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1

EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.  

SciTech Connect

The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

Rudolphi, John Joseph

2012-04-01

2

Development, testing and practical use of two special containment vessels for storage and transportation of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The storage and transportation of high explosives gives many logistic managers a headache, especially when it comes to forwarding of small quantities. Air transport is limited to 1.4 explosives on cargo aircraft and 1.4S classified explosives on passenger aircraft, so most samples cannot be transported by air. Ocean transport is a possibility, but due to stowage and segregation regulations of the IMDG code, a very expensive one. Road transport is often the only solution, but high explosives require special trucks with licensed drivers. The solution to these logistic problems is solved by creating a 1.4S (Class C) classification for all high explosives, when packed in special containment vessels.

Dikken, H. den

1995-12-31

3

Dust explosions in interconnected vented vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explosion venting is used often to protect industrial dust-handling plant from pressures generated by accidental dust explosions. Many calculation methods are available to estimate a safe vent area, but these are without exception applicable to single vessels. In industry, vessels are usually linked and flames can travel through connecting pipework from one vessel to another. The behaviour of flames in

P. Holbrow; S. Andrews; G. A. Lunn

1996-01-01

4

Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

2001-06-12

5

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2011-10-01

6

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2012-10-01

7

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2010-10-01

8

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2014-10-01

9

49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176.192 Section 176...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192...

2013-10-01

10

Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact  

SciTech Connect

Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber to impact by fragments from the largest explosive charge expected to be placed in these chambers (M426, 8 inch, chemical, 7 lbs Comp B) is evaluated. Numerical (CTH) and empirical (ConWep) codes are used to characterize the munition fragments, and assess the consequences of their impact and penetration on the walls of these vessels. Both pristine and corroded configurations of the munition have been considered, with and without liquid agent fill. When the munition burster charge detonates, munition case fragments impact and perforate the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel wall, resulting in extensive breakup of this inner chamber and the formation of additional fragments. These residual munition case and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to crater the Explosive Containment Chamber inner wall layer, with accompanying localized permanent deformation (bulging) of both the inner and outer chamber walls. The integrity of the Explosive Containment Chamber was retained under all of the APV / munition configurations considered in this study, with no evidence that primary (munition) or secondary (munition and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel) fragments will perforate the inner chamber wall. Limited analyses of munition detonation without the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel present indicate that some munition span fragments could form under those conditions that have sufficient mass and velocity to perforate the inner wall of the Explosive Containment Chamber.

Benham, R.A.; Fischer, S.H.; Kipp, M.E.; Martinez, R.R.

1999-02-01

11

Soft container for explosive nuts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible fabric fits over variety of assembly shapes to contain debris produced by detonations or safety tests. Bag material is woven multifilament polyamide or aramid. Belt loops hold bag to clamp. Ring supports explosive nut structure and detonator wires, and after nut is mounted, bag and clamp are slipped over ring and fastened.

Glenn, D. C.; Drummond, W. E.; Miller, G.

1981-01-01

12

Composite Vessels for Containment of Extreme Blast Loadings  

SciTech Connect

A worldwide trend for explosives testing has been to replace open-air detonations with containment vessels, especially when any hazardous materials are involved. As part of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) effort to ensure the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been developing a high performance filament wound composite firing vessel that is nearly radiographically transparent. It was intended to contain a limited number of detonations of metal cased explosive assemblies in radiographic facilities such as the Advanced Hydrodynamic Facility (AHF) being studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory. A 2-meter diameter pressure vessel was designed to contain up to 35 kg (80 lb) of TNT equivalent explosive without leakage. Over the past 5 years a total of three half-scale (1 meter diameter) vessels have been constructed, and two of them were tested to 150% load with 8.2 kg (18-pound) spheres of C4 explosive. The low density and high specific strength advantages used in this composite vessel design may have other additional applications such as transporting sensitive explosives that could otherwise be moved only in very small quantities. Also, it could be used for highly portable, explosive containment systems for law enforcement.

Pastrnak, J; Henning, C; Grundler, W; Switzer, V; Hollaway, R; Morrison, J; Hagler, L; Kokko, E; Deteresa, S; Hathcoat, B; Dalder, E

2004-07-15

13

Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1981-01-01

14

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine...

2011-10-01

15

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2013-10-01

16

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2011-10-01

17

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2012-10-01

18

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine...

2014-10-01

19

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2014-10-01

20

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine...

2010-10-01

21

49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Passenger Vessels § 176.166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger...

2010-10-01

22

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine...

2012-10-01

23

49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels...Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Magazine Vessels § 176.194 Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine...

2013-10-01

24

Vibration modes of spherical shells and containment vessels.  

SciTech Connect

Spherical pressure vessels are used to fully contain the effects of high explosions. In this paper, the vibrations of a spherical containment vessel undergoing elastic response are investigated. Vibration modes of containment vessels are of particular interest, as it is the superposition and interaction of different modes of response with closely spaced frequencies that has been reported to be the mechanism of 'strain growth'. First, the modal frequencies of a spherical shell for both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric response modes are discussed, based on a sequence of papers that have appeared in the open literature. Analytical predictions are then compared with numerical simulations using ABAQUS. It is found that the numerical simulations accurately predict both the axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric modal frequencies for the complete spherical shell. Next, numerical simulations of modal frequencies for the more complex spherical containment vessel (with nozzles) are compared with the spherical shell results. Numerical simulations for the spherical containment vessel reveal that frequencies are somewhat similar to the complete spherical shell. Limited comparisons with experimentally recorded frequencies for participating modes of vessel dynamic response during high explosive containment testing are presented as well.

Duffey, T. A. (Thomas A.); Romero, C. D. (Christopher D.)

2001-01-01

25

Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

1984-06-25

26

Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Donald G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

27

Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

Chael, Eric Paul

2009-12-01

28

Explosion caused by flashing liquid in a process vessel.  

PubMed

An explosion occurred at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin manufacturing plant. The explosion originated at an atmospheric storage vessel when it received a slurry discharge from a suspension polymerization reactor. The pressure rise caused by the uncontrolled flashing of superheated liquid vinyl chloride resulted in the complete separation of the roof from the tank shell. A cloud of vinyl chloride vapor was released and ignited resulting in a vapor cloud explosion. The accident caused significant property damage but no serious injuries. An investigation was conducted to determine the causes of the accident. It was discovered that the facility had experienced numerous overpressure incidents in the atmospheric storage vessels used as slurry tanks. Many of these incidents resulted in modest structural damage to these slurry tanks. It was determined by Exponent that the rapid flashing of residual liquid monomer present in the product slurry stream caused the earlier overpressure incidents. The facility operator did not adequately investigate or document these prior overpressure events nor did it communicate their findings to the operating personnel. Thus, the hazard of flashing liquid vinyl chloride was not recognized. The overpressure protection for the slurry tanks was based on a combination of a venting system and a safety instrumentation system (SIS). The investigation determined that neither the venting system nor the SIS was adequate to protect the slurry tank from the worst credible overpressure scenario. Fundamentally, this is because the performance objectives of the venting system and SIS were not clearly defined and did not protect against the worst credible overpressure scenario. The lessons learned from this accident include: use prior incident data for recognizing process hazards; identify targets vulnerable to these hazards; explicitly define performance objectives for safeguards to protect against the worst credible overpressure scenario. The ultimate lesson learned here is that a liquid trapped under pressure above its normal boiling point represents an overpressure hazard. To avoid exceeding the design pressure of the receiving vessel, the superheated liquid must be discharged slowly so that the vapor production rate caused by flashing does not exceed the venting rate of the receiving vessel. PMID:15518975

Ogle, Russell A; Megerle, Marcus V; Morrison, Delmar R; Carpenter, Andrew R

2004-11-11

29

Development of the VESUVIUS model and analysis of the premixing phase of an ex-vessel steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

The VESUVIUS module, which currently models the premixing phase of a steam explosion following a hypothesized severe accident, is being developed for incorporation into the IMPACT simulation software. A unique contribution of this software is its extensions of the capabilities of the {alpha}-FLOW code, which make possible evaluation of phenomena related to steam explosions in the containment vessel by a general-purpose, thermal-hydraulic code. Modeling of the pre-mixing phase is the initial part of a software development program being conducted at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation to analyze steam explosion scenarios in the containment vessel. These predictions will rely as much as possible on physics-based models rather than empirical data. A description of the modeling and comparisons of sample calculations to results of a severe accident code and experimental data are presented. Intended for adoption by the IMPACT project, the VESUVIUS software will be made compatible with parallel computing hardware.

Vierow, K.; Naitoh, Masanori [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Simulation Systems Dept.; Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro [Fuji Research Inst. Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Supercomputing Technology Div. 2

1996-06-01

30

Substantiation of Thermodynamic Criteria of Explosion Safety in Process of Severe Accidents in Pressure Vessel Reactors  

E-print Network

The paper represents original development of thermodynamic criteria of occurrence conditions of steam-gas explosions in the process of severe accidents. The received results can be used for modelling of processes of severe accidents in pressure vessel reactors.

Skalozubov, V I; Jarovoj, S S; Kochnyeva, V Yu

2012-01-01

31

Substantiation of Thermodynamic Criteria of Explosion Safety in Process of Severe Accidents in Pressure Vessel Reactors  

E-print Network

The paper represents original development of thermodynamic criteria of occurrence conditions of steam-gas explosions in the process of severe accidents. The received results can be used for modelling of processes of severe accidents in pressure vessel reactors.

V. I. Skalozubov; V. N. Vashchenko; S. S. Jarovoj; V. Yu. Kochnyeva

2012-03-27

32

Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

Stinecipher, M.M.

1981-01-01

33

Stiff aqueous explosive composition containing gilsonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stiff or highly viscous explosive composition of high sensitivity to detonation is made up of a mixture of: (1) 40 to 60 Pt. by wt, based on total composition, of ammonium nitrate and 15 to 35 Pt. of sodium nitrate at least partly dissolved in 8 to 15 Pt. of water\\/ (2) it preferably includes 1.5 to 5 Pt.

M. A. Cook; D. T. Bailey

1973-01-01

34

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2012-10-01

35

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2013-10-01

36

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2010-10-01

37

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2011-10-01

38

49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and... § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

2014-10-01

39

A design guide and specification for small explosive containment structures  

SciTech Connect

The design of structural containments for testing small explosive devices requires the designer to consider the various aspects of the explosive loading, i.e., shock and gas or quasistatic pressure. Additionally, if the explosive charge has the potential of producing damaging fragments, provisions must be made to arrest the fragments. This may require that the explosive be packed in a fragment attenuating material, which also will affect the loads predicted for containment response. Material also may be added just to attenuate shock, in the absence of fragments. Three charge weights are used in the design. The actual charge is used to determine a design fragment. Blast loads are determined for a {open_quotes}design charge{close_quotes}, defined as 125% of the operational charge in the explosive device. No yielding is permitted at the design charge weight. Blast loads are also determined for an over-charge, defined as 200% of the operational charge in the explosive device. Yielding, but no failure, is permitted at this over-charge. This guide emphasizes the calculation of loads and fragments for which the containment must be designed. The designer has the option of using simplified or complex design-analysis methods. Examples in the guide use readily available single degree-of-freedom (sdof) methods, plus static methods for equivalent dynamic loads. These are the common methods for blast resistant design. Some discussion of more complex methods is included. Generally, the designer who chooses more complex methods must be fully knowledgeable in their use and limitations. Finally, newly fabricated containments initially must be proof tested to 125% of the operational load and then inspected at regular intervals. This specification provides guidance for design, proof testing, and inspection of small explosive containment structures.

Marchand, K.A.; Cox, P.A.; Polcyn, M.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-12-01

40

PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

2010-07-09

41

Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel  

DOEpatents

This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

Powell, J.G.

1993-11-16

42

Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-16

43

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-06-15

44

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOEpatents

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

1999-06-15

45

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component...suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities shall,...

2014-07-01

46

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component...suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities...

2011-07-01

47

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component...suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities...

2010-07-01

48

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component...suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities...

2012-07-01

49

32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards. The DoD Component...suspected of containing explosive or chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities...

2013-07-01

50

PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS  

SciTech Connect

Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

Hensel, S.

2012-03-27

51

The Internal Aerodynamics of Truck-Cargo Containers for Trace-Explosive Sampling.  

E-print Network

??This thesis examines the efficiency of trace-explosive sampling applied to truck-cargo containers, specifically 53-foot van-bodied trailers. By applying a fluid-dynamics perspective to examine current trace-explosive… (more)

Madalis, Matthew

2008-01-01

52

Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same  

DOEpatents

An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01

53

JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Silicon Containing Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved relationships for the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid silicon and silicon oxide for use with JAGUAR thermo-chemical equation of state routines were developed in this study. Analyses of experimental melting temperature curves for silicon and silicon oxide indicated complex phase behavior and that improved coefficients were required for solid and liquid thermodynamic properties. Advanced optimization routines were utilized in conjunction with the experimental melting point data to establish volumetric coefficients for these substances. The new property libraries resulted in agreement with available experimental values, including Hugoniot data at elevated pressures. Detonation properties were calculated with JAGUAR using the revised property libraries for silicon containing explosives. Constants of the JWLB equation of state were established for varying extent of silicon reaction. Supporting thermal heat transfer analyses were conducted for varying silicon particle sizes to establish characteristic times for melting and silicon reaction.

Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos; Poulos, William; Pincay, Jack

2007-06-01

54

Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jaguar product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products by analysis of Available Hugoniot and static volumetric data to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationships for the components. Experimental melting points were also utilized to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX—boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using Jaguar are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that the boron does not react near the detonation front or that boron mixtures exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior (as shown by some aluminized explosives), with higher detonation velocities at the initial points. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX—boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the detonation properties of the formulation.

Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.

2009-12-01

55

Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion  

SciTech Connect

Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Such problems include underwater blast loading of structures, bubble dynamics and jetting around structures, and hydrodynamic ram events. These problems may involve gas, fluid, and solid dynamics, nonlinear material behavior, cavitation, reaction kinetics, material failure, and nonlinearity that is due to varying geometry and contact conditions within a structure or between structures. Here, the authors model the response of a water-filled, thick-walled, spherical steel vessel to an internal explosion of 30 grams of C-4 with FSI2D--a two-dimensional coupled finite element and finite volume hydrodynamics code. The gas phase detonation products were modeled with a Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson high-explosive equation of state. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.

Lewis, M.W.; Wilson, T.L.

1997-06-01

56

Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion  

SciTech Connect

Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). To model such problems in two-dimensions the authors developed the FSI2D code by coupling MFICE2D, a Los Alamos finite volume computation fluid dynamics (CFD) code, with PRONTO2D, a SANDIA finite element solid dynamics code. Details on this coupling approach and current implementations are discussed in Section 3. In this report the authors use FSI2D to model the response of Jumbino, a water-filled spherical steel vessel (63.4 cm i.d., 6.1 cm wall thickness), to an internal explosion caused by detonating 30 grams of C-4 at the center of the vessel. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.

Wilson, T.L.; Lewis, M.W.

1997-10-01

57

JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JAGUAR product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products. Relationships of the Murnaghan form for molar volumes and derived properties were implemented in JAGUAR. Available Hugoniot and static volumertic data were analyzed to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationship for solid boron, boron oxide, boron nitride, boron carbide, and boric acid. Experimental melting points were also utilized with optimization procedures to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX - boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using JAGUAR are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that boron mixtures may exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior, as observed by aluminized combined effects explosives, with higher detonation velocities than would be achieved by a classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX - boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the energy output obtained from the detonation of the formulation.

Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos

2009-06-01

58

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2011-10-01

59

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2010-10-01

60

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2014-10-01

61

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2012-10-01

62

49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive) materials, unless the container is structurally serviceable as evidenced by a current CSC (International Convention for Safe Containers) approval plate and verified by a detailed visual examination as...

2013-10-01

63

DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS  

SciTech Connect

Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

Leduc, D

2008-06-10

64

Ductile fracture of cylindrical vessels containing a large flaw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fracture process in pressurized cylindrical vessels containing a relatively large flaw is considered. The flaw is assumed to be a part-through or through meridional crack. The flaw geometry, the yield behavior of the material, and the internal pressure are assumed to be such that in the neighborhood of the flaw the cylinder wall undergoes large-scale plastic deformations. Thus, the problem falls outside the range of applicability of conventional brittle fracture theories. To study the problem, plasticity considerations are introduced into the shell theory through the assumptions of fully-yielded net ligaments using a plastic strip model. Then a ductile fracture criterion is developed which is based on the concept of net ligament plastic instability. A limited verification is attempted by comparing the theoretical predictions with some existing experimental results.

Erdogan, F.; Irwin, G. R.; Ratwani, M.

1976-01-01

65

Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein  

DOEpatents

An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

Radtke, Corey W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberto, Francisco F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

66

The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within a Mound-designed calorimeter. In order to qualify the WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels for use at WETF, steps have been taken to ensure the appropriate design, adequate testing, quality in fabrication, and acceptable documentation.

Kane J. Fisher

2000-03-01

67

Experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX).  

SciTech Connect

The results of two series of experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. The first series of experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water while the second series employed 1.2-kg batches of zirconium-stainless steel mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite large, the explosion energies estimated from the experimental measurements were found to be small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available.

Cho, D. H.

1998-04-10

68

Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.  

PubMed

The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (?Pmax), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08g/m(3) and 37.04g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions. PMID:25528229

Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

2015-03-21

69

Passive explosion suppression by blast-induced atomisation from water containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental findings of a combined wind tunnel and field-scale explosion study of blast-induced water release and its effect on blast suppression are reported. The release of water, and its subsequent atomisation, from containers both with open and partly enclosed surfaces, was first studied in a wind tunnel. An array of water containers were then placed at differing positions from

Clive Catlin

2002-01-01

70

Pretest Round Robin Analysis of 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative scale models of nuclear containment to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. This objective is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. This research program consists of testing two scale models: a steel containment vessel (SCV) model (tested in 1996) and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, which is the subject of this paper.

HESSHEIMER,MICHAEL F.; LUK,VINCENT K.; KLAMERUS,ERIC W.; SHIBATA,S.; MITSUGI,S.; COSTELLO,J.F.

2000-12-18

71

A study of the behaviour of a protected vessel containing LPG during pool fire engulfment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods for protection against fires of vessels containing liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) (safety relief valves, intumescent fire retardant coatings, thermal isolation) have been carried out. A simple mathematical model has been proposed, which describes dependences of various parameters on time. These parameters are temperature, pressure and mass of LPG, temperatures of the vessel's walls

Yu. N Shebeko; I. A Bolodian; V. N Filippov; V. Yu Navzenya; A. K Kostyuhin; P. M Tokarev; E. D Zamishevski

2000-01-01

72

The measured contribution of whipping and springing on the fatigue and extreme loading of container vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whipping/springing research started in the 50'ies. In the 60'ies inland water vessels design rules became stricter due to whipping/springing. The research during the 70-90'ies may be regarded as academic. In 2000 a large ore carrier was strengthened due to severe cracking from North Atlantic operation, and whipping/springing contributed to half of the fatigue damage. Measurement campaigns on blunt and slender vessels were initiated. A few blunt ships were designed to account for whipping/springing. Based on the measurements, the focus shifted from fatigue to extreme loading. In 2005 model tests of a 4,400 TEU container vessel included extreme whipping scenarios. In 2007 the 4400 TEU vessel MSC Napoli broke in two under similar conditions. In 2009 model tests of an 8,600 TEU container vessel container vessel included extreme whipping scenarios. In 2013 the 8,100 TEU vessel MOL COMFORT broke in two under similar conditions. Several classification societies have published voluntary guidelines, which have been used to include whipping/springing in the design of several container vessels. This paper covers results from model tests and full scale measurements used as background for the DNV Legacy guideline. Uncertainties are discussed and recommendations are given in order to obtain useful data. Whipping/springing is no longer academic.

Storhaug, Gaute

2014-12-01

73

Perimuscular connective tissue contains more and larger lymphatic vessels than the shallower layers in human gallbladders  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To clarify whether perimuscular connective tissue contains more lymphatic vessels than the shallower layers in human gallbladders. METHODS: Lymphatic vessels were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibody D2-40, which is a specifi c marker of lymphatic endothelium, in representative sections of 12 normal human gallbladders obtained at the time of resection for colorectal carcinoma liver metastases. In individual gallbladder specimens,

Masayuki Nagahashi; Yoshio Shirai; Toshifumi Wakai; Jun Sakata; Yoichi Ajioka; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

74

Passive explosion suppression by blast-induced atomisation from water containers.  

