Science.gov

Sample records for exposure erstellung von

  1. Direct observation of von Willebrand factor elongation and fiber formation on collagen during acute whole blood exposure to pathological flow

    PubMed Central

    Colace, T. V.; Diamond, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In severe stenosis, von Willebrand Factor (vWF) experiences millisecond exposures to pathological wall shear rates (γw). We sought to evaluate the deposition of vWF onto collagen surfaces under flow in these environments. Methods and Results Distinct from shear experiments that last many seconds, we deployed microfluidic devices for single-pass perfusion of whole blood or platelet free plasma (PFP) over fibrillar type 1 collagen (< 50 msec transit time) at pathological γw or spatial wall shear rate gradient (grad γw). Using fluorescent anti-vWF, long thick vWF fibers (>20 μm) bound to collagen were visualized at constant γw > 30,000 s−1 during perfusion of PFP, a process enhanced by EDTA. Rapid acceleration or deceleration of EDTA-PFP at grad γw = ± 5.5 × 105 to 4.3 × 107 s−1/cm did not promote vWF deposition. At 19,400 s−1, EDTA-blood perfusion resulted in rolling vWF-platelet nets, while blood perfusion (normal Ca2+) generated large vWF/platelet deposits that repeatedly embolized and were blocked by anti-GPIb or the α IIbβ3 inhibitor GR144053 and did not require grad γw. Blood perfusion at venous shear rate (200 s−1) produced a stable platelet deposit that was a substrate for massive but unstable vWF-platelet aggregates when flow was increased to 7800 s−1. Conclusion Triggered by collagen and enhanced by platelet GPIb and α IIbβ3, vWF fiber formation occurred during acute exposures to pathological γw and did not require gradients in wall shear rate. PMID:23104847

  2. Application of multiple exposure digital in-line holography to particle tracking in a Bénard von Kármán vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, N.; Godard, G.; Lebrun, D.; Paranthoën, P.; Allano, D.; Coëtmellec, S.

    2008-07-01

    Digital in-line holography is applied to studying the trajectories of individual water droplets in airflow. In order to track the particles, multiple exposure holography is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 635 nm and a lens-less CCD camera. This method leads to an accuracy better than 100 µm on the axial location. A study of the signal-to-noise ratio of such holograms shows that the number of exposures must be limited. Preliminary tests of this method are carried out in a Bénard-von Kármán street first characterized by laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. An example of a trajectory of a water droplet obtained in this flow at Reynolds number Re = 63 and Strouhal number St = 0.13 shows that digital holography is a promising method to extract the trajectories of droplets in laminar or turbulent flows.

  3. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun with Dr. Eberhard Rees and R.W. Cook at a press conference concerning Dr. Von Braun's assignment to NASA headquarters and Dr. Rees' subsequent assignment as Marshall Center director.

  4. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (left) and Fred W. Kelley examine a ST-100 Stellar Instrument Platform in the astrionics lab. Dr. Von Braun, then deputy associate administrator for planning, NASA, was visiting on the anniversary of the establishment of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun, stands in front of a Saturn IB Launch Vehicle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Dr. Von Braun was Marshall's first Center Director (1960-1970). Under his leadership Marshall was responsible for the development of the Saturn rockets, the Skylab project and getting the United States into Space and landing on the moon with the Apollo missions.

  6. Dr. Wernher von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Dr. von Braun is looking out from a 10th floor window of building 4200 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). He was the first Center Director and served as the Director from July 1960 through February 1970. Following World War II, Dr. von Braun and his German colleagues arrived in the United States under the Project Paperclip (American acquisition of German rocket experts) to continue their rocket development work. In 1950, von Braun and his German Rocket Team (also called the Peenemuende Team) were transferred from Ft. Bliss, Texas to Huntsville, Alabama to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal and later, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Under Dr. von Braun's leadership, MSFC developed the Saturn V launch vehicle, which placed the first men, two American astronauts, on the Moon. Wernher von Braun's life was dedicated to expanding man's knowledge through the exploration of space.

  7. Zelltyp-spezifische Mikroanalyse von Arabidopsis thaliana-Blättern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Stephan Peter

    2002-04-01

    Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden Strategien zur Analyse von Transkripten erarbeitet. Die ersten Versuche zielten darauf ab, in mit Glaskapillaren genommenen Einzelzellproben verschiedener Gewebeschichten RT-PCR durchzuführen, um spezifische Transkripte nachweisen zu können. Dies gelang für eine Reihe von Genen aus verschiedenen Pflanzenspezies. Dabei konnten sowohl Transkripte stark wie auch schwach exprimierter Gene nachgewiesen werden. Für die Erstellung von Gewebe-spezifischen Expressionsprofilen war es notwendig, die in vereinigten Zellproben enthaltene mRNA zunächst zu amplifizieren, um eine ausreichende Menge für Arrayhybridisierungen zu erhalten. Vor der Vermehrung wurde die mRNA revers transkribiert. Es wurden daran anschließend verschiedene Amplifikationsstrategien getestet: Die neben Tailing, Adapterligation und anderen PCR-basierenden Protokollen getestete Arbitrary-PCR hat sich in dieser Arbeit als einfache und einzige Methode herausgestellt, die mit so geringen cDNA-Mengen reproduzierbar arbeitet. Durch Gewebe-spezifische Array-hybridisierungen mit der so amplifizierten RNA konnten schon bekannte Expressionsmuster verschiedener Gene, vornehmlich solcher, die an der Photosynthese beteiligt sind, beobachtet werden. Es wurden aber auch eine ganze Reihe neuer offensichtlich Gewebe-spezifisch exprimierter Gene gefunden. Exemplarisch für die differentiell exprimierten Gene konnte das durch Arrayhybridisierungen gefundene Expressionsmuster der kleinen Untereinheit von Rubisco verifiziert werden. Hierzu wurden Methoden zum Gewebe-spezifischen Northernblot sowie semiquantitativer und Echtzeit-Einzelzell-RT-PCR entwickelt. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit wurden Methoden zur Analyse von Metaboliten einschließlich anorganischer Ionen verwendet. Es stellte sich heraus, daß die multiparallele Methode der Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie keine geeignete Methode für die Analyse selbst vieler vereinigter Zellinhalte ist. Daher wurde auf

  8. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), Deputy Associate Administrator for planning, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, inspects the mockup of the Saturn Workshop during a visit marking the 10th anniversary of the Marshall Center. Shown with Dr. Von Braun, from left to right, are Karl Heimburg, Director of the astronautics lab; Herman K. Weidner, Director of Science and Engineering, and George Hardy of the Astronautics lab.

  9. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, inspects the mockup of the Saturn Workshop during a visit marking the 10th anniversary of the Marshall Center. Shown with Dr. Von Braun, from left to right, are Karl Heimburg, Director of the Astronautics Lab; Herman K. Weidner, Director of Science and Engineering, and George Hardy of the Astronautics Lab.

  10. Von Willebrand factor and von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Budde, U; Schneppenheim, R

    2001-12-01

    von Willebrand disease (vWD) is caused by quantitative and/or qualitative defects of the von Willebrand factor (vWF), a multimeric high molecular weight glycoprotein. Typically, it affects the primary hemostatic system, which results in a mucocutaneous bleeding tendency simulating a platelet function defect. The vWF promotes its function in two ways: (i) by initiating platelet adhesion to the injured vessel wall under conditions of high shear forces, and (ii) by its carrier function for factor VIII in plasma. Accumulating knowledge of the different clinical phenotypes and the pathophysiological basis of the disease translated into a classification that differentiated between quantitative and qualitative defects by means of quantitative and functional parameters, and by analyzing the electrophoretic pattern of vWF multimers. The advent of molecular techniques provided the opportunity for conducting genotype-phenotype studies which have recently helped, not only to elucidate or confirm important functions of vWF and its steps in post-translational processing, but also many disease causing defects. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (avWS) has gained more attention during the recent years. An international registry was published and recommendation by the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis in 2000. It concluded that avWS, although not a frequent disease, is nevertheless probably underdiagnosed. This should be addressed in future prospective studies. The aim of treatment is the correction of the impaired hemostatic system of the patient, ideally including the defects of both primary and secondary hemostasis. Desmopressin is the treatment of choice in about 70% of patients, mostly with type 1, while the others merit treatment with concentrates containing vWF. PMID:11844133

  11. [Acquired von Willebrand syndrome].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare, but probably underestimated, bleeding disorder that mimics the congenital form of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. AVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, including lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The main pathogenic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:16913181

  12. Epithelial cells and Von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Negishi, H; Benke, P J

    1977-08-01

    Epithelial cells and not fibroblasts from human liver and amniotic fluid contain inducible glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity. The diagnosis of Von Gierke's disease has been made in a patient with hepatomegaly utilizing cultured epithelial cells grown from a liver biopsy. G-6-Pase activity in epithelial cells from this patient could not be induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. This is the first use of epithelial cells for diagnosis of a metabolic disease. G-6-Pase activity in cloned epithelial cells from amniotic fluid increases 2- to 3-fold after 24-hr exposure to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. The prenatal diagnosis of Von Gierke's disease may be possible in a laboratory experienced with these techniques if epithelial cell growth is obtained from amniotic fluid. PMID:196249

  13. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A camerman catches Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, his son, Peter, and daughter, Martgrit, as they arrive at the employee picnic held to celebrate man's first landing on the moon 6 days earlier. In the foreground is David R. Newby, Director of Administration and Technical Services at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Shown viewing the Apollo telescope mockup are, from left to right, Charles Donlan, deputy associate administrator for manned space flight; Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center director; William Horton, astrionics lab; Dr. Thomas Paine, NASA deputy administrator; Warner Kuers, director of the ME lab.

  15. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center director Wernher Von Braun and his family were honored with a series of events prior to his relocation to Washington, D.C. where he was assigned duties at NASA headquarters as deputy associate administrator for planning. Here he is shown with General Richard Drury and Hazel Toftoy, widow of General H.N. Toftoy.

  16. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, explains the purpose of a thermal curtain in the mockup of a Saturn I workshop to U.S. Representative Armistead Seldon of Alabama. The Congressman visited the Marshall Center on March 2, 1968 to tour the workshop and to visit Marshall Center facilities.

  17. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    U.S. Representative Armistead Seldon (D.-Al) inspects the food preparation area of the Saturn I workshop mockup during a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center. Explaining the operation of the food preparation area to the congressman is Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center director.

  18. Analytik von Lebensmittelallergenen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, Anja; Hahn, Alexandra

    Ansonsten harmlose Lebensmittel oder deren Bestandteile können bei von Lebensmittelallergien betroffenen Personen Überempfindlichkeitsreaktionen auslösen. Hierbei kann es sich um immunvermittelte Lebensmittelallergien oder um Intoleranzen gegenüber bestimmten Lebensmittelbestandteilen handeln. Ein Beispiel für Letzteres ist die Laktoseintoleranz, welche durch einen Enzymdefekt hervorgerufen wird [1]. Im Gegensatz hierzu handelt es sich bei Lebensmittelallergien um Sofortreaktionen, die durch IgE-Antikörper gegen Antigene aus den Lebensmitteln hervorgerufen werden und zu verschiedenen körperlichen Beschwerden führen können. Bei den Antigenen, welche von den von Allergikern produzierten IgE-Antikörpern erkannt werden, handelt es sich vor allem um Proteine [2]. Symptome IgE-vermittelter Reaktionen können zum Beispiel Hautausschlag, eine Schwellung der Schleimhäute oder das sogenannte orale Allergiesyndrom mit allergischen Reaktionen an der Mundschleimhaut und im Magen-Darm-Trakt sein [3]. Die hierbei auftretenden Beschwerden reichen von einem Brennen im Mund und einer Schwellung der Lippen und der Zunge bis zu Atemnot verursachenden Schwellungen im Kehlkopfbereich. In besonders schlimmen Fällen können allergische Reaktionen zu einem anaphylaktischen Schock und zum Tod durch Kreislaufversagen führen [4]. Während klassische Nahrungsallergene häufig komplexe Reaktionen zur Folge haben, ist bei Pollen-assoziierten Nahrungsmittelallergien das orale Allergiesyndrom vorherrschend.

  19. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Petrini, P

    1999-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a syndrome that has clinical and laboratory features similar to hereditary vWD. In contrast to the latter it occurs in patients without a family history of previous bleeding tendency. PMID:23401904

  20. Dr. von Braun at 'Wernher von Braun Day' Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    In 1970 Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Director Dr. Wernher von Braun (right) was reassigned to NASA Headquarters to serve as Deputy Associate Administrator for Plarning. Prior to his transfer, Dr. von Braun was honored for his career in Huntsville, Alabama, with the celebration of 'Wernher von Braun Day.' Among those participating were Alabama Governor Albert Brewer (left) and Alabama Senator John Sparkman (center). (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public library)

  1. von Willebrand Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goodeve, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a common inherited bleeding disorder characterized by excessive mucocutaneous bleeding. Characteristic bleeding symptoms include epistaxis, easy bruising, oral cavity bleeding, menorrhagia, bleeding after dental extraction, surgery and/or childbirth and in severe cases, bleeding into joints and soft tissues. There are three subtypes: types 1 and 3 represent quantitative variants and type 2 is a group of four qualitative variants: 1) type 2A - characterized by defective von Willebrand factor (VWF) -dependent platelet adhesion because of decreased high molecular weight (HMW) VWF multimers, 2) type 2B - caused by pathologically increased VWF-platelet interactions, 3) type 2M - caused by decreased VWF-platelet interactions not based on the loss of HMW multimers and 4) type 2N - characterized by abnormal binding of VWF to FVIII. The diagnosis of VWD requires specialized assays of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and/or molecular genetic testing of VWF. Severe bleeding episodes can be prevented or controlled with intravenous infusions of virally-inactivated plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates containing both VWF and FVIII. Depending on the VWD type, mild bleeding episodes usually respond to intravenous or subcutaneous treatment with desmopressin, a vasopressin analog. Other treatments that can reduce symptoms include fibrinolytic inhibitors and hormones for menorrhagia. PMID:21289515

  2. Theodore von Karman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Dr. Theodore von Karman, co-founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Pasadena, California was an aeronautical theoretician. His contributions in the fields of aerodynamics and aeronautical engineering are well documented and well known to every aerospace engineer. He was the first winner of the prestigious U.S. Medal of Science presented to him by President John F. Kennedy. As well as being co-founder of JPL, he also was principal founder of a major rocket propulsion firm (Aerojet-General Corp.), the top science advisor to the U.S. Air Force during its transition to jet propulsion aircraft and the top science advisor to NATO. He was, during much of this time, the fountainhead of aerodynamic thought as head of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT) in Pasadena, California. In the May 1956 issue of the Journal of Aeronautical Sciences, it was said of him that 'No other man has had so great an impact on the development of aeronautical science in this country. Hundreds of young men became his students and scientific collaborators and were inspired to greater effort.' Dr. William H. Pickering, then director of JPL said in 1960 'We wouldn't have an aeronautical science as we know it today, if it weren't for Dr. Thoedore von Karman.' Under his guidance, Caltech's 10 foot wind tunnel was designed, built and operated. Industry firms such as Douglas, Northrop, Hughes, Lockheed, North American, Vultee and Consolidated all tested new aeronautical designs and concepts in GALCIT's tunnel. Even Boeing's own high-speed wind tunnel was heavily influenced by suggestions from von Karman. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) became so concerned about GALCIT's growing influence over West coast aviation, it erected the Ames Laboratory in Sunnyvale, California in part to deter an ever widening aeronautical gap that had formed between NACA and GALCIT. From 1936 to 1940, Caltech stood alone as the only university

  3. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Thomas Paine, Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, examines an ordinary man's shoe outfitted for use in the Saturn I workshop. Pictured from the left in the Saturn I workshop mockup are William Brooksbank, propulsion and vehicle engineering laboratory; Dr. Paine; Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Center director; Colonel Clare F. Farley, Executive Officer in the Office Of The Administrator; and Charles J. Donlan, Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Technical. the shoe Dr. Paine is holding has a unique fastener built into the sole to allow an astronaut to move about on the workshop floor and to remain in one position if he desires.

  4. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji; Pruthi, Rajiv K; Nichols, William L

    2002-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a relatively rare acquired bleeding disorder that usually occurs in elderly patients, in whom its recognition may be delayed. Patients usually present predominantly with mucocutaneous bleeding, with no previous history of bleeding abnormalities and no clinically meaningful family history. Various underlying diseases have been associated with AvWD, most commonly hematoproliferative disorders, including monoclonal gammopathies, lymphoproliferative disorders, and myeloproliferative disorders. The pathogenesis of AvWD remains incompletely understood but includes autoantibodies directed against the von Willebrand factor (vWF), leading to a more rapid clearance from the circulation or interference with its function, adsorption of vWF by tumor cells, and nonimmunologic mechanisms of destruction. Laboratory evaluation usually reveals a pattern of prolonged bleeding time and decreased levels of vWF antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity, and factor VIII coagulant activity consistent with a diagnosis of vWD. Acquired vWD is distinguished from the congenital form by age at presentation, absence of a personal and family history of bleeding disorders, and, often, presence of a hematoproliferative or autoimmune disorder. The severity of the bleeding varies considerably among patients. Therapeutic options include desmopressin and certain factor VIII concentrates that also contain vWF. Successful treatment of the associated illness can reverse the clinical and laboratory manifestations. Intravenous immunoglobulins have also shown some efficacy in the management of AvWD, especially cases associated with monoclonal gammopathies. Awareness of AvWD is essential for diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:11838652

  5. [Inborn and acquired von Willebrand disease].

    PubMed

    Schneppenheim, R; Budde, U

    2008-12-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is known for its marked heterogeneity which was already recognized by von Willebrand in 1926. The basis of phenotypic differentiation are quantitative and qualitative or functional differences between the different types and subtypes of VWD. Clinical relevant facts for the practioner on diagnosis and therapy of von Willebrand disease and von Willebrand syndrome are presented. PMID:19132162

  6. [Inborn and acquired von Willebrand disease].

