.

Bement, L. J.

1985-01-01

458

Monitored Natural Attenuation of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosives are subject to several attenuation processes that potentially reduce concentrations in groundwater over time. Some of these processes are well defined, while others are poorly understood. The objective of the project was to optimize data collection and processing procedures for evaluation and implementation of monitored natural attenuation of explosives. After conducting experiments to optimize data quality, a protocol was

Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon; Douglas Gunnison; D. W. Harrelson; M. Zakikhani; Paul Miyares; Thomas F. Jenkins; Joan Clarke; Charolett Hayes; David Ringleberg; Ed Perkins; Herb Fredrickson

2001-01-01

459

Chemistry and Properties of Liquid Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid explosives are classified in several groups, and groups of liquid explosives characterised. Special attention is given\\u000a to properties of liquid explosives based on the mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and alcohols and mixtures of hydrogen peroxide\\u000a with solid fuels. Some specific aspects of explosive behaviour of liquid explosives are discussed. Important procedures for\\u000a the detection of liquid explosives and limits

P. Mostak

460

76 FR 77515 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in California Ports; Notice...diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in California ports (``At-Berth...auxiliary diesel engines on container vessels, passenger vessels and refrigerated...

2011-12-13

461

Explosive welding: Principles and potentials  

SciTech Connect

Explosive welding is a solid-state process in which controlled explosive detonations force two or more metals together at high pressures. The resultant composite system is joined with a high-quality metallurgical bond. Explosive welding (or explosive bonding) is a high-pressure process in which contaminant surface films are plastically jetted off the base metals as a result of the collision of two metals. The time duration involved in the explosive welding event is so short that the reaction zone (or heat affected zone) between the constituent metals is microscopic. During the process, the first few atomic layers of each metal become plasma because of the high velocity of the impact (200 to 500 m/s, 660 to 1,640 ft/s.) The angle of collision causes the plasma to jet in front of the collision point, effectively scrub-cleaning both surfaces, and leaving clean metal behind.

Brasher, D.G.; Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States)

1995-03-01

462

The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment  

SciTech Connect

We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

2002-07-05

463

Protection of storage pressure vessels in the flames; the watering by running and the fireproofing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bursting of petroleum pressure vessel in case of fire on the storage site may produce the boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion extremely damaging for the environment. The research is to find safety means to have enough time to get under control. T...

R. Guillemet

1992-01-01

464

K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against appl