PubMed

The experimental findings of a combined wind tunnel and field-scale explosion study of blast-induced water release and its effect on blast suppression are reported. The release of water, and its subsequent atomisation, from containers both with open and partly enclosed surfaces, was first studied in a wind tunnel. An array of water containers were then placed at differing positions from the ignition point, together with flame acceleration obstacle arrays at fixed positions, inside a 5.1 m long by 0.3 m(2) cross-section explosion duct. The droplet size and the minimum flame speed necessary for the container array to suppress the explosion were found to depend upon the number of containers in the array and on their shape and size. One particular container array extinguished the flame when placed at any position beyond 1.7 m from the ignition point. When extinction was observed the internal over-pressure was substantially reduced and the external over-pressure completely eliminated. This study suggests a new approach toward passive explosion suppression. PMID:12169416

Catlin, Clive

2002-10-01

75

DARRIEUS–LANDAU AND THERMO-ACOUSTIC INSTABILITIES IN CLOSED VESSEL EXPLOSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments involving a spherical explosion bomb are reported, in which Darrieus–Landau thermo-diffusive, D-L,T-D, flame instabilities interacted with primary and secondary, self-excited, thermo-acoustic oscillations. Explosions with central ignition demonstrated that rich i-octane and lean hydrogen-air mixtures generated strong pressure oscillations, a consequence of their negative Markstein numbers. Utilizing dual wall ignitions, the structures of high pressure flames were studied using appropriate

A. S. AL-SHAHRANY; D. BRADLEY; M. LAWES; K. LIU; R. WOOLLEY

2006-01-01

76

Development of an Inspection System for the Reactor Vessel/Containment Vessel of the PRISM and SAFR Liquid Metal Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The integrity of the reactor vessel is of utmost importance in both the PRISM and SAFR concepts. The reactor vessel operates at elevated temperatures and contains molten liquid sodium. To ensure safe operation of the reactor, a periodic, visual inspection of the walls of the containment vessel is required by ASME specifications. This inspection would be conducted during a time when the reactor is shut down for refueling or maintenance. Nuclear Systems Associates, Inc. (NSA) was issued a PRDA contract by the Department of Energy to design, develop, and test a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera system. The purpose of the system is to inspect the welds and wall surface of the Reactor Vessel/Container Vessel for both the PRISM and SAFR type reactors. The system was designed to function at the reactor's normal shutdown temperature, and provide a clear indication of flaws in the wall's weld seams and any cracks that might develop. The project was performed in three phases. The first phase concentrated the efforts on producing a compact camera system with the required resolution, self -contained lighting, and remote control focus and viewing angle. The proposed camera was then tested in a vessel mock-up and found to perform to required specifications at room (cold) temperatures. Simulated flaws, cracks, and a sodium leak were observed with required clarity on both a commercial and blackened stainless steel surfaces. The camera was tested with a single clear glass dome, a single coated glass dome, and a dual-glass dome covering the camera lens and mirror. The second phase of the project was conducted in two parts. The first part involved testing the vessel mock-up at elevated temperatures to verify that the required temperatures can be obtained. The mock-up was constructed with imbedded heaters and both control and indicating thermocouples. Stable operating temperatures over 400°F were achieved. During the second part of this phase, the camera was inserted into the heated mock-up to verify proper operation at elevated temperatures. Several methods were employed to maintain a temperature within the camera assembly below the camera's maximum rating. In the final configuration, the in-annulus time of the camera substantially exceeded requirements. Picture resolution and clarity were not compromised. In the final phase, the camera was subjected to increasing temperatures within the mock-up until image degradation was observed. This occurred at a camera temperature significantly above the rated value. The camera was then returned to the manufacturer for a complete factory evaluation of any permanent damage. Their report indicated that no discernible damage had occurred. Suggestions are offered for further refinement of the techniques described in this report. One improvement is the use of digital image processing to readily detect cracks and flaws, and to objectively compare the current surface condition to that. of a previous inspection.

None

1989-02-01

77

Probabilistic assessment of a containment vessel's survivability to facilitate decision making and enhance quality assurance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a probabilistic approach for assessing the design and safety of an HSLA-100 Steel Confinement Vessel for particular types of detonations. Likelihood of failure for three different scenarios is considered. They are the likelihood a fragment, (1) penetrates half the containment vessel's thickness, (2) perforates through the containment vessel, and (3) perforates a secondary safety vessel given it's perforated the containment vessel. Uncertainties to be quantified include a fragment's geometry, orientation, and velocity. The governing equation for the likelihood of failure is the probability a large enough fragment exits, that it travels fast enough, and is in the proper orientation. The mathematical formulation of this probability expression is presented. The likelihood of failure is based on existing experimental evidence, theory, and expert judgment. Simulations are performed using Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling. The assessment model is used to verify and validate numerical predictions in the well-defined-well-documented, (WDWD) domain. Using Bayesian methods, confidence in numerical predictions is assessed within the WDWD domain so inferences beyond the domain can be made with confidence using only numerical analysis. The assessment model's influence diagram is evolved into a decision analysis model. Validation problems are presented to exercise the decision model.

Dolin, Ronald M.

2001-01-01

78

Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic

Caroline E. Burgess; James D. Woodyard; K. A. Rainwater; J. M. Lightfoot; B. R. Richardson

1998-01-01

79

Explosives tester  

DOEpatents

An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

2011-01-11

80

Investigative studies into the recovery of DNA from improvised explosive device containers.  

PubMed

Apprehending those who utilize improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a national priority owing to their use both domestically and abroad. IEDs are often concealed in bags, boxes, or backpacks to prevent their detection. Given this, the goal of the research presented was to identify IED handlers through postblast DNA recovery from IED containers. Study participants were asked to use backpacks for 11 days, after which they served as containers for pipe bombs. Eleven postdeflagration backpack regions likely to be handled were swabbed and analyzed via mini-short tandem repeats (miniSTRs) and alleles were called blind. An experimental consensus method was examined in which profiles from all regions were considered, to help identify spurious drop-in/out. Results were correct for all loci, except one that remained ambiguous. The results show that recovering DNA from IED containers is a viable approach for aiding in the identification of those who may have been involved in an IED event. PMID:22150348

Hoffmann, Shane G; Stallworth, Shawn E; Foran, David R

2012-05-01

81

Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

2009-12-01

82

The effect of friction on simulated containment of underground nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The strength of the residual stress field is used as an important indicator in assessing the containment of underground nuclear explosions. Containment analysis using the COTTAGE geology shows considerable cracking in the hard Paleozoic layer, just below the cavity. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of total shear stress applied to a closed fracture surface to normal applied compressive total stress. Without any friction, the Paleozoic residual stress field is weakest. As the friction coefficient is increased from 0 to 0.5, the Paleozoic residual stress field is strengthened. A further increase of the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.8 shows strengthened where cracks are closed and weakening where cracks remain open. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Attia, A.V.

1990-11-01

83

USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect

The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

Loftin, Bradley [Savannah River National Laboratory; Koenig, Richard [Savannah River National Laboratory

2013-08-08

84

Numerical analysis of two dimensional natural convection heat transfer following a contained explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pantex facility near Amarillo, Texas, is the only U.S. site charged with the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Concerns over the safety of weapons handling procedures are now being revisited, due to the enhanced safety requirements of the peace time disassembly effort. This research is a detailed examination of one possible nuclear weapons-related accident. In this hypothetical accident, a chemical explosion equivalent to over 50 kilos of TNT destroys unassembled nuclear weapons components, and may potentially result in some amount of plutonium reaching the environment. Previous attempts to simulate this accident have centered around the one-dimensional node and branch approach of the MELCOR code. This approach may be adequate in calculating pressure driven flow through narrow rampways and leak sites, however, its one-dimensionality does not allow it to accurately calculate the multi-dimensional aspects of heat transfer. This research effort uses an axi-symmetric stream function---vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations to model a Pantex cell building following a successfully contained chemical explosion. This allows direct calculation of the heat transfer within the cell room during the transient. The tool that was developed to perform this analysis is called PET (Post-Explosion Transient), and it simulates natural convection thermal hydraulics taking into account temperature-related fluid density differences, variable fluid transport properties, and a non-linear equation of state. Results obtained using the PET code indicate that previous analyses by other researchers using the MELCOR code have been overly conservative in estimating the effects of cell room heat transfer. An increase in the calculated heat transfer coefficient of approximately 20% is indicated. This has been demonstrated to significantly decrease the projected consequences of the hypothetical accident.

Manson, Steven James

85

DESIGN OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR SHIPMENT OF TRITIUM GAS  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a design summary of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This new package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The new design is based on changes in the regulatory requirements. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials that enhance the package's ability to withstand dynamic loading and thermal effects. This paper will specifically summarize the design philosophy and engineered features of the BTSP containment vessel closure. The closure design incorporates a concave closure lid, metallic C-Ring seals for containing tritium gas, a metal bellows valve and an elastomer O-Ring for leak testing. The efficient design minimizes the overall vessel height and protects the valve housing from damage during postulated drop and crush scenarios. Design features will be discussed.

Eberl, K; Paul Blanton, P

2007-07-03

86

Spatially offset hyperspectral stand-off Raman imaging for explosive detection inside containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stand-off Raman imaging system for the identification of explosive traces was modified for the analysis of substances in containers which are non-transparent to the human eye. This extends its application from trace detection of threat materials to the investigation of suspicious container content. Despite its limitation to containers that are opaque to the facilitated laser, the combination of Spatial Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) with stand-off Raman imaging allows to collect spectral data from a broad range of different spatial offsets simultaneously. This is a significant advantage over SORS with predefined offset, since the ideal offset is unknown prior to the measurement and depends on the container material as well as the sample content. Here the detection of sodium chlorate in a white plastic bottle is shown. A 532nm-laser (pulse length 5ns, repetition 50kHz) was focused to a diameter of 10mm at 10m. A 1500mm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with a 152.4mm diameter collected the scattered light. An edge filter removed inelastically scattered laser light and a liquid crystal tunable filter was used to select 0.25nm broad wavelength ranges between 480 and 720nm. The sample area of 50×50mm was imaged on 1024×1024 pixels of an ICCD camera. For the conducted experiments an ICCD gate time of 5ns was selected and 70?J-laser pulses were accumulated during 1s for each wavelength.

Zachhuber, Bernhard; Östmark, Henric; Carlsson, Torgny

2014-05-01

87

Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for explosives detection through difficult (opaque) containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the continuing threat to aviation security from homemade explosive devices, the restrictions on taking a volume of liquid greater than 100 ml onto an aircraft remain in place. From January 2014, these restrictions will gradually be reduced via a phased implementation of technological screening of Liquids, Aerosols and Gels (LAGs). Raman spectroscopy offers a highly sensitive, and specific, technique for the detection and identification of chemicals. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS), in particular, offers significant advantages over conventional Raman spectroscopy for detecting and recognizing contents within optically challenging (Raman active) containers. Containers vary enormously in their composition; glass type, plastic type, thickness, reflectance, and pigmentation are all variable and cause an infinite range of absorbances, fluorescence backgrounds, Rayleigh backscattered laser light, and container Raman bands. In this paper we show that the data processing chain for Cobalt Light Systems' INSIGHT100 bottlescanner is robust to such variability. We discuss issues of model selection for the detection stage and demonstrate an overall detection rate across a wide range of threats and containers of 97% with an associated false alarm rate of 0.1% or lower.

Maskall, Guy T.; Bonthron, Stuart; Crawford, David

2013-10-01

88

Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein  

SciTech Connect

There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

1998-09-01

89

Measurement of convectional heat transfer coefficients in a primary containment vessel with outer pool  

SciTech Connect

New concepts with passive safety systems that use no active compounds, such as pumps, have been recently developed for next-generation nuclear power plants. In these concepts, several ideas and their combination of passive components were adopted for emergency core cooling and residual heat removal systems. For the residual heat removal system, utilization of natural circulation heat transfer in water pools was proposed as a passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which removes decay heat from the primary containment vessel (PCV) during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). This system consists of a suppression pool (S/P) and an outer pool (O/P), which are set adjacently inside and outside of the steel PCV wall. The core decay heat during LOCA is released through a break as steam and is led into the S/P. The injected steam condenses there, resulting a pool temperature rise. The adsorbed heat in the S/P is transferred to the O/P by convection in both pools and thermal conduction through the steel PCV wall. The heat transferred to the O/P is finally released to the atmosphere by vaporization of the O/P water. Estimation of the convectional heat transfer coefficients in both pools is necessary to predict the heat removal capability in this system precisely. The heat transfer coefficients measured in this study are useful for the design of the next-generation nuclear reactor as the fundamental thermal-hydraulic data in the primary containment vessel with the outer pool.

Fukui, Toru; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Hatamiya, Shigeo

1990-01-01

90

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

91

Analysis of an explosion accident of nitrogen trichloride in a waste liquid containing ammonium ion and platinum black.  

PubMed

Five liters of sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution (12 mass%) was poured into 300 L of liquid waste containing ammonium ion of about 1.8 mol/L in a 500 L tank in a plant area; then, two minutes later the solution exploded with a flash on March 30th, 2005. The tank cover, the fluorescent lamp and the air duct were broken by the blast wave. Thus, we have conducted 40 runs of laboratory-scale explosion tests under various conditions (solution concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 and NaClO, temperatures, Pt catalysts, pH, etc.) to investigate the causes for such an explosion. When solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite are mixed in the presence of platinum black, explosions result. This is ascribable to the formation of explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3). In the case where it is necessary to mix these 2 solutions (ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite) in the presence of platinum black, the following conditions would reduce a probability of explosion; the initial concentration of NH4(+) should be less than 3 mol/L and the pH should be higher than 6. The hypochlorite solution (in 1/10 in volume) to be added at room temperature is recommended to be less than 0.6 mol/L. PMID:24953938

Okada, Ken; Akiyoshi, Miyako; Ishizaki, Keiko; Sato, Hiroyasu; Matsunaga, Takehiro

2014-08-15

92

Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides Part I. Relative performance and detonation of mixtures with triacetone triperoxide.  

PubMed

This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E0, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m(-3). Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of "tertiary explosives" as well as samples that approach "high explosives" in their performances and detonation velocities. PMID:18023972

Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzci?ski, Waldemar A; Matyás, Robert

2008-06-15

93

Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

2002-02-25

94

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES  

SciTech Connect

The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

2007-06-06

95

Preliminary simulations in the use of fast neutrons to detect explosives hidden in cargo containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast neutrons have the potential to be a powerful tool in explosives detection. Methods using elastically scattered neutrons would likely require fewer incident neutrons than those that depend on neutron absorption or inelastic scatter due to an increased interaction probability. This reduction would dramatically reduce dose rates and induced target radioactivity. In this study, a series of Monte Carlo (MCNP5)

A. L. Lehnert; Z. D. Whetstone; T. Zak; K. J. Kearfott

2007-01-01

96

Measurement of the flow properties within a copper tube containing a deflagrating explosive  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the propagation of deflagration waves in the high explosive (HE) PBX 9501 (95 wt % HMX, 5 wt% binder). Our test configuration, which we call the def1agration cylinder test (DFCT), is fashioned after the detonation cylinder test (DTCT) that is used to calibrate the JWL detonation product equation of state (EOS). In the DFCT, the HE is

Larry G Hill; John S Morris; Scott I Jackson

2009-01-01

97

Radio-frequency superradiance at the rheological explosion of a paramagnetic polymer composite containing manganese complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been revealed that the rheological explosion of a paramagnetic composite (manganese (III) polystyrene acetylacetonate—spatially complicated phenol) is accompanied by the generation of radio-frequency superradiance owing to the annihilation of triplet manganese complexes, as well as by the generation of current pulses.

Aleksandrov, A. I.; Alexandrov, I. A.; Prokof'ev, A. I.

2013-07-01

98

Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

1993-07-01

99

Influences of welding processes on fatigue life of cruciform joints of pressure vessel grade steels containing LOP defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of two welding processes, namely, shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux cored arc welding (FCAW), on fatigue life of cruciform joints, containing lack of penetration (LOP) defects, have been studied. Load carrying cruciform joints were fabricated from high strength, quenched and tempered steels of pressure vessel (ASTM 517 ‘F’) grade. Fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out

V Balasubramanian; B Guha

2000-01-01

100

A Neutron Based Scanner to Detect Explosives in Small, Sealed Containers  

SciTech Connect

A scanning system has been designed for portal protection applications, with the capability of detecting explosive materials after an initial scan of 30 seconds. The scanner operates using the principle of neutron induced return gamma-ray spectrometry. This system utilizes high purity germanium detectors, a neutron generator based on deuterium-tritium fusion and a unique neutron reflector and guide design. The neutron reflector amplifies the flux and alters the energy spectrum of neutrons produced by the generator. A depleted uranium reflector is shown to perform 7.3 times better than no reflector, and is found to perform 1.5 times better than a tungsten reflector using MCNP simulation. This improvement is due to neutron knockout and induced fission occurring in depleted uranium. The system is capable of detecting 300 g of explosives with 90% detection probability, which includes a 15% rescan rate after a 30 second initial scan.

Koltick, D.; Sword, E. [Physics Department, Purdue University 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2009-03-10

101

ASME code ductile failure criteria for impulsively loaded pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect

Ductile failure criteria suitable for application to impulsively loaded high pressure vessels that are designed to the rules of the ASME Code Section VI11 Division 3 are described and justified. The criteria are based upon prevention of load instability and the associated global failure mechanisms, and on protection against progressive distortion for multiple-use vessels. The criteria are demonstrated by the design and analysis of vessels that contain high explosive charges.

Nickell, Robert E.; Duffey, T. A. (Thomas A.); Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)

2003-01-01

102

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF VESSEL-SPANNING BUBBLES IN CYLINDRICAL & ANNULAR & OBROUND & AND CONICAL CONTAINERS  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske & Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske & Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers, is included in Appendix A. Results from the experiments confirm that the gravity yield parameter, Y{sub G}, correctly includes container size and can be applied to full-scale containers to predict the possibility of the formation of a stable vessel spanning bubble. The results also indicate that a vessel spanning bubble will likely form inside the STSC for KE, KW, and Settler sludges if the shear strengths of these sludges exceed 1820, 2080, and 2120 Pa, respectively. A passive mechanism installed in the STSC is effective at disrupting a rising sludge plug and preventing the sludge from plugging the vent filter or being forced out of the container. The Sludge Treatment Project for Engineered Container and Settler Sludge (EC/ST) Disposition Subproject is being conducted in two phases. Phase 1 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the radioactive sludge currently stored in the K West (KW) Basin into Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and transport the STSCs to T-Plant for interim storage. Phase 2 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the sludge from interim storage, treat and package sludge for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The STSC is a cylindrical container; similar to previously used large diameter containers. A STSC (Figure 1) with a diameter of 58 inches will be used to transport KE and KW originating sludge (located in Engineered Containers 210, 220, 240, 250, and 260) to T-Plant. A STSC with an annulus (Figure 2) will be used to transport Settler Tank sludge, located in Engineered Container 230. An obround small canister design was previously considered to retrieve sludge from the basin. The obround design was selected in Small Canister Design Selection, PRC-STP-00052. However, the small canister was not selected for transporting the sludge. The STSC was selected for sludge loading and transport to T-Plant as discussed in Decision Report for Direct Hydraulic Loading of Sludge into Sludge Transport and Storage Containers, PRC-STP-00112. The STSC will be directly loaded with sludge as described in the Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance, HNF-41051.

DHALIWAL TK

2010-01-28

103

Mathematical simulation of containment of molten fuel in the vessel of fast reactor under conditions of heavy accident: Mathematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is suggested of containment of melt in the vessel of a fast reactor under conditions of deterioration\\u000a of fuel assemblies. The computational domain under consideration is multiply connected and includes 15 sub-domains. The mathematical\\u000a simulation of sub-domains as porous bodies is performed using the laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, written\\u000a in the form of

M. V. Kashcheev; I. A. Kuznetsov

2009-01-01

104

Proceedings of the seventh symposium on containment of underground nuclear explosions. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume 1 of two unclassified volumes of a meeting of workers at all levels in the science and technology of containment. Papers on containment and related geological, geophysical, engineering, chemical, and computational topics were included. Particular topics included in this volume are: General containment,tunnel and LOS topics, cavity conditions, and LYNER and chemical kiloton. Individual papers are indexed separately on the data base.

Olsen, C.W. [ed.] [ed.

1993-12-31

105

Proceedings of the seventh symposium on containment of underground nuclear explosions. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume 2 of two unclassified volumes of a meeting of workers at all levels in the science and technology of containment. Papers on containment and related geological, geophysical, engineering, chemical, and computational topics were included. Particular topics in this volume include: Low-yield test beds, modeling and residual stress, material properties, collapse phenomena and shock diagnostics, stemming practices and performance, geophysics, and geosciences and weapons destruction. Individual papers are indexed separately on the data base.

Olsen, C.W. [ed.

1993-12-31

106

Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test  

SciTech Connect

An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach; The welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Farmers Branch, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1996-12-01

107

Static-stress analysis of dual-axis safety vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8 ft diameter safety vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, is evaluated to determine its ability to contain the quasi-static residual pressure from a high explosive (HE) blast. The safety vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A smaller confinement vessel fits inside the safety vessel and contains the actual explosion, and the safety vessel functions as a second layer of containment in the unlikely case of a confinement vessel leak. The safety vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC107. Combined stresses that result from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared to the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzle components are adequately designed for a static pressure of 830 psi, plus the maximum expected external loads. Shell stresses at the 'shell to nozzle' interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 700 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 17,384 psi, which is significantly less than the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

Bultman, D. H.