    PubMed

    Schneppenheim, R; Barthels, M; Budde, U

    2005-11-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is known for its marked heterogeneity which was already recognized by von Willebrand in 1926. The basis of phenotypic differentiation are quantitative and qualitative or functional differences between the different types and subtypes of VWD. Clinical relevant facts for the practitioner on diagnosis and therapy of von Willebrand disease and von Willebrand syndrome are presented. PMID:16395486

  7. John von Neumann Birthday Centennial

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2004-11-12

    In celebration of John von Neumann's 100th birthday, a series of four lectures were presented on the evening of February 10, 2003 during the SIAM Conference on Computational Science and Engineering in San Diego. The venue was appropriate because von Neumann spent much of the later part of his life, in the 1950's, as an unofficial ambassador for computational science. He was then the only senior American scientist who had experience with the new computers (digital, electronic, and programmable) and a vision of their future importance. No doubt he would have relished the chance to attend a meeting such as this. The first speaker, William Aspray, described the ''interesting times'' during which computers were invented. His remarks were based on his history [1] of this period in von Neumann's life. We were honored to have John von Neumann's daughter, Marina von Neumann-Whitman, as our second speaker. Other accounts of von Neumann's life can be found in books by two of his colleagues [2] and [3]. Our third speaker, Peter Lax, provided both mathematical and international perspectives on John von Neumann's career. Finally, Pete Stewart spoke about von Neumann's numerical error analysis [4] in the context of later work; this talk did not lend itself to transcription, but readers may consult the historical notes in [5]. Our thanks to all the speakers for a remarkable evening. We are grateful to the DOE Applied Mathematical Sciences (AMS) program for partially supporting these lectures. Thanks are also due to SIAM and William Kolata, to our emcee, Gene Golub, to Paul Saylor for recording and editing, and to Barbara Lytle for the transcriptions. More about von Neumann's work can be learned from the recent American Mathematical Society proceedings [6].

  8. Extraktion von DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöpping, Bert; Unterberger, Claudia

    Eine DNA-gestützte Analytik spielt im Lebensmittelbereich eine große Rolle. So wird die PCR bzw. die Real Time PCR z. B. für den Nachweis von Krankheitserreger in Lebensmitteln, zur Tier- und Pflanzenartendifferenzierung und den Nachweis von gentechnologisch veränderten Organismen eingesetzt [1]. Grundvoraussetzung für die sehr sensitiven molekularbiologischen Methoden ist eine saubere und kontaminationsfreie Nukleinsäure [2]. Die Qualität der Nukleinsäure entscheidet über Erfolg und Misserfolg der anschließenden molekularbiologischen Analytik. Deshalb werden im Bereich der Lebensmittelanalytik hohe Anforderungen an das jeweilige DNA-Extraktionsprotokoll gestellt. Durch die Anwendung eines geeigneten Extraktionsverfahrens soll die nachzuweisende DNA möglichst in hochmolekularer Form und frei von die nachfolgende Analytik hemmenden Substanzen vorliegen [1]. Gerade hier stellt die Natur der Lebensmittelmatrix eine besondere Herausforderung dar. Matrixkomponenten wie Fette, Zucker, Proteine und sekundäre Inhaltsstoffe erschweren die DNA-Extraktion und können, wenn sie nicht durch die Extraktion vollständig entfernt werden, zu einer Inhibierung der PCR führen [3]. Des Weiteren müssen auf der Matrixoberfläche vorhandene DNA-abbauende Enzyme gehemmt werden [1]. Daneben spielt der Einfluss verschiedener chemischer und physikalischer Parameter (pH-Wert, Temperatur, Enzyme, Scherkräfte) bei der Lebensmittelproduktion eine große Rolle für die Qualität der extrahierten DNA. So führen z. B. hohe Temperaturen und saure pH-Werte während der Lebensmittelverarbeitung zu einer Fragmentierung der DNA. Auch die physikalischen und chemischen Bedingungen der verwendeten Extraktionsmethode beeinflussen die Qualität der DNA [2]. Bleiben nach der Extraktion organische Lösungsmittel (Phenol, Ethanol), Enzyme, Proteine oder Salze zurück, können diese ebenfalls eine nachfolgende PCR inhibieren. Um eine Inhibition der PCR auszuschließen, sollten in der

  9. Dr. Wernher Von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    On September 8, 1960 President Dwight D. Eisenhower visited Huntsville, Alabama to dedicate a new NASA field center in honor of General George C. Marshall, Eisenhower's wartime colleague and the founder of the famous Marshall Plan for European recover after World War II. The new George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was placed under the control of Dr. Wernher Von Braun shown here talking with President Eisenhower. As parto f his remarks dedicating the center, President Eisenhowe refereed to General Marshall as a 'man of yar, yet a builder of peace'. the Marshall Center's first major assignment including building the huge Saturn V rocket that launched human beings on their first journey to the surface of the moon in 1969.

  10. von Braun and German Publisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Guenter Ogger of Capitol Magazine, West Germany, greets Marshall Space Flight Center Director, Dr. Wernher von Braun. Mr. Ogger interviewed the famous rocket scientist for his magazine.

  11. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

    PubMed

    Findeis-Hosey, Jennifer J; McMahon, Kelly Q; Findeis, Sarah K

    2016-06-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant syndrome which occurs secondary to germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 3. Clinically von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by an increased risk of developing simple visceral cysts, most commonly in the pancreas and kidneys, in addition to an increased risk of developing neoplasms, often with clear cell features, in a multitude of organ systems. The most common neoplasms are cerebellar and retinal hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, clear cell renal cell carcinomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, pancreatic serous cystadenomas, and endolymphatic sac tumors. These lesions most commonly present during adulthood; however, screening and surveillance for the development of these lesions should begin in the pediatric years for patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. In this review article, the genetics and most common neoplasms of von Hippel-Lindau disease are reviewed, with an eye towards implications for the pediatric patient. PMID:27617152

  12. Die Kosmogonie Anton von Zachs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosche, P.

    In his "Cosmogenische Betrachtungen" (1804), Anton von Zach rediscovered - probably independently - some aspects of the theories of Kant and Laplace. More originally, he envisaged also the consequences of an era of heavy impacts in the early history of the Earth.

  13. Pregnancy and von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Farber, M; Knuppel, R A; Binkiewicz, A; Kennison, R D

    1976-02-01

    A detailed description of the course of pregnancy in a patient with von Gierke's disease is presented. Careful dietary control together with proper management of the hematologic complications of the disease led to a successful outcome. PMID:1061911

  14. von Willebrand Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Type 2A or Type 2B. People with Type 3 (and some with Type 2A and 2B) will need treatment with Humate-P, an intravenous medication derived from human plasma that contains factor VIII and von Willebrand factor. ...

  15. Characterization of aberrant splicing of von Willebrand factor in von Willebrand disease: an underrecognized mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hawke, Lindsey; Bowman, Mackenzie L; Poon, Man-Chiu; Scully, Mary-Frances; Rivard, Georges-Etienne; James, Paula D

    2016-07-28

    Approximately 10% of von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene mutations are thought to alter messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing through disruption of consensus splice sites. This mechanism is likely underrecognized and affected by mutations outside consensus splice sites. During VWF synthesis, splicing abnormalities lead to qualitative defects or quantitative deficiencies in VWF. This study investigated the pathologic mechanism acting in 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) families with putative splicing mutations using patient-derived blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) and a heterologous human embryonic kidney (HEK 293(T)) cell model. The exonic mutation c.3538G>A causes 3 in-frame splicing variants (23del, 26del, and 23/26del) which cannot bind platelets, blood coagulation factor VIII, or collagen, causing VWD through dominant-negative intracellular retention of coexpressed wild-type (WT) VWF, and increased trafficking to lysosomes. Individuals heterozygous for the c.5842+1G>C mutation produce exon 33 skipping, exons 33-34 skipping, and WT VWF transcripts. Pathogenic intracellular retention of VWF lacking exons 33-34 causes their VWD. The branch site mutation c.6599-20A>T causes type 1 VWD through mRNA degradation of exon 38 skipping transcripts. Splicing ratios of aberrant transcripts and coexpressed WT were altered in the BOECs with exposure to shear stress. This study provides evidence of mutations outside consensus splice sites disrupting splicing and introduces the concept that VWF splicing is affected by shear stress on endothelial cells. PMID:27317792

  16. Treatment of von Willebrand Disease.

    PubMed

    Curnow, Jennifer; Pasalic, Leonardo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2016-03-01

    Congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD) and acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) reflect conditions caused by von Willebrand factor (VWF) deficiency and/or defects. VWD is the most common inherited bleeding disorder and AVWS arises from a variety of causes. Since VWF stabilizes and protects factor VIII (FVIII) in the circulation, this is also reduced in many patients with VWD. The treatment of VWD and AVWS therefore primarily entails replacement of VWF, and sometimes FVIII, to protect against bleeding. This may entail the use of VWF concentrates (currently plasma-derived) and/or FVIII concentrates (currently plasma-derived or more increasingly recombinant forms), and/or desmopressin to release endogenous VWF in subgroups of patients. For AVWS additional treatment of the underlying condition is also required. Adjunct therapies include antifibrinolytics. Globally, various formulations exist for both VWF and FVIII concentrates and are differentially available based on manufacturer marketing or regulatory approvals/clearances in different geographies. Also, guidelines for treatment of VWD vary for different localities and recombinant VWF is undergoing clinical trials. The current review provides an overview of the treatment of VWD as currently practiced in developed countries, and also provides a glimpse towards the future. PMID:26838696

  17. Modellierung von Anwenderverhalten im Social Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Armin; Höfler, Patrick; Lindstaedt, Stefanie

    Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, gemeinsame Verwendungsszenarien des Semantic Web und des Social Web zu identifizieren und zu benennen. Dabei wird ein Teilaspekt des Themengebiets im Detail betrachtet: die Nutzung von Services, die Beobachtungen des Verhaltens von Anwendern analysieren, um daraus maschinell interpretierbare Informationen zu erhalten und diese als Modelle zu organisieren. Es werden zunächst einige Eigenschaften und Unterscheidungsmerkmale von Anwenderverhalten und organisierten Modellen dargestellt. Anschließend wird der mögliche wechselseitige Nutzen von Anwenderverhalten und Modellen diskutiert. Den Abschluss bildet eine Betrachtung einiger exemplarischer Software-Services, die heute schon verwendet werden, um Anwenderverhalten in Modelle überzuführen.

  18. Von Neumann was not a Quantum Bayesian.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Blake C

    2016-05-28

    Wikipedia has claimed for over 3 years now that John von Neumann was the 'first quantum Bayesian'. In context, this reads as stating that von Neumann inaugurated QBism, the approach to quantum theory promoted by Fuchs, Mermin and Schack. This essay explores how such a claim is, historically speaking, unsupported. PMID:27091166

  19. Dr. Wernher Von Braun greeting dignitaries.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun, left, greets vice president Spiro T. Agnew in the Launch Control Center for the Apollo 14 mission. Between Dr. Von Braun and Mr. Agnew are their Royal Highnesses, The Prince and Princess of Spain. The royal visitors greeted the launch control team in th enter after the launch of Apollo 14.

  20. Dr. Wernher Von Braun at a picnic.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun, director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, stakes claim to a table for the picnic celebrating man's first lunar landing. With Dr. Von Braun are his wife, Maria (seated, right), and son, Peter (back to camera). His daughter, Margrit, was also present, but is hidden from view by friends in this view.

  1. Zelltyp-spezifische Mikroanalyse von Arabidopsis thaliana-Blättern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Stephan Peter

    2002-04-01

    Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden Strategien zur Analyse von Transkripten erarbeitet. Die ersten Versuche zielten darauf ab, in mit Glaskapillaren genommenen Einzelzellproben verschiedener Gewebeschichten RT-PCR durchzuführen, um spezifische Transkripte nachweisen zu können. Dies gelang für eine Reihe von Genen aus verschiedenen Pflanzenspezies. Dabei konnten sowohl Transkripte stark wie auch schwach exprimierter Gene nachgewiesen werden. Für die Erstellung von Gewebe-spezifischen Expressionsprofilen war es notwendig, die in vereinigten Zellproben enthaltene mRNA zunächst zu amplifizieren, um eine ausreichende Menge für Arrayhybridisierungen zu erhalten. Vor der Vermehrung wurde die mRNA revers transkribiert. Es wurden daran anschließend verschiedene Amplifikationsstrategien getestet: Die neben Tailing, Adapterligation und anderen PCR-basierenden Protokollen getestete Arbitrary-PCR hat sich in dieser Arbeit als einfache und einzige Methode herausgestellt, die mit so geringen cDNA-Mengen reproduzierbar arbeitet. Durch Gewebe-spezifische Array-hybridisierungen mit der so amplifizierten RNA konnten schon bekannte Expressionsmuster verschiedener Gene, vornehmlich solcher, die an der Photosynthese beteiligt sind, beobachtet werden. Es wurden aber auch eine ganze Reihe neuer offensichtlich Gewebe-spezifisch exprimierter Gene gefunden. Exemplarisch für die differentiell exprimierten Gene konnte das durch Arrayhybridisierungen gefundene Expressionsmuster der kleinen Untereinheit von Rubisco verifiziert werden. Hierzu wurden Methoden zum Gewebe-spezifischen Northernblot sowie semiquantitativer und Echtzeit-Einzelzell-RT-PCR entwickelt. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit wurden Methoden zur Analyse von Metaboliten einschließlich anorganischer Ionen verwendet. Es stellte sich heraus, daß die multiparallele Methode der Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie keine geeignete Methode für die Analyse selbst vieler vereinigter Zellinhalte ist. Daher wurde auf

  2. Franz Xaver von Zach in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Anita

    F.X. von Zach arrived in London in November 1783, and was employed as tutor to George, son of Count von Brühl, the Saxonian commercial diplomat. Von Zach became a part of von Brühl's household, and was thus in close contact with the leading astronomers, horologists, and scientific instrument makers. Before he departed to Gotha in 1788, he was awarded an honorary degree by Oxford University under false pretences, he upset the Astronomer Royal, and was twice rejected by the Royal Society. At von Brühl's country house he was shown the manuscripts of the mathematician Thomas Harriot (d. 1621); but his attempts to publicise them were hampered by his misreadings, and his treatment of the documents caused confusion in England's scientific community, which lasted throughout his lifetime.

  3. Dr. Wernher von Braun Laid to Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun served as Marshall Space Flight Center's first director from July 1, 1960 until January 27, 1970, when he was appointed NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning. Following World War II, Dr. von Braun and his German colleagues arrived in the United States under Project Paper Clip to continue their rocket development work. In 1950, von Braun and his rocket team were transferred from Ft. Bliss, Texas to Huntsville, Alabama to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal and later, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Under von Braun's leadership, Marshall developed the Saturn V launch vehicle which took Apollo astronauts to the moon. Dr. von Braun died in Alexandria, Va., on June 16, 1977, seven years after his NASA appointment. This photo was taken at the site where he was laid to rest.

  4. Dr. Wernher von Braun In His Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun served as Marshall Space Flight Center's first director from July 1, 1960 until January 27, 1970, when he was appointed NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning. Following World War II, Dr. von Braun and his German colleagues arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip to continue their rocket development work. In 1950, von Braun and his rocket team were transferred from Ft. Bliss, Texas to Huntsville, Alabama to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal and later, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Under von Braun's leadership, Marshall developed the Saturn V launch vehicle which took Apollo astronauts to the moon. This photo depicts von Braun in his office at MSFC.

  5. Dr. Wernher von Braun in his Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun is in his office, with an artist's concept of a lunar lander in background and models of Mercury-Redstone, Juno, and Saturn I. Dr. Wernher von Braun, the first MSFC Director, led a team of German rocket scientists, called the Rocket Team, to the United States, first to Fort Bliss/White Sands, later being transferred to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. They were further transferred to the newly established NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama in 1960, and Dr. von Braun became the first Center Director.

  6. Renaturierung und Management von Heiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; van Diggelen, Rudy; von Oheimb, Goddert

    Heiden zählen zu den ältesten und besonders reizvollen Kulturlandschaften Nordwesteuropas. Sie sind bezeichnend für nährstoffarme Böden in wintermilden Gebieten mit hohen Sommerniederschlägen. Während Heiden vor wenigen Jahrhunderten noch weit verbreitet und für manche Landschaften sogar prägend waren, hat sich ihr Areal heute auf wenige, meist in Naturschutzgebieten gelegene Restbestände verkleinert. Zu diesem Rückgang haben maßgeblich Änderungen der Landnutzung, aber auch Nährstoffeinträge aus umgebenden Agrarflächen und atmogene Depositionen beigetragen. In den meisten Ländern der Europäischen Union sind Heiden heute gesetzlich geschützte Ökosysteme, da diese, neben ihrem Erholungswert für den Menschen, Pflanzen- und Tierarten beherbergen, die außerhalb von Heiden nicht oder kaum überlebensfähig sind.

  7. Diagnosis of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, J; Gürsel, T

    1999-05-01

    The haemorrhagic diathesis in von Willebrand disease (vWD) is caused by a quantitative deficiency or a qualitative defect in the von Willebrand factor (vWF) in plasma and/or platelets causing insufficient primary haemostasis. Since vWF binds and protects factor VIII (FVIII) towards random proteolysis, coagulation may also be impaired in patients with a low plasma level of vWF, and in instances where vWF displays insufficient binding capacity to FVIII. The entity of vWD displays a vast heterogeneity. Apart from rarely occurring acquired cases, vWD is an inherited disorder of autosomal linkage. The major clinical hallmark in vWD is an increased tendency to mucocutaneous bleeding that rarely reach life-threatening proportions, unless vWF is severely reduced or completely absent. Increased bleeding may also occur in sites such as muscles and joints when the level of FVIII is particularly low. Significant progress has recently been achieved through extensive molecular genetic exploration of various forms of vWD. In order to guide treatment and to form a platform for genetic investigation, however, accuracy in diagnosis and phenotypic characterization is important. By means of various laboratory methods, major subclasses of vWD can be differentiated, as presented in another article of this series. Whereas most of the cases of vWD can quite easily be diagnosed and classified using today's diagnostic methods, the most frequently occurring bleeding disorder of all, vWd type 1 of mild degree, continues to challenge clinicians and diagnostic laboratories. The aim of this paper is to review the laboratory methods most commonly used in diagnostic investigation of the patient suspected of vWD. PMID:23401900

  8. Wally Schirra Greets Dr. Wernher von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 7 Commander Walter M. Schirra, Jr., left, greets Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Director, Marshall Space Flight Center and Dr. Kurt Debus, Right, KSC Director, during a prelaunch mission briefing held at the Florida Spaceport.

  9. How Is von Willebrand Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your von Willebrand factor. The test helps your doctor diagnose what type of VWD you have. Platelet function test. This test measures how well your platelets are working. You may have these tests ...

  10. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease (VHL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Von Hippel-Lindau ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  11. Dr. von Braun With German Rocket Experimenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Dr. von Braun was among a famous group of rocket experimenters in Germany in the 1930s. This photograph is believed to be made on the occasion of Herman Oberth's Kegelduese liquid rocket engine being certified as to performance during firing. From left to right are R. Nebel, Dr. Ritter, Mr. Baermueller, Kurt Heinish, Herman Oberth, Klaus Riedel, Wernher von Braun, and an unidentified person.