1992-11-01

108

Analysis of complex vessel experiments using the Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian containment code ALICE-II  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the ALICE-II analysis of and comparison with complex vessel experiments. Tests SM-2 through SM-5 were performed by SRI International in 1978 in studying the structural response of 1/20 scale models of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor to a simulated hypothetical core-disruptive accident. These experiments provided quality data for validating treatments of the nonlinear fluid-structure interactions and many complex excursion phenomena, such as flow through perforated structures, large material distortions, multi-dimensional sliding interfaces, flow around sharp corners, and highly contorted fluid boundaries. Correlations of the predicted pressures with the test results of all gauges are made. Wave characteristics and arrival times are also compared. Results show that the ALICE-II code predicts the pressure profile well. Despite the complexity, the code gave good results for the SM-5 test.

Wang, C.Y.; Ku, J.L.; Zeuch, W.R.

1984-03-01

109

The influence of selected containment structures on debris dispersal and transport following high pressure melt ejection from the reactor vessel  

SciTech Connect

High pressure expulsion of molten core debris from the reactor pressure vessel may result in dispersal of the debris from the reactor cavity. In most plants, the cavity exits into the containment such that the debris impinges on structures. Retention of the debris on the structures may affect the further transport of the debris throughout the containment. Two tests were done with scaled structural shapes placed at the exit of 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion cavity. The results show that the debris does not adhere significantly to structures. The lack of retention is attributed to splashing from the surface and reentrainment in the gas flowing over the surface. These processes are shown to be applicable to reactor scale. A third experiment was done to simulate the annular gap between the reactor vessel and cavity wall. Debris collection showed that the fraction of debris exiting through the gap was greater than the gap-to-total flow area ratio. Film records indicate that dispersal was primarily by entrainment of the molten debris in the cavity. 29 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

1988-09-01

110

A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-08-01

111

Static-stress analysis of dual-axis confinement vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the static-pressure containment capability of a 6-ft-diameter, spherical vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, to be used for high-explosive (HE) containment. The confinement vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility (DARHT) being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sets of openings in the vessel are covered with x-ray transparent covers to allow radiographic imaging of an explosion as it occurs inside the vessel. The confinement vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC-107. Combined stresses resulting from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared with the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzles of the confinement vessel are adequately designed to safely contain the maximum residual pressure of 1675 psi that would result from an HE charge of 24.2 kg detonated in a vacuum. Shell stresses at the shell-to-nozzle interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 400 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 16,070 psi, which is less than half the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

Bultman, D. H.

1992-11-01

112

Explosive demolition of activated concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the removal of a radiologically contaminated concrete pad. This pad was removed during 1979 by operating personnel under the direction of the Waste Management Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The concrete pad was the foundation for the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) reactor vessel. The pad consisted of a cylindrical concrete slab 15 ft in diameter, 2 ft thick, and reinforced with steel bar. It was poured directly onto basalt rocks approximately 20 ft below grade. The entire pad contained induced radioactivity and was therefore demolished, boxed, and buried rather than being decontaminated. The pad was demolished by explosive blasting.

Smith, D. L.

1980-04-01

113

Vessel schedule reliability optimization for container terminal based on adaptive differential evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on dynamic berth allocation problem (BAP) in container terminal (CT), a schedule reliability problem (SRP) optimization model is proposed. The model focuses on the minimum average schedule missed hours of ships between the ship schedule departure time and the actual departure time to enhance the schedule reliability (SR) of ships in CT, and the quay crane allocation is considered

Lin Wang; Aiguo Li; Defeng Wu

2010-01-01

114

OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL DETONATION (BLAST) LOADING  

SciTech Connect

Spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels are often used to completely contain the effects of high explosions. These vessels generally fall into two categories. The first includes vessels designed for multiple use ([1]-[6]). Applications of such multiple-use vessels include testing of explosive components and bomb disposal. Because of the multiple-use requirement, response of the vessel is restricted to the elastic range. The second category consists of vessels designed for one-time use only ([7]-[9]). Vessels in this category are typically used to contain accidental explosions and are designed to efficiently utilize the significant plastic energy absorption capacity of ductile materials. Because these vessels may undergo large permanent plastic deformations, they may not be reusable. Ideally one would design a Containment Vessel according to some National or International Consensus Standard, such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Unfortunately, however, a number of issues preclude direct use of the ASME Code in its present form to the design of Containment Vessels. These issues are described in Section 2, along with a request for guidance from the PVRC as to a suitable path forward for developing appropriate ASME B&PV design guidance for Containment Vessels. Next, a discussion of the nature of impulsive loading as a result of an internal detonation of the high explosive within a Containment Vessel is described in Section 3. Ductile failure criteria utilized for LANL Containment Vessels are described in Section 4. Finally, brittle fracture criteria currently utilized by LANL are presented in Section 5. This memo is concluded with a brief summary of results and an appeal to PVRC to recommend and develop an appropriate path forward (Section 6). This path forward could be of a short-term specialized nature (e.g., Code Case) for specific guidance regarding design of the LANL Containment Vessels; a long-term development of a general design approach applicable to all Containment Vessels, including those at LANL; or a combination of the two. This memo supplements information provided in the viewgraphs of the Presentation by E.A. Rodriguez to be given to the PVRC at the May Meeting. The Presentation is entitled, ''Design Criteria for Internal Detonation (Blast) Loading''.

T. A. DUFFEY; E. A. RODRIGUEZ

2001-05-01

115

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

116

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

117

OBOE containment prospectus  

SciTech Connect

The OBOE series of experiments presents a new fielding concept for LLNL subcritical experiments. An experimental alcove will be reused for many different experiments. Each individual experiment will be conducted within a steel experimental vessel. After each experiment, the vessel will be moved to the back of the alcove and entombed in grout. The alcove is designed with sufficient space to entomb 12 experiment vessels. Each experiment in the OBOE series of experiments is composed of one experimental package. Each experimental package will have high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. Each experimental package will be placed in a steel experimental vessel within the OBOE zero-room. Each experiment will be detonated inside its experimental vessel in the OBOE zero-room that is formed by a steel and concrete barrier at the entrance to the U1a.102C drift. The containment plan for the OBOE series of experiments utilizes a two containment vessel concept. The first containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102C drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U1a.100 drift. While it is likely that the experiment vessel will contain the SNM from an experiment, the containment plan for the OBOE series only assumes that the steel experiment vessel provides shock mitigation and is a heat sink for the heat produced by the detonation of the HE. It is possible that one or more of the experimental vessels may seep SNM in the zero-room from a failure of a seal on the vessel. We are presenting a containment plan for the entire series of OBOE experiments. At this time, we do not know exactly how many experiments will actually be conducted in the OBOE series. However, we do know that the maximum number of experiments in the OBOE series is 12. After the final experiment in the OBOE series, a larger experiment will be conducted in the U1a.102C alcove. This experiment will not be part of the OBOE series and a separate containment plan will be presented to the CRP for this experiment. We do not intend to present individual containment plans for each experiment of the OBOE series as long as each experiment falls within the parameters given in this document. If an experiment in the OBOE series falls outside the parameters given in this document, a containment plan for that experiment will be presented to the CRP for a full review.

Burkhard, N R

1999-11-19

118

Report on an Explosion and Fire involving the Motor Vessel Atlantic Duchess at Queen's Dock, Swansea, Glamorganshire on 2nd February, 1951   

E-print Network

REPORT TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE HOME DEPARTMENT ON THE CIRCUMSTANCES ATTENDING AN EXPLOSION AND FIRE WHICH OCCURRED ON 2ND FEBRUARY. 1951, AT QUEEN'S DOCK SWANSEA, IN THE COUNTY OF ...

Watts, H. E.

1951-04-02

119

Experimental results of direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The DCH-3 and DCH-4 tests  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments, DCH-3 and DCH-4, were performed at the Surtsey test facility to investigate phenomena associated with a high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) reactor accident sequence resulting in direct containment heating (DCH). These experiments were performed using the same experimental apparatus with identical initial conditions, except that the Surtsey test vessel contained air in DCH-3 and argon in DCH-4. Inerting the vessel with argon eliminated chemical reactions between metallic debris and oxygen. Thus, a comparison of the pressure response in DCH-3 and DCH-4 gave an indication of the DCH contribution due to metal/oxygen reactions. 44 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Nichols, R.T. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Sweet, D.W. (AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom))

1991-08-01

120

Experimental results of direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The DCH-3 and DCH-4 tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments, DCH-3 and DCH-4, were performed at the Surtsey test facility to investigate phenomena associated with a high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) reactor accident sequence resulting in direct containment heating (DCH). These experiments were performed using the same experimental apparatus with identical initial conditions, except that the Surtsey test vessel contained air in DCH-3 and argon in DCH-4. Inerting the

M. D. Allen; M. Pilch; J. E. Brockmann; W. W. Tarbell; R. T. Nichols; D. W. Sweet

1991-01-01

121

Ultrasonic, Non-Invasive Classification/Discrimination of Liquid Explosives (LEs) and Threat Liquids from Non-Threat Liquids in Sealed Containers  

SciTech Connect

Government agencies and homeland security organizations are searching for more effective approaches for dealing with the increasing demand for inspections involving potential threat liquids and hazardous chemicals, including liquid explosives (LEs). The quantity and variability of hand-held and cargo-sized containers being shipped worldwide drives the need for rapid and effective ways for conducting non-intrusive inspections of liquid-filled containers of a diverse range of types, shapes and sizes. Such inspections need to quickly classify/discriminate between liquids within containers and also ascertain the presence of unexpected objects within a container. The science base, methodology and prototype device for classification/discrimination between classes of liquids has been developed. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device for classification/discrimination of a wide variety of liquids (including threat liquids and their precursors), providing noninvasive liquid classification/discrimination capabilities using a nondestructive ultrasonic measurement approach for inspecting sealed containers. The Container Screening Device (CSD) employs frequency-modulated (FM) chirp excitation and pulse-compression signal processing techniques to measure ultrasonic velocity and a relative attenuation value for liquids within a container, and is capable of determining other acoustic properties from through-transmission, contact measurements over a wide frequency range. Recent algorithm developments are beginning to address the issues of container wall variations and thickness. A description of the basic science, measurement approach and sources of variability in the measurement will be presented and laboratory measurements acquired from a suite of commercial products and precursor liquids used in the manufacturing of Homemade Explosives (HMEs) will be given.

Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Tucker, Brian J.; Samuel, Todd J.; Morales, Romarie

2009-07-20

122

Explosives tester with heater  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-08-10

123

Query Nuclear Explosions Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NUCEXP, National Geoscience Database, provided by the Australian Geological Survey Organization (AGSO), contains entries on nuclear explosions around the world since 1945, with the location, time and size of explosions. To view the records, users must select site and country conducting the test and beginning/end dates.

2002-01-01

124

An upper limit for the total energy of relativistic particles contained in the early stages of supernova explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is proposed for the emission of X-rays from supernova explosions wherein the thermal distribution of photons from a supernova photosphere is inverse Compton scattered by relativistic electrons within or near the surface of the star. Using this model, upper limits for the number of relativistic electrons and their total energy are established on the basis of upper limits to the observed X-ray luminosity of a supernova during maximum light. These upper limits, in conjunction with radio frequency upper limits obtained by Brown and Marscher, strongly suggest that supernovae do not produce significant numbers of relativistic particles until at least 70 years after the initial outburst. This, in turn, implies that young supernovae cannot account for the radio and X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

Beall, J. H.

1979-01-01

125

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2013-10-01

126

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2014-10-01

127

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2012-10-01

128

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2010-10-01

129

49 CFR 176.184 - Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 1 (explosive) materials of Compatibility Group L. ...VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.184...

2011-10-01

130

40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

2014-07-01

131

40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

2010-07-01

132

40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

2013-07-01

133

40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

2012-07-01

134

40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...technology, as specified in § 63.495; (5) Storage vessels containing styrene; (6) Storage vessels containing acrylamide; and (7) Storage vessels containing epichlorohydrin. (c) When the term “storage vessel” is used in §§...

2011-07-01

135

Through-container measurement of acoustic signatures for classification/discrimination of liquid explosives (LEs) and precursor threat liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has demonstrated that ultrasonic property measurements can be effectively employed for the rapid and accurate classification/discrimination of liquids in small, carry-on, standard "stream-of-commerce" containers. This paper focuses on a set of laboratory measurements acquired with the PNNL prototype device as applied to several types of liquids (including threat liquids and precursor chemicals) to the manufacture of LEs in small commercially available plastic containers.

Diaz, Aaron A.; Samuel, Todd J.; Tucker, Brian J.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Valencia, Juan D.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Thompson, Jason S.

2008-03-01

136

Simultaneous identification and quantification of nitro-containing explosives by advanced chemometric data treatment of cyclic voltammetry at screen-printed electrodes.  

PubMed

The simultaneous determination of three nitro-containing compounds found in the majority of explosive mixtures, namely hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), is demonstrated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches involving the coupling of electrochemical measurements and advanced chemometric data processing. Voltammetric responses were obtained from a single bare screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which exhibited marked mix-responses towards the compounds examined. The responses obtained were then preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the resulting coefficients were input to an artificial neural network (ANN) model. Subsequently, meaningful data was extracted from the complex voltammetric readings, achieving either the correct discrimination of the different commercial mixtures (100% of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) or the individual quantification of each of the compounds under study (total NRMSE of 0.162 for the external test subset). PMID:23598222

Cetó, Xavier; O' Mahony, Aoife M; Wang, Joseph; Del Valle, Manel

2013-03-30

137

Time-sequenced X-ray Observation of a Thermal Explosion  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of a thermally-initiated explosion is studied using a multiple-image x-ray system. HMX-based PBX 9501 is used in this work, enabling direct comparison to recently-published data obtained with proton radiography [1]. Multiple x-ray images of the explosion are obtained with image spacing of ten microseconds or more. The explosion is simultaneously characterized with a high-speed camera using an interframe spacing of 11 {micro}s. X-ray and camera images were both initiated passively by signals from an embedded thermocouple array, as opposed to being actively triggered by a laser pulse or other external source. X-ray images show an accelerating reacting front within the explosive, and also show unreacted explosive at the time the containment vessel bursts. High-speed camera images show debris ejected from the vessel expanding at 800-2100 m/s in the first tens of {micro}s after the container wall failure. The effective center of the initiation volume is about 6 mm from the geometric center of the explosive.

Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Kercher, J R; Springer, H K; Henson, B F; Glascoe, E A; Greenwood, D W; Garza, R G; Wong, B M; Batteux, J D; Maienschein, J L

2009-08-03

138

New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suggested and tested were some mix explosives---powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)---for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30--70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

Andreevskikh, Leonid

2011-06-01

139

Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R

2012-01-19

140

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01

141

Explosive nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

Many radioactive nuclei relevant for gamma-ray astrophysics are synthesized during explosive events, such as classical novae and supernovae. A review of recent results of explosive nucleosynthesis in these scenarios is presented, with a special emphasis on the ensuing gamma-ray emission from individual nova and supernova explosions. The influence of the dynamic properties of the ejecta on the gamma-ray emission features, as well as the still remaining uncertainties in nova and supernova models is also reviewed.

M. Hernanz

2001-03-26

142

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2012-07-01

143

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2010-07-01

144

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2014-07-01

145

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2013-07-01

146

30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2011-07-01

147

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives  

E-print Network

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives(). At the edges of the explosive, Dn() is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive-containing systems. Key words: Detonation, Curvature eect, Edge interactions

Aslam, Tariq

148

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2012-07-01

149

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2014-07-01

150

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2011-07-01

151

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2013-07-01

152

30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containing explosives shall not be stored in magazines on their ends or sides nor stacked more than 6 feet high. (h) Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agents shall be physically separated from other explosives, safety fuse, or detonating...

2010-07-01

153

Detection of Explosives via Photolytic Cleavage of Nitroesters and Nitramines  

E-print Network

The nitramine-containing explosive RDX and the nitroester-containing explosive PETN are shown to be susceptible to photofragmentation upon exposure to sunlight. Model compounds containing nitroester and nitramine moieties ...

Swager, Timothy Manning

154

Reactor vessel support system  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

1982-01-01

155

An Orientation to Explosive Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

Harris, Betty W.

1987-01-01

156

Explosive Z Pinch  

E-print Network

We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann; Markus Schwarz

2006-04-20

157

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

Germer, J.H.

1987-07-07

158

Supplement Analysis to the 1999 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Proposed Disposition of Certain Large Containment Vessels  

SciTech Connect

This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) (DOE 1999a) adequately addresses the environmental effects of introducing a proposed project for the clean-out and decontamination (DECON) of certain large containment vessels into the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA) 3, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. After undergoing the clean-out and DECON steps, the subject containment vessels would be disposed of at LANL's TA-54 low-level waste (LLW) disposal site or, as appropriate, at a DOE or commercial offsite permitted LLW-regulated landfill; after actinides were recovered from the DECON solution within the CMR Building, they would be moved to LANL's TA-55 Plutonium Facility and undergo subsequent processing at that facility for reuse. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement (EIS) when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are changed circumstances or new or changed information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 10211.314(c) of the DOE's regulations for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementation that states: ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis''. This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the proposed project action with the LANL operations capabilities evaluated in the 1999 SWEIS in support DOE's long-term hydrodynamic testing program at LANL, as well as the waste disposal capabilities evaluated in the SWEIS in support of LANL operations. It also provides an explanation of any differences between the proposed action and activities described in the SWEIS analysis. The SWEIS analyzed the impacts of performing plutonium (Pu) and actinide activities, including hydrodynamic testing support activity, at the Plutonium Facility and at the CMR Building.

N /A

2004-02-12

159

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

160

Nanoengineered explosives  

DOEpatents

A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.

1996-04-09

161

Workbook for predicting pressure wave and fragment effects of exploding propellant tanks and gas storage vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology needed to predict damage and hazards from explosions of propellant tanks and bursts of pressure vessels, both near and far from these explosions is introduced. Data are summarized in graphs, tables, and nomographs.

Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Bessey, R. L.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Oldham, G. A.

1975-01-01

162

Soda Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on activity lets participant explore chemical reactions as they create a soda explosion with lots of bubbles. The bubbles in soda are made of carbon dioxide gas. Using lifesaver mint candy, create a fun, foaming mess. Experimenting in an outside space is suggested.

Connecticut, Science C.

1999-01-01

163

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16

164

Population Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of experiments explore the effects of increased population growth on a population of Fast Plants. Through these inquiries, students will better understand the many substantial and pertinent issues surrounding human population explosion on Earth.These experiments can be adjusted toward middle, high school or post-secondary levels.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

165

Explosive complexes  

DOEpatents

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22

166

Transuranic drum hydrogen explosion tests  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste can produce flammable ({gt}4%) mixtures of hydrogen gas in 55 gallon vented waste storage drums. Explosion testing was conducted at the E. I. duPont Explosion Hazards Laboratory to determine the minimum concentration at which a drum lid removal occurs. A secondary objective was to investigate the maximum pressure and rate of pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. Prior to beginning any drum explosion tests, small-scale pressure vessel tests and drum mixing tests were completed. The pressure vessel tests established a relationship between hydrogen concentration and the maximum pressure and pressure rise. These small-scale tests were used to establish the concentration range over which a drum lid removal might occur. Mixing tests were also conducted to determine the equilibration times for two different hydrogen-air mixtures in a TRU drum. Nine successful drum explosion tests were conducted over a hydrogen concentration range of 13--36% (v/v), test results suggest total integrity failure via drum lid removal will not occur below 15% (v/v). Controlled small-scale pressure vessel tests were conducted over a range of 5--50% (v/v) to determine the pressure and pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. No similar relationship could be established for the drum explosion tests due to the variability in drum lid sealing and retaining ring closure. Mixing tests conducted at 5% and 25% (v/v) indicate adding pure hydrogen to the middle of a drum causes some initial stratification along the drum length, but the air and hydrogen become well-mixed after 50 minutes. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

1991-06-01

167

Spot test kit for explosives detection  

DOEpatents

An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

2014-03-11

168

Pressure evolution of ethylene-air explosions in enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peak explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are important safety parameters for assessing the hazard of a process and for design of vessels able to withstand an explosion or of their vents used as relief devices. Using ethylene-air with various fuel concentrations (4-10 vol% C2H4) as test mixture, the propagation of explosion in four closed vessels (a spherical vessel with central ignition and three cylindrical vessels with various L/D ratios, centrally or side ignited) has been studied at various initial pressures between 0.3-2.0 bar. In all cases, the peak pressures and the maximum rates of pressure rise were found to be linear functions on the total initial pressure, at constant fuel concentration. Examining several enclosures, the maximum values of explosion pressures and rates of pressure rise have been found for the spherical vessel. For the same initial conditions, the peak explosion pressure and maximum rates of pressure rise determined in cylindrical vessels decrease with the increase of L/D ratio. Asymmetric ignition, at vessel's bottom, induces important heat losses during flame propagation. This process is characterized by the lowest rates of pressure rise, as compared to propagation of flame ignited in the centre of the same vessel.

Movileanu, C.; Razus, D.; Giurcan, V.; Gosa, V.

2014-08-01

169

Demonstration Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

Lee, Charles "Skip"

1998-05-01

170

Explosive Joining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

1989-01-01

171

Projectile-generating explosive access tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile

Juan-Carlos Jakaboski; Chance G. Hughs; Steven N. Todd

2011-01-01

172

Explosive-powder compaction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a pressure-control system and a test fixture to study the behavior of explosive materials during compaction. Both the pressure-control system and the test fixture are self-contained and portable. Explosive materials are compacted in a bridged header charge holder assembly by means of a test fixture and a pneumatic cylinder arrangement. Forces are measured with load

A. P. Montoya; M. L. Reichenbach

1981-01-01

173

Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems  

DOEpatents

Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

1999-09-28

174

Pressure vessel flex joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

Kahn, Jon B. (inventor)

1992-01-01

175

Simulating Thermal Explosion of Octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based explosives: Model Comparison with Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The authors compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two octahydrotetranitrotetrazine (HMX)-based explosives, LX-04 and LX-10, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The present HMX modeling work shows very first violence calculations with thermal predictions associated with a confined thermal explosion test. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in larger scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 1 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase.

Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Nichols, A L; Tarver, C M

2006-02-07

176

Analysis of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of explosives is of major importance in several analytical fields:1. Forensic identification of explosives is a major problem in the criminalistic investigation of a bombing which involves connecting the type of explosive used with the suspect. The detection and identification of explosive residues in debris material constitutes a highly difficult task. The thermal instability of most explosives, along

Jehuda Yinon; John C. Hoffsommer

1977-01-01

177

Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition  

DOEpatents

A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

Wagner, Martin G. (Wilmington, DE)

1992-01-14

178

Universe Explosions  

E-print Network

A scenario for a quantum big crunch to big bang transition is proposed. We first clarify the similarities between this transition and the final stages of black hole evaporation. The black hole and the universe are thought of as quantum states. The importance of an external observer for understanding the big crunch to big bang transition is emphasized. Then, relying on the similarities between the black hole and the universe, we propose that the transition should be described as an explosion that connects the contracting phase to the expanding one. The explosion occurs when entropy bounds are saturated, or equivalently when the states cease to be semiclassically (meta)stable. We discuss our scenario in three examples: collapsing dust, a brane universe falling into a bulk black hole in anti-de Sitter space, and a contracting universe filled with a negative cosmological constant and a small amount of matter. We briefly discuss the late time observables that may carry some information about the state of the universe before the transition.

Ram Brustein; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld

2012-09-24

179

Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

1980-05-09

180

Blood Vessel Tension Tester  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

1978-01-01

181

29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...hazardous liquids or gases. (c) Pressure vessels, drums and containers containing...artificial heat. (d) Unless pressure vessels, drums and containers...

2010-07-01

182

Chaotic Explosions  

E-print Network

We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

Altmann, Eduardo G; Tél, Tamás

2015-01-01

183

Chaotic Explosions  

E-print Network

We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

Eduardo G. Altmann; Jefferson S. E. Portela; Tamás Tél

2015-01-22

184

Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

2007-11-01

185

Numerical modelling of underwater detonation of non-ideal condensed-phase explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest in underwater detonation tests originated from the military, since the expansion and subsequent collapse of the explosive bubble can cause considerable damage to surrounding structures or vessels. In military applications, the explosive is typically represented as a pre-burned material under high pressure, a reasonable assumption due to the short reaction zone lengths, and complete detonation of the unreacted explosive. Hence, numerical simulations of underwater detonation tests have been primarily concerned with the prediction of target loading and the damage incurred rather than the accurate modelling of the underwater detonation process. The mining industry in contrast has adopted the underwater detonation test as a means to experimentally characterise the energy output of their highly non-ideal explosives depending on explosive type and charge configuration. This characterisation requires a good understanding of how the charge shape, pond topography, charge depth, and additional charge confinement affect the energy release, some of which can be successfully quantified with the support of accurate numerical simulations. In this work, we propose a numerical framework which is able to capture the non-ideal explosive behaviour and in addition is capable of capturing both length scales: the reaction zone and the pond domain. The length scale problem is overcome with adaptive mesh refinement, which, along with the explosive model, is validated against experimental data of various TNT underwater detonations. The variety of detonation and bubble behaviour observed in non-ideal detonations is demonstrated in a parameter study over the reactivity of TNT. A representative underwater mining test containing an ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil ratestick charge is carried out to demonstrate that the presented method can be readily applied alongside experimental underwater detonation tests.

Schoch, Stefan; Nikiforakis, Nikolaos

2015-01-01

186

Polyurethane Binder Systems for Polymer Bonded Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) consist of explosive components bound together by a polymeric binder. The most common binder systems in current PBXs are polyurethane based and contain plasticisers and other chemicals that alter processability, mechanical properties and chemical stability. This report details the history of PBX binders, components of polyurethane binder systems, their properties and the procedures for obtaining the

Merran A. Daniel

187

Simulating thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives (HEs) are heated at a rate of 1°C/h until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydrotime scale. During the preignition phase, quasistatic mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydrodynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in larger scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HEs are predicted to within 5°C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

Yoh, Jack J.; McClelland, Matthew A.; Maienschein, Jon L.; Wardell, Jeffrey F.; Tarver, Craig M.

2005-04-01

188

Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment  

SciTech Connect

We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M

2004-10-11

189

Containment Prospectus for the TRUMPET Experiments  

SciTech Connect

TRUMPET is a series of dynamic subcritical experiments planned for execution in the U1a.102D alcove of the U1a Complex at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The location of LLNL drifts at the U1a Complex is shown in Figure 1. The data from the TRUMPET experiments will be used in the Stockpile Stewardship Program to assess the aging of nuclear weapons components and to better model the long-term performance of weapons in the enduring stockpile. The TRUMPET series of experiments will be conducted in an almost identical way as the OBOE series of experiments. Individual TRUMPET experiments will be housed in an experiment vessel, as was done for OBOE. These vessels are the same as those utilized for OBOE. All TRUMPET experiments will occur in the zero room in the U1a.102D alcove, which is on the opposite side of the U1a.102 drift from U1a.102C, which housed the OBOE experiments. The centerlines of these two alcoves are separated by only 10 feet. As with OBOE experiments, expended TRUMPET experiment vessels will be moved to the back of the alcove and entombed in grout. After the TRUMPET series of experiments is completed, another experiment will be sited in the U1a.102D alcove and it will be the final experiment in the zero room, as was similarly done for the OBOE series of experiments followed by the execution of the PIANO experiment. Each experimental package for TRUMPET will be composed of high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. Each experimental package will be placed in an experimental vessel within the TRUMPET zero room in the U1a.102D alcove. The containment plan for the TRUMPET experiments utilizes a two-nested containment vessel concept, similar to OBOE and other subcritical experiments in the U1a Complex. The first containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102D drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U1a.100 drift. While it is likely that the experiment vessel will contain the SNM from the experiment, the containment plan for the TRUMPET experiments only assumes that the experiment vessel provides shock mitigation and serves as a sink for the heat produced by the detonation of the HE. It is possible that one or more of the experiment vessels may seep SNM into the zero room from a failure of a seal on the vessel. This containment plan covers the entire series of TRUMPET experiments. At this time, we don't know exactly how many experiments will actually be conducted in the TRUMPET series. However, we know that the maximum planned number of experiments in the TRUMPET series is 20. This number may be modified on the basis of results obtained from each TRUMPET experiment. After the final experiment in the TRUMPET series is completed, a larger experiment will be conducted in the U1a.102D alcove. A separate containment plan will be developed and presented to the Containment Review Panel (CRP) for that larger experiment. As with OBOE, this containment plan is intended to cover all TRUMPET experiments. We will not develop a separate containment plan for each experiment. Before each experiment we will present a statement to the CRP that each TRUMPET experiment falls within the parameters presented in this document. If an experiment falls outside the parameters in this document, a containment plan for that experiment will be developed and presented to the CRP for a full containment review.

Pawloski, G A

2004-02-05

190

Sapphire tube pressure vessel  

SciTech Connect

A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

Outwater, J.O.

2000-05-23

191

Blood Vessels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the circulatory system is composed of a series of tubes carries the vital elements and the wastes that keep us strong and healthy. Take a look at these amazing vessels and how they work together. Ever cut yourself on the toe? How about the finger? The ear? Ever get a bloody nose? How about a scrape on the knee? If these things have ever happened to you then you already know that blood vessels carry blood to EVERY part of the body. They start out ...

Mrs. Hirschi

2007-11-20

192

The Effect of the Presence of Ozone on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of Hydrogen in Vessels Containing Savannah River Site High Level Waste - 12387  

SciTech Connect

The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a fuse wire. A gas combination is considered flammable when a pressure rise of 7% of the initial absolute pressure is observed. The specified testing methodology is consistent with guidelines established in ASTM E-918-83 (2005) 'Standard Practices for Determining Limits of Flammability of Chemicals at Elevated Temperature and Pressure'. The LFL of hydrogen in air was determined and is in good agreement with the literature data. Ozone-oxygen mixtures were found to be flammable at concentrations above 8.3 vol.% based on the ASTM E918 7% pressure rise criteria for flame propagation. This result is lower than previously reported values which can be explained through the variations in the test setup and procedure. It is believed that the lower values obtained in this work are a result of improvements of the test methodology. Tests performed with hydrogen in various concentrations of ozone in oxygen have shown that the LFL of hydrogen decreases as the concentration of ozone in the mixture increases. This testing was designed to provide data under the conditions considered most optimal to produce deflagration. The geometry and materials of construction of the testing vessel; the location of the fuse wire; the magnitude of the supplied energy; the careful minimization of diluents and other contaminants; and meticulous procedural detail to maintain integrity of the ozone to the maximum extent practical, result in data that reflect not the expected process conditions, but those that enhance the possibility of flame propagation. For this reason, there is believed to be considerable conservatism in the indicated results. Per the vendor, the maximum possible ozone concentration producible by the planned ECC Ozone generator is 8 volume percent (the typical maximum operating setpoint concentration is 6.8 vol%), less than the 8.3 minimum volume % concentration shown to be flammable in a 99.999% pure O{sub 2} environment at the optimally conservative conditions established in this testing. Further, the feed to the ECC ozone generator is only 87% oxygen, the remainder, water vapor

Sherburne, Carol [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Osterberg, Paul [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, Illinois (United States)

2012-07-01

193

Supernova Explosions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are reminded that the Universe is made up of elements and that the heavier elements are created inside of a star, as they learned in the "Elements and You" activity. They are introduced to the life cycle of a star and to the way in which a star's mass affects its process of fusion and eventual death. Students discuss the physical concept of equilibrium as a balancing of forces and observe an experiment to demonstrate what happens to a soda can when the interior and exterior forces are not in equilibrium. An analogy is made between this experiment and core collapse in stars, to show the importance of maintaining equilibrium in stars. Finally, students participate in an activity which demonstrates how mass is ejected from a collapsed star in a supernova explosion, thereby dispersing heavier elements throughout the Universe. This activity is part of a series that has been designed specifically for use with Girl Scouts, but the activities can be used in other settings. Most of the materials are inexpensive or easily found. It is recommended that a leader with astronomy knowledge lead the activities, or at least be available to answer questions, whenever possible.

194

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

195

A compatibility study of containment materials in FEFO, bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal  

SciTech Connect

We report on a program to evaluate the compatibility of energetic fluids with candidate containment materials. The energetic fluids are constituents of various extrudable explosives developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These paste-like explosives consist of explosive particulates (HMX, TATB for example) suspended in mixtures of energetic liquids and are designed to remain extrudable over a wide temperature range for many years. It is important to preclude or minimize interactions between the constituents of the paste and the containment materials since such interactions could result in decreased reliability or failure of the containment vessel as well as intrinsic changes in the flow or explosive characteristics of the paste. In this report we focus on one specific paste formulation: RX-52-AE (Transferable Insensitive Explosive, TIE), composed principally of the solid explosive TATB and the energetic liquid, FEFO. Compatibility between a number of organic and metallic materials with neat FEFO has been evaluated. The 300 series stainless steels, Al 6061-T6, and Monel 400 showed evidence of surface attack (oxidation or pitting). Polished gold coupons became discolored and XPS analysis revealed the formation gold cyanide. Platinum, iridium, titanium, tantalum and Ta-10% W showed little evidence of reaction. Among the organic materials, the per-fluorinated materials showed only slight interaction with the FEFO while the polyethylene, polyester and Aclar{reg_sign} materials were attacked by the liquid. These interactions were manifested in changes in color, net weight gain and mechanical properties. The changes were exaggerated by higher temperatures.

Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Moddeman, W.E.; Foster, P.

1995-02-01

196

Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives  

DOEpatents

A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Pagoria, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-09-27

197

Micromechanics simulations of glass-estane mock polymer bonded explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) are particulate composites containing explosive particles and a continuous binder. The elastic modulus of the particles, at room temperature and higher, is often three to four orders of magnitude higher than that of the binder. Additionally, the explosive particles occupy high volume fractions, often greater than 90%. Both experimental and numerical determination of macroscopic properties of

Biswajit Banerjee; Carl M. Cady; Daniel O. Adams

2003-01-01

198

Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives  

DOEpatents

A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

Nunes, Peter J.; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Simpson, Randall L.

2014-07-01

199

A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subject to internal explosive detonations  

SciTech Connect

Thin cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations expand outwardly at strain-rates on the order 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. At approximately 150% strain, multiple plastic instabilities appear on the surface of these shells in a quasi-periodic pattern. These instabilities continue to develop into bands of localized shear and eventually form cracks that progress in a way that causes the shell to break into fragments. The entire process takes less than 100 microseconds from detonation to complete fragmentation. Modeling this high strain-rate expansion and generation of instabilities prior to fragmentation is the primary focus of this paper. Applications for this research include hypervelocity accelerators, flux compression generators, and explosive containment vessels for terrorist threats and power plants.

Martineau, R.L.; Anderson, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1998-12-31

200

The vortex explosion transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In type-II superconductors an applied magnetic field B, between the lower and upper critical values, produces a mixed state containing Abrikosov vortices. These vortices contain a quantum of magnetic flux h/2e and consist of a core with depressed order parameter and a pattern of perpetually circulating supercurrents. When B is applied parallel to a thin film, the circulating supercurrents get squeezed by the film surfaces causing the vortex core to become unstable and explode all the way across the film when the thickness d is below the critical value of dc = 4.4?; here ? is the superconducting coherence length. For temperatures above the explosion condition dc(T) > d, the applied B cannot induce single parallel vortices, however perpendicular vortices can be generated spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. We observe a transition from non-dissipative to dissipative behavior at the explosion condition and find that the dynamics of the spontaneous perpendicular vortices can be tuned by the pairbreaking effect of the applied parallel field.

Kunchur, M. N.; Liang, M.; Gurevich, A.

2013-02-01

201

49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...subchapter. (f) A loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a detonator. (h) Fireworks containing yellow or white phosphorus. (i) A toy torpedo, the maximum...

2014-10-01

202

49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subchapter. (f) A loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a detonator. (h) Fireworks containing yellow or white phosphorus. (i) A toy torpedo, the maximum...

2012-10-01

203

49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subchapter. (f) A loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a detonator. (h) Fireworks containing yellow or white phosphorus. (i) A toy torpedo, the maximum...

2013-10-01

204

49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subchapter. (f) A loaded firearm (except as provided in 49 CFR 1544.219). (g) Fireworks that combine an explosive and a detonator. (h) Fireworks containing yellow or white phosphorus. (i) A toy torpedo, the maximum...

2011-10-01

205

Explosion protection methods for the power generation industry. Evaluating the hazard and reviewing explosion protection methods  

SciTech Connect

Handling carbonaceous fuels such as coal presents explosion hazards to the Power Generation Industry. This paper discusses the nature of explosions. It also provides a basis for hazard evaluation and discusses the various methods available for explosion protection. These methods include deflagration relief venting, deflagration suppression, deflagration isolation, containment and inerting. Process equipment protected by these methods include mills, cyclones, silos, hoppers and dust collectors.

Nixon, C.I.

1998-07-01

206

Practical small-scale explosive seam welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Joining principles and variables, types of joints, capabilities, and current and potential applications are described for an explosive seam welding process developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Variable small quantities of RDX explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long length, uniform, hermetrically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The first major all application of the process is the repair of four nuclear reactors in Canada. Potential applications include pipelines, sealing of vessels, and assembly of large space structures.

Bement, L. J.

1983-01-01

207

Fatigue of lx-14 and lx-19 plastic bonded explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively formed projectiles. LX-19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOE 2, include the

D. Mark Hoffman

2000-01-01

208

Fatigue of LX14 and LX19 plastic bonded explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the

Hoffman

1998-01-01

209

Projectile-generating explosive access tool  

DOEpatents

An explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance G. (Tijeras, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2011-10-18

210

Optimal dynamic detection of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

2009-01-01

211

Saccharification of explosively dried corn  

SciTech Connect

Very rapid or explosive drying of grains such as corn leads to obvious physical changes in the macrostructure of the grain kernel, probable alteration in starch molecular structure, and reduction in starch average molecular weight. These changes lead to greater susceptibility to attack by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes. Rates of formation of nonreducing and reducing sugars by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes applied to explosively dried and milled yellow dent corn and small-kernel flint corn were 3.3-10.6 times greater then rates for the normally milled grains. The enzymatic conversion of explosively dried flint corn containing absorbed ethyl alcohol, as would be the case if it had been used as an adsorbent to dewater aqueous ethyl alcohol, was not significantly different from that of ethyl-alcohol-free flint corn. 15 references.

Robertson, G.H.; Zaragosa, E.M.; Pavlath, A.E.

1986-08-01

212

Large panel design for containment air baffle  

DOEpatents

The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel.

Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

213

Large panel design for containment air baffle  

DOEpatents

The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel. 9 figs.

Orr, R.S.

1992-12-08

214

Explosion Welding for Hermetic Containerization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A container designed for storing samples of hazardous material features a double wall, part of which is sacrificed during an explosion-welding process in which the container is sealed and transferred to a clean environment. The major advantage of this container sealing process is that once the samples have been sealed inside, the outer wall of what remains of the container is a clean surface that has not come into contact with the environment from which the samples were taken. Thus, there is no need to devise a decontamination process capable of mitigating all hazards that might be posed by unanticipated radioactive, chemical, and/or biological contamination of the outside of the container. The container sealing method was originally intended to be used to return samples from Mars to Earth, but it could also be used to store samples of hazardous materials, without the need to decontaminate its outer surface. The process stages are shown. In its initial double-wall form, the volume between the walls is isolated from the environment; in other words, the outer wall (which is later sacrificed) initially serves to protect the inner container from contamination. The sample is placed inside the container through an opening at one end, then the container is placed into a transfer dock/lid. The surfaces that will be welded together under the explosive have been coated with a soft metallic sacrificial layer. During the explosion, the sacrificial layer is ejected, and the container walls are welded together, creating a strong metallic seal. The inner container is released during the same event and enters the clean environment.

Dolgin, Benjamin; Sanok, Joseph

2003-01-01

215

Breccias related to explosive volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive breccia pipes were formed in the phreatomagmatic eruption of Taal volcano 60 km south of Manila, Philippines in September 1976. They were photographed in eruption which consisted of a series of small explosions occurring during the peak of activity at 10 sec intervals. These four breccia pipes formed on the collapse fault marking the margin of the much more intense eruption of 28 September 1965 when a diatreme 800 m in diameter formed. Renewed eruption in October 1977 on one of the breccia pipes blasted out the sealed plug and breccia fragments in all stages of alteration were included in the tephra. They ranged from barely agglomerated to strongly cemented through argillized and pyritized to totally replaced by silica and pyrite, fragments indistinguishable from those found in many mining districts. The violence of the explosion initiating a phreatomagmatic eruptive sequence results in strong crackling of the walls of the pipe and the crakle zone may become mineralized (cf. Braden, Chile). Usually the crater collapses on ring faults after eruption, forming a marginal tectonic breccia which can be mineralized (cf. Balatoc, Philippines.) The small craters with steep inner walls and tapering outer slopes which form during phreatomagmatic eruptions, sometimes containing lakes, are called maars and they are the surficial expression of an explosive breccia pipe or diatreme. Superficially similar craters are formed over kimberlite pipes. Hydrothermal explosion craters are somewhat similar. Collapse breccia pipes can form in the same sequence with explosive pipes. When one rising plug encounters ground water and explodes, fluostatic pressure on any other cupolas rising from the same magma drops rapidly, resulting in withdrawal of magma and collapse of walls and roof (Perry 1961). "Fluidization" is not thought to be of any significance in formation of breccia pipes (Wolfe 1980) contrary to Reynolds (1954) and many authors who have cited that work. An explosive breccia pipe is like an open window resulting in rapid depression of the isotherms of a pluton. A concentrated brine front can build up in minutes after an explosion. The very rapid cooling may explain why many explosive breccia pipes are altered by silica and pyrite only, the system being cooled before metallic solutions have time to replace breccia matrix or fragments.

Wolfe, John A.