  12. Dr. von Braun Reviewing Spacecraft Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph was taken after Dr. von Braun moved from his post as Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA Headquarters. On June 27, 1970, he visited the MSFC again during the center's 10th anniversary to look at a mockup of the spacecraft that would later be known as Skylab. In this photograph, von Braun is talking with George Hardy of the MSFC Astronautics Lab.

  13. Dr. von Braun Reviewing Spacecraft Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph was taken after Dr. von Braun moved from his post as Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA Headquarters. On June 27, 1970, he visited the MSFC again during the center's 10th anniversary to look at a mockup of the spacecraft that would later be known as Skylab. In this photograph, von Braun (left) and Fred W. Kelley examine an ST-100 stellar instrument platform in MSFC's Astrionics Lab.

  14. Childhood Picture of Dr. von Braun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1912-01-01

    This is a childhood picture of Dr. von Braun (center) with his brothers. Dr. Wernher von Braun was born in Wirsitz, Germany, March 23, 1912. His childhood dreams of marned space flight were fulfilled when giant Saturn rockets, developed under his direction at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, boosted the manned Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. His life was dedicated to expanding man's knowledge through the exploration of space.

  15. Dr. von Braun at the Farewell Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Dr. von Braun was honored with a series of farewell events and ceremonies prior to his reassignment to NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. Alabama Governor Brewer greets Dr. von Braun following his speech at the front of the Madison County Courthouse in Huntsville, Alabama on February 24, 1970. Behind are Madison County Commissioner James Record, Huntsville Mayor Joe Davis, and U.S. Senator Sparkman.

  16. Archivalische Quellen zum Leben und Werk von Franz Xaver von Zach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattenberg, D.; Brosche, P.

    Franz Xaver von Zach (1754 - 1832) gehörte um die Wende vom 18. zum 19. Jahrhundert zu den angesehensten und profiliertesten Astronomen. Anliegen dieser Untersuchung ist es, handschriftliche Quellen von Zachs nachzuweisen - auch wenn Vollständigkeit vorläufig nicht erreicht werden kann.

  17. von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chou, Angela; Toon, Christopher; Pickett, Justine; Gill, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal-dominant familial cancer syndrome associated with mutations of the VHL tumor suppressor gene (3p25-26). Its estimated incidence ranges from 1 in 36,000 to 1 in 53,000 with a penetrance of up to 95% by age 60. Genotype-phenotype correlation divides VHL into two broad clinical subtypes. Type 1 VHL is predominantly associated with large deletion or truncation mutations which result in an encoded protein with very little or no activity. It is associated with retinal and CNS hemangioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma but not pheochromocytoma. Type 2 is usually associated with missense mutations encoding a protein with limited activity and includes pheochromocytoma. It is further classified into three other subtypes (2A, 2B, 2C) based on the presence of hemangioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma. Visceral cysts in the kidney, pancreas and epididymis, nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors which often show distinctive clear cell cytology, endolymphatic sac tumors and head and neck paragangliomas are well recognized but less common presenting features. Surveillance of carriers can reduce the burden of disease and is best performed in specialist referral centers with due consideration given to both the complex molecular pathogenesis and psychosocial aspects of the disease. PMID:23652669

  18. Dr. Wernher Von Braun with Dr. Christian Barnard.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Christian Barnard Tours Marshall Space Flight Center. Shown in Dr. Von Braun's office are (left to right): Dr. Ernst Sthulinger, a representative from General Electric, Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Dr. Christian Barnard, and Dr. Eberhard Rees.

  19. Functional behavior of vessels from pigs with von Willebrand disease. Values of platelet deposition are identical to those obtained on normal vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Badimon, L.; Badimon, J.J.; Turitto, V.T.; Rand, J.; Fuster, V.

    1989-03-01

    Vessels from normal pigs and pigs with severe von Willebrand disease were exposed for up to 30 minutes to both nonanticoagulated and heparinized blood from normal pigs in an ex vivo perfusion system. Shear rates at the vessel surface were varied over a broad physiological range, gamma w = 212 to 3380 sec-1. The deposition of /sup 111/In-labeled platelets was determined by radiometric counting. For all shear rates and exposure times investigated, the levels of platelet deposition on de-endothelialized thoracic aorta of normal and von Willebrand disease pigs were not significantly different. Thus, the functional activity of the vessels correlated with the results obtained previously by immunofluorescence. Namely, the von Willebrand factor protein in the thoracic subendothelium of normal pigs is significantly diminished or absent and is comparable to the levels observed in von Willebrand disease pigs.

  20. Dr. von Braun Surrenders to U.S. Army

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun surrenders to U.S. Army Counterintelligence persornel of the 44th Infantry Division in Ruette, Bavaria on May 2, 1945. Left to right are Charles Stewart, CIC agent; Dr. Herbert Axster; Dieter Huzel; Dr. von Braun (arm in cast); Magnus von Braun (brother); and Hans Lindenberg.

  1. Dr. Wernher Von Braun talkes with George Hardy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    George Hardy of the Marshall Space Flight center's Astronautics Laboratory, talks with Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), deputy associate administrator for planning. Dr. Von Braun was inspecting the mockup of the Saturn workshop during a visit to the Marshall Center. The visit coincided with the 10th anniversary celebration of the center of which Dr. Von Braun was director until March 1, 1970.

  2. Treatment of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Budde, Ulrich; Scheppenheim, Sonja; Dittmer, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) accounts for 22% of patients with abnormal von Willebrand factor. Most patients with known pathophysiological mechanisms suffer from cardiovascular, myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. Less frequent associations are of autoimmune origin, due to hyperfibrinolysis, adsorption to tumor cells, reduced synthesis and prolonged circulation. The mechanisms leading to aVWS is hitherto not known in patients with liver and kidney diseases, drug use, glycogen storage disease, virus infections and at least 18 other disease entities. Diagnosis is complicated by the battery of tests needed, and their inherent rather low sensitivity and specificity for aVWS. Thus, even in acute bleeding situations it may take days until a firm diagnosis is settled and specific therapies can be initiated. The main aim is to shed more light onto this, compared with inherited von Willebrand disease, rare disease which affects at least 2-3% of the older population. PMID:26577336

  3. Dr. von Braun Reviewing Spacecraft Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph was taken after Dr. von Braun moved from his post as Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA Headquarters. On June 27, 1970, he visited the MSFC again during the center's 10th anniversary to look at a mockup of the spacecraft that would later be known as Skylab. With von Braun are (left to right): Herman K. Weidner, director of Science and Engineering at MSFC, and James R. Thompson of the center's Astrionics Laboratory.

  4. Dr. von Braun Reviewing Spacecraft Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph was taken after Dr. von Braun moved from his post as Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA Headquarters. On June 27, 1970, he visited the MSFC again during the center's 10th anniversary to look at a mockup of the spacecraft that would later be known as Skylab. In this photo, he is examining an experiment in the mockup. With von Braun are (left to right): James R. Thompson, Richard T. Heckman, and Jack Stokes of the Center's Astrionics Laboratory.

  5. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2007-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those for congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD). However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. aVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, most frequently in lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Through an analysis of the more recent literature data, the pathophysiology and the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:17133419

  6. Studies of the human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein. III. Qualitative defects in von Willebrand's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gralnick, H R; Coller, B S; Sultan, Y

    1975-01-01

    The Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein was characterized in two unrelated patients with von Willebrand's disease in whom procoagulant and Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor antigen levels were normal. In both patients evidence of an abnormal protein was observed on crossed antigen-antibody electrophoresis. In one patient the Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein eluted from Sepharose 4B in a position and distribution identical to normal with normal levels of procoagulant activity and antigen. However, the partially purified Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein had markedly reduced von Willebrand factor activity in a ristocetin assay. In the second patient the peak of Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein, antigen, and procoagulant activity eluted from a Sepharose 4B column with an estimated molecular weight of approximately half that of normal. This protein had no von Willebrand factor activity. In both patients the reduced Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein subunit was indistinguishable from normal on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These studies indicate that in some patients with von Willebrand's disease there is a qualitative defect of the Factor VII/von Willebrand factor protein; the total amount of protein, antigen, and procoagulant activity are normal while the von Willebrand factor activity is deficient. Images PMID:1080491

  7. Mutations of von Willebrand factor gene in families with von Willebrand disease in the Aland Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.P.; Blombaeck, M.; Anvret, M. ); Nyman, D. )

    1993-09-01

    Patients with von Willebrand disease in four families in the Aland Islands, including the original family that was described in 1926 by the Finnish physician von Willebrand, were screened for mutations in the Swedish hot-spot' regions (exons 18, 28, 32, 43, and 45) of the von Willebrand factor gene. One cytosine deletion in exon 18 was detected in each of these families. Linkage analysis and genealogical studies suggest that the deletion present in these four families probably has an origin in common with the mutations in the Swedish patients. Apart from the deletion in exon 18, two close transitions (G [yields] A at S1263 and C [yields] T at P1266) in exon 28 on the same chromosome were identified in one individual who married into the original family and in his two children. The transitions could be due to a recombination between the von Willebrand factor gene and its pseudogene. 24 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. A note on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Kadison, Richard V.; Liu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A Murray–von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras. We show that the “extended derivations” of a Murray–von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer’s seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements. PMID:24469831

  9. Plasma von Willebrand factor concentration and thyroid function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Avgeris, S; Lothrop, C D; McDonald, T P

    1990-03-15

    Plasma von Willebrand factor antigen concentration was determined in 15 dogs with suspected hypothyroidism, in 1 dog with hyperthyroidism, and in 14 euthyroid dogs. The mean +/- SEM von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration in hypothyroid dogs (47.1% +/- 12.6%) was significantly decreased (P less than 0.0005), compared with that in euthyroid dogs (94.7 +/- 5.6%). Four hypothyroid dogs were given thyroxine for 1 month and all 4 had an increase in von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration. The plasma von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration was 200% in the hyperthyroid dog. Seemingly, reduced concentrations of plasma von Willebrand factor:antigen can be found in dogs in association with congenital von Willebrand disease or with von Willebrand disease acquired through hypothyroidism. PMID:2107158

  10. Dr. von Braun Visits Huntsville Boys Club

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Dr. von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and chairman of this year's United Givers Fund (UGF) drive at MSFC, takes time out from the problems of sending a man to the Moon to talk baseball with 11-year-old Randy Smith at the Huntsville Boys Club.

  11. Dr. Wernher Von Braun presents a certificate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (left), director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, presents a humorous certificate to Major General Charles W. Eifler, commanding general of Redstone Arsenal, at the close of a farewell luncheon for the general prior to General Eifler moving to a new European duty station.

  12. Von Gierke's disease: report of case.

    PubMed

    Cudzinowski, L

    1979-01-01

    Von Gierke's disease, or hepatorenal glycogenesis, type I, presents an interesting challenge to the dental practitioner. Showing an incidence of 1/400,000, it is a fairly rare occurrence. It indicates the importance of proper medical consultation in treating these children, and proper dental treatment and preventive programs to alleviate what could be dangerous for these patients. PMID:289662

  13. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  14. The Vermilionectomy and the Subsequent Lower Lip Reconstruction Were Introduced by Victor von Bruns and not by von Langenbeck or von Esmarch as Reported Previously

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Marcus; Feinendegen, Dominik L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Vermilionectomy is an established procedure for the management of precancerous lesions of the lip and is often performed simultaneously with a lower lip resection for the treatment of a malignancy. The literature suggests that Dieffenbach or von Langenbeck or von Esmarch was the first to introduce this procedure. A systematic review of the German literature from the 19th century revealed that it was von Bruns who performed the vermilionectomy for the management of lip malignancies for the first time. PMID:27579224

  15. The Vermilionectomy and the Subsequent Lower Lip Reconstruction Were Introduced by Victor von Bruns and not by von Langenbeck or von Esmarch as Reported Previously.

    PubMed

    Roldán, J Camilo; Teschke, Marcus; Feinendegen, Dominik L

    2016-05-01

    Vermilionectomy is an established procedure for the management of precancerous lesions of the lip and is often performed simultaneously with a lower lip resection for the treatment of a malignancy. The literature suggests that Dieffenbach or von Langenbeck or von Esmarch was the first to introduce this procedure. A systematic review of the German literature from the 19th century revealed that it was von Bruns who performed the vermilionectomy for the management of lip malignancies for the first time. PMID:27579224

  16. Military Exposures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... for Providers Diagnosis and Treatment of Exposure Health Effects More Provider Resources » return to top Get Email ...

  17. From the classical to the generalized von Karman and Marguerre-von Karman equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarlet, Philippe G.; Gratie, Liliana

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we describe and analyze two models that were recently proposed for modeling generalized von Karman plates and generalized Marguerre-von Karman shallow shells.First, we briefly review the "classical" von Karman and Marguerre-von Karman equations, their physical meaning, and their mathematical justification. We then consider the more general situation where only a portion of the lateral face of a nonlinearly elastic plate or shallow shell is subjected to boundary conditions of von Karman type, while the remaining portion is free. Using techniques from formal asymptotic analysis, we obtain in each case a two-dimensional boundary value problem that is analogous to, but is more general than, the classical equations.In particular, it is remarkable that the boundary conditions for the Airy function can still be determined on the entire boundary of the nonlinearly elastic plate or shallow shell solely from the data.Following recent joint works, we then reduce these more general equations to a single "cubic" operator equation, which generalizes an equation introduced by Berger and Fife, and whose sole unknown is the vertical displacement of the shell. We next adapt an elegant compactness method due to Lions for establishing the existence of a solution to this operator equation.

  18. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  19. Gestaltung von Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstellen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Ralph; Didier, Muriel

    Die Interaktion zwischen Mensch und Maschine erfolgt über Schnittstellen, die dem Fahrer Informationen liefern und ihm behilfich sein sollen, die Fahraufgabe sicher, effektiv und effzient zu bewältigen. Wie die Gestaltung von Anzeigen und Bedienelementen vorgenommen werden muss und worauf während des Entwicklungsprozesses in Bezug auf die Interaktion zwischen Mensch und Maschine Rücksicht genommen werden muss, soll hier geklärt werden.

  20. Thrombotic complications in von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo

    2006-02-01

    Thrombotic events occur rarely in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). In this review we analyze the data reported in the literature, selected through a PubMed search, on thrombotic complications in VWD patients. On the basis of this analysis, we conclude that thrombotic complications in VWD patients often have a multi-factorial pathogenesis resulting from a complex interaction between acquired (coagulation factor replacement, surgery, cardiovascular risk factors) and/or inherited (thrombophilic gene mutations) prothrombotic risk factors. PMID:16522550

  1. Current therapy in children and adolescents with von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    Buga-Corbu, I; Arion, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The article represents a review of recent data about the therapy of von Willebrand disease in children and adolescents (hereditary as well as acquired forms of the disease). The treatment of bleeding events in these patients, the indications in different subtypes, and the future lines of research are mentioned. Abbreviations: Ag VWF = von Willebrand antigen, VWD = von Willebrand disease, DDAVP = arginine-vasopressin, EACA = epsilon aminocaproic acid, VWF = von Willebrand factor, VIIc F = the VIIth factor of coagulation, VIIIc F = the VIIIth factor of coagulation, IgG = immunoglobulin G, T/2 = half-time, WVF – Rco = the ristocetin cofactor. PMID:25408737

  2. Dr. von Braun and Army Ballistics Missile Agency (ABMA) Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    This photograph of Dr. von Braun, shown here to the left of General Bruce Medaris, was taken in the fall of 1959, immediately prior to Medaris' retirement from the Army. At the time, von Braun and his associates worked for the Army Ballistics Missile Agency in Huntsville, Alabama. Those in the photograph have been identified as Ernst Stuhlinger, Frederick von Saurma, Fritz Mueller, Hermarn Weidner, E.W. Neubert (partially hidden), W.A. Mrazek, Karl Heimburg, Arthur Rudolph, Otto Hoberg, von Braun, Oswald Lange, Medaris, Helmut Hoelzer, Hans Maus, E.D. Geissler, Hans Heuter, and George Constan.

  3. Victor or Villain? Wernher von Braun and the Space Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Jason L.; Sears, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Set during the Cold War and space race, this historical role-play focuses on Wernher von Braun's involvement in and culpability for the use of slave laborers to produce V-2 rockets for Nazi Germany. Students will grapple with two central questions. Should von Braun have been allowed to emigrate to the United States given his affiliation with the…

  4. Group Theoretical Interpretation of von Neumann's Theorem on Composite Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergia, S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Shows that von Neumann's mathematical theorem on composite systems acquires a transparent physical meaning with reference to a suitable physical example; a composite system in a state of definite angular momentum. Gives an outline of the theorem, and the results are restated in Dirac's notation, thus generalizing von Neumann's results which were…

  5. DEBUS, KURT H. AND WERNHER VON BRAUN IN SATURN BLOCKHOUSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Cape Kennedy - Dr. Wernher von Braun, director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center, points to a television screen in the Saturn blockhouse. The screen showed Saturn I vehicle, carrying Pegasus satellite into orbit, during launch. Dr. Kurt Debus, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center, is seated at Dr. von Braun's right.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. Citation on PubMed Maher ER, Neumann HP, Richard S. von Hippel-Lindau disease: a clinical and scientific ... on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Richard S, Graff J, Lindau J, Resche F. Von Hippel- ...