216

Pressure vessel integrity 1991  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains papers relating to the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping, with special emphasis on nuclear industry applications. The papers were prepared for technical sessions developed under the sponsorship of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Committees for Codes and Standards, Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, and Materials Fabrication. They were presented at the 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference in San Diego, California, June 23-27. The primary objective of the sponsoring organization is to provide a forum for the dissemination and discussion of information on development and application of technology for the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. This publication includes contributions from authors from Australia, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The papers here are organized in six sections, each with a particular emphasis as indicated in the following section titles: Fracture Technology Status and Application Experience; Crack Initiation, Propagation and Arrest; Ductile Tearing; Constraint, Stress State, and Local-Brittle-Zones Effects; Computational Techniques for Fracture and Corrosion Fatigue; and Codes and Standards for Fatigue, Fracture and Erosion/Corrosion.

Bhandari, S. (Framatome (FR)); Doney, R.O.; McDonald, M.S. (ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power (US)); Jones, D.P.; Wilson, W.K. (Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (US)); Pennell, W.E. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US))

1991-01-01

217

Chemical-decomposition models for the thermal explosion of confined HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT explosives  

SciTech Connect

Chemical decomposition models have been deduced from the available chemical kinetic data on the thermal decomposition of HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT. A thermal conduction model is used in which the thermal conductivity of the reacting explosive decreases linearly with the mass fraction reacted to that of the gaseous products. These reactive heat flow models are used to predict the time to explosion versus reciprocal temperature curves from several heavily confined explosive tests. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and calculated explosion times for the pure explosives HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT, mixtures such as RX-26-AF (HMX/TATB), Octol (HMX/TNT), and Comp B (RDX/TNT), and for PBX 9404, an HMX-based explosive containing an energetic nitrocellulose binder.

McGuire, R.R.; Tarver, C.M.

1981-03-26

218

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-01-29

219

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-11-26

220

Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins  

E-print Network

Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

Ravenel, Douglas

221

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

222

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOEpatents

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15

223

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

224

Collapsing Containers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

1994-01-01

225

Shaped Charges and Explosively Formed Projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Detonation of a high explosive (HE) material in air results in an omnidirectional blast wave. By confining the HE in a container\\u000a and shaping the exposed end, the blast wave can be focused in a specific direction: this is generically referred to as a “shaped\\u000a charge” (SC).1-3 By inlaying a solid “liner” material into the shaped explosive, detonation results in

Jonathan Morrison; Peter F. Mahoney

226

PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification  

SciTech Connect

The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

2011-09-01

227

SURVEY OF THE RADIATION LEVELS IN THE CONTAINMENT VESSEL OF THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT. PART V. GAMMA RADIATION LEVELS ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE CONTAINMENT BUILDING. a. LEVELS ABOVE THE EQUIPMENT COMPARTMENT. Technical Memorandum No. 16  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of a survey of calculated gamma-ray levels at ;\\u000a many points on the surface of the operating floor of the containment building for ;\\u000a the Enrico Fermi reactor. That portion of the floor surveyed lies directly above ;\\u000a the equipment compartment. The calculations were made with the aid of an IBM-650 ;\\u000a electronic computer. The main

W. F. Chaltron; H. E. Hungerford

1959-01-01

228

THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a fuse wire. A gas combination is considered flammable when a pressure rise of 7% of the initial absolute pressure is observed. The specified testing methodology is consistent with guidelines established in ASTM E-918-83 (2005) 'Standard Practices for Determining Limits of Flammability of Chemicals at Elevated Temperature and Pressure'.

Sherburne, C.

2012-01-12

229

Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain “homemade” explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components

Emanuela Turillazzi; Fabrizio Monaci; Margherita Neri; Cristoforo Pomara; Irene Riezzo; Davide Baroni; Vittorio Fineschi

2010-01-01

230

An Eulerian–Lagrangian approach for simulating explosions of energetic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the simulation of explosions of “energetic devices” is described. In this context, an energetic device is a metal container filled with a high explosive (HE). Examples include bombs, mines, rocket motors or containers used in storage and transport of HE material. Explosions may occur due to detonation or deflagration of the HE material, with initiation resulting from

J. E. Guilkey; T. B. Harman; B. Banerjee

2007-01-01

231

Modeling of buried explosions  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has been and continues developing techniques for modeling buried explosions using a large geotechnical centrifuge. When fully developed, the techniques should permit the accurate modeling of large explosions in complex geometries. Our intentional application is to study the phenomena of explosive cavity formation and collapse. However, the same methods should also be applicable to simulation of bursts shallow enough to produce craters, and perhaps even of airbursts in situations where soil overburden is important. We have placed primary emphasis on test bed construction methods and on accurate measurement of the ground shock produced by the explosions. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Gaffney, E.S.; Wohletz, K.H.; House, J.W.; Brown, J.A.

1987-01-01

232

Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research  

SciTech Connect

The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

2012-12-01

233

29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 1915.172 Section 1915...SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable,...

2010-07-01

234

29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 1915.172 Section 1915...SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable,...

2011-07-01

235

29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 1915.172 Section 1915...SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable,...

2012-07-01

236

29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 1915.172 Section 1915...SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable,...

2013-07-01

237

29 CFR 1915.172 - Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 1915.172 Section 1915...SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...Portable air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Portable,...

2014-07-01

238

48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... as used in this clause— (1) Means liquid and solid propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in...system— (i) Inert components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids;...

2014-10-01

239

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

2006-10-01

240

CFD analysis of gas explosions vented through relief pipes.  

PubMed

Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safe locations by means of relief pipes. However, the presence of the duct increases the severity of explosion if compared to simply vented vessels (i.e. compared to cases where no duct is present). Besides, the identification of the key phenomena controlling the violence of explosion has not yet been gained. Multidimensional models coupling, mass, momentum and energy conservation equations can be valuable tools for the analysis of such complex explosion phenomena. In this work, gas explosions vented through ducts have been modelled by a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach in which the laminar, flamelet and distributed combustion models have been implemented. Numerical test have been carried out by varying ignition position, duct diameter and length. Results have evidenced that the severity of ducted explosions is mainly driven by the vigorous secondary explosion occurring in the duct (burn-up) rather than by the duct flow resistance or acoustic enhancement. Moreover, it has been found out that the burn-up affects explosion severity due to the reduction of venting rate rather than to the burning rate enhancement through turbulization. PMID:16675106

Ferrara, G; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G

2006-09-21

241

Quadractic Model of Thermodynamic States in SDF Explosions  

SciTech Connect

We study the thermodynamic states encountered during Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. Such explosions contain up to six components: three fuels (PETN, TNT and Aluminum) and their products corresponding to stoichiometric combustion with air. We establish the loci in thermodynamic state space that correctly describes the behavior of the components. Results are fit with quadratic functions that serve as fast equations of state suitable for 3D numerical simulations of SDF explosions.

Kuhl, A L; Khasainov, B

2007-05-04

242

Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations  

E-print Network

Following the recent Imperial sugar dust explosion in 2008, a comprehensive survey of past dust explosions was conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to determine potential explosible dusts. After the survey, OSHA...

Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

2014-01-06

243

Coal dust explosibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01

244

Inside an Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From afar, an explosion may seem like one of the most incredible examples of chaotic interaction. But once you look closer, as in this video from QUEST, you will find that large-scale explosions require very precise interactions to occur in just the right sequence.

2009-08-20

245

The Cambrian Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Bristol page discusses in detail the Cambrian Explosion event that occurred about 545 million years ago. This site covers what the 'explosion' was and when it happened, the Cambrian environment, what caused this event to occur, fossil groups and their significance, and controversies surrounding this theory as well as recent discoveries.

246

Methodology for Assessing a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) Blast Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite Vessels are now used to store a variety of fluids or gases including cryogenic fluids under pressure. Sudden failure of these vessels under certain conditions can lead to a potentially catastrophic vapor expansion if thermal control is not maintained prior to failure. This can lead to a "Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion" or BLEVE.

Keddy, Chris P.

2012-01-01

247

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

248

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01

249

The Arson & Explosives National Repository  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arson & Explosives National Repository, hosted by the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms(ATF), currently includes three database systems, providing statistics gathered by the ATF, the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the US Fire Administration (USFA). The first database, the Explosives Incident System (EXIS), contains several data tables that detail the arson and explosives incidents reported to the ATF from 1975 to 1995. The second database, the USFA's National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS), provides the "world's largest national annual database of fire incident information." NFIRS offers annual data tables for a range of fire incidents from 1981 to 1995. The third database in the repository, Church Arson Task Force Data, presents data on church arsons and bombings from 1995 to 1997; data are displayed in tables, charts, and graphs. Besides providing a list of available data, each system allows users to conduct customizable queries. Within each system, users may search for incident data within a specified date range, or produce a five-year incident summary for any state in the US.

250

Vessel having natural gas liquefaction capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a vessel having natural gas liquefaction capabilities formed of a plurality of self-contained liquefaction assemblies, each of which being disposed in a separate liquefaction compartment.

Kniel

1977-01-01

251

Optically measured explosive impulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

2014-06-01

252

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2013-07-01

253

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2010-07-01

254

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2014-07-01

255

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2011-07-01

256

30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section 57.6205 Mineral Resources MINE...Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

2012-07-01

257

Explosive silicic eruptions in Iceland: from vent to peat bog  

E-print Network

Explosive silicic eruptions in Iceland: from vent to peat bog OUTLINE Microtephra horizons, found in soils across Scotland, contain fine ash produced by explosive eruptions in Iceland. They represent presented by the eruptions that produce them. ASHFALL IN SCOTLAND Ash from numerous volcanoes in Iceland can

258

Simulation of high explosive explosion using adaptive material point method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of high explosive explosion problems is a big challenge to traditional numerical methods because explosion usually involves ex- tremely large deformation and multi-material interaction of different phases. Re- centlydevelopedmeshfreemethodsshowmuchadvantagesovermesh-basedmethod for problems associated with very large deformation. Some of them have been successfully applied to impact and explosion problems, such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Similar to SPH, material

Shang Ma; Xiong Zhang; Yanping Lian; Xu Zhou

2009-01-01

259

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

1990-01-09

260

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOEpatents

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

261

BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

Vormelker, P

2008-09-22

262

Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

Dubasov, Yuri V.

2010-05-01

263

46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812 Shipping...Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2010-10-01

264

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2010-10-01

265

46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812 Shipping...Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2014-10-01

266

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2011-10-01

267

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2013-10-01

268

46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812 Shipping...Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2013-10-01

269

46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812 Shipping...Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2011-10-01

270

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2012-10-01

271

46 CFR 176.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 176.812 Section 176.812 Shipping...Inspections § 176.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2012-10-01

272

46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812 Shipping...Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested...inspection and testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in...

2014-10-01

273

The Pinch Explosion  

E-print Network

THE PINCH EXPLOSION DAVID BOLAND Technology Manager A.P. ROSSITER President ICI-TENSA Services Houston, Texas ABSTRACT* A dramatic growth in the range of applications of pinch technology has been seen in recent years. These include...

Rossiter, A. P.; Boland, D.

274

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

ScienceCinema

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2013-05-28

275

Explosive Collisions at RHIC?  

E-print Network

Motivated by experimental results from RHIC, we suggest how a condensate for the Polyakov loop might produce explosive behavior at the QCD phase transition. This is due to a rapid rollover of the condensate field below the transition temperature.

Adrian Dumitru; Robert D. Pisarski

2001-02-02

276

Disorder induces explosive synchronization  

E-print Network

We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on either the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

Per Sebastian Skardal; Alex Arenas

2014-04-03

277

Idaho Explosives Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

2004-10-01

278

Idaho Explosive Detection System  

SciTech Connect

Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

Klinger, Jeff

2011-01-01

279

Explosion suppression system  

DOEpatents

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01

280

Explosive Nucleosynthesis: Prospects  

E-print Network

Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions---the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of SN1987A, SN1998bw (GRB980425?), and eta Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

David Arnett

1999-08-16

281

The Combustion of Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to all possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The search also continues for more ideal explosives and propellants that perform well yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contract to classical assumptions. This work presents a view of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented.

Son, Steven F.

2001-06-01

282

( 'tams Dlvllan LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE  

E-print Network

~ ( ·'tams Dlvl·lan LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE STOWAGE THERMAL CONSTRAINTS LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE presents the study of LSPE High Explosive Package and transport frame stowage thermal constraints subsequent to LM touchdown and prior to lunar deployment. Approved by: #12;LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE STOWAGE

Rathbun, Julie A.

283

Coal mine explosions: seasonal trends.  

PubMed

An analysis of disaster reports on coal mine explosions indicates that gas explosions are randomly distributed throughout the year, whereas dust explosions (which may or may not be triggered by a gas explosion) occur with greater frequency during the dry fall and winter months. The lack of adequate moisture during cold weather tends to increase the rate and severity of the dust explosions. PMID:17832768

Kissell, F N; Nagel, A E; Zabetakis, M G

1973-03-01

284

Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

285

Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive  

DOEpatents

A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

Stroud, John R. (Livermore, CA); Ornellas, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

286

Energy Dispersive X Ray Diffraction to identify Explosive Substances : spectra analysis procedure optimization  

E-print Network

Energy Dispersive X Ray Diffraction to identify Explosive Substances : spectra analysis procedure, France tel: 0033472437084 Abstract: To detect the presence of explosives in packages, automated systems for explosive detection and identification. To this end, a database has been constructed, containing measured X

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Energy Output of Insensitive High Explosives by Measuring the Detonation Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detonation products of high explosives are dependent on pressure and also on the confinement under which the detonation reaction proceeds. To determine the detonation products of less sensitive high explosives such as trinitrotoluene\\/nitroguanidine and polymer bonded explosive charges with polybutadiene binder containing cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, together with or without aluminium, experiments have been performed in a stainless steel chamber of

C. Storm; F. Volk; W. Byers Brown; P. Gray

1992-01-01

288

Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

2007-03-01

289

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions  

E-print Network

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J. Fern´andez Bonder, UBA J.D. Rossi, UBA ERPEM, November 29th, 2006 Pablo Groisman UBA Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

Groisman, Pablo

290

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

291

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOEpatents

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15

292

Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch  

DOEpatents

An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed. 7 figs.

Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

1987-07-14

293

Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch  

DOEpatents

An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

Skogmo, Phillip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Tucker, Tillman J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

294

Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

Carter, J.T.

2001-03-28

295

Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform  

ScienceCinema

This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

None

2012-12-31

296

49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...detonating explosive substance or black powder or article containing a secondary detonating...water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid...containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H...

2010-10-01

297

Pressure sensor for sealed containers  

DOEpatents

A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

Hodges, Franklin R. (Loudon, TN)

2001-01-01

298

Canine detection odor signatures for explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

1998-12-01

299

Gas gun for dynamic loading of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has long been a need to understand the impact response of explosive materials, and continual improvements result from the design of careful, well-instrumented experiments. This article summarizes details of the design and construction of a laboratory facility capable of launching projectiles at explosive targets at velocities up to 1500 m s-1. There are two types of experiment that are required. In the first, a gun launches a plate of great planarity at an equally flat target. This geometry is known as plate impact and a target loaded in this manner experiences a state of one-dimensional strain. This loading is accomplished by launching plane impactors onto targets aligned to micron tolerances, normal to the impact axis to less than 0.5 mrad of tilt. In the second, it is required to attain the ability to recover impacted explosive targets that have been loaded in one-dimensional strain for subsequent microstructural assessment. The development of this capability will be described in a subsequent publication. The system is capable of containing reactive targets, where design must allow for complete detonation of the target (up to 250 g of explosive). The facility has been completed, is operational, and has been approved for use by the appropriate authorities. An example of a particle velocity sensor in use within a plastic-bonded explosive is given as illustration.

Bourne, N. K.

2004-01-01

300

A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.  

PubMed

The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. PMID:22858504

Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

2012-10-01

301

Microcantilever detector for explosives  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

302

Microcantilever detector for explosives  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

Thundat, T.G.

1999-06-29

303

Flash Ignition and Initiation of Explosives-Nanotubes Mixture  

SciTech Connect

The recent astounding discoveries of ignition in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) after exposure to an ordinary photographic flash, (1) other formulations of carbons containing noble metals, (2) and polyaniline nanofibers (3) prompted us to explore a possible further instigation of explosive materials. Here, we report that an ignition and initiation process, further leading to actual detonation, does occur for explosives in lax contact with carbon nanotubes that are prone to opto-thermal activity via a conventional flashbulb. Optical ignition and initiation of explosives could thus far only be accomplished through lasers, (4) with specific characteristic of high power, pulse length, wavelength, and a small target area that greatly inhibit their applications. Our results have the implication that explosives with opto-thermally active SWNTs formulations are new ideal candidates for remote optical triggering of safety apparatus such as the firing of bolts on space shuttles rockets and aircraft exit doors, and for controlled burning of explosives as actuators.

Manaa, M R; Mitchell, A R; Garza, R G; Pagoria, P F; Watkins, B E

2005-05-25

304

GEOFRAC: an explosives stimulation technique for a geothermal well  

SciTech Connect

The first known use of explosives for stimulating a geothermal well was successfully conducted in December 1981 with a process called GEOFRAC. The 260/sup 0/C well was located at the Union Oil Company's Geysers Field in northern California. For the initial test, 364 kg of a new explosive called HITEX II was placed at a depth of 2256 meters and detonated to verify techniques. The explosive was contained in an aluminum canister to separate it from the well fluids. In the second test, 5000 kg of explosive was used representing a column length of approximately 191 meters. The explosive was detonated at a depth of 1697 meters in the same well. The results of these tests show that HITEX II can be safely emplaced and successfully detonated in a hot geothermal well without causing damage to the well bore or casing.

Mumma, D.M.; McCullough, F. Jr.; Schmidt, E.W.; Pye, D.S.; Allen, W.C.; Pyle, D.; Hanold, R.J.

1982-01-01

305

Managing the data explosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

1993-01-01

306

Environmental fate of explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal practices associated with military production of weapons, especially before and during World War II, have resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground water with high explosives such as TNT, RDX and HMX. Development of remediation and risk management strategies for these contaminated sites as well as development of approaches for sustainable use of active training and weapons

Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon

2002-01-01

307

CBC: Halifax Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the evening of December 6, 1917, a massive explosion rocked the harbor of the rapidly growing city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, located in eastern Canada. Caused by the collision of two ships (one of which was carrying a tremendous amount of explosive material), the explosion killed over 1500 people outright, and devastated the settlements around the area. Working with various historical groups, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has created this engrossing multimedia look into the events leading up to that dreadful incident, along with offering a broader historical perspective on the development of the city of Halifax and the aftermath of these tragic events. Starting from the main page, visitors will learn about Halifax's history, along with having the opportunity to view significant interactive features, such as maps of the area and recently-discovered archival footage of the city and its environs. The interactive features here are quite amazing, as visitors can view video clips of survivors' recollections, and watch footage of various commemoration activities associated with the explosion.

308

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

309

Explosions During Galaxy Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an idealized model of the effects of energy release by supernovae during galaxy formation, we consider an explosion at the center of a halo which forms at the intersection of filaments in the plane of a cosmological pancake by gravitational instability during pancake collapse. Such halos resemble the virialized objects found in N-body simulations in a CDM universe and, therefore, serve as a convenient, scale-free test-bed model for galaxy formation. ASPH/P3M simulations reveal that such explosions are anisotropic. The energy and metals are channeled into the low density regions, away from the pancake plane. The pancake remains essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas located inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding the pancake. Infall quickly replenishes this ejected gas and gradually restores the gas fraction as the halo mass continues to grow. Estimates of the collapse epoch and SN energy-release for galaxies of different mass in the CDM model can relate these results to scale-dependent questions of blow-out and blow-away and their implication for early IGM heating and metal enrichment and the creation of dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxies.

Martel, H.; Shapiro, P. R.

2001-03-01

310

The Combustion of Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The search also continues for improved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Currently, the most significant uncertainties are in the processes immediately following ignition. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions. This paper presents a view of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed. Novel materials may yield insight into the mechanisms involved with rapid deflagration processes.

Son, S. F.

2002-07-01

311

Phytoremediation of Selected Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroglycerine (NG) and pentaerytritoltetranitrate (PETN) using in vitrocultures of Rheum palmatum, Saponaria officinalisand Populus simonii were studied. All above mentioned explosives were degradated to less toxic products and finally probably bound to the cell wall or further involved in the metabolism. The formation of trinitrobenzene (TNB) during degradation of TNT which is a product of

T. Van?k; A. Nepovím; R. Podlipná; S. Zeman; M. Vágner

2003-01-01

312

Pressure vessel bottle mount  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

2001-01-01

313

Experimental investigation of external explosion in the venting process*  

PubMed Central

Experimental investigations were conducted on the process of combustion and explosion vent in a 200 mm (diameter)×400 mm (length) vertical cylindrical vessel. When CH4-air mixture gases were used and the vent diameter was 55 mm, conditions of ? (equivalent ratio)=0.8, ?=1.0 and ?=1.3 and two ignition positions (at the cylinder center and bottom) were selected. The venting processes and the correlated factors are discussed in this paper. PMID:15822147

Du, Zhi-min; Jin, Xin-qiao; Cui, Dong-ming; Ye, Jing-fang

2005-01-01

314

Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

Munn, Lance

2009-11-01

315

Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

Fleming, David C.

2002-01-01

316

Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks  

E-print Network

Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks Diego Alcala and Katherine Sytwu With Shane Squires ­ Directed and undirected networks ­ Percolation ­ Explosive percolation · Methodology · Results · Conclusion, infrastructure, etc. · Grow by the addition of links · New class of transitions: "explosive percolation" Taken

Anlage, Steven

317

EXPLOSIONS AND ARBITRAGE IOANNIS KARATZAS  

E-print Network

EXPLOSIONS AND ARBITRAGE IOANNIS KARATZAS Abstract The Feller and Khas'minskii tests provide conditions, under which a given dif- fusion process X(·) in a domain D can have explosions. If such explosions happen with positive probability, what is the distribution F(t, x) = Px(S t) , 0

Columbia University

318

LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY  

E-print Network

ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

Rathbun, Julie A.

319

Hand held explosives detection system  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

320

New explosive seam welding concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

Bement, L. J.

1973-01-01

321

Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF  

ScienceCinema

The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

None

2015-01-07

322

Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF  

SciTech Connect

The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

None

2014-10-31

323

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

324

Plastic explosive RDX: Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and handling of plastics explosive RDX. Production, decomposition, toxicology studies, and desensitizing techniques are discussed. RDX detection in munitions plant wastewater and air samples is described along with methods of eliminating this explosive from the effluent. Molecular dynamics, sensitivity to shock and heat, burning behavior, and explosion velocity are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-12-01

325

Plastic explosive RDX: Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and handling of plastics explosive RDX. Production, decomposition, toxicology studies, and desensitizing techniques are discussed. RDX detection in munitions plant wastewater and air samples is described along with methods of eliminating this explosive from the effluent. Molecular dynamics, sensitivity to shock and heat, burning behavior, and explosion velocity are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

326

Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial confinement. The Frozen Rock Experiment in 2006 found only minor differences in seismic coupling for explosions in frozen and unfrozen rock. The seismo-acoustic source function was the focus of the above- and below-ground Humble Redwood explosions (2007, 2009 ) in New Mexico and detonations of rocket motor explosions in Utah. Acoustic travel time calibration for the IMS was accomplished with the 2009 and 2011 100-ton surface explosions in southern Israel. The New England Damage Experiment in 2009 correlated increased shear wave generation with increased rock damage from explosions. Damage from explosions continues to be an important research topic at Nevada's National Center for Nuclear Security with the ongoing Source Physics Experiment. A number of exciting experiments are already planned for the future and thus continue the effort to improve global detection, location, and identification of nuclear explosions.

Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

2011-12-01

327

Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

Hurley, Christoph

328

Tuff reaction vessel experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory leaching test has been performed as part of a project to evaluate the suitability of tuff rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Glass samples of the kind that will be used to store nuclear waste were placed in water inside tuff vessels, and then the tuff vessels were placed in

F. Bazan; J. H. Rego

1986-01-01

329

Moving Vessel Profiler  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Moving Vessel Profiler is an instrument used for aiding in the collection of accurate water data while the vessel is still in motion rather than having to stop. The USGS returned from a seafloor data mapping mission offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula (Ocean City, MD) on July 25th, 2014. The dat...

330

Vacuum Vessel Remote Handling  

E-print Network

FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling Overview B. Nelson, T. Burgess, T. Brown, H-M Fan, G. Jones · Vacuum Vessel - Design requirements - Design concept and features - Analysis to date - Status and summary Replacement Time Estimates - Balance of RH Equipment · Design and analysis are consistent with pre

331

Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

Lohr, Tresa Rae

2006-01-01

332

Nucleosynthesis in multi-dimensional SNIa explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on\\u000amultidimensional (2D and 3D) hydrodynamical simulations of the thermonuclear\\u000aburning phase in SNIa. The detailed nucleosynthetic yields of our explosion\\u000amodels are calculated by post-processing the ejecta, using passively advected\\u000atracer particles. The nuclear reaction network employed in computing the\\u000aexplosive nucleosynthesis contains 383 nuclear species. We analyzed two\\u000adifferent choices

C. Travaglio; W. Hillebrandt; M. Reinecke; F.-K. Thielemann

2004-01-01

333

Portable sensors for drug and explosive detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Westinghouse Electric is developing portable, hand-held sensors capable of detecting numerous drugs of abuse (cocaine, heroin, amphetamines) and explosives (trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, nitroglycerin). The easy-to-use system consists of a reusable electronics module and disposable probes. The sensor illuminates and detects light transmitted through optical cells of the probe during an antibody-based latex agglutination reaction. Each probe contains all the necessary

Joseph M. Leginus

1994-01-01

334

Dual shell pressure balanced vessel  

DOEpatents

A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

335

Detection of Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the development of modern analysis supported by electronic means several different methods are available for detection\\u000a of explosives, which have been improved within the last decades with regard to precision, reliability, quickness and minimum\\u000a test sample volume. These developments enable us to analyse substances very quickly - in some cases also on-line. The question\\u000a is, which methods are suitable

Hiltmar Schubert

336

QGP fireball explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange\\u000ahadrons as an observable for both the formation of quark-gluon plasma, and of\\u000athe ensuing explosive disintegration of deconfined matter fireball formed in\\u000arelativistic heavy ion collisions at 160--20A GeV. We describe the physical\\u000aproperties of QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an\\u000aanalysis of

J. Letessier; G. Torrieri; S. Hamieh; J. Rafelski

2000-01-01

337

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

338

Fragment Impact Characterization of Melt-Cast and PBX Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report new experimental results on the shock to detonation transition characteristics of the melt-cast explosive RDX\\/TNT 60:40, and two PBX explosives, one containing RDX, and the other HMX, with HTPB as the binder in both cases. These experiments employed right-regular cylindrical steel projectiles impacting charges covered by either steel or aluminium barrier plates. Response curves were

Malcolm D. Cook; Peter J. Haskins; Richard I. Briggs; Chris Stennett; Justin Fellows; Phil J. Cheese

2002-01-01

339

Fragment Impact Characterisation of Melt-Cast and PBX Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report new experimental results on the shock to detonation transition characteristics of the melt-cast explosive RDX\\/TNT 60:40, and two PBX explosives, one containing RDX, and the other HMX, with HTPB as the binder in both cases. These experiments employed right-regular cylindrical steel projectiles impacting charges covered by either steel or aluminium barrier plates. Response curves were

Malcolm D. Cook; Peter J. Haskins; Richard I. Briggs; Chris Stennett; Justin Fellows; Philip J. Cheese

2001-01-01

340

Explosives detection using photoneutrons produced by X-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of explosives has become a critical issue after recent terrorist attacks. This paper describes research on explosives detection using photoneutrons from a photoneutron convertor that consists of 20kg heavy water in an aluminum container whose shape was optimized to most effectively convert X-rays to photoneutrons. The X-rays were produced by a 9MeV electron accelerator with an average electron

Yigang Yang; Yuanjing Li; Haidong Wang; Tiezhu Li; Bin Wu

2007-01-01

341

Multidimensional detection of explosives and explosive signatures via laser electrospray mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitro- and inorganic-based energetic material is vaporized at atmospheric pressure using nonresonant, 70 femtosecond laser pulses prior to electrospray post-ionization and transfer into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass analysis. Measurements of a nitro-based energetic molecule, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), adsorbed on metal and dielectric surfaces indicate nonresonant vaporization of intact molecules, demonstrating the universality of laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) technique for explosives. In addition, RDX is analyzed at a distance of 2 meters to demonstrate the remote detection capability of LEMS. Finally, the analysis and multivariate statistical classification of inorganic-based explosives containing ammonium nitrate, chlorate, perchlorate, black powder, and an organic-based explosive is presented, further expanding the capabilities of the LEMS technique for detection of energetic materials.

Brady, John J.; Flanigan, Paul M., IV; Perez, Johnny J.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Levis, Robert J.

2012-06-01

342

Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual  

SciTech Connect

The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

Genoni, R.P.

1993-10-01

343

Dust cluster explosion  

SciTech Connect

A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

2012-09-15

344

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system  

DOEpatents

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

2012-02-14

345

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system  

DOEpatents

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

2008-02-26

346

Multilayer Composite Pressure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been devised to enable the fabrication of lightweight pressure vessels from multilayer composite materials. This method is related to, but not the same as, the method described in gMaking a Metal- Lined Composite-Overwrapped Pressure Vessel h (MFS-31814), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 59. The method is flexible in that it poses no major impediment to changes in tank design and is applicable to a wide range of tank sizes. The figure depicts a finished tank fabricated by this method, showing layers added at various stages of the fabrication process. In the first step of the process, a mandrel that defines the size and shape of the interior of the tank is machined from a polyurethane foam or other suitable lightweight tooling material. The mandrel is outfitted with metallic end fittings on a shaft. Each end fitting includes an outer flange that has a small step to accommodate a thin layer of graphite/epoxy or other suitable composite material. The outer surface of the mandrel (but not the fittings) is covered with a suitable release material. The composite material is filament- wound so as to cover the entire surface of the mandrel from the step on one end fitting to the step on the other end fitting. The composite material is then cured in place. The entire workpiece is cut in half in a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry at its mid-length point, yielding two composite-material half shells, each containing half of the foam mandrel. The halves of the mandrel are removed from within the composite shells, then the shells are reassembled and bonded together with a belly band of cured composite material. The resulting composite shell becomes a mandrel for the subsequent steps of the fabrication process and remains inside the final tank. The outer surface of the composite shell is covered with a layer of material designed to be impermeable by the pressurized fluid to be contained in the tank. A second step on the outer flange of each end fitting accommodates this layer. Depending on the application, this layer could be, for example, a layer of rubber, a polymer film, or an electrodeposited layer of metal. If the fluid to be contained in the tank is a gas, then the best permeation barrier is electrodeposited metal (typically copper or nickel), which can be effective at a thickness of as little as 0.005 in (.0.13 mm). The electrodeposited metal becomes molecularly bonded to the second step on each metallic end fitting. The permeation-barrier layer is covered with many layers of filament-wound composite material, which could be the same as, or different from, the composite material of the inner shell. Finally, the filament-wound composite material is cured in an ov

DeLay, Tom

2005-01-01

347

Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes "re-freezing" the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the "re-freezing" temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude "re-freezing" of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

Makhov, M. N.

2004-07-01

348

Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

Chastagner, Philippe (3134 Natalie Cir., Augusta, GA 30909-2748)

1994-01-01

349

Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A system is described for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary. 2 figures.

Chastagner, P.

1994-07-05

350

Towards an Empirically Based Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

SciTech Connect

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before been tested. The focus of our work is on the local and regional distances (< 2000 km) and phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg) necessary to see small explosions. We are developing a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum that is compatible with the earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation models developed using the Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC) techniques (Walter and Taylor, 2002). The explosion parametric model will be particularly important in regions without any prior explosion data for calibration. The model is being developed using the available body of seismic data at local and regional distances for past nuclear explosions at foreign and domestic test sites. Parametric modeling is a simple and practical approach for widespread monitoring applications, prior to the capability to carry out fully deterministic modeling. The achievable goal of our parametric model development is to be able to predict observed local and regional distance seismic amplitudes for event identification and yield determination in regions with incomplete or no prior history of underground nuclear testing. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R; Ruppert, S; Matzel, E; Hauk, T; Gok, R

2009-08-31

351

Direct real-time detection of vapors from explosive compounds.  

PubMed

The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX, and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances was demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a nonradioactive ionization source coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was accomplished in less than 5 s at ambient temperature without sample preconcentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provided a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3(-) and NO3(-)·HNO3), enabled highly sensitive explosives detection from explosive vapors present in ambient laboratory air. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicated detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284, and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX, and NG, respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations sampled in ambient laboratory air, including double base propellants, plastic explosives, and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN, and RDX product ions. PMID:24090362

Ewing, Robert G; Clowers, Brian H; Atkinson, David A

2013-11-19

352

Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature. A typical prototype TSEV (see figure) includes a flat-bottomed stainless-steel cylinder 4 in. (10.16 cm) long, 0.5 in. (1.27 cm) in diameter, having a wall thickness of 0.010 plus or minus 0.002 in. (0.254 plus or minus 0.051 mm). Microbial spores are deposited in the bottom of the cylinder, then the top of the cylinder is closed with a sterile rubber stopper. Hypodermic needles are used to puncture the rubber stopper to evacuate the inside of the cylinder or to purge the inside of the cylinder with a gas. In a typical application, the inside of the cylinder is purged with dry nitrogen prior to a test. During a test, the lower portion of the cylinder is immersed in a silicone-oil bath that has been preheated to and maintained at the test temperature. Test temperatures up to 220 C have been used. Because the spores are in direct contact with the thin cylinder wall, they quickly become heated to the test temperature.

Beaudet, Robert A.; Kempf, Michael; Kirschner, Larry

2006-01-01

353

High-speed imaging, acoustic features, and aeroacoustic computations of jet noise from Strombolian (and Vulcanian) explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

imaging of explosive eruptions at Stromboli (Italy), Fuego (Guatemala), and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes allowed visualization of pressure waves from seconds-long explosions. From the explosion jets, waves radiate with variable geometry, timing, and apparent direction and velocity. Both the explosion jets and their wave fields are replicated well by numerical simulations of supersonic jets impulsively released from a pressurized vessel. The scaled acoustic signal from one explosion at Stromboli displays a frequency pattern with an excellent match to those from the simulated jets. We conclude that both the observed waves and the audible sound from the explosions are jet noise, i.e., the typical acoustic field radiating from high-velocity jets. Volcanic jet noise was previously quantified only in the infrasonic emissions from large, sub-Plinian to Plinian eruptions. Our combined approach allows us to define the spatial and temporal evolution of audible jet noise from supersonic jets in small-scale volcanic eruptions.

Taddeucci, J.; Sesterhenn, J.; Scarlato, P.; Stampka, K.; Del Bello, E.; Pena Fernandez, J. J.; Gaudin, D.

2014-05-01

354

QGP fireball explosion  

E-print Network

We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange hadrons as an observable for both the formation of quark-gluon plasma, and of the ensuing explosive disintegration of deconfined matter fireball formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions at 160--20A GeV. We describe the physical properties of QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an analysis of hadron abundances. We than also demonstrate that the m_t shape of hadron spectra is in qualitative agreement with the sudden breakup of a supercooled QGP fireball.

J. Letessier; G. Torrieri; S. Hamieh; J. Rafelski

2000-11-13

355

Explosions on the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System - these are the eruptions and flaring that occur on the Sun. They can release as much energy as 10 million volcanoes, and throw out material into the solar system with similar mass to Mount Everest! The theories of what can produce such an explosion are based around the magnetic field that confines the gas. These events can produce emission right across the electromagnetic spectrum. The status of our ability to predict these events is discussed.

Harra, Louise K.

2005-10-01

356

Neutrino Leakage and Supernova Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of supernova explosion, the neutrino leakage is very important. With different neutrino leakage schemes, the type II supernova explosions are simulated respectively for the stars with the mass of 12 M_{?}, 14 M_{?}, and 15 M_{?} by using a one-dimensional spherically symmetric model. The results show that the different neutrino leakage schemes have influence on the supernova collapse, shock wave propagation, and explosion. And the best values of corrective parameters which are propitious to the type II supernova explosions are given. In addition, the impacts of the equation of state and the compression modulus on the simulating results are discussed.

Liao, D. B.; Zhang, M. J.; Li, Y.; Pan, J. H.; Chen, X.

2014-09-01

357

Explosive scabbling of structural materials  

DOEpatents

A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

358

Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator  

DOEpatents

A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

1982-01-01

359

Small vessel vasculitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pediatric small vessel vasculitides reviewed in this article are Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) and the anti-neutrophil\\u000a cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides (AAV). The new classification criteria for HSP and Wegener’s granulomatosis are\\u000a now validated and will facilitate the conduct of future epidemiological studies and clinical trials. The clinical manifestations\\u000a of small vessel vasculitis in children are described, and current therapies discussed. There

Paul Brogan; Despina Eleftheriou; Michael Dillon

2010-01-01

360

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions  

E-print Network

Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions #12;Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical

Groisman, Pablo

361

Blood Vessels of the Fetal Pig Dissection Posterior Vessels Protocol  

E-print Network

Blood Vessels of the Fetal Pig Dissection Posterior Vessels Protocol: 1. The blood vessels membrane is the peritoneum, the blood vessels are said to be retroperitoneal). In order to see the blood that supplies the stomach, liver and spleen with blood. This is the celiac artery. c. Just below where

Loughry, Jim

362

Internal Detonation Velocity Measurements Inside High Explosives  

SciTech Connect

In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation models and detonation models of high explosives, the ability to continuously measure the detonation velocity within an explosive is required. Progress on an embedded velocity diagnostic using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber containing a chirped fiber Bragg grating is reported. As the chirped fiber Bragg grating is consumed by the moving detonation wave, the physical length of the unconsumed Bragg grating is monitored with a fast InGaAs photodiode. Experimental details of the associated equipment and data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within PBX-9502 are presented. This small diameter fiber sensor has the potential to measure internal detonation velocities on the order of 10 mm/{micro}sec along path lengths tens of millimeters long.

Benterou, J; Bennett, C V; Cole, G; Hare, D E; May, C; Udd, E

2009-01-16

363

Comparing algorithms for automated vessel segmentation in computed tomography scans of the lung: the VESSEL12 study.  

PubMed

The VESSEL12 (VESsel SEgmentation in the Lung) challenge objectively compares the performance of different algorithms to identify vessels in thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Vessel segmentation is fundamental in computer aided processing of data generated by 3D imaging modalities. As manual vessel segmentation is prohibitively time consuming, any real world application requires some form of automation. Several approaches exist for automated vessel segmentation, but judging their relative merits is difficult due to a lack of standardized evaluation. We present an annotated reference dataset containing 20 CT scans and propose nine categories to perform a comprehensive evaluation of vessel segmentation algorithms from both academia and industry. Twenty algorithms participated in the VESSEL12 challenge, held at International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2012. All results have been published at the VESSEL12 website http://vessel12.grand-challenge.org. The challenge remains ongoing and open to new participants. Our three contributions are: (1) an annotated reference dataset available online for evaluation of new algorithms; (2) a quantitative scoring system for objective comparison of algorithms; and (3) performance analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the various vessel segmentation methods in the presence of various lung diseases. PMID:25113321

Rudyanto, Rina D; Kerkstra, Sjoerd; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Lefevre, Christophe; Xue, Wenzhe; Zhu, Xiangjun; Liang, Jianming; Öksüz, Ilkay; Ünay, Devrim; Kadipa?ao?lu, Kamuran; Estépar, Raúl San José; Ross, James C; Washko, George R; Prieto, Juan-Carlos; Hoyos, Marcela Hernández; Orkisz, Maciej; Meine, Hans; Hüllebrand, Markus; Stöcker, Christina; Mir, Fernando Lopez; Naranjo, Valery; Villanueva, Eliseo; Staring, Marius; Xiao, Changyan; Stoel, Berend C; Fabijanska, Anna; Smistad, Erik; Elster, Anne C; Lindseth, Frank; Foruzan, Amir Hossein; Kiros, Ryan; Popuri, Karteek; Cobzas, Dana; Jimenez-Carretero, Daniel; Santos, Andres; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J; Helmberger, Michael; Urschler, Martin; Pienn, Michael; Bosboom, Dennis G H; Campo, Arantza; Prokop, Mathias; de Jong, Pim A; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; van Ginneken, Bram

2014-10-01

364

Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship  

ScienceCinema

As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

Dattelbaum, Dana

2015-01-05

365

On-site Analysis of Explosives in Various Matrices  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed several different strategies and technologies for the on-site detection of explosives. These on-site detection techniques include a colorimetric test, thin layer chromatography (TLC) kit and portable gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The screening of suspicious containers on-site and the search for trace explosive residue in a post-blast forensic investigation are of great importance. For these reasons, LLNL's Forensic Science Center has developed a variety of fieldable detection technologies to screen for a wide range of explosives in various matrices and scenarios. Ideally, what is needed is a fast, accurate, easy-to-use, pocket-size and inexpensive field screening test for explosives.

Reynolds, J G; Nunes, P; Whipple, R E; Alcaraz, A

2006-01-25

366

Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

Dattelbaum, Dana

2014-11-03

367

Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft tissues are preserved within hindlimb elements of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen 1125). Removal of the mineral phase reveals transparent, flexible, hollow blood vessels containing small round microstructures that can be expressed from the vessels into solution. Some regions of the demineralized bone matrix are highly fibrous, and the matrix possesses elasticity and resilience. Three populations of

Mary H. Schweitzer; Jennifer L. Wittmeyer; John R. Horner; Jan K. Toporski

2005-01-01

368

Evaluation of embedded FBGs in composite overwrapped pressure vessels for strain based structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) in space and commercial applications, and the explosive nature of pressure vessel ruptures, make it crucial to develop techniques for early condition based damage detection. The need for a robust health monitoring system for COPVs is a high priority since the mechanisms of stress rupture are not fully understood. Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been proposed as a potential solution that may be utilized to anticipate and potentially avoid catastrophic failures. The small size and light weight of optical fibers enable manufactures to integrate FBGs directly into composite structures for the purpose of structural health monitoring. A challenging aspect of embedding FBGs within composite structures is the risk of potentially impinging the optical fiber while the structure is under load, thus distorting the optical information to be transferred. As the COPV is pressurized, an embedded optical sensor is compressed between the expansion of the inner bottle, and the outer overwrap layer of composite. In this study, FBGs are installed on the outer surface of a COPV bottle as well as embedded underneath a composite overwrap layer for comparison of strain measurements. Experimental data is collected from optical fibers containing multiple FBGs during incremental pressurization cycles, ranging from 0 to 10,000 psi. The graphical representations of high density strain maps provide a more efficient process of monitoring structural integrity. Preliminary results capture the complex distribution of strain, while furthering the understanding of the failure mechanisms of COPVs.