  7. Congenital von Willebrand's disease and clinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S; Qureshi, W; Donthireddy, V; Kuriakose, P

    2013-03-01

    Data from case reports and systematic reviews suggest an association of Hypothyroidism and Acquired von Willebrand's syndrome. It is not known if congenital von Willebrand's disease is associated with hypothyroidism in a similar way. The aim of this study was to identify the association of congenital von Willebrand's disease (VWD) with clinical hypothyroidism. A total of 350 cases of congenital VWD were initially screened from our institution database from 1985 to 2010. A careful review of patient records was carried out to see if patients truly had congenital VWD and coexisting clinical hypothyroidism. Patients with uncertain diagnoses or other bleeding disorders were excluded, leading to 197 patients remaining in the final sample. A random age- and sex-matched parallel control group was also obtained from the hospital database. Of 197 patients (mean age 43.8 ± 17.5 years, women 72%) of congenital VWD, 32/197 (16%) were diagnosed with clinical hypothyroidism, while only 11/197 (5.6%) of the matched controls were clinically hypothyroid. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that VWD was an independent predictor of developing clinical hypothyroidism (OR 3.45; 95% CI 1.65-7.22, P = 0.001). The proportion of patients diagnosed with clinical hypothyroidism was more in the VWD group (P < 0.0001). Our analysis shows a strong association of clinical hypothyroidism in patients with congenital VWD, but future studies will be required to delineate a pathological mechanism. In our opinion, clinicians should consider checking thyroid function in the newly diagnosed and established cases of congenital VWD. PMID:23171382

  8. Relative von Neumann entropy for evaluating amino acid conservation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Fredrik; Toh, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    The Shannon entropy is a common way of measuring conservation of sites in multiple sequence alignments, and has also been extended with the relative Shannon entropy to account for background frequencies. The von Neumann entropy is another extension of the Shannon entropy, adapted from quantum mechanics in order to account for amino acid similarities. However, there is yet no relative von Neumann entropy defined for sequence analysis. We introduce a new definition of the von Neumann entropy for use in sequence analysis, which we found to perform better than the previous definition. We also introduce the relative von Neumann entropy and a way of parametrizing this in order to obtain the Shannon entropy, the relative Shannon entropy and the von Neumann entropy at special parameter values. We performed an exhaustive search of this parameter space and found better predictions of catalytic sites compared to any of the previously used entropies. PMID:20981889

  9. Wernher von Braun and Saturn IB on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun stands in front of a Saturn IB launch vehicle at Kennedy Space Flight Center. Dr. von Braun led a team of German rocket scientists, called the Rocket Team, to the United States, first to Fort Bliss/White Sands, later being transferred to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. They were further transferred to the newly established NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama in 1960, and Dr. von Braun became the first Center Director. Under von Braun's direction, MSFC developed the Mercury-Redstone, which put the first American in space; and later the Saturn rockets, Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V. The Saturn V launch vehicle put the first human on the surface of the Moon, and a modified Saturn V vehicle placed Skylab, the first United States' experimental space station, into Earth orbit. Dr. von Braun was MSFC Director from July 1960 to February 1970.

  10. Dr. von Braun Reviewing Spacecraft Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph was taken after Dr. von Braun moved from his post as Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA Headquarters. On June 27, 1970, he visited the MSFC again during the Center's 10th anniversary to look at a mockup of the spacecraft that would later be known as Skylab. Others in the photograph are, from left to right: Karl Heimburg, director of the Astronautics Lab; Hermann K. Weidner, director of Science and Engineering, and George Hardy of the Astronautics Lab.

  11. Dr. von Braun Reviewing Spacecraft Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph was taken after Dr. von Braun moved from his post as Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to Deputy Associate Administrator for Plarning at NASA Headquarters. On June 27, 1970, he visited the MSFC again to look at a mockup of the spacecraft that would later be known as Skylab. Others in the photograph are, from left to right, James R. Thompson, David Newby, Karl Heimburg, Hermann Weidner, and Jack Stockes. Years later, Thompson would serve as Director of the MSFC.

  12. Approximating incompatible von Neumann measurements simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia; Reitzner, Daniel; Ziman, Mario

    2010-09-15

    We study the problem of performing orthogonal qubit measurements simultaneously. Since these measurements are incompatible, one has to accept additional imprecision. An optimal joint measurement is the one with the least possible imprecision. All earlier considerations of this problem have concerned only joint measurability of observables, while in this work we also take into account conditional state transformations (i.e., instruments). We characterize the optimal joint instrument for two orthogonal von Neumann instruments as being the Lueders instrument of the optimal joint observable.

  13. [Albrecht von Haller. An illustrious ancestor].

    PubMed

    Peiper, H-J

    2008-05-01

    Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) was one of the most famous and important men of the eighteenth century. His achievements make him comparable with Lessing and Newton. In Blumenbach's opinion he was one of the enlightenment's greatest thinkers in both versatility and depth. He contributed significantly to developments in medicine, physiology, botany, pharmacology, theology, literature, editing, chronicles, biography, geography, and during his later years in Switzerland jurisprudence and agrarian reform. On the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his birth, important scientific landmarks in his life are described, with special attention to his achievements in the fields of anatomy, physiology, surgery, and experimental research. PMID:18661596

  14. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: von Willebrand factor propeptide to von Willebrand factor antigen ratio predicts remission status

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Adrienne; Sinclair, Gary; Valentine, Karen; James, Paula

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) secondary to a nonneutralizing anti-von Willebrand factor (VWF) antibody associated with an autoimmune disorder. At diagnosis, VWF activity (VWF:Act), antigen (VWF:Ag), multimers, and factor VIII coagulant activity were virtually absent. VWF propeptide (VWFpp) was elevated with an infinitely high VWFpp to VWF:Ag ratio (VWFpp:Ag) consistent with rapid VWF clearance. Immunosuppressive treatment resulted in phenotypic remission 1 with normalization of VWF/factor VIII levels and multimer pattern. However, VWFpp:Ag remained elevated (∼2× normal), consistent with ongoing VWF clearance by the remaining anti-VWF antibody still present by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This suggests that increased VWF secretion was compensating for the incomplete remission state. Relapse occurred when VWFpp:Ag was again infinitely high, with associated decreased VWFpp but unchanged anti-VWF titers; switching the balance to favor VWF clearance over secretion. Complete remission with undetectable anti-VWF occurred only when VWFpp:Ag was normal. This case of relapsing-remitting AVWS demonstrates the use of VWFpp:Ag for predicting remission status. PMID:24951428

  15. Inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2015-02-01

    Sometimes we fail to notice distinctive or unusual items (inattentional blindness), while other times we remember distinctive items more than expected items (the von Restorff effect). A three-factor framework is presented and tested in two experiments in an attempt to reconcile these seemingly contradictory phenomena. Memory for different types of unexpected stimuli was tested after an easy or difficult Stroop color-naming task. Highly arousing taboo words were well remembered even when the difficult Stroop task limited attentional resources. However, a conceptual isolation effect was only observed when the nature of the category change was highlighted by the Stroop task, the Stroop task was easy, and/or the isolated targets enjoyed a retrieval advantage relative to comparison targets. As proposed in the three-factor framework, the arousing qualities of the stimuli, the attentional demands of the primary task, and the relevance of isolated features at encoding and retrieval combine to produce inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect. PMID:25169672

  16. Report on von Willebrand Disease in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Karim, Faraizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is an inherited hemostatic disorder that affects the hemostasis pathway. The worldwide prevalence of vWD is estimated to be 1% of the general population but only 0.002% in Malaysia. AIM: Our present paper has been written to disclose the statistical counts on the number of vWD cases reported from 2011 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article is based on sociodemographic data, diagnoses and laboratory findings of vWD in Malaysia. A total of 92 patients were reported to have vWD in Malaysia from 2011 to 2013. RESULTS: Sociodemographic-analysis revealed that 60% were females, 63% were of the Malay ethnicity, 41.3% were in the 19-44 year old age group and 15.2% were from Sabah, with the East region having the highest registered number of vWD cases. In Malaysia, most patients are predominately affected by vWD type 1 (77.2%). Factor 8, von Willebrand factor: Antigen and vWF: Collagen-Binding was the strongest determinants in the laboratory profiles of vWD. CONCLUSION: This report has been done with great interest to provide an immense contribution from Malaysia, by revealing the statistical counts on vWD from 2011-2013. PMID:27275342

  17. Approximate von Neumann entropy for directed graphs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cheng; Wilson, Richard C; Comin, César H; Costa, Luciano da F; Hancock, Edwin R

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we develop an entropy measure for assessing the structural complexity of directed graphs. Although there are many existing alternative measures for quantifying the structural properties of undirected graphs, there are relatively few corresponding measures for directed graphs. To fill this gap in the literature, we explore an alternative technique that is applicable to directed graphs. We commence by using Chung's generalization of the Laplacian of a directed graph to extend the computation of von Neumann entropy from undirected to directed graphs. We provide a simplified form of the entropy which can be expressed in terms of simple node in-degree and out-degree statistics. Moreover, we find approximate forms of the von Neumann entropy that apply to both weakly and strongly directed graphs, and that can be used to characterize network structure. We illustrate the usefulness of these simplified entropy forms defined in this paper on both artificial and real-world data sets, including structures from protein databases and high energy physics theory citation networks. PMID:25353841

  18. [Molecular biology of von Willebrand disease].

    PubMed

    Melo-Nava, Brenda; Peñaloza, Rosenda

    2007-01-01

    Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is a large multimeric glycoprotein expressed in the megakaryocytes and endothelial cells of all vertebrates. It participates fundamentally in the primary and secondary hemostasis because it induces the adhesion of platelets to vascular subendothelium and promotes aggregation of platelets when blood vessels and capillaries are damaged. In addition, VWF links to factor VIII which avoids its proteolysis. The deficiency or the inadequate synthesis of the VWF causes von Willebrand disease (VWD), which is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder in humans principally from mucous and cutaneous sites. VWD is difficult to detect with accuracy due to interrelation among VWF with different components of hemostasis, although it is performed by different tests of haemostatic system, and the basic mechanisms in VWD are herein emphasized. The diagnosis of VWD is difficult due to the heterogeneous manifestation of the disease, which also complicates its classification. This article focuses on the molecular aspects of the disease and discusses their possible clinical implications. PMID:18268896

  19. Von Willebrand Factor, Angiodysplasia and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Randi, Anna M.; Laffan, Mike A.; Starke, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The large multimeric glycoprotein Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is best known for its role in haemostasis; however in recent years other functions of VWF have been identified, indicating that this protein is involved in multiple vascular processes. We recently described a new role for VWF in controlling angiogenesis, which may have significant clinical implications for patients with Von Willebrand disease (VWD), a genetic or acquired condition caused by the deficiency or dysfunction of VWF. VWD can be associated with angiodysplasia, a condition of degenerative blood vessels often present in the gastrointestinal tract, linked to dysregulated angiogenesis. Angiodysplasia can cause severe intractable bleeding, often refractory to conventional VWD treatments. In this review we summarise the evidence showing that VWF controls angiogenesis, and review the angiogenic pathways which have been implicated in this process. We discuss the possible mechanisms though which VWF regulates angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and integrin αvβ3, leading to signalling through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), one of the most potent activators of angiogenesis. We also review the evidence that links VWF with angiodysplasia, and how the newly identified function of VWF in controlling angiogenesis may pave the way for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of angiodysplasia in congenital VWD and in acquired conditions such as Heyde syndrome. PMID:24106610

  20. Therapeutic approaches to acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Federici, A B

    2000-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare acquired bleeding disorder similar to the congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings. Diagnosis of AVWS can be very difficult, with treatment normally taking an empirical form. Although more than 200 cases have been reported since 1968, no retrospective or prospective studies are available on AVWS. Recently, an International Registry on AVWS, gathering data directly from worldwide Departments of Haematology-Oncology and Haemophilia Centres, has been organised by a group working on behalf of the Subcommittee on VWF in the Scientific Standardisation Committee (SSC) of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). Information about an additional 211 AVWS patients is now available, with more detailed data on demography, type of haemorrhage, diagnostic tests for AVWS and management of bleeding episodes. The additional 211 AVWS cases are associated with lymphoproliferative (47%) or myeloproliferative (19%) disorders, cardiovascular diseases, neoplasia (7%) and other miscellaneous diseases (14%). Bleeding episodes of AVWS patients were managed by different compounds including desmopressin (22%), FVIII/VWF concentrates (26%) and high-dose immunoglobulin (10%), plasmapheresis (2%), steroids (5%) and immunosuppressive drugs (20%). Based on complied data, we can conclude that none of the therapeutic approaches proposed are 100% effective in all AVWS cases. Therefore, treatment must be customized for each patient according to the underlying disorder, as well as to the type and the severity of bleeding episode and must be targeted to each specific case. PMID:11060681

  1. Von Willebrand factor, angiodysplasia and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Randi, Anna M; Laffan, Mike A; Starke, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    The large multimeric glycoprotein Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is best known for its role in haemostasis; however in recent years other functions of VWF have been identified, indicating that this protein is involved in multiple vascular processes. We recently described a new role for VWF in controlling angiogenesis, which may have significant clinical implications for patients with Von Willebrand disease (VWD), a genetic or acquired condition caused by the deficiency or dysfunction of VWF. VWD can be associated with angiodysplasia, a condition of degenerative blood vessels often present in the gastrointestinal tract, linked to dysregulated angiogenesis. Angiodysplasia can cause severe intractable bleeding, often refractory to conventional VWD treatments. In this review we summarise the evidence showing that VWF controls angiogenesis, and review the angiogenic pathways which have been implicated in this process. We discuss the possible mechanisms though which VWF regulates angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and integrin αvβ3, leading to signalling through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), one of the most potent activators of angiogenesis. We also review the evidence that links VWF with angiodysplasia, and how the newly identified function of VWF in controlling angiogenesis may pave the way for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of angiodysplasia in congenital VWD and in acquired conditions such as Heyde syndrome. PMID:24106610

  2. Von Neumann's growth model: Statistical mechanics and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martino, A.; Marinari, E.; Romualdi, A.

    2012-09-01

    We review recent work on the statistical mechanics of Von Neumann's growth model and discuss its application to cellular metabolic networks. In this context, we present a detailed analysis of the physiological scenario underlying optimality à la Von Neumann in the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, showing that optimal solutions are characterized by a considerable microscopic flexibility accompanied by a robust emergent picture for the key physiological functions. This suggests that the ideas behind optimal economic growth in Von Neumann's model can be helpful in uncovering functional organization principles of cell energetics.

  3. Papers of John von Neumann on computers and computer theory

    SciTech Connect

    Von Neumann, J.

    1986-01-01

    This volume brings together John von Neumann's long-out-of-print articles on computer architecture, programming, large-scale computing, and automata theory. A number of significant papers in these areas that were not included in the multivolume John von Neumann: Collected Works (1963) have now been reprinted here. These pioneering articles - written between the mid-1940s and the mid-1950s - are of enduring value not only to computer historians but to computer scientists at the vanguard of current research. Most of today's computers are still constructed in accordance with the '' von Neumann architecture,'' and his technique of flow charting remains basic in the domain.

  4. Valence bond and von Neumann entanglement entropy in Heisenberg ladders.

    PubMed

    Kallin, Ann B; González, Iván; Hastings, Matthew B; Melko, Roger G

    2009-09-11

    We present a direct comparison of the recently proposed valence bond entanglement entropy and the von Neumann entanglement entropy on spin-1/2 Heisenberg systems using quantum Monte Carlo and density-matrix renormalization group simulations. For one-dimensional chains we show that the valence bond entropy can be either less or greater than the von Neumann entropy; hence, it cannot provide a bound on the latter. On ladder geometries, simulations with up to seven legs are sufficient to indicate that the von Neumann entropy in two dimensions obeys an area law, even though the valence bond entanglement entropy has a multiplicative logarithmic correction. PMID:19792398

  5. A von Bertalanffy growth model with a seasonally varying coefficient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.; Nichols, Frederic H.

    1978-01-01

    The von Bertalanffy model of body growth is inappropriate for organisms whose growth is restricted to a seasonal period because it assumes that growth rate is invariant with time. Incorporation of a time-varying coefficient significantly improves the capability of the von Bertalanffy equation to describe changing body size of both the bivalve mollusc Macoma balthicain San Francisco Bay and the flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, in Washington state. This simple modification of the von Bertalanffy model should offer improved predictions of body growth for a variety of other aquatic animals.

  6. Interactions of von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 in von Willebrand disease and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Budde, U; Schneppenheim, R

    2014-01-01

    The function of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a huge multimeric protein and a key factor in platelet dependent primary haemostasis, is regulated by its specific protease ADAMTS13. The ADAMTS13 dependent degradation of VWF to its proteolytic fragments can be visualized as a characteristic so-called triplet structure of individual VWF oligomers by multimer analysis. Lack of VWF high molecular weight multimers (VWF-HMWM) or their pathologically enhanced degradation underlies a particular type of von Willebrand disease, VWD type 2A with a significant bleeding tendency, and may also be observed in acquired von Willebrand syndrome due to cardiovascular disease. In these conditions multimer analysis is an obligatory and powerful tool for diagnosis of VWD. The opposite condition, the persistence of ultralarge VWF (UL-VWF) multimers may cause the microangiopathic life-threatening disorder thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). During the course of active TTP, UL-VWF is consumed in the hyaline thrombi formed in the microvasculature which will ultimately result in the loss of UL-VWF and VWF-HMWM. Therefore, VWF multimer analysis is not a valid tool to diagnose TTP in the active phase of disease but may be helpful for the diagnosis of TTP patients in remission. PMID:25010251

  7. Criminal exposure.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    A 39-year-old man who had sex with a 16-year-old boy, was sentenced to five years in prison. The defendant pleaded guilty to statutory rape and criminal exposure to HIV. The boy discovered that the man was taking HIV medications, and the man subsequently disclosed his treatment after being arrested. PMID:11367003

  8. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This proceedings chapter will discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the evaluation of exposure as it relates to water quality criteria (WQC), sediment quality guidelines (SQG), and wildlife criteria (WC). Throughout this discussion, attempts are made to identify the methods ...

  9. Hypotonic exposures.

    PubMed

    Flynn, W J; Hill, R M

    1984-03-01

    Even without a contact lens, the cornea can suffer adverse physiological changes from hypotonic exposure, as well as the associated subjective phenomena (e.g., halo and rainbows). The contact lens adds a dimension to this problem that should be viewed against a background of normal (non-wearing) susceptibilities. PMID:6715776

  10. Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    During the turn of the 17th to the 18th century, Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau was the best-known astronomer in Nuremberg. He was a trained merchant, who busied himself in his free hours with astronomy. In the 1680s he became known for his accurate observations of lunar and solar eclipses. At the end of the 1680s he left his trade, and from 1691, he was completely occupied with astronomy. To that end, he constructed a small octagonal observing tower on the roof of his house at Spitzenberg 4. He took the measurement of the solar path and determined the geographical coordinates of Nuremberg. The calendar reform also played a major role in his life.