Pena, Francisco; Strutner, Scott M.; Richards, W. Lance; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.

2014-03-01

369

Controlled by Distant Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

2007-03-01

370

Green primary explosives: 5-Nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies  

PubMed Central

The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[FeII(NT)3(H2O)3], cat2[FeII(NT)4(H2O)2], cat3[FeII(NT)5(H2O)], and cat4[FeII(NT)6] with cat = cation and NT? = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2. With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries. PMID:16803957

Huynh, My Hang V.; Coburn, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi

2006-01-01

371

Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

1998-04-23

372

Vessel Sanitation Program Construction Guidelines  

E-print Network

Vessel Sanitation Program Construction Guidelines July 2005 #12;Department of Health Vessel Sanitation Program Atlanta, GA and Ft Lauderdale, FL Vessel Sanitation Program Centers-7070 Fax: (770) 488-4127 E-mail: vsp@cdc.gov Vessel Sanitation Program Centers for Disease Control

373

Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

Sokolova, Inna

2014-05-01

374

Development of a non-propagating explosives storage cabinet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL) has completed the design of an Explosive Components Facility (ECF). Construction of the ECF is scheduled to begin in 1992 with completion in 1995. An integral part of the ECF will be on-site storage of explosives in six earth-covered service magazines. Each magazine will contain a non-propagating Explosives Storage Cabinet (ESC) system made up to twenty modular units. In addition to the secure storage of explosives, a primary purpose of the cabinet system is to prevent a sympathetic detonation of the explosives stored in the surrounding units as a result of an accidental detonation of up to 5.0 pounds of explosives (TNT equivalent) stored in a donor unit in the cabinet. Therefore, the maximum creditable event for each service magazine is 5.0 pounds, even though each magazine could contain up to 100 pounds of explosives stored in 5.0 pounds increments. A new material being developed at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) known as SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber CONcrete), had been shown to be highly resistant to back spall from blast loadings, and penetration by high velocity ballistic projectiles and fragments. These, and other characteristics unique to SIFCON, such as very high strength and ductility, appeared to make it an excellent candidate material for the modular units of the ESC. In 1989 SNL contracted with NMERI to develop a SIFCON modular unit for the ESC. Based upon the success of Phase 1 program, a more extensive Phase 2 program was undertaken in 1990 and has been successfully completed. This paper is a summary of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 work, which includes the design, fabrication, and explosive testing of the modular units.

Couch, W. A.; Schneider, B. A.

1991-08-01

375

Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

1987-01-01

376

Explosives Detection for Aviation Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

Anthony Fainberg

1992-01-01

377

Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion: experimental research in the evolution of the two-phase flow and over-pressure.  

PubMed

In a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), the superheating and boiling of the liquefied gas inside the vessel as it fails is important information necessary to understand the mechanism of this type of disaster. In this paper, a small-scale experiment was developed to investigate the possible processes that could lead to a BLEVE. Water was used as the test fluid. High-speed video was utilized to observe the two-phase flow swelling which occurred immediately following the partial loss of containment through a simulated crack. The velocity of the two-phase swelling was measured along with pressure and temperature. It was observed that initially a mist-like two-phase layer was rapidly formed on the liquid surface (~3-4 ms) after the vessel opened. The superheated liquid rapidly boiled and this accelerated upwards the two-phase layer, the whole liquid boiled after about 17 ms form opening. It was supposed that the swelling of the two-phase layer was the possible reason for the first over-pressure measured at the top and bottom of the vessel. From 38 ms to 168 ms, the boiling of the superheated liquid weakened. And from 170 ms, the original drop/mist-like two-phase flow turned into a churn-turbulent bubbly two-phase flow, rose quickly in the field of the camera and eventually impacted the vessel top wall. The force of its impact and "cavitation" and "choke" following with the two-phase ejection were maybe main reasons for the second obvious pressure increasing. PMID:18261848

Chen, Sining; Sun, Jinhua; Wan, Wei

2008-08-15

378

Shipping container for fissile material  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a shipping container for the interstate transportation of enriched uranium materials. The shipping container is comprised of a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical-shaped outer vessel lined with thermal insulation. Disposed inside the thermal insulation and spaced apart from the inner walls of the outer vessel is a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical inner vessel impervious to liquid and gaseous substances and having the inner surfaces coated with a layer of cadmium to prevent nuclear criticality. The cadmium is, in turn, lined with a protective shield of high-density urethane for corrosion and wear protection. 2 figs.

Crowder, H.E.

1984-12-17

379

Radon free storage container and method  

DOEpatents

A radon free containment environment for either short or long term storage of radon gas detectors can be provided as active, passive, or combined active and passive embodiments. A passive embodiment includes a resealable vessel containing a basket capable of holding and storing detectors and an activated charcoal adsorbing liner between the basket and the containment vessel wall. An active embodiment includes the resealable vessel of the passive embodiment, and also includes an external activated charcoal filter that circulates the gas inside the vessel through the activated charcoal filter. An embodiment combining the active and passive embodiments is also provided.

Langner, Jr., G. Harold (Mack, CO); Rangel, Mark J. (Austin, CO)

1991-01-01

380

The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment  

SciTech Connect

We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

2002-07-05

381

Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors  

SciTech Connect

Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

2008-01-01

382

Acrylic vessel cleaning tests  

SciTech Connect

The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

1997-02-26

383

Characterization of secondary grain dust explosions  

E-print Network

. Parnell, Jr. Presently, grain dust explosion research has been directed mainly into the mechanisms of the primary explosions with interest in the secondary explosion phenomena being virtually unrecord. ed. . Research 1n the area of' secondary grain... dust, explosions would provide new information as well as increase the understanding of the total dust explosion phenomena. This greater knowledge could potentially aid in the reduction of future grain dust explosions. This study on the mechanisms...

Schulman, Cheryl Wendler

1983-01-01

384

Dynamic analysis of large suspended LMFBR reactor vessels  

SciTech Connect

Large breeder reactor vessels are often designed under the top-suspended condition. Since the vessel contains a large volume of liquid sodium as reactor coolant, the structural integrity of the vessel bottom head and its effect on the vessel dynamic response are of great importance to the safety and reliability of the reactor systems. This paper presents a dynamic analysis of the large suspended reactor vessel subjected to the horizontal earthquake excitation with the emphasis on the effect of bottom head vibration on fluid pressure and sloshing response. Unlike the conventional lumped mass method, the present analysis treats the liquid sodium as a continuum medium. As a result, the important effects ignored in the lumped mass method such as fluid coupling, fluid-structure interaction, interaction between sloshing and vessel vibration, etc. can be accounted into the analysis.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.

1983-01-01

385

Watersheds and Explosive percolation  

E-print Network

The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster differing significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

Herrmann, Hans J

2011-01-01

386

Watersheds and Explosive percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

387

Explosion risks from nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging nanomanufactured products are being incorporated in a variety of consumer products ranging from closer body contact products (i.e. cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpastes, pharmaceuticals, clothing) to more remote body-contact products (electronics, plastics, tires, automotive and aeronautical), hence posing potential health and environmental risks. The new field of nanosafety has emerged and needs to be explored now rather than after problems becomes so ubiquitous and difficult to treat that their trend become irreversible. Such endeavour necessitates a transdisciplinary approach. A commonly forgotten and/or misunderstood risk is that of explosion/detonation of nanopowders, due to their high specific active surface areas. Such risk is emphasized and illustrated with the present development of an appropriate risk analysis. For this particular risk, a review of characterization methods and their limitations with regard to nanopowders is presented and illustrated for a few organic and metallic nanopowders.

Bouillard, Jacques; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Thomas, Dominique

2009-05-01

388

Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and ?{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on ?{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

2014-05-09

389

On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives  

SciTech Connect

Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Div.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Div.

1997-07-01

390

Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR  

SciTech Connect

The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m/sup 3/. Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m/sup 3/. By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

Borg, I.Y.

1982-08-13

391

Shock desensitizing of solid explosive  

SciTech Connect

Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

Davis, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

392

Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

Cho, Kwang-Hyun

2014-12-01

393

Detection of explosives in soils  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

2002-01-01

394

On the Unreacted Hugoniots of Three Plastic Bonded Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a continuing interest in determining the detonation characteristics of loaded plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The UK licensing agency for explosives, DOSG, wishes to better understand the response of insensitive high explosives. This has required more detailed investigation of the transit of reaction from the unreacted state to products. The starting condition, before application of a kinetic scheme to describe reaction, is thus the unreacted Hugoniot for the material. In this work three PBXs, manufactured by BAE Land Systems, are investigated and modelled. All contain RDX in differing quantities in an HTPB binder. One of them contains aluminium. Two of the materials have the same weight percentage of filler and binder but differ in the grain size distribution entrained. The experimental Hugoniots are presented, and a composite equation of state is derived using an engineering model and shown to describe the measurements well. Further applications of the technique are described and future uses are outlined.

Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.

2006-07-01

395

Towards a predictive thermal explosion model for energetic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of models and computational strategies for simulating the thermal response of high explosives using a multi-physics hydrodynamics code, ALE3D. Recent improvements to the code have aided our computational capability in modeling the behavior of energetic materials systems exposed to strong thermal environments such as fires. We apply these models and computational techniques to a thermal explosion experiment involving the slow heating of a confined explosive. The model includes the transition from slow heating to rapid deflagration in which the time scale decreases from days to hundreds of microseconds. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical effects are modeled during all phases of this process. The heating stage involves thermal expansion and decomposition according to an Arrhenius kinetics model while a pressure-dependent burn model is employed during the explosive phase. We describe and demonstrate the numerical strategies employed to make the transition from slow to fast dynamics. In addition, we investigate the sensitivity of wall expansion rates to numerical strategies and parameters. Results from a one-dimensional model show that violence is influenced by the presence of a gap between the explosive and container. In addition, a comparison is made between 2D model and measured results for the explosion temperature and tube wall expansion profiles.

Yoh, Jack J.; McClelland, Matthew A.; Maienschein, Jon L.; Wardell, Jeffrey F.

2005-01-01

396

Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

2013-10-03

397

Explosive volcanism may not be an inevitable consequence of magma fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fragmentation of magma, containing abundant gas bubbles, is thought to be the defining characteristic of explosive eruptions. When viscous stresses associated with the growth of bubbles and the flow of the ascending magma exceed the strength of the melt, the magma breaks into disconnected fragments suspended within an expanding gas phase. Although repeated effusive and explosive eruptions for individual

Helge M. Gonnermann; Michael Manga

2003-01-01

398

Chemical warfare agent and high explosive identification by spectroscopy of neutron-induced gamma rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nondestructive assay method to identify chemical warfare (CW) agents and high explosive (HE) munitions was tested with actual chemical agents and explosives. The assay method exploits the gamma radiation produced by neutron interactions inside a container or munition to identify the elemental composition of its contents. The characteristic gamma-ray signature of the chemical elements chlorine, phosphorus, and sulfur were

A. J. Caffrey; J. D. Cole; R. J. Gehrke; R. C. Greenwood

1992-01-01

399

Donor free radical explosive composition  

DOEpatents

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

1980-04-01

400

High Explosive Radio Telemetry System  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews the High Explosive Radio Telemetry (HERT) system, under co-development by Los Alamos National Laboratories and Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. This telemetry system is designed to measure the initial performance of an explosive package under flight environment conditions, transmitting data from up to 64 sensors. It features high speed, accurate time resolution (10 ns) and has the ability to complete transmission of data before the system is destroyed by the explosion. In order to affect the resources and performance of a flight delivery vehicle as little as possible, the system is designed such that physical size, power requirements, and antenna demands are as small as possible.

Bracht, R.R.; Crawford, T.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Mclaughlin, B.M.

1998-11-04

401

USGS Research Vessel Kaho  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS R/V Kaho was Christened and commissioned on August 6, 2014, in Oswego, NY. The vessel was designed with state-of-the-art navigation and scientific capabilities, giving the USGS modern scientific resources for research into Lake Ontario’s coastal and deep-water ecosystems....

402

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2011-04-01

403

27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

2010-04-01

404

Remotely Operated Equipment for Post Irradiation Examination of the SNS Target Vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spallation Neutron Source produces neutrons by accelerating protons into flowing mercury contained inside a stainless steel target vessel. During facility operation the target vessel is degraded by a combination of high-energy neutrons, the proton beam, and cavitation-induced corrosion. The degradation is primarily concentrated at the nose of the target vessel, where the proton beam passes through. Currently, the Spallation

Adam J Carroll; Van B Graves; Michael J Dayton; Bernie Riemer

2011-01-01

405

Numerical Modelling of the Expansion Phase of Vapor Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction, involving sudden fragmentation of some of the molten material and rapid evaporation of the liquid, takes place. This phenomenon is referred to as a "vapor explosion" or "steam explosion". In the event of a core meltdown accident in a light water reactor, the molten fuel can interact with cooling water inside or outside the reactor vessel and cause a vapor explosion. The mechanical energy released during such an explosion can result in structural damage, and ultimately may lead to the release of radioactive material into the environment. Vapor explosions are extremely fast transients, involving a flow field consisting of at least three distinct phases, accompanied by thermal non-equilibrium and strong interfacial transfer processes. The objective of this research was to mechanistically model the expansion phase of a vapor explosion. A transient three-dimensional, three -fluid thermal hydraulic model was developed. Coolant liquid plus fragmented fuel particles, coolant vapor plus noncondensables and unfragmented fuel constitute the three fluids. Hydrodynamic and thermal interactions between the three phases were mechanistically treated, using flow regime-dependent models. The models were incorporated into a computer code, in which the conservation equations are cast in finite-difference form and are numerically solved using the point-relaxation method. The code was utilized in parametric and sensitivity calculations aimed at assessing the significance of interfacial transfer processes, and the effect of the premixture initial conditions on the phenomenology of the expansion phase of steam explosions. The initial conditions for the expansion phase were estimated by assuming that the propagation phase was a constant volume heat exchange process. Parametric results indicate that thermal and mechanical nonequilibrium are both significant. Various modelling assumptions relevant to the inter-phase transfer coefficients could change the predicted magnitude of the conversion ratio by up to a factor of two. The parametric results were extremely sensitive to the initial void fraction in the premixture prior to the propagation. The calculated conversion ratios varied by an order of magnitude as a result of varying the aforementioned initial void fraction.

Hwang, Moonkyu

406

Explosive actuated valve  

DOEpatents

1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

Byrne, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

407

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Marsh, S.P.

1987-03-12

408

Explosive Spot Joining of Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

409

Explosives characterization in terahertz range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Thz spectral characterization of the behaviour of different explosives is presented in this paper. This characterization will be done in the frequency range from 20 GHz to 4 THz using a Teraview Spectra 3000. This system has a capacity of measuring from 20 GHz to 4 THz fed by a laser source. With the Teraview Spectra 3000 equipment will be possible to calculate the refractive index, the absorbance and other important parameters of the explosive samples. With this study it will be possible to characterize some of the most common used explosives, i.e., gun explosive, gunpowder mine, pent, TNT, RDX, etc, and it will allow to determine their electromagnetic peculiarities in order to design a future imaging system that allow detecting them in security and defense sectors.

Maestrojuán, I.; Palacios, I.; Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

2011-11-01

410

Explosive plane-wave lens  

DOEpatents

An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

Marsh, S.P.

1988-03-08

411

JiTT - Cambrian Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) How do scientists come up with the number 2 billion years ago for the first branch of life? Explain the dating technique and information that is used. 2) Describe the evidence AGAINST the Cambrian Explosion. ...

Guertin, Laura

412

Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for

Ricketts

1981-01-01

413

HIGH PERFORMANCE MELT-CAST PLASTIC-BONDED EXPLOSIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRDC Valcartier has been developing new melt-cast explosives containing nitramines, TNT and a family of energetic thermoplastic elastomers (ETPEs) based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer. It was proven that the ETPEs, added in small amounts to the TNT, modified the glassy behaviour of the compositions and created a new product that showed enough elasticity to pass mechanical Insensitive Munitions tests such

P. Brousseau; G. Ampleman; S. Thiboutot; E Diaz; S. Trudel

414

Detonation Properties of Low-Sensitivity NTO-Based Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detonating performance of new explosive compositions containing NTO, TNT, RDX, and HMX is investigated in this work. Detonation velocity, pressure, and energy of the mixtures tested as well as acceleration ability and the equation of state of their detonation products were determined. Shock and impact sensitivities were evaluated in the gap test and heavy hammer test. Reaction of the mixtures

Waldemar A. Trzci?ski; Leszek Szyma?czyk

2005-01-01

415

Attachment Fitting for Pressure Vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention provides sealed access to the interior of a pressure vessel and consists of a tube. a collar, redundant seals, and a port. The port allows the seals to be pressurized and seated before the pressure vessel becomes pressurized.

Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Carrigan, Robert W. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

416

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function

Kuhl

2009-01-01

417

On coupling factors of explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the seismic effect of an explosion plays an important part in the theory and practice of demolition engineering, antiseismic engineering, nuclear explosion engineering, seismic exploration, and seismic depth sounding. A still unresolved issue in this regard is concerned with the calculation of energy conversion process. An attempt is made to explore this issue by drawing on the research done in the field of seismic depth sounding.

Shao-Quan, Z.

1985-04-01

418

Artificial Intelligence Techniques for the Berth Allocation and Container Stacking Problems in Container Terminals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Container Stacking Problem and the Berth Allocation Problem are two important problems in maritime container terminal's management which are clearly related. Terminal operators normally demand all containers to be loaded into an incoming vessel should be ready and easily accessible in the terminal before vessel's arrival. Similarly, customers (i.e., vessel owners) expect prompt berthing of their vessels upon arrival. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligence based-integrated system to relate these problems. Firstly, we develop a metaheuristic algorithm for berth allocation which generates an optimized order of vessel to be served according to existing berth constraints. Secondly, we develop a domain-oriented heuristic planner for calculating the number of reshuffles needed to allocate containers in the appropriate place for a given berth ordering of vessels. By combining these optimized solutions, terminal operators can be assisted to decide the most appropriated solution in each particular case.

Salido, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Molins, Mario; Barber, Federico

419

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

420

Quantitative understanding of explosive stimulus transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanisms of detonation transfer across hermetically sealed interfaces created by necessary interruptions in high explosive trains, such as at detonators to explosive columns, field joints in explosive columns, and components of munitions fuse trains are demostrated. Reliability of detonation transfer is limited by minimizing explosive quantities, the use of intensitive explosives for safety, and requirements to propagate across gaps and angles dictated by installation and production restraints. The major detonation transfer variables studied were: explosive quanity, sensitivity, and thickness, and the separation distances between donor and acceptor explosives.

Schimmel, M. L.

1973-01-01

421

Great Lakes Research Vessel Construction  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Two new additions to the U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center's fleet of large research vessels are currently being constructed. The two new USGS research vessels will replace the aging vessels on lakes Erie and Ontario. They will provide safe and reliable platforms for scientists, and ...

422

Great Lakes Research Vessel Construction  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Two new additions to the U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center's fleet of large research vessels are currently being constructed. The two new USGS research vessels will replace the aging vessels on lakes Erie and Ontario. They will provide safe and reliable platforms for scient...

423

HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR  

E-print Network

HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM SYSTEM COMPONENTS · Heart pumps blood though blood vessels where exchanges can take place with the interstitial fluid (between cells) · Heart and blood vessels regulate blood flow according to the needs of the body

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

424

Retinal image blood vessel segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an important role in diagnosis of eye diseases. This paper proposes a method for segmentation of blood vessels in color retinal images. We present a method that uses 2-D Gabor wavelet to enhance the vascular pattern. We locate and segment the blood vessels using adaptive thresholding. The technique is

M. Usman Akram; Anam Tariq; Shoab A. Khan

2009-01-01

425

Full containment spray drying  

SciTech Connect

Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

Masters, K.

1999-11-01

426

Pipelay support vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A former North Sea pipe carrier being transformed into a versatile pipelay-support vessel will help Italy's Saipem S.p.A. in laying three 20-in gas lines across the Sicilian Channel. The new support ship, to be named Ragno Due, spans 262 ft (80 m) in length and 59 ft (18 m) in width and has a draft of 14 ft (4.3 m);

D. DallAglio; L. McGrath

1979-01-01

427

High pressure storage vessel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27

428

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Upton, Hubert A. (Morgan Hill, CA)

1994-01-01

429

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

1994-10-04

430

76 FR 38155 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...control measures for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels...particulate matter from auxiliary diesel engines on container vessels, passenger...measures (ATCM) for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going...