  11. Hermann von Helmholtz and his students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    1989-01-01

    During the years 1871-1888, when Hermann von Helmholtz was professor of physics at the University of Berlin, physicists from all over the world flocked to Berlin to study and do research with him. Among these were the German physicists Max Planck, Heinrich Kayser, Eugen Goldstein, Wilhelm Wien, and Heinrich Hertz, and Americans Henry Rowland, A. A. Michelson, and Michael Pupin. Examples of Helmholtz's scientific and personal interactions with these students and research associates show why he is justly considered the outstanding physics mentor of the 19th century. Both his ideas and his students played a major role in the development of physics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  12. von Willebrand disease: a laboratory approach.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Sucheta; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati; Mohanty, Dipika

    2005-01-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a common inherited bleeding disorder. Accurate diagnosis and classification of VWD is crucial for clinical management. A detailed clinical history, including that of bleeding, is required. A family and drug history are also important. Genetic factors such as blood group, and environmental factors such as stress, trauma, pregnancy and inflammation should also be considered. The age, ethnic group and hormonal status could also affect the von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels. No single test is robust enough to detect all variants of VWD. In view of the heterogeneity of the disease and limitations in assays, a battery of tests should be performed before a final diagnosis can be reached. These include the screening coagulation tests, factor VIII:C assay, VWF antigen assay, assessment of functional VWF which includes VWF ristocetin cofactor assays, VWF collagen binding assay, ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation and VWF multimer analysis. The newer ELISA techniques based on VWF binding with factor VIII glycoprotein (Gp) 1b and cerebrosides have also helped in determining certain unusual forms of VWD. The advent of new systems such as platelet function analysers (PFA), thromboelastography (TEG) and clot signature analysers (CSA), which are designed to assess either the primary platelet function or as a global haemostasis screen, have facilitated and simplified the diagnosis. However, few centres all over the world can perform all these expensive tests to provide a final diagnosis of VWD. We reviewed the laboratory investigations required for a diagnosis of VWD. Apart from congenital VWD, the possibility of acquired VWD should be considered in those with a negative past history of bleeding or in the presence of an underlying disease. PMID:15981443

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Charles Von Urban, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Charles Von Urban, Photographer June 23, 1936, INTERIOR-PARLOR SHOWING FIREPLACE, WINDOWN TRIM, AND CORNICE. - George Fordham House, 329 Cherry Street, New York County, NY

  14. John von Neumann's mathematical "Utopia" in quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Giovanni

    This paper surveys John von Neumann's work on the mathematical foundations of quantum theories in the light of Hilbert's Sixth Problem concerning the geometrical axiomatization of physics. We argue that in von Neumann's view geometry was so tied to logic that he ultimately developed a logical interpretation of quantum probabilities. That motivated his abandonment of Hilbert space in favor of von Neumann algebras, specifically the type II1 factors, as the proper limit of quantum mechanics in infinite dimensions. Finally, we present the reasons why his axiomatic program remained an "unsolved problem" in mathematical physics. A recent unpublished result by Huzimiro Araki, proving that no algebra with a tracial state defined on it, such as the type II1 factors, can support any (regular) representation of the canonical commutation relations, is also reviewed and its consequences for von Neumann's projects are discussed.

  15. Quantum theory and geometry: sixty years after von Neumann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadarajan, V. S.

    1993-10-01

    This paper is a brief review of some of the developments in the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics that have taken place since the publication in 1932 of John von Neumann's celebrated treatise Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik.

  16. Baron von Zach and the astronomy in Languedoc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faidit, Jean-Michel

    The paper gives an overview of Franz Xaver von Zach's relations to the region of Languedoc in France and lists published and unpublished sources, among these letters to and from Zach kept in French archives.

  17. Dr. Wernher Von Braun examines a ruby crystal.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, and Dr. Eberhard Rees (left), deputy director, technical, examine a ruby crystal used in laser experiments in the Marshall Center's Space Sciences Laboratory.

  18. A proof of von Neumann's postulate in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, Elio

    2010-05-04

    A Clifford algebraic analysis is explained. It gives proof of von Neumann's postulate on quantum measurement. It is of basic significance to explain the problem of quantum wave function reduction in quantum mechanics.

  19. Alexander von Humboldt and the Origins of Landscape Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathewson, Kent

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the life, theories, and influence of Alexander von Humboldt, the early nineteenth century founder of modern geography. Maintains that Humboldt's novel approaches to the study of landscape antiquities have value for contemporary students in cultural and historical geography. (JDH)

  20. Computed tomography of the liver in von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Biondetti, P R; Fiore, D; Muzzio, P C

    1980-10-01

    The computed tomography findings in the liver of a patient with von Gierke's disease are presented. Precontrast scans demonstrated diffuse decreased density throughout the liver. In the postcontrast scans, a focal right sided hyperdense area was visualized. PMID:6931833

  1. Director von Braun Presents General Medaris With Golf Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center Director Wernher von Braun presents General J.B. Medaris with a new golf bag. General Medaris, (left) was a Commander of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama during 1955 to 1958.

  2. 33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE PERISCOPE FROM THE CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July 1965 BARRACKS (West), Left - BARRACKS (East), Right (Combined into New Barn) - Fort Larned, Barracks (West), Larned, Pawnee County, KS

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July 1965 BARRACKS (West), Left - BARRACKS (East), Right (Combined into New Barn) - Fort Larned, Barracks (East), Larned, Pawnee County, KS

  5. Wernher von Braun with German Officers and Others

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1942-01-01

    General Erich Fellgiebel, head of the German Army Information Service during World War II, congratulates members of the von Braun rocket team from Peenemunde for their October 3, 1942 A4 flight. Pictured front center is General Erich Fellgiebel. Shaking hands are General Walter Dornberger (left) and General Janssen, commanding officer of Peenemuende with Rudolph Hermarn to their right. Picture left to right in the back row are Wernher von Braun, Captain Stoelzel, Luftwaffe, and Dr. Gerhard Reisig.

  6. John von Neumann on Mathematical and Axiomatic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rédei, Miklós

    The aim of this paper is to recall and analyse von Neumann's position on mathematical and axiomatic physics. It will be argued that von Neumann demanded much less mathematical rigor in physics than commonly thought and that he followed an opportunistically interpreted soft axiomatic method in physics. The notion of opportunistic soft axiomatization is illustrated by recalling his work on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics.

  7. von Neumann entropy of N interacting pencils of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, R. ); Brosseau, C. )

    1993-03-01

    The von Neumann entropy of N interacting pencils of radiation is analyzed by using their spectral density matrix. When the cross-spectral density is the same for all pairs of pencils, the entropy is evaluated in closed form as a function of Barakat's N-fold polarization measures. Some technical and historical remarks are made concerning the Planck-von Laue entropy of such pencils. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  9. Neurological Management of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Trent S; Nielsen, Sarah M; Lesniak, Maciej S; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-09-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease is a genetic condition due to mutation of the Von Hippel-Lindau gene, which leads to an increased risk in the development of hemangioblastomas of the brain and spinal cord. The pathophysiology of disease and its clinical manifestations, as they pertain to the general neurologist, are discussed. Therapeutic management of central nervous system hemangioblastomas ranging from neurosurgical resection, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies is reviewed. PMID:27564075

  10. Exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Briant, James K.

    1983-01-01

    An exposure chamber includes an imperforate casing having a fluid inlet at the top and an outlet at the bottom. A single vertical series of imperforate trays is provided. Each tray is spaced on all sides from the chamber walls. Baffles adjacent some of the trays restrict and direct the flow to give partial flow back and forth across the chambers and downward flow past the lowermost pan adjacent a central plane of the chamber.

  11. Lack of multimer organization of von Willebrand factor in an acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Casonato, A; Pontara, E; Doria, A; Bertomoro, A; Cattini, M G; Gambari, P F; Girolami, A

    2002-03-01

    We report a case of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) in a 20-year-old-woman with systemic lupus erythematosus, in whom severe bleeding complications followed kidney biopsy. Coagulation studies demonstrated undetectable levels of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo), associated with significantly prolonged bleeding time; unlike type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD), platelet VWF was reduced but not undetectable. The plasma VWF multimer pattern was characterized by the presence of only two bands, one of low molecular weight (MW) running as the protomer of plasma VWF in normals, the other of abnormally high MW without detectable intermediate multimers; this pattern resembles that of VWF present in endothelial cells. A search for an anti-VWF antibody demonstrated the presence of an inhibitor at high titre. This anti-VWF antibody did not interfere in the interaction of VWF with platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib through the A1 domain, and did not react with the A2 domain of VWF; instead, it seemed to modify the relative representation of high and low MW VWF multimers released by normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). After Azathioprine and corticosteroid treatment, the anti-VWF antibody disappeared and the patient's haemostatic profile normalized, except for the platelet VWF content which still remained decreased. We suggest that the anti-VWF antibody present in the AVWS described compromised both circulating VWF levels and their multimeric organization, inducing the maintenance of the multimer structure that VWF normally has before or in the early phase after secretion from endothelial cells. PMID:11886398

  12. Criminal exposure.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    In August, an HIV-positive man plead guilty to sexually assaulting a 14-year-old boy. The sleeping boy awoke to find [name removed] sexually assaulting him, while watching a pornographic video. [Name removed] plead guilty to the assault with intent to rape a child. In addition, [name removed] received three counts of indecent assault and battery on a child, and exposure of pornographic material to a minor. [Name removed] will remain on probation for five years, although the prosecution had recommended sentencing [name removed] to four or five years in prison. The boy continues to be tested for HIV. PMID:11366904

  13. Periodontal manifestations of von Recklinghausen neuro fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Bhavya; Umesh, Y; Kranti, K; Seshan, Hema

    2013-03-01

    Neurofibroma is an uncommon benign tumor of the oral cavity derived from the cells that constitute the nerve sheath neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as von Recklinghausen's disease, is the most common type of neurofibromatosis and accounts for about 90% of all cases. It is one of the most frequent human genetic diseases, with the prevalence of one case in 3,000 births. Neurofibroma is seen either as a solitary lesion or as part of the generalized syndrome of neurofibromatosis. The solitary form does not differ from the disseminated form or the multiple form of the disease, except that systemic and hereditary factors present in the disseminated form are absent in the solitary type. Oral cavity involvement by a solitary and peripheral plexiform neurofibroma in patients with no other signs of neurofibromatosis is uncommon. The expressivity of NF1 is extremely variable, with manifestations ranging from mild lesions to several complications and functional impairment. Oral manifestations can be found in almost 72% of NF1 patients. This is a case report of a 40-year-old lady with a history of multiple faint rounded densities in the skin, chest pain occasionally since 8 months and breathlessness since 1 year and swelling of the right side of the angle of the mandible with limited mouth opening. PMID:23869137

  14. Exponential Size Distribution of von Willebrand Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lippok, Svenja; Obser, Tobias; Müller, Jochen P.; Stierle, Valentin K.; Benoit, Martin; Budde, Ulrich; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2013-01-01

    Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is a multimeric protein crucial for hemostasis. Under shear flow, it acts as a mechanosensor responding with a size-dependent globule-stretch transition to increasing shear rates. Here, we quantify for the first time, to our knowledge, the size distribution of recombinant VWF and VWF-eGFP using a multilateral approach that involves quantitative gel analysis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We find an exponentially decaying size distribution of multimers for recombinant VWF as well as for VWF derived from blood samples in accordance with the notion of a step-growth polymerization process during VWF biosynthesis. The distribution is solely described by the extent of polymerization, which was found to be reduced in the case of the pathologically relevant mutant VWF-IIC. The VWF-specific protease ADAMTS13 systematically shifts the VWF size distribution toward smaller sizes. This dynamic evolution is monitored using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and compared to a computer simulation of a random cleavage process relating ADAMTS13 concentration to the degree of VWF breakdown. Quantitative assessment of VWF size distribution in terms of an exponential might prove to be useful both as a valuable biophysical characterization and as a possible disease indicator for clinical applications. PMID:24010664

  15. ADAMTS13 and von Willebrand factor interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Catherine B.; Cao, Wenjing; Zheng, X. Long

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review ADAMTS13 is a zinc-containing metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF). Deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity is accountable for a potentially fatal blood disorder thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Understanding of ADAMTS13–VWF interaction is essential for developing novel treatments to this disorder. Recent findings Despite the proteolytic activity of ADAMTS13 being restricted to the metalloprotease domain, the ancillary proximal C-terminal domains including the disintegrin domain, first TSP-1 repeat, cysteine-rich region, and spacer domain are all required for cleavage of VWF and its analogs. Recent studies have added to our understandings of the role of the specific regions in the disintegrin domain, the cysteine-rich domain, and the spacer domain responsible for its interaction with VWF. Additionally, regulative functions of the distal portion of ADAMTS13 including the TSP-1 2–8 repeats and the CUB domains have been proposed. Finally, fine mapping of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody epitopes have provided further insight into the essential structural elements in ADAMTS13 for VWF binding and the mechanism of autoantibody-mediated TTP. Summary Significant progress has been made in our understandings of the structure–function relationship of ADAMTS13 in the past decade. To further investigate ADAMTS13–VWF interactions for medical applications, these interactions must be studied under physiological conditions in vivo. PMID:26186678

  16. The von Neumann Triple Point Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Richard; Tesdall, Allen M.

    We describe the problem of weak shock reflection off a wedge and discuss the triple point paradox that arises. When the shock is sufficiently weak and the wedge is thin, Mach reflection appears to be observed but is impossible according to what von Neumann originally showed in 1943. We summarize some recent numerical results for weak shock reflection problems for the unsteady transonic small disturbance equations, the nonlinear wave system, and the Euler equations. Rather than finding a standard but mathematically inadmissible Mach reflection with a shock triple point, the solutions contain a complex structure: there is a sequence of triple points and supersonic patches in a tiny region behind the leading triple point, with an expansion fan originating at each triple point. The sequence of patches may be infinite, and we refer to this structure as Guderley Mach reflection. The presence of the expansion fans at the triple points resolves the paradox. We describe some recent experimental evidence which is consistent with these numerical findings.

  17. Diagnostic Value of Measuring Platelet Von Willebrand Factor in Von Willebrand Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casonato, Alessandra; Cattini, Maria Grazia; Daidone, Viviana; Pontara, Elena; Bertomoro, Antonella; Prandoni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) may be caused by an impaired von Willebrand factor (VWF) synthesis, its increased clearance or abnormal function, or combinations of these factors. It may be difficult to recognize the different contributions of these anomalies. Here we demonstrate that VWD diagnostics gains from measuring platelet VWF, which can reveal a defective VWF synthesis. Measuring platelet VWF revealed that: severe type 1 VWD always coincided with significantly lower platelet and plasma VWF levels, whereas mild forms revealed low plasma VWF levels associated with low or normal platelet VWF levels, and the latter were associated with a slightly shorter VWF survival; type Vicenza (the archetype VWD caused by a reduced VWF survival) featured normal platelet VWF levels despite significantly reduced plasma VWF levels; type 2B patients could have either normal platelet VWF levels associated with abnormal multimer patterns, or reduced platelet VWF levels associated with normal multimer patterns; type 2A patients could have reduced or normal platelet VWF levels, the former associated mainly with type 2A-I, the latter with type 2A-II; plasma and platelet VWF levels were normal in type 2N, except when the defect was associated with a quantitative VWF mutation. Our findings show that measuring platelet VWF helps to characterize VWD, especially the ambiguous phenotypes, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the disorder. PMID:27532107

  18. Locally Compact Quantum Groups. A von Neumann Algebra Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Daele, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we give an alternative approach to the theory of locally compact quantum groups, as developed by Kustermans and Vaes. We start with a von Neumann algebra and a comultiplication on this von Neumann algebra. We assume that there exist faithful left and right Haar weights. Then we develop the theory within this von Neumann algebra setting. In [Math. Scand. 92 (2003), 68-92] locally compact quantum groups are also studied in the von Neumann algebraic context. This approach is independent of the original C^*-algebraic approach in the sense that the earlier results are not used. However, this paper is not really independent because for many proofs, the reader is referred to the original paper where the C^*-version is developed. In this paper, we give a completely self-contained approach. Moreover, at various points, we do things differently. We have a different treatment of the antipode. It is similar to the original treatment in [Ann. Sci. & #201;cole Norm. Sup. (4) 33 (2000), 837-934]. But together with the fact that we work in the von Neumann algebra framework, it allows us to use an idea from [Rev. Roumaine Math. Pures Appl. 21 (1976), 1411-1449] to obtain the uniqueness of the Haar weights in an early stage. We take advantage of this fact when deriving the other main results in the theory. We also give a slightly different approach to duality. Finally, we collect, in a systematic way, several important formulas. In an appendix, we indicate very briefly how the C^*-approach and the von Neumann algebra approach eventually yield the same objects. The passage from the von Neumann algebra setting to the C^*-algebra setting is more or less standard. For the other direction, we use a new method. It is based on the observation that the Haar weights on the C^*-algebra extend to weights on the double dual with central support and that all these supports are the same. Of course, we get the von Neumann algebra by cutting down the double dual with this unique

  19. Biosynthesis of von Willebrand protein by human megakaryocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sporn, L A; Chavin, S I; Marder, V J; Wagner, D D

    1985-01-01

    Immunofluorescence staining of buffy coat smears from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia in accelerated phase showed that approximately 13% of all nucleated cells contained von Willebrand protein and, therefore, appeared to be of megakaryocytic origin. This was confirmed by positive staining with antisera against platelet factor 4 and platelet glycoproteins. Short-term cultures of the buffy coat, which lacked endothelial cells, were metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine, and von Willebrand protein was immunopurified from cell lysates and culture medium. Cultures from this patient synthesized and secreted von Willebrand protein, in contrast with cultures from other patients with leukemia, who lacked circulating megakaryocytes, and from normal volunteers. The subunit composition of the megakaryocytic von Willebrand protein was very similar to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The size of the processed subunit (220 kD) and of the cellular (260 kD) and secreted (275 kD) precursors from the two cell types were indistinguishable by gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the ratio of precursor to processed subunit and the pattern of cellular and secreted nonreduced multimers were very similar. It appears, therefore, that the processing steps in biosynthesis of von Willebrand protein used by the megakaryocytes are very similar to those of umbilical vein endothelial cells. Images PMID:2413071

  20. Gamma Stability in Free Product von Neumann Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2015-06-01

    Let be a free product of arbitrary von Neumann algebras endowed with faithful normal states. Assume that the centralizer is diffuse. We first show that any intermediate subalgebra which has nontrivial central sequences in M is necessarily equal to M 1. Then we obtain a general structural result for all the intermediate subalgebras with expectation. We deduce that any diffuse amenable von Neumann algebra can be concretely realized as a maximal amenable subalgebra with expectation inside a full nonamenable type III1 factor. This provides the first class of concrete maximal amenable subalgebras in the framework of type III factors. We finally strengthen all these results in the case of tracial free product von Neumann algebras.

  1. Renaturierung von subalpinen und alpinen Ökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautzer, B.; Klug, Brigitte

    Die große Vielfalt an alpinen und subalpinen Ökosystemen auf waldfreien Standorten stellt besonders hohe Anforderungen an Planung und Durchführung von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen. Zunehmende Meereshöhe, starke Hangneigungen und extreme klimatische Verhältnisse im Gebirge bedingen zudem seit jeher natürliche Erosionsprozesse. Die zahllosen menschlichen Aktivitäten der letzten Jahrzehnte, gepaart mit unzureichenden Begrünungsmaßnahmen, erhöhen dieses Risiko noch um ein Vielfaches: Geländekorrekturen im Zuge von Skipistenbauten, Almrevitalisierungen, Forst- und Almwegebauten, Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der touristischen Infrastruktur oder Wildbach- und Lawinenverbauungen. Nur durch Verwendung von hochwertigem, dem Standort angepasstem Pflanzen-oder Saatgutmaterial in Kombination mit der passenden Begrünungstechnik kann dieser Bedrohung dauerhaft entgegengewirkt werden. Dabei sind folgende limitierende Faktoren besonders zu beachten.

  2. Gunther von Hagens' BODY WORLDS: selling beautiful education.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawrence

    2007-04-01

    In the BODY WORLDS exhibitions currently touring the United States, Gunther von Hagens displays human cadavers preserved through plastination. Whole bodies are playfully posed and exposed to educate the public. However, the educational aims are ambiguous, and some aspects of the exhibit violate human dignity. In particular, the signature cards attached to the whole-body plastinates that bear the title, the signature of Gunther von Hagens, and the date of creation mark the plastinates as artwork and von Hagens as the artist in a gesture that strips the personal dignity from the donors. I conclude that the educational use of cadavers is compatible with respect for dignity if: 1) the utility of such use is great enough; 2) there are no other ways of achieving these ends; and 3) every effort is made to honor the dignity of the donors. PMID:17454986

  3. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: diagnostic problems and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Eikenboom, Jeroen C J; Tjernberg, Pernilla; Van Marion, Vincent; Heering, Karel J

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) due to a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Initially this case was diagnosed as congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD); however, re-examination of the medical history rendered a congenital bleeding disorder unlikely. A normal plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) propeptide level and a very short half-life of VWF after a test infusion with factor VIII/VWF concentrate confirmed the diagnosis AVWS. Two major surgical procedures were successfully managed using high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. The differential diagnosis with congenital VWD and the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of AVWS are discussed. We conclude that the diagnosis of AVWS relies primarily on clinical suspicion and a careful bleeding history. A correct diagnosis is essential for optimal perioperative management and treatment of bleeding episodes. PMID:16986130

  4. Exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.

    1980-01-01

    A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

  5. Changes in von Willebrand factor level and von Willebrand activity with age in type 1 von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    Rydz, Natalia; Grabell, Julie; Lillicrap, David; James, Paula D.

    2015-01-01

    In a normal population, VWF plasma levels (VWF:Ag) and VWF activity (VWF:RCo) increase by approximately 0.17 and 0.15 IU/ml per decade, but the influence of age is unknown in patients with type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD). In a retrospective cohort study, the medical records of 31 type 1 VWD patients over the age of 30, who had been followed for ≥5 years, were reviewed for baseline clinical data and previously performed VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and factor VIII levels (FVIII:C). VWF multimer analysis was normal in 27/31 cases performed. Mean bleeding score was 9.4 (range 2-21). Mean age at diagnosis was 33 (range 16-60 years), and duration of follow-up ranged from 5-26 years (mean 11 years). Patients had 2-10 time points of VWD testing (mean of 5.2). The mean VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and FVIII:C at time of diagnosis were 0.44 IU/ml 0.34 IU/ml and 0.75 IU/ml. At last follow-up, the mean VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and FVIII:C were significantly increased to 0.71 IU/L, 0.56 IU/ml and 0.90 IU/ml (p=<0.001, <0.001, and 0.0081, respectively). 18/31 patients had VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and FVIII:C levels that increased into the normal range. The rate of change in VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo was 0.30 IU/ml (0.214-0.386, CI 95%, p<0.0001) and 0.20 IU/ml per year (0.126-0.274, CI 95%, p=0.0001). Patients with type 1 VWD experience age-related increases to VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo which can result in normalization of VWF levels. Further studies are required to determine if the bleeding phenotype resolves with the increases in VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo levels. PMID:25756206

  6. Georg von Békésy: visualization of hearing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rand B

    2003-09-01

    Georg von Békésy received the Nobel Prize in 1961 for his research on the functioning of the auditory system. In psychoacoustics, Békésy both extended and perfected the lines of research begun by von Helmholtz in the 19th century. First in his native Hungary and later at Harvard, Békésy used novel and imaginative devices and methods to observe and model the functioning of the inner ear. He also explored the nature of sensory inhibition by which the nervous system sharpens sensory transitions. PMID:14584991

  7. Einblicke in die Dynamik von Quantensystemen: Elektrostatische Speicherringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Carsten P.

    2005-03-01

    Elektrostatische Speicherringe kombinieren die Vorteile elektrostatischer Fallen und klassischer magnetischer Speicherringe. Kompaktheit, gute Zugänglichkeit sämtlicher Elemente, hohe Flexibilität in der Wahl möglicher Experimente und die Eigenschaft, alle Teilchen unabhängig von ihrer Masse über einen weiten Geschwindigkeitsbereich zu speichern, bieten Zugang zu einem weiten experimentellen Spektrum. Insbesondere das Potenzial, das in neuartigen, energievariablen Maschinen in Kombination mit Elektronenkühlung, internen Targets und hochauflösenden Reaktionsmikroskopen steckt, verspricht hochinteressante Ergebnisse mit den unterschiedlichsten Teilchen - von exotischen Antiprotonen oder schweren radioaktiven Ionen bis hin zu einfachen und komplexen Molekülen oder Biosystemen.

  8. The Hochschild cohomology problem for von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.

    1998-01-01

    In 1967, when Kadison and Ringrose began the development of continuous cohomology theory for operator algebras, they conjectured that the cohomology groups Hn(M, M), n ≥ 1, for a von Neumann algebra M, should all be zero. This conjecture, which has important structural implications for von Neumann algebras, has been solved affirmatively in the type I, II∞, and III cases, leaving open only the type II1 case. In this paper, we describe a positive solution when M is type II1 and has a Cartan subalgebra and a separable predual. PMID:9520373

  9. The hochschild cohomology problem for von neumann algebras.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A M; Smith, R R

    1998-03-31

    In 1967, when Kadison and Ringrose began the development of continuous cohomology theory for operator algebras, they conjectured that the cohomology groups Hn(M, M), n >/= 1, for a von Neumann algebra M, should all be zero. This conjecture, which has important structural implications for von Neumann algebras, has been solved affirmatively in the type I, IIinfinity, and III cases, leaving open only the type II1 case. In this paper, we describe a positive solution when M is type II1 and has a Cartan subalgebra and a separable predual. PMID:9520373

  10. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  11. An Accurate von Neumann's Law for Three-Dimensional Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kraynik, Andrew M.; Koehler, Stephan A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2001-03-19

    The diffusive coarsening of 2D soap froths is governed by von Neumann's law. A statistical version of this law for dry 3D foams has long been conjectured. A new derivation, based on a theorem by Minkowski, yields an explicit analytical von Neumann's law in 3D which is in very good agreement with detailed simulations and experiments. The average growth rate of a bubble with F faces is shown to be proportional to F{sup 1/2} for large F , in contrast to the conjectured linear dependence. Accounting for foam disorder in the model further improves the agreement with data.

  12. Anreicherung von Webinhalten mit Semantik - Microformats und RDFa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausenblas, Michael

    Semantik in Webinhalten wird heftig diskutiert. Teilweise wird es auch schon praktiziert. Dieser Beitrag geht auf semantisches HTML, Microformats und RDFa näher ein und zeigt anhand von praktischen Beispielen, wie und wo diese verwendet werden können.

  13. Wernher von Braun: Reflections on His Contributions to Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    In 1950, Dr. Wernher von Braun and approximately 100 of his team members came to Huntsville, Alabama, to begin work with the Army on what would later become America's historic space program. He would later serve as the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center and led the development of the Saturn V launch vehicle that launched seven crewed American mission to the moon, as well as America s first space station, Skylab. Von Braun is best known for his team s technical achievements. He realized his dream of exploring outer space by helping place humans on the moon. His engineering and managerial talent during the Apollo era had contributed to a technological revolution. He was by all accounts a good engineer, but he was only one among many. What set Von Braun apart were his charisma, his vision, and his leadership skills. He inspired loyalty and dedication in the people around him. He understood the importance of communicating his vision to his team, to political and business leaders and the public. Today, the Marshall Center continues his vision by pursuing engineering and scientific projects that will continue to open space to exploration. This presentation will discuss Von Braun's impact on Huntsville, the Marshall Center, the nation and the world and look at his contributions in context of where world space exploration is today.

  14. Von Kármán between Aachen and Pasadena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Egon; Kalkmann, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    In the Introduction the reader is referred back to the academic ceremonials held after Theodore von Kármán's death in Aachen in May 1963. His work as the first director of the Aerodynamisches Institut (Institute of Aerodynamics) of the RWTH Aachen University of Technology from 1913 on and his initiative to re-establish international cooperation after World War I, resulting in the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM), are commented on. The following chapter describes von Kármán's relation to his former teacher Ludwig Prandtl. Some of von Kármán's scientific contributions during his time in Aachen are briefly reviewed. Thereafter, his first contacts to the California Institute of Technology are covered. Finally, the scientific and political circumstances, which led to von Kármán's decision to leave Germany in the early thirties, are elucidated in some detail. The English translation of the titles of the Aachen papers is given in Appendix I.

  15. F.X. von Zach and the Fifth Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosche, Peter

    2007-07-01

    In his journals which were devoted mainly to astronomy, Franz Xaver von Zach also presented geographical and geodetic information about Australia. Initially these accounts were in German, but towards the end of his life he wrote them in French for a more general audience.

  16. Dr. Wernher Von Braun with Congressman Gerald R. fod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center in April, 1964, Congressman Gerald R. Ford, Jr. Republican of Michigan, was warmly greeted by Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center director. Ford, along with two other congressmen, visited the center for a briefing on the Saturn program and for a tour of the facilities.

  17. Dr. Wernher Von Braun near the mobile launcher.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. George Mueller, NASA associate administrator for manned space flight, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, are seen near the mobile launcher carrying a 363 foot tall Saturn V space launch vehicle as the rocket is rolled from the vehicle assembly building at KSC for its three mile trip to the launch pad.

  18. Wilhelm von Humboldt's Idea of "Bildung" and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Elsina

    The importance of Wilhelm von Humboldt's work in educational philosophy is little known outside of Germany and even there he is more often criticized than praised. This is unfortunate because his contributions to education and other areas had an important impact on other philosophers of his period and are well worth considering today. In his main…

  19. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…

  20. Anaesthesia in Von Gierke's disease. Current approach to management.

    PubMed

    Bevan, J C

    1980-07-01

    A case report of a patient with Von Gierke's (glycogen storage disease Cori type (1)1 disease who required femoral osteotomy is presented. Current techniques of management of this condition which are likely to improve the outcome of general anaesthesia and surgery are discussed. PMID:6933867

  1. Dr. von Braun Touring the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This photograph is dated October 14, 1964, and shows Dr. von Braun, left, during a tour of the NASA Marned Spacecraft Center, now the Johnson Space Center. He is with Dr. J.P. Kuettner, center, from the Marshall Space Flight Center, and Warren J. North from the Manned Spacecraft Center.

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by acquired von Willebrand's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sc; Lee, Jh; Chi, Hs; Lee, Ck; Nah, Ss; Kim, Yg; Oh, Js; Moon, Hb; Yoo, B

    2008-09-01

    Haematological abnormalities are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In some cases of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS), von Willebrand disease (vWD) is associated with autoimmune or lymphoproliferative disorders. In this study, we describe a 36-year-old woman with SLE and AvWS. The patient was referred to our hospital because of easy bruisability and recurrent vaginal bleeding. She had no history of bleeding tendency and no family history of bleeding diathesis, but she had a history of recurrent arthralgia, photosensitivity and sicca symptoms. Tests for antinuclear, anti-double stranded DNA, anticardiolipin and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies were all positive. Analysis of haemostatic parameters showed complete absence of von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor (vWF:Rco), von Willebrand antigen (vWF:Ag) and ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA). Electrophoretic analysis of plasma showed a complete absence of high-molecular weight vWF multimer. The presence of antibody to vWF was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Treatment with corticosteroids improved SLE symptoms and corrected bleeding diasthesis. Also, the multimeric patterns of vWF became normalised and anti-vWF antibody disappeared. These findings indicated that this patient had SLE associated with AvWS, which was ameliorated by corticosteroid treatment. PMID:18755868

  3. Dr. von Braun, Mayor Searcy, and General Medaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency's (ABMA) Development Operations Division, talks to Huntsville Mayor R. B. 'Speck' Searcy, center, and Army Ordnance Missile Command (ARMC) Major General John B. Medaris, right, during 'Moon Day' celebrations in downtown Huntsville, Alabama. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  4. Dr. von Braun with Governor Wallace and NASA Administrator Webb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Governor of Alabama George Wallace (left), NASA Administrator James Webb and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Director Dr. von Braun during a tour of MSFC on June 8, 1965. Governor Wallace and Dr. Webb were at MSFC to witness the first test firing of a Saturn V Booster, along with members of the Alabama legislature and press reporters.

  5. Dr. von Braun, Governor Wallace and NASA Administrator Webb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    In this photograph are Alabama Governor George Wallace (left), Marshall Space Flight Center Dr. Wernher von Braun (Center) and NASA Administrator James Webb (right). Governor Wallace and Dr. Webb were at MSFC to witness the first test firing of a Saturn V Booster, along with members of the Alabama legislature and press reporters.

  6. Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

    2010-06-01

    One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources. PMID:20159912

  7. Marshall-Stickler phenotype associated with von Willebrand disease

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M.R.; Baker, K.S.; Schaefer, G.B.

    1997-01-20

    We report on 6 individuals from three different kindreds with Marshall-Stickler (MS) phenotype, with characteristic orofacial abnormalities, arthropathy, deafness, and eye findings, all of whom were discovered to have a mild bleeding diathesis and coagulation-study findings consistent with mild von Willebrand disease (vWD). MS syndrome has been linked in some cases to the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1) on chromosome 12q, and to the collagen XI gene (COL11A2) on chromosome 6. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) is encoded by a 180-Kb gene located on the short arm of chromosome 12. This is the first reported association of these two disorders. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hans von Haberer: a forgotten pioneer in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Mönig, S P; Walter, M; Erasmi, H; Pichlmaier, H

    1997-03-01

    After carrying out the first free vein graft transplantation on an aneurysm of the axillary vein by Lexer in 1907, many attempts were made to reconstruct arterial injuries with direct vascular suture technique or vein graft transplants during the Balkan War (1912) and the First World War (1914-1918). Hans von Haberer gained wide experience in the reconstructive surgery of traumatic aneurysms at the Department of Surgery at the University of Innsbruck. During this period, he operated on a total of 201 vascular aneurysms, mainly using a direct circular vascular suture technique. In 1914, von Haberer described the first reconstruction of a carotid aneurysm. First experiences with vein bypasses were made, but not pursued in the following years. PMID:9181777

  9. Water Experiments Related To The "Von Karman Sodium" Dynamo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, L.; Bourgoin, M.; Petrelis, F.; Roy, J.; Burguete, J.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Fauve, S.; Odier, P.; Pinton, J.-F.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the "Von Karman Sodium" (V.K.S.) experiment is to study the "Dynamo Effect," namely the spontaneous generation of magnetic field in a flow of electrically conducting fluid. The device has been built at CEA / Cadarache, in collaboration with CEA / Saclay, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon and Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris. It consists of a cylindrical vessel, filled with liquid Sodium, in which two coaxial rotating disks induce a Von-Karman type flow. Several experimental runs have taken place since June 2000. In order to optimize the V.K.S. set-up, a half-scale water prototype has also been built. It has allowed us to measure mean velocity profiles, as well as pressure fluctuations and mechanical power dissipation. We have observed that under certain circumstances the mean component of the turbulent flow can undergo a global bifurcation.

  10. Lipid storage myopathy in von Gierke's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Santa, T; Inoue, K; Omae, T

    1978-09-01

    An 18-year-old girl with von Gierke's disease associated with a lipid storage myopathy is reported. The diagnosis of von Gierke's disease was made from decreased activity in glucose-6-phosphatase in the jejunal biopsy specimen. Neurologically she showed generalized hypotonia of the muscles, atrophy of bilateral proximal muscles of the lower extremities, weakness in neck flexors, deltoid and lumbar girdle muscles, and a positive Gower's sign. Muscle biopsy from flexor femoris muscle revealed fatty deposition in type 1 fibers and atrophy of type 2 fibers and the diagnosis of an accompanying lipid storage myopathy was made. This case also had a ventricular septal defect confirmed by right cardiac catheterization. PMID:213538

  11. Pathophysiology of acquired von Willebrand disease: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shrimati; Kasatkar, Priyanka; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2011-08-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AVWD) is a rare, underdiagnosed hemorrhagic disorder, which is similar to congenital VWD with regard to the clinical and laboratory parameters; however, it is found in individuals with no positive family history and has no genetic basis. The etiology is varied, the commonest being hematoproliferative disorders and cardiovascular disorders. Other disorders associated with AVWD are autoimmune disorders such as systematic lupus erythematosus, hypothyroidism, and neoplasia, or it may also be drug induced. In quite a few cases, the etiology is unknown. The pathogenic mechanisms are different in different underlying disorders or they may be overlapping among these disorders. Some of the proposed mechanisms include the development of autoantibodies, selective absorption of high molecular weight von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers, non-selective absorption of VWF, mechanical destruction of VWF under high shear stress, and increased proteolysis. This report presents a concise review of the pathophysiological mechanisms of AVWD in these various underlying conditions. PMID:21535159

  12. The diagnosis and management of von Willebrand disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    James, Paula D; Lillicrap, David P

    2011-07-01

    In Canada, care for individuals with inherited bleeding disorders, including Von Willebrand disease, is provided by 26 tertiary care multidisciplinary Inherited Bleeding Disorders clinics geographically spread across the country. The Association of Hemophilia Clinic Directors of Canada, the Canadian Association of Nurses in Hemophilia Care, the Canadian Physiotherapists in Hemophilia Care, the Canadian Social Workers in Hemophilia Care, and the Canadian Hemophilia Society all collaborate to provide optimal management for patients with inherited bleeding disorders. The standards of care for these patients were explicitly laid out in a 2007 document published by the Canadian Hemophilia Standards Group (with representation from all of the groups just mentioned) entitled Canadian Comprehensive Care Standards for Hemophilia and Other Inherited Bleeding Disorders. Separate Canadian guidelines for the management of patients with Hemophilia and Von Willebrand disease also exist, focused on diagnosis, comprehensive care, assessment, and treatment. PMID:22102195

  13. Von Humboldt bis Einstein. Berlin als Weltzentrum der exakten Wissenschaften.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschkowski, H.