2011-06-29

431

76 FR 77515 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...control measures for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going vessels...particulate matter from auxiliary diesel engines on container vessels, passenger...measures (ATCM) for auxiliary diesel engines operated on ocean-going...

2011-12-13

432

Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators  

DOEpatents

A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

Davis, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

2006-04-04

433

Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives: Collisions and boundary interactions  

SciTech Connect

Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) can be used to model the effects that shock curvature, {kappa}, has oil detonation speed, D{sub n}({kappa}). At the edges of the explosive, D{sub n}({kappa}) is supplemented with boundary conditions. By direct numerical simulation (DNS). The authors study how the reaction zone interacts with the edge. DSD theory has been integrated with the level-set method of Osher and Sethian and the Los Alamos DNS code Mesa to create a powerful tool for simulating complex explosive containing systems.

Bdzil, J.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Aslam, T.D.; Stewart, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). TAM Dept.

1995-09-01

434

Confinement vessel analysis final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of the confinement vessel analysis program was to aid Los Alamos in validation of a new confinement vessel configuration. This was done in two steps: First, we developed a finite element analysis model of the benchmark confinement vessel and compared the results against test results to verify the accuracy of the model and analysis technique. We then changed the finite element model to represent the new confinement vessel configuration and predicted the response of the new vessel for specified loading conditions. This report describes the work done to achieve the objective.

Lewis, B.B. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

1992-05-06

435

Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in the strap. The roller also serves to equalize the load in the portions of the strap on both sides of the clevis pin. The lap seam is formed near the clevis by use of a tapered diamond stitch: This stitch is designed specifically to allow fibers in the stitch and strap to relax under load in such a manner that the load becomes more nearly evenly distributed among all fibers in the stitch region. Thus, the tapered diamond stitch prevents load concentrations that could cause premature failure of the strap and thereby increases the strength of the strap/structural-core joint. The lap seam can be rated at >90 percent of the strength of the strap material.

Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

2004-01-01

436

Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

2014-04-01

437

Workbook for estimating effects of accidental explosions in propellant ground handling and transport systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workbook is presented to supplement an earlier NASA publication, which was intended to provide the designer and safety engineer with rapid methods for predicting damage and hazards from explosions of liquid propellant and compressed gas vessels used in ground storage, transport and handling. Information is presented in the form of graphs and tables to allow easy calculation, using only desk or handheld calculators. Topics covered in various chapters are: (1) estimates of explosive yield; (2) characteristics of pressure waves; (3) effects of pressure waves; (4) characteristics of fragments; and (5) effects of fragments and related topics.

Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Vargas, L. M.; Moseley, P. K.

1978-01-01

438

Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion

This artist's animation shows the explosion of a massive star, the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that the star exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart.

Cassiopeia A is what is known as a supernova remnant. The original star, about 15 to 20 times more massive than our sun, died in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion viewable from Earth about 340 years ago. The remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia.

The movie begins by showing the star before it died, when its layers of elements (shown in different colors) were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. The star is then shown blasting to smithereens. Spitzer found evidence that the star's original layers were preserved, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. In other words, some chunks of the star sped outward faster than others, as illustrated by the animation.

The movie ends with an actual picture of Cassiopeia A taken by Spitzer. The colored layers containing different elements are seen next to each other because they traveled at different speeds.

The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds.

Chunks of the star that were thrown out fastest hit the shock wave sooner and have had more time to heat up to scorching temperatures previously detected by X-ray and visible-light telescopes. Chunks of the star that lagged behind hit the shock wave later, so they are cooler and radiate infrared light that was not seen until Spitzer came along. These lagging chunks are seen in false colors in the Spitzer picture of Cassiopeia A. They are made up of gas and dust containing neon, oxygen and aluminum -- elements from the middle layers of the original star.

2006-01-01

439

Carbon fiber internal pressure vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Internal pressure vessels were designed; the filament was wound of carbon fibers and epoxy resin and tested to burst. The fibers used were Thornel 400, Thornel 75, and Hercules HTS. Additional vessels with type A fiber were made. Polymeric linears were used, and all burst testing was done at room temperature. The objective was to produce vessels with the highest attainable PbV/W efficiencies. The type A vessels showed the highest average efficiency: 2.56 x 10 to the 6th power cm. Next highest efficiency was with Thornel 400 vessels: 2.21 x 10 to the 6th power cm. These values compare favorably with efficiency values from good quality S-glass vessels, but strains averaged 0.97% or less, which is less than 1/3 the strain of S-glass vessels.

Simon, R. A.

1973-01-01

440

Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.  

PubMed

The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

2009-01-01

441

Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect

Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

Kuhl, A L

2009-10-16

442

Determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 as emulsifier by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel approach for identification and determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 (sorbitol mono-oleate) as the emulsifier and their postblast residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. 24 kinds of emulsion explosives collected have been processed by transesterification reaction with metholic KOH solution and the emulsifier has turned into methyl esters of fatty acids. From the peak area ratios of their methyl esters, most of these emulsion explosives can be differentiated. In order to detect the postblast residues of emulsion explosives, the sorbitols in the emulsifier Span-80 obtained after transesterification reaction have been further derivatized by silylation reaction with N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) as the derivatizing reagent. The derivatization conditions were optimized and the derivatives were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the silylation derivatives of sorbitol and it isomers, combined with hydrocarbon compounds and methyl esters of fatty acids, were the characteristic components for identification of the emulsion explosives. The established approach was applied to analyze the postblast residues of emulsion explosives. It has been found that the method was sensitive and specific, especially when detecting the derivatives of sorbitol and its isomers by GC-MS in selecting ion mode. The information of the characteristic components can help probe the origin of the emulsion explosives and providing scientific evidences and clues for solving the crimes of the emulsion explosive explosion. PMID:21497820

Tian, Fei-Fei; Yu, Jing; Hu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Meng-Xia; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Hai-Ling; Han, Jie

2011-06-01

443

Application of a SPME-IMS detection system for explosives detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of illicit explosives in a large room, container, or cargo hold is problematic due to the current limitations in sampling and detection of explosives and to the size and time constraints of the search. Solid Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) can be used to rapidly extract volatile and semi-volatile compounds from the headspace of an explosive and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a rapid presumptive organic detection technique that has already found widespread use in the detection of hidden explosives. SPME has recently been coupled to IMS as a sample pre-concentration device in order to improve the detection of explosives concealed in open areas. Detection limits have been determined for the following taggants: 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT), 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT), 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitro butane (DMNB) and the following volatile explosive compounds: 2,4-dinitrotoluene, (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT). Nitrocellulose (NC) is also capable of being detected by the SPME-IMS system on a reliable basis. Results from these experiments point towards the usefulness of this technique as a potential screening tool for explosive compounds. Mass transport experiments are being conducted to determine the compound concentration in a flow of air for detection to occur. Further work will also be conducted using explosive odor signature compounds as potential illicit explosive detection compounds.

Perr, Jeannette M.; Furton, Kenneth G.; Almirall, Jose R.

2005-05-01

444

Behavioural and Genetic Evidence for C. elegans' Ability to Detect Volatile Chemicals Associated with Explosives  

PubMed Central

Background Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. Methodology/Principal Findings We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. Conclusions/Significance: The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles. PMID:20830309

Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

2010-01-01

445

Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Silicon Containing Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved relationships were developed in this study for the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid silicon and silicon dioxide for use with JAGUAR thermo-chemical equation of state routines. Analyses of experimental melting temperature curves for silicon and silicon dioxide indicated complex phase behavior and that improved coefficients were required for solid and liquid thermodynamic properties. Advanced optimization routines were utilized in conjunction with the experimental melting point data to establish volumetric coefficients for these substances. The new property libraries resulted in agreement with available experimental values, including Hugoniot data at elevated pressures.

Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.; Poulos, W.

2007-12-01

446

Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives  

SciTech Connect

Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

1998-07-01

447

Particle characteristics of trace high explosives: RDX and PETN.  

PubMed

The sizes of explosives particles in fingerprint residues produced from C-4 and Semtex-1A were investigated with respect to a fragmentation model. Particles produced by crushing crystals of RDX and PETN were sized by using scanning electron microscopy, combined with image analysis, and polarized light microscopy was used for imaging and identifying explosive particles in fingerprint residues. Crystals of RDX and PETN fragment in a manner that concentrates mass in the largest particles of the population, which is common for a fragmentation process. Based on the fingerprints studied, the particle size to target for improving mass detection in fingerprint residues by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is > or = 10 microm in diameter. Although particles smaller than 10 microm in diameter have a higher frequency, they constitute < 20% of the total mass. Efforts to improve collection efficiency of explosives particles for detection by IMS, or other techniques, must take into consideration that the mass may be concentrated in a relatively few particles that may not be homogeneously distributed over the fingerprint area. These results are based on plastic-bonded explosives such as C-4 that contain relatively large crystals of explosive, where fragmentation is the main process leading to the presence of particles in the fingerprint residues. PMID:17316229

Verkouteren, Jennifer R

2007-03-01

448

Canine detection odor signatures for mine-related explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives used in land mines. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to (1) blank air, (2) a target odor such as an explosive, and (3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like the target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT and C-4. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Dugan, Regina E.; Hallowell, Susan F.

1998-09-01

449

Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

1997-06-01

450

Evolution of turbulent fields in explosions  

SciTech Connect

Explosions always contain turbulent mixing regions, e.g.: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets and unstable interfaces. The inherent unsteadiness of turbulent mixing in explosions, and the lack of sufficient data, pose insurmountable difficulties for turbulence modeling of such flows. Proposed here is a direct numerical simulation approach-where the three-dimensional (3-D) conservation laws are integrated via a high-order Godunov method. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is used to Capture the convective mixing processes on the computational grid. Then, an azimuthal-averaging operator is applied to the 3-D solution-in order to extract the instantaneous mean and fluctuating components of the turbulent field. This methodology is applied to the numerical simulation of the turbulent wall jet and dusty boundary layer flow induced by a point explosion above a ground surface. Principal results include the evolution of the turbulent velocity field near the surface. During the wall jet phase, the mean profiles resemble our previous two-dimensional calculations, while the velocity fluctuation profiles and Reynolds stress profiles are qualitatively similar to measurements of self-preserving wall jets. During the boundary layer phase, the mean velocity profile evolved with time, e.g.: initially it agreed with measurements of a dusty boundary layer behind a shock; at intermediate times it resembled the dusty boundary layer profiles measured in a wind tunnel; while at late times, it approached a l/7 power-law profile. Velocity fluctuation profiles were qualitatively similar to those measured for a turbulent boundary layer on a fiat plate. The methodology can be used to predict the evolution of other turbulent fields such as dust clouds, axisymmetric jets, fireball instabilities, and dusty boundary layers in shock tube and wind tunnel flows.

Kuhl, A.L.; Bell, J.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States); Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P.; Lyons, M.L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

1993-12-01

451

Vesselness-guided Active Contour: A Coronary Vessel Extraction Method  

PubMed Central

Vessel extraction is a critical task in clinical practice. In this paper, we propose a new approach for vessel extraction using an active contour model by defining a novel vesselness-based term, based on accurate analysis of the vessel structure in the image. To achieve the novel term, a simple and fast directional filter bank is proposed, which does not employ down sampling and resampling used in earlier versions of directional filter banks. The proposed model not only preserves the performance of the existing models on images with intensity inhomogeneity, but also overcomes their inability both to segment low contrast vessels and to omit non-vessel structures. Experimental results for synthetic images and coronary X-ray angiograms show desirable performance of our model. PMID:24761379

Dehkordi, Maryam Taghizadeh; Jalalat, Morteza; Sadri, Saeed; Doosthoseini, Alimohamad; Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Amirfattahi, Rasoul

2014-01-01

452

Insensitive fuze train for high explosives  

DOEpatents

A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

Cutting, Jack L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Von Holle, William G. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

453

Insensitive fuze train for high explosives  

SciTech Connect

A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

1994-01-04

454

Branching Blood Vessels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores some of the factors that affect blood flow in branching vessels and is designed for AP Biology, Anatomy & Physiology, and Physics. You may want to do this as activity as a series of labs or you can assign the problems to different groups. After conducting this lab myself, I suggest that you practice it yourself before doing it in class. Be sure that your tubing and funnel fit snugly. Also, make sure that your clamps and Y-connectors fit snugly with the tubing as well.

Mr. Jonathan Borne (Union Springs Academy)

2000-08-01

455

Evidence for Nearby Supernova Explosions  

E-print Network

Supernova explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. Scientists have speculated for decades about the possible consequences for life on Earth of a nearby supernova, but plausible candidates for such an event were lacking. Here we show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at~130 parsecs from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. We find that the deposition on Earth of 60Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ~2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction.

Narciso Benitez; Jesus Maiz-Apellaniz; Matilde Canelles

2002-01-02

456

The vapor pressures of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

2013-01-05

457

Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques  

SciTech Connect

In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

1980-01-01

458

Explosive evaporation in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

Fisher, George H.

1987-01-01

459

Soft-tissue vessels and cellular preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex.  

PubMed

Soft tissues are preserved within hindlimb elements of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen 1125). Removal of the mineral phase reveals transparent, flexible, hollow blood vessels containing small round microstructures that can be expressed from the vessels into solution. Some regions of the demineralized bone matrix are highly fibrous, and the matrix possesses elasticity and resilience. Three populations of microstructures have cell-like morphology. Thus, some dinosaurian soft tissues may retain some of their original flexibility, elasticity, and resilience. PMID:15790853

Schweitzer, Mary H; Wittmeyer, Jennifer L; Horner, John R; Toporski, Jan K

2005-03-25

460

Case study: flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers.  

PubMed

This paper describes the case study of a portable plastic gasoline container explosion and fire. While working at home on a science project to determine the burn rates of different types of wood fuel, a 14-year-old boy was severely burned after flames traveled back up into the portable gasoline container and exploded. A witness heard the explosion and reports that the flames went perhaps 10 ft in the air. It is shown by experimentation that a flame arrester installed in the pour opening of the portable gasoline container would have prevented an explosion inside the gasoline container. PMID:16181732

Hasselbring, Lori C

2006-03-17

461

Nonequilibrium detonation of composite explosives  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nonequilibrium diffusional flow on detonation velocities in composite explosives is examined. Detonation conditions are derived for complete equilibrium, temperature and pressure equilibrium, and two forms of pressure equilibrium. Partial equilibria are associated with systems which have not had sufficient time for transport to smooth out the gradients between spatially separate regions. The nonequilibrium detonation conditions are implemented in the CHEQ equation of state code. We show that the detonation velocity decreases as the non-chemical degrees of freedom of the explosive are allowed to equilibrate. It is only when the chemical degrees of freedom are allowed to equilibrate that the detonation velocity increases.

Nichols III, A.L.

1997-07-01

462

Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

Ong, M

2001-12-01

463

Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort  

DOEpatents

Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

1980-01-01

464

49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid... Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H Article containing both an...

2012-10-01

465

49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid... Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H Article containing both an...

2013-10-01

466

49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid... Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H Article containing both an...

2014-10-01

467

49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid... Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus H 1.2H1.3H Article containing both an...

2011-10-01

468

Liquid contents verification for explosives, chemical agents, and dissolved narcotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasingly important need today is to guard against terrorist attacks at key locations such as airports and public buildings. Liquid explosives can avoid detection at security checkpoints by being concealed as beverages or other benign liquids. Magnetic resonance (MR) offers a safe, non-invasive technology for probing and classifying the liquid contents inside sealed non-metallic containers or packages. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening System or `Bottle Scanner' to screen for liquid explosives and flammables, described at an earlier SPIE conference in 1996. Since then, the Bottle Scanner's performance has been significantly improved by the incorporation of neural network-based liquid classification. Recently we have shown that the incorporation of additional discrimination parameters can further enhance liquid classification. In addition to screening for explosives and flammables, the Bottle Scanner can be effective against chemical agents, many of which contain fluorine or phosphorous, both of which have MR signatures. Finally, we have evidence that the Bottle Scanner may also be able to detect narcotics dissolved in beverages, one of the methods used to smuggle narcotics across international borders. The development of the Bottle Scanner has been funded by the Federal Aviation Administration.

Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Magnuson, Erik E.; Lee, Young K.; Moeller, Charles R.; Czipott, Peter V.; Rayner, Timothy J.; Newman, David E.; Wroblewski, Dariusz

2001-02-01

469

78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...operators in site planning for the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. The FAA inadvertently did not correctly...operators in site planning for the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. In the discussion of the...

2013-01-08

470

14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...each public area, including the launch site boundary; (2) A listing of the maximum quantities of liquid and solid propellants and other explosives to be located at each explosive hazard facility, including the class and division for...

2010-01-01

471

14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...each public area, including the launch site boundary; (2) A listing of the maximum quantities of liquid and solid propellants and other explosives to be located at each explosive hazard facility, including the class and division for...

2011-01-01

472

Graphite filament wound pressure vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filament wound NOL rings, 4-inch and 8-inch diameter closed-end vessels involving three epoxy resin systems and three graphite fibers were tested to develop property data and fabrication technology for filament wound graphite/epoxy pressure vessels. Vessels were subjected to single-cycle burst tests at room temperature. Manufacturing parameters were established for tooling, winding, and curing that resulted in the development of a pressure/vessel performance factor (pressure x volume/weight) or more than 900,000 in. for an oblate spheroid specimen.

Feldman, A.; Damico, J. J.

1972-01-01

473

Apollo experience report: Pressure vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo spacecraft pressure vessels, associated problems and resolutions, and related experience in evaluating potential problem areas are discussed. Information is provided that can be used as a guideline in the establishment of baseline criteria for the design and use of lightweight pressure vessels. One of the first practical applications of the use of fracture-mechanics technology to protect against service failures was made on Apollo pressure vessels. Recommendations are made, based on Apollo experience, that are designed to reduce the incidence of failure in pressure-vessel operation and service.

Ecord, G. M.

1972-01-01

474

Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

2007-05-04

475

Powerful explosions at Z = 0?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-free stars are assumed to evolve at constant mass because of the very low stellar winds. This leads to large CO-core mass at the end of the evolution, so primordial stars with an initial mass between 25 and 85 M? are expected to end as direct black holes, the explosion energy being too weak to remove the full envelope. We show that when rotation enters into play, some mass is lost because the stars are prone to reach the critical velocity during the main sequence evolution. Contrary to what happens in the case of very low- but non zero-metallicity stars, the enrichment of the envelope by rotational mixing is very small and the total mass lost remains modest. The compactness of the primordial stars lead to a very inefficient transport of the angular momentum inside the star, so the profile of ?(r) is close to ?r2 = const. As the core contracts, the rotation rate increases, and the star ends its life with a fast spinning core. Such a configuration has been shown to modify substantially the dynamics of the explosion. Where one expected a weak explosion or none at all, rotation might boost the explosion energy and drive a robust supernova. This will have important consequences in the way primordial stars enriched the early Universe.

Ekström, Sylvia; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Maeder, André

2008-12-01

476

Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

2009-11-12

477

Type IA Supernova Explosion Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because calibrated light curves of type Ia supernovae have become a major tool to determine the local expansion rate of the universe and also its geometrical structure, considerable attention has been given to models of these events over the past couple of years. There are good reasons to believe that perhaps most type Ia supernovae are the explosions of white

Wolfgang Hillebrandt; Jens C. Niemeyer

2000-01-01

478

Electrical explosion of segmented wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomena occurring during the electrical explosion of segmented wires are described. It was observed that with a wire of varying thickness, the smaller diameter parts explode first, ejecting metal vapor radially. Breakdown occurs through the vapor, creating current carrying channels which bypass the larger diameter parts of the wire. This may result, in some cases, in the larger diameter

Y. Me-Bar; R. Harel

1996-01-01

479

Modeling Type Ia Supernova Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ia Supernovae are one class of bright stellar explosions that are distinguished by a lack of hydrogen in the observed spectra. The most widely accepted scenario is a thermonuclear runaway occurring in a C/O white dwarf that has gained mass from a companion star. The details of the explosion mechanism are incompletely understood, and at present there are competing models that differ in the details of the initial conditions and the nature of the thermonuclear burning. I will present an overview of proposed mechanisms for the explosion and describe the requisite physics for each. Many scenarios invoke a deflagration born near the center of the white dwarf, and the subsequent evolution of the fireball sensitively depends on the relative size of the ignition point and its location. I will describe the flame and ash nuclear energetics and demonstrate that for the case of rising bubbles, featured in some explosion scenarios, the bubble evolution depends sensitively on the nuclear physics included in the models.

Calder, Alan

2008-04-01

480

Remote detector of explosive traces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the research of possibility of remote detection of explosive traces using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) approach. Experimental data on the detection of traces of cyclonite in fingerprints at a distance of 4 m are presented.

Bobrovnikov, Sergey M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Viktor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.; Aksenov, Valery A.; Kikhtenko, Andrey V.; Tivileva, Maria I.

2014-11-01

481

Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation  

E-print Network

of experiments have been performed with blast waves arising from the ignition .if homogeneous and well defined for this is that larger and larger quantities of dangerous materials are produced, transported and consumed ignition. This develop- ment has made it still more urgent to consider explosion loads in the design phase

482

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2011-07-01

483

30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

2014-07-01

484

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2012-07-01

485

30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

2014-07-01