    Contents: 1. Die Anfänge. 2. Die Ära Dirichlet-Jacobi. 3. Der Ausbau der experimentellen Naturwissenschaften. 4. Alexander von Humboldt. 5. Berlin wird "Weltzentrum" der Mathematik. 6. Die Ära Helmholtz. 7. Neue Arbeitsweisen der Astronomie. 8. Chemie: Forschung und Industrie. 9. Max Planck. 10. Ins technische Zeitalter. 11. Zur Mathematik der zwanziger Jahre. 12. Albert Einstein. 13. Fortschritte der Grundlagenforschung. 14. Erwin Schrödinger: Physiker, Philosoph und Poet. 15. Zum Schluß.

  14. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: John von Neumann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrskii, Mikhail I.

    2004-12-01

    This article is dedicated to John von Neumann, one of the most outstanding scholars of the 20th century. His life was short but bright, and his contribution to almost all branches of mathematics, as well as to physics, economics, biology, and astronomy was enormous. He constructed some of the first computers and he was among the key persons in the American atomic project. Development of his ideas will continue to play a vital part in various areas of pure and applied mathematics.

  15. ABO blood group and von Willebrand factor: biological implications.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Crestani, Silvia; Frattini, Francesco; Sissa, Cinzia; Bonfanti, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    ABO blood group antigens are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on the surface of red blood cells and a variety of human cells and tissues. It is well known that ABO blood type exerts a profound influence on hemostasis, being a major determinant of von Willebrand factor (VWF), and consequently factor VIII, plasma levels. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between ABO blood group and VWF in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24945431

  16. Johann Baptist von Schweitzer: the queer Marx loved to hate.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, H

    1995-01-01

    Despite his conviction on a morals charge involving a boy, the early German Social Democrat Johann Baptist von Schweitzer went on to have a successful political career. His life furnishes the context to present remarks by his political opponents Marx and Engels, which reveal their deep-seated homophobia. It is pointed out that this has been glossed over by the translations of the recently published Marx/Engels Collected Works. Some remarks on boy-love and anarchism are appended. PMID:8666759

  17. Replacing energy by von Neumann entropy in quantum phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Angela; Jia Xun; Chakravarty, Sudip . E-mail: sudip@physics.ucla.edu

    2007-06-15

    We propose that quantum phase transitions are generally accompanied by non-analyticities of the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy. In particular, the entropy is non-analytic at the Anderson transition, where it exhibits unusual fractal scaling. We also examine two dissipative quantum systems of considerable interest to the study of decoherence and find that non-analyticities occur if and only if the system undergoes a quantum phase transition.

  18. Baron von Zach's business relations with the Munich entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider (German Title: Geschäftsbeziehungen des Barons von Zach zu dem Münchner Unternehmer Joseph von Utzschneider)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ivo

    The relationship between the astronomer von Zach on the one side and the entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider and his partner Georg von Reichenbach on the other dates presumably from the year 1807 when Zach spent two months in Munich. Already in the same year Zach had ordered an instrument for himself and began to solicit business for the institute of Reichenbach, Utzschneider, and Liebherr, which was founded in 1804. One of the clients canvassed by Zach was the director of the observatory in Naples Zuccari. Zuccari had ordered the whole equipment for the new observatory from this institute in 1813. The instruments for Naples, which were completed in 1814, were sent accompanied by Reichenbach by land and sea to their destination where Reichenbach supervised their setup. At that time Reichenbach had separated from Utzschneider who kept the optical institute in Benediktbeuern with his new partner Joseph von Fraunhofer whereas Reichenbach became owner of the mathematical-mechanical institute in Munich. For personal and economical reasons Utzschneider began soon after to produce not only optical glass but also optical devices similar to those offered by Reichenbach. As soon as two institutes in Munich competed against each other on the market for sophisticated geodetical and astronomical instruments Zach sided with Utzschneider. Zach's main professional argument for this decision was that both competitors got the optical glass for their instruments from Utzschneider's optical institute in Benediktbeuern. This meant that Utzschneider had first choice and so the optical part of his instruments could be considered as better than that of Reichenbach`s instruments. Zach's role as an agent in Italy and France for the sale of products coming from Utzschneider's manufactories is highlighted by three of Zach's letters to Utzschneider from 1817 and 1818, two of which are reproduced here for the first time.

  19. Dr. Wernher Von Braun at the launch of Apollo 11.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mission officials relax, all smiles, a few moments after the successful launch of the Apollo 11 spacecraft by Saturn V vehicle AS-506. Relieved of the tension of waiting through the countdown are (left to right) Charles W. Matthews, NASA deputy associate administrator for manned space flight; Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center; Dr. George E. Meuller, NASA associate administrator for manned spaceflight, and Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, director of the Apollo program.

  20. Interpolatability distinguishes LOCC from separable von Neumann measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Andrew M.; Leung, Debbie; Mančinska, Laura; Ozols, Maris

    2013-11-15

    Local operations with classical communication (LOCC) and separable operations are two classes of quantum operations that play key roles in the study of quantum entanglement. Separable operations are strictly more powerful than LOCC, but no simple explanation of this phenomenon is known. We show that, in the case of von Neumann measurements, the ability to interpolate measurements is an operational principle that sets apart LOCC and separable operations.

  1. Von Gierke's disease adopts an orphan (and its partner).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alan; Saltiel, Alan R

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase is critical for maintaining fasting blood sugar levels by increasing hepatic glucose production. Its absence in patients with von Gierke's disease leads to severe hypoglycemia and abnormal accumulation of glycogen (glycogenosis) in the liver. New players that control the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase have been identified that may provide insight into this metabolic disorder, as well as type 2 diabetes. PMID:19224896

  2. Dr. von Braun in the Gemini Simulator at MSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    In this 1964 photograph, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Director Dr. Wernher von Braun (in commander's seat, background) tries out the Gemini Simulator at the Marned Spacecraft Center (now Johnson Space Center). Looking on from the pilot's seat is J.P. Kuettner, deputy director of MSFC Saturn Apollo Systems Office, and standing at left, Warren J. North, chief of Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Flight Crew Support Division.

  3. Von Neumann's `No Hidden Variables' Proof: A Re-Appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    Since the analysis by John Bell in 1965, the consensus in the literature is that von Neumann’s ‘no hidden variables’ proof fails to exclude any significant class of hidden variables. Bell raised the question whether it could be shown that any hidden variable theory would have to be nonlocal, and in this sense ‘like Bohm’s theory.’ His seminal result provides a positive answer to the question. I argue that Bell’s analysis misconstrues von Neumann’s argument. What von Neumann proved was the impossibility of recovering the quantum probabilities from a hidden variable theory of dispersion free (deterministic) states in which the quantum observables are represented as the ‘beables’ of the theory, to use Bell’s term. That is, the quantum probabilities could not reflect the distribution of pre-measurement values of beables, but would have to be derived in some other way, e.g., as in Bohm’s theory, where the probabilities are an artefact of a dynamical process that is not in fact a measurement of any beable of the system.

  4. Rapid discrimination of the phenotypic variants of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan C; Morateck, Patti A; Christopherson, Pamela A; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Gill, Joan Cox; Montgomery, Robert R

    2016-05-19

    Approximately 20% to 25% of patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) have a qualitative defect of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) protein activities. Variant VWD typically is classified as type 1C, 2A, 2B, 2M, or 2N depending on the VWF activity defect. Traditionally, diagnosis has relied on multiple clinical laboratory assays to assign VWD phenotype. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the various activities of VWF on a single plate and evaluated 160 patient samples enrolled in the Zimmerman Program for the Molecular and Clinical Biology of von Willebrand Disease with type 2 VWD. Using linear discriminate analysis (LDA), this assay was able to identify type 1C, 2A, 2B, 2M, or 2N VWD with an overall accuracy of 92.5% in the patient study cohort. LDA jackknife analysis, a statistical resampling technique, identified variant VWD with an overall accuracy of 88.1%, which predicts the assay's performance in the general population. In addition, this assay demonstrated correlation with traditional clinical laboratory VWF assays. The VWF multiplex activity assay may be useful as a same-day screening assay when considering the diagnosis of variant VWD in an individual patient. PMID:26917779

  5. How I treat the acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Andreas; Rand, Jacob H; Budde, Ulrich; Ganser, Arnold; Federici, Augusto B

    2011-06-23

    The acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a bleeding disorder that is frequently unrecognized or is misdiagnosed as von Willebrand disease. AVWS is characterized by structural or functional defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF) that are secondary to autoimmune, lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative, malignant, cardiovascular, or other disorders. VWF abnormalities in these disorders can result from (1) antibody-mediated clearance or functional interference, (2) adsorption to surfaces of transformed cells or platelets, or (3) increased shear stress and subsequent proteolysis. Diagnosis can be challenging as no single test is usually sufficient to prove or exclude AVWS. Furthermore, there are no evidence-based guidelines for management. Treatments of the underlying medical condition, including chemo/radiotherapy, surgery, or immunosuppressants can result in remission of AVWS, but is not always feasible and successful. Because of the heterogeneous mechanisms of AVWS, more than one therapeutic approach is often required to treat acute bleeds and for prophylaxis during invasive procedures; the treatment options include, but are not limited to, desmopressin, VWF-containing concentrates, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis or recombinant factor VIIa. Here, we review the management of AVWS with an overview on the currently available evidence and additional considerations for typical treatment situations. PMID:21540459

  6. The British Interplanetary Society - Val Cleaver and Wernher von Braun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willhite, I. P.

    This article is concerned with the early relationship between Wernher von Braun and the British Interplanetary Society (BIS). The BIS/Wernher von Braun/Val Cleaver correspondence files located here at the US Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama are unparalleled. As one reads the stimulating comments between Cleaver and von Braun, the need to share their thoughts prevails. Following is an excerpt from one letter that whets ones appetite for more. 10 June 1951 Cleaver writes, “I'm so glad you enjoyed my last letter, and look forward to your promised further contribution to our discussion of the ethics of science in general and astronautics in particu- lar. As regards the one particular point on which you found yourself unable to hold your fire, I should say there are really two distinct issues at stake:. . .” This article attempts to represent the best of the letters as they goad each other on scientific principles, means to prevent wars, and other philosophic ideas.

  7. Association of acquired von Willebrand syndrome with AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kos, Cynthia A; Ward, Jennifer E; Malek, Karim; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Wright, Daniel G; O'Hara, Carl; Connors, Lawreen; Skinner, Martha; Seldin, David C

    2007-05-01

    Acquired loss of functional von Willebrand factor (VWF) has been termed the acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). AVWS is a rare adult-onset bleeding diathesis that is clinically similar to congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD), and occurs with a variety of autoimmune, lymphoproliferative, or myeloproliferative disorders. We have identified four patients with AVWS in association with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. These patients, lacking any pre-existing or family history of abnormal bleeding, developed cutaneous, mucosal, or gastrointestinal bleeding in the course of their disease without deficiency of clotting factor X or other factors; the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was prolonged in three out of the four cases. Despite normal VWF antigen levels, VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) was low. Electrophoresis patterns of high molecular weight (HMW) VWF multimers were abnormal in two of the four cases. Two of the patients were treated with high-dose intravenous melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM/SCT) and achieved hematologic remission. In these two patients, the bleeding diathesis improved and the coagulation parameters normalized, confirming a causal relationship between the plasma cell dyscrasia and the AVWS. AVWS should be considered in AL amyloidosis patients with hemorrhagic diatheses and normal clotting factor levels. PMID:17205535

  8. Acquired Von Willebrand's Syndrome in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Strakhan, Marianna; Gralla, Richard J.; Reed, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is an uncommon, underdiagnosed, and heterogeneous disease which is increasingly recognized as a cause of bleeding diatheses. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an infrequent cause of AVWS. Herein, we report a case of AVWS diagnosed during the initial presentation of SLE in a previously healthy young man with no family history of bleeding diathesis who presented with worsening epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and anasarca. He was found to have severe anemia and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with severely decreased levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) measurements in addition to markedly decreased factor VIII levels. Further evaluation revealed nephrotic syndrome and interstitial lung disease due to SLE. He initially received combination therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates without significant improvement. Treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab was followed by clinical improvement evidenced by cessation of bleeding. The short follow-up did not allow us to definitely prove the therapeutic effect of immunosuppressive treatment on AVWS in SLE patients. This case adds to the literature supporting the relationship between AVWS and SLE and highlights the importance of combination therapy in the treatment of severe AVWS as well as the role of IVIG, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in AVWS associated with SLE. PMID:25544909

  9. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

  11. Defective dimerization of von Willebrand factor subunits due to a Cys-> Arg mutation in type IID von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed Central

    Schneppenheim, R; Brassard, J; Krey, S; Budde, U; Kunicki, T J; Holmberg, L; Ware, J; Ruggeri, Z M

    1996-01-01

    The same heterozygous T -> C transition at nt 8567 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) transcript was found in two unrelated patients with type III) von Willebrand disease, with no other apparent abnormality. In one family, both alleles were normal in the parents and one sister; thus, the mutation originated de novo in the proposita. The second patient also had asymptomatic parents who, however, were not available for study. The structural consequences of the identified mutation, resulting in the CyS2010 -> Arg substitution, were evaluated by expression of the vWF carboxyl-terminal domain containing residues 1366-2050. Insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus expressing normal vWF sequence secreted a disulfide linked dimeric molecule with an apparent molecular mass of 150 kDa before reduction, yielding a single band of 80 kDa after disulfide bond reduction. In contrast, cells expressing the mutant fragment secreted a monomeric molecule of apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa, which remained unchanged after reduction. We conclude that CyS2010 is essential for normal dimerization of vWF subunits through disulfide bonding of carboxyl-terminal domains and that a heterozygous mutation in the corresponding codon is responsible for defective multimer formation in type III) von Willebrand disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8622978

  12. Particle exposures and infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Ci...

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  14. CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these ...

  15. Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar, Joseph V.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring is the coordination of environmental (air, water, land, and crops) monitoring networks to collect systematically pollutant exposure data for a specific receptor, usually man. (Author/BB)

  16. The Association between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)

    PubMed Central

    Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C.; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: −0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

  17. The association between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

    PubMed

    Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

  18. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  19. DIETARY EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL total human exposure program. The research builds on previous work to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving NERL's ability to evaluat...

  20. GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Guidelines for Exposure Assessment describe the general concepts of exposure assessment including definitions and associated units, and by providing guidance on the planning and conducting of an exposure assessment. Guidance is also provided on presenting the results of the e...

  1. HUMAN EXPOSURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

  2. Single-molecule force measurements of the polymerizing dimeric subunit of von Willebrand factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeratne, Sithara S.; Li, Jingqiang; Yeh, Hui-Chun; Nolasco, Leticia; Zhou, Zhou; Bergeron, Angela; Frey, Eric W.; Moake, Joel L.; Dong, Jing-fei; Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers are large adhesive proteins that are essential to the initiation of hemostatic plugs at sites of vascular injury. The binding of VWF multimers to platelets, as well as VWF proteolysis, is regulated by shear stresses that alter VWF multimeric conformation. We used single molecule manipulation with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the effect of high fluid shear stress on soluble dimeric and multimeric forms of VWF. VWF dimers are the smallest unit that polymerizes to construct large VWF multimers. The resistance to mechanical unfolding with or without exposure to shear stress was used to evaluate VWF conformational forms. Our data indicate that, unlike recombinant VWF multimers (RVWF), recombinant dimeric VWF (RDVWF) unfolding force is not altered by high shear stress (100 dynes/cm2 for 3 min at 37°C ). We conclude that under the shear conditions used (100 dynes/cm2 for 3 min at 37°C ) , VWF dimers do not self-associate into a conformation analogous to that attained by sheared large VWF multimers.

  3. Prenatal endotoxin exposure alters behavioural pain responses to lipopolysaccharide in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Walker, F Rohan; Krivanek, Klara M; Clifton, Vicki L; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2010-05-11

    Evidence suggests that exposure to bacterial endotoxin in early life can alter the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in later life. This phenomenon may have significant consequences for pain and pain related behaviours as pro-inflammatory cytokines heighten pain sensitivity. This association has yet to be examined. As such, the aim of the present study was to characterize pain behaviours in adult rat offspring following prenatal endotoxin (PE) exposure. Pregnant F344 rats received endotoxin (200microg/kg, s.c.) or saline on gestational days 16, 18 and 20. Pain thresholds were assessed in the adult PE offspring (n=23) and control offspring (n=24) prior to and 4h following administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100microg/kg, s.c.). Three assays of pain were employed - the hot plate, tail immersion and von Frey tests. Results demonstrated sex-specific effects of prenatal endotoxin on the offspring, with PE males displaying unaltered pain thresholds on the von Frey test post-LPS administration (p<0.01), while male control offspring (n=24) displayed the expected hyperalgesia. Male PE offspring also displayed increased pain thresholds on the tail immersion test (p<0.01), while no change in pain sensitivity was observed in control males following LPS exposure. No difference in response was observed between the female PE and control offspring on the von Frey test, however PE female offspring displayed increased thresholds on the tail immersion test compared to baseline - an effect not observed in the control female offspring. Pain sensitivity on the hot plate test was unaffected by prenatal exposure to endotoxin. These data suggest that prenatal exposure to products associated with bacterial infection have the capacity to alter pain responses, which are evident in the adult offspring. PMID:20184906

  4. Die Wirtschaftliche Bedeutung von Cyberphysical Systems aus der Sicht Eines Global Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beetz, Klaus

    Langfristiges und nachhaltiges Denken ist ein wichtiger Teil unserer Tradition. Nachhaltigkeit heißt für uns, in unseren Handlungen die Belange von Ökologie, Ökonomie und sozialer Verantwortung ausgewogen zu berücksichtigen.", sagte Peter Löscher, CEO von Siemens, im Januar 2010.

  5. The Fate of Western Civilization: G. H. von Wright's Reflections on Science, Technology, and Global Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkero, Topi

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the central ideas of G. H. von Wright's cultural philosophy concerning the techno-scientific form of life. Georg Henrik von Wright (1916-2003) was best known for his achievements in the field of modal logic and for his association with Ludwig Wittgenstein. However, his work also included a critical analysis of science and…

  6. An Alternative Perspective on von Winterfeldt et al.'s (1997) Test of Consequence Monotonicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Regenwetter, Michel; Niederee, Reinhard; Heyer, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    D. von Winterfeldt, N.-K. Chung, R. D. Luce, and Y. Cho (see record 1997-03378-008) provided several tests for consequence monotonicity of choice or judgment, using certainty equivalents of gambles. The authors reaxiomatized consequence monotonicity in a probabilistic framework and reanalyzed von Winterfeldt et al.'s main experiment via a…

  7. Reevaluation of McCulloch-Pitts-von Neumann's clock.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In neuroscience research, a firing pattern expression, called a firing snapshot, defined by firing counts of multiple neurons in discrete time-bin is frequently used. However, the firing pattern expression over multiple neurons requires synchronization commonly known as a "central clock" in computation circuits to externally control or observe multi-neuron firing. Since it is not appropriate to hypothesize the central clock in the brain, we have to reconsider the synchronization assumption. We found the historical origins of central clock synchronization in the works of McCulloch, Pitts and von Neumann and propose an alternative perspective to study neural processing without the central clock. In the "First draft of a report on the EDVAC" known as the first proposal of store-program type computer, von Neumann incorporated McCulloch and Pitts' arbitrary assumption of constant synaptic delay into the logical circuit modeling. He introduced a constant pulse delay stabilized by a central clock to synchronize multiple pulse lines. This constant delay carried over to automaton theory by von Neumann and then theoretical neuroscience as an integral part of distributed representation and firing pattern analysis. Instead, we propose a rethinking of neuronal processing by focusing on a variable synaptic delay. We review neuron-type dependent differences and point out that the maximum inter-stimulus interval which can affect the last stimulus response is longer than the minimum inter-spike interval, indicating the possibility of asynchronous input summation without a firing rate level clock. This fundamental baseline contributes to the investigation of time consuming processes: e.g., the compression of appositional synaptic inputs with duration into a single firing. PMID:25458264

  8. [On the centennial of Ernst von Bergmann's death].

    PubMed

    Czymek, R; Düsel, W

    2007-03-01

    "dear aunt lina. i do not know any big letters yet, but i want to thank you in small letters for the beautiful pens. say hello to grandpa and to everybody. yours truly, ernst." These are the first surviving written words of Ernst von Bergmann. Between them and his last words about his suspected colon cancer on 25 March 1907 ("I diagnosed this 5 years ago, and now it has come to pass.") lie many years in a vigorous life characterised by untiring activity and creativity, self-discipline, and care for patients and his family. They were years of enormous success in surgery and private happiness but also of professional setbacks and tragic family loss. Ernst von Bergmann became a leading German surgeon not only because of his surgical and scientific achievements, particularly in the fields of asepsis and war surgery, but also due to his exemplary character, reliability, engaging personality, and commitment to medical training in various medical societies. Of these, the German Society of Surgery is most indebted to him. After assuming a chair in surgery in 1882, he continued to play a leading role in this society, not least as its five-time president from 1888 to 1890 and in 1896 and 1900. A worthy successor to Bernhard von Langenbeck, he was a full professor at the Berlin University Hospital for 25 years. He also taught at the Medical and Surgical Academy for the Military after being appointed there by Emperor Wilhelm I on 16 November 1882. This position was important to him and corresponded to his patriotic views. PMID:17287931

  9. Von Willebrand factor regulates complement on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Noone, Damien G; Riedl, Magdalena; Pluthero, Fred G; Bowman, Mackenzie L; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Lu, Lily; Quan, Yi; Balgobin, Steve; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Schneppenheim, Sonja; Budde, Ulrich; James, Paula; Atkinson, John P; Palaniyar, Nades; Kahr, Walter H A; Licht, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura have traditionally been considered separate entities. Defects in the regulation of the complement alternative pathway occur in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and defects in the cleavage of von Willebrand factor (VWF)-multimers arise in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. However, recent studies suggest that both entities are related as defects in the disease-causing pathways overlap or show functional interactions. Here we investigate the possible functional link of VWF-multimers and the complement system on endothelial cells. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) were obtained from 3 healthy individuals and 2 patients with Type 3 von Willebrand disease lacking VWF. Cells were exposed to a standardized complement challenge via the combination of classical and alternative pathway activation and 50% normal human serum resulting in complement fixation to the endothelial surface. Under these conditions we found the expected release of VWF-multimers causing platelet adhesion onto BOECs from healthy individuals. Importantly, in BOECs derived from patients with von Willebrand disease complement C3c deposition and cytotoxicity were more pronounced than on BOECs derived from normal individuals. This is of particular importance as primary glomerular endothelial cells display a heterogeneous expression pattern of VWF with overall reduced VWF abundance. Thus, our results support a mechanistic link between VWF-multimers and the complement system. However, our findings also identify VWF as a new complement regulator on vascular endothelial cells and suggest that VWF has a protective effect on endothelial cells and complement-mediated injury. PMID:27236750

  10. Orthopaedic surgery in patients with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Siboni, S M; Biguzzi, E; Solimeno, L P; Pasta, G; Mistretta, C; Mannucci, P M; Peyvandi, F

    2014-01-01

    Patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) may need orthopaedic surgery because of disabling chronic arthropathy due to recurrent joint bleeding. They may also require this surgery independently of their haemostasis disorder. Knowledge regarding the management of orthopaedic surgery in VWD is limited. Description of management of orthopaedic surgery in patients with VWD, based upon retrospective data collection and analysis of 32 orthopaedic procedures carried out over a period of 33 years in 23 patients was the aim of this study. Of 32 procedures, six were minor (three hand surgery, one foot surgery, two others) and 26 were major (seven joint replacements, nine arthroscopic procedures, two foot surgery, eight others). Twenty-two procedures were performed using replacement therapy with plasma-derived concentrates containing both factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Two procedures in patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AWVS) were performed using FVIII-VWF concentrates associated with intravenous immunoglobulins, or desmopressin plus tranexamic acid. Seven procedures were performed using desmopressin alone and one using intravenous immunoglobulins in AVWS. Bleeding complications occurred in seven procedures (22%). In one patient, an anti-VWF antibody was diagnosed after surgery. Anticoagulant prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism was implemented in four cases only and in two instances there was excessive bleeding. In conclusion, control of surgical haemostasis was achieved in most patients with VWD undergoing orthopaedic surgery. The control of haemostasis combined with an adequate surgical technique and early post-operative rehabilitation are warranted for the successful performance of orthopaedic surgery in VWD, which requires the involvement of specialized haemophilia centres. PMID:23992395

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder that is characterized by structural or functional alterations in von Willebrand factor (VWF) caused by a range of lymphoproliferative, myeloproliferative, cardiovascular, autoimmune, and other disorders. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the VWF abnormalities depend on the underlying condition, but include clearance due to binding of paraproteins, inhibition of VWF, adsorption to the surface of platelets, increased fluid shear stress, and resultant proteolysis or, more rarely, decreased synthesis. The diagnosis and treatment of AVWS are complicated by the need for multiple laboratory tests and the management of bleeding risk in a typically elderly population with serious underlying conditions that predispose towards thrombosis. Recently developed diagnostic algorithms, based on standard laboratory assays, may assist clinicians with the diagnostic workup and help differentiate between AVWS and von Willebrand disease (VWD) types 1 and 2. AVWS should be considered in all patients with new-onset bleeding whenever laboratory findings suggest VWD, particularly in the presence of an AVWS-associated disorder. AVWS testing is also recommended prior to surgery or an intervention with a high risk of bleeding in any individual with an AVWS-associated disorder. Treatment of the underlying condition using immunosuppressants, surgery, or chemotherapy, can lead to remission of AVWS in some individuals and should always be considered. Strategies to prevent and/or treat bleeding episodes should also be in place, including the use of VWF-containing factor VIII concentrates, desmopressin and tranexamic acid. Treatment success will depend largely on the underlying pathogenesis of the disorder. PMID:23439003

  12. von Baer's law for the ages: lost and found principles of developmental evolution.

    PubMed

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2013-12-01

    In 1828, Karl Ernst von Baer formulated a series of empirically defined rules, which became widely known as the 'Law of Development' or 'von Baer's law of embryology'. This was one the most significant attempts to define the principles that connected morphological complexity and embryonic development. Understanding this relation is central to both evolutionary biology and developmental genetics. Von Baer's ideas have been both a source of inspiration to generations of biologists and a target of continuous criticism over many years. With advances in multiple fields, including paleontology, cladistics, phylogenetics, genomics, and cell and developmental biology, it is now possible to examine carefully the significance of von Baer's law and its predictions. In this review, I argue that, 185 years after von Baer's law was first formulated, its main concepts after proper refurbishing remain surprisingly relevant in revealing the fundamentals of the evolution-development connection, and suggest that their explanation should become the focus of renewed research. PMID:24120296

  13. Karl ernst von Baer's 'Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere II' and its unpublished drawings.

    PubMed

    Tammiksaar, Erki; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    In 1828 Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) published his seminal Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. Beobachtung und Reflexion. In the preface he announced that a second volume with one copper plate would be finished 'in a few weeks'. However, it took nine years until the unfinished second volume was released, with four copperplates. In his 'Autobiography', von Baer did not clarify the reasons why he did not finish his research program of comparative embryology. The paper attempts to elucidate them, furnished by archival documents and von Baer's unpublished embryological drawings. Our sketch of a few figures will show that (1) von Baer searched for 'analogies' (homologies) as a unifying principle and (2) explained the mechanisms of embryogenesis by physiological reasoning (electromagnetism). The main objective is to show that technical problems in illustrating and conceptual difficulties impeded von Baer's ambitious research program. PMID:16302690

  14. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  15. Otto von Guericke and 17th century cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    Otto von Guericke's scientific method was based on reason and experimental science. His cosmology was embedded in theology and can be interpreted as a refutation of Descartes' worldview. He used Nicolaus Cusanus' theory of quantities in order to characterize space. The notion of space has to be distinguished from that of world or heaven. Forces play a crucial role in this respect described by Athanasius Kircher in his "Celestial Journey". Guericke read this work very diligently. In spite of some obvious similarities between Guericke's and Newton's scientific aims and methods there are crucial differences between the scientific convictions and results of these scholars.

  16. Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) and evolution.

    PubMed

    Brauckmann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The research program of Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) intended to enhance the comparative approach of animal classification by demonstrating vertebrate affinities (homology). Baer visualized his ideas on development and evolution with an unpublished figure of a branching tree. To buttress his reflections on how species-specific embryogenesis produces a branching tree, he worked out a cladogram-like chart, depicting the ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate embryos. For Baer, changes in development were responsible for changes in phenotype. I will offer a new interpretation of Baer's ideas about evolution showing that he believed in the transformation of species and announced such views publicly. PMID:23319342

  17. Asymmetric biclustering with constrained von Mises-Fisher models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kazuho; Wu, Hsiang-Yun; Takahashi, Shigeo; Fujishiro, Issei

    2016-03-01

    As a probability distribution on the high-dimensional sphere, the von Mises-Fisher (vMF) distribution is widely used for directional statistics and data analysis methods based on correlation. We consider a constrained vMF distribution for block modeling, which provides a probabilistic model of an asymmetric biclustering method that uses correlation as the similarity measure of data features. We derive the variational Bayesian inference algorithm for the mixture of the constrained vMF distributions. It is applied to a multivariate data visualization method implemented with enhanced parallel coordinate plots.

  18. von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Review of Genetics and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Shanbhogue, Krishna Prasad; Hoch, Michael; Fatterpaker, Girish; Chandarana, Hersh

    2016-05-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal-dominant, hereditary, multisystem neoplasia syndrome with increased susceptibility to several benign and malignant tumors. VHL occurs in about 1 in 36,000 live births and is associated with germline mutation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene on the short arm of chromosome 3. VHL disease exhibits diverse genotype and phenotype correlations, exhibits variable intrafamilial and interfamilial expressivity, and can manifest with benign and malignant tumors of the central nervous system, kidneys, adrenals, pancreas, and reproductive organs. Imaging and management of this entity are therefore multidisciplinary. An overview of VHL disease is presented. PMID:27153780

  19. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  20. Quantum Dynamics in Phase Space using Projected von Neumann Bases.

    PubMed

    Machnes, Shai; Assémat, Elie; Larsson, Henrik R; Tannor, David J

    2016-05-19

    We describe the mathematical underpinnings of the biorthogonal von Neumann method for quantum mechanical simulations (PvB). In particular, we present a detailed discussion of the important issue of nonorthogonal projection onto subspaces of biorthogonal bases, and how this differs from orthogonal projection. We present various representations of the Schrödinger equation in the reduced basis and discuss their relative merits. We conclude with illustrative examples and a discussion of the outlook and challenges ahead for the PvB representation. PMID:26977715

  1. EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

  2. Comparison between von Willebrand factor (VWF) and VWF antigen II in normal individuals and patients with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    de Romeuf, C; Mazurier, C

    1998-07-01

    Von Willebrand disease is characterised by a quantitative (type 1) or qualitative (type 2) decrease in von Willebrand factor (vWF) a multimeric glycoprotein involved in primary haemostasis. The propeptide of von Willebrand, also named vWF antigen II (vWF:AgII), is released from platelets and endothelial cells and circulates in plasma as a glycoprotein of 100 kD. In the present study, we attempted to determine whether vWF:AgII level may provide information on the synthesis of vWF, specially in patients with von Willebrand disease (vWD). To elucidate that point, we developed an ELISA and quantify the vWF:AgII in normal individuals and in various vWD patients. The propeptide molar concentration was found to be 5 nM as compared to 31 nM for mature vWF. In normal individuals, the level of vWF:AgII was significantly decreased in females from O and A blood groups. In type 2 vWD patients the level of plasma vWF:AgII appears normal in the patients with normal level of platelet vWF. In type 2 B vWD characterised by increased affinity of mature vWF for platelet glycoprotein Ib, the vWF:AgII in contrast to the vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) was not decreased. In type 2A vWD patients the level of vWF:AgII was decreased in patients with absence of high molecular weight vWF in platelets and plasma but normal in patients with increased sensitivity to proteolysis. Finally, in type 1 vWD, some studied patients have a parallel decrease in vWF:AgII and vWF:Ag whereas in others, the vWF:Ag levels were much more affected than corresponding vWF:AgII levels, as observed in some type 2 vWD patients. Thus, in contrast to that already described, the plasma vWF:AgII level cannot discriminate type 1 from type 2 vWD patients. We conclude that the vWF:AgII measurement provides additional information on the mechanisms responsible for vWD and might also contribute to the classification of vWD patients. PMID:9684782

  3. von Willebrand factor, Jedi knight of the bloodstream.

    PubMed

    Springer, Timothy A

    2014-08-28

    When blood vessels are cut, the forces in the bloodstream increase and change character. The dark side of these forces causes hemorrhage and death. However, von Willebrand factor (VWF), with help from our circulatory system and platelets, harnesses the same forces to form a hemostatic plug. Force and VWF function are so closely intertwined that, like members of the Jedi Order in the movie Star Wars who learn to use "the Force" to do good, VWF may be considered the Jedi knight of the bloodstream. The long length of VWF enables responsiveness to flow. The shape of VWF is predicted to alter from irregularly coiled to extended thread-like in the transition from shear to elongational flow at sites of hemostasis and thrombosis. Elongational force propagated through the length of VWF in its thread-like shape exposes its monomers for multimeric binding to platelets and subendothelium and likely also increases affinity of the A1 domain for platelets. Specialized domains concatenate and compact VWF during biosynthesis. A2 domain unfolding by hydrodynamic force enables postsecretion regulation of VWF length. Mutations in VWF in von Willebrand disease contribute to and are illuminated by VWF biology. I attempt to integrate classic studies on the physiology of hemostatic plug formation into modern molecular understanding, and point out what remains to be learned. PMID:24928861

  4. The von Neumann model of measurement in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, Pier A.

    2014-01-08

    We describe how to obtain information on a quantum-mechanical system by coupling it to a probe and detecting some property of the latter, using a model introduced by von Neumann, which describes the interaction of the system proper with the probe in a dynamical way. We first discuss single measurements, where the system proper is coupled to one probe with arbitrary coupling strength. The goal is to obtain information on the system detecting the probe position. We find the reduced density operator of the system, and show how Lüders rule emerges as the limiting case of strong coupling. The von Neumann model is then generalized to two probes that interact successively with the system proper. Now we find information on the system by detecting the position-position and momentum-position correlations of the two probes. The so-called 'Wigner's formula' emerges in the strong-coupling limit, while 'Kirkwood's quasi-probability distribution' is found as the weak-coupling limit of the above formalism. We show that successive measurements can be used to develop a state-reconstruction scheme. Finally, we find a generalized transform of the state and the observables based on the notion of successive measurements.

  5. Renaturierung von Ökosystemen in urban-industriellen Landschaften

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebele, Franz

    Die Urbanisierung ist ein weltweit stattfindender Prozess mit weitreichenden Auswirkungen auf Mensch und Natur. In Mitteleuropa leben heute etwa 80% aller Bewohner in Städten. Urban-industrielle Landschaften gehören deshalb zur unmittelbaren Lebensumwelt der meisten Menschen. Allein in Deutschland wird heute täglich eine Fläche von 120 ha neu für Siedlungs- und Verkehrszwecke in Anspruch genommen. Zu den Siedlungs- und Verkehrsflächen zählen Gebäude-und gebäudebezogene Freiflächen, Verkehrsflächen, Erholungsflächen und Friedhöfe sowie Betriebsflächen für Industrie und Gewerbe. Nicht enthalten sind Tagebauflächen zum Abbau von Bodenschätzen (Kapitel 13). In Deutschland liegt der Anteil der Siedlungs- und Verkehrsflächen an der Gesamtfläche derzeit bei ca. 13%, in Österreich bei 5 % und in der Schweiz bei knapp 7 %. Charakteristisch für die heutige Entwicklung in Mitteleuropa ist, dass die Prozesse der Urbanisierung und der Flächeninanspruchnahme für Siedlung und Verkehr nicht ursächlich mit einem Bevölkerungswachstum verbunden sind, d. h. dass Freiflächen auch bei stagnierender oder in manchen Regionen sogar bei sinkender Einwohnerzahl bebaut werden.

  6. [Richard von Volkmann, one career of orthopaedic surgeon and poet].

    PubMed

    Bumbasirević, M; Lesić, A; Sudjić, V; Zagorac, S

    2010-01-01

    Richard von Volkman was one of the most famous and important surgeons in the 19th century. He pioneered antiseptic procedures and was especially known for his achivements in orthopedic surgery. Von Volkmann was born in Leipzig, Germany and attended medical schools in Giessen, Halle, and Berlin. Starting in 1867, he worked as a professor of surgery at the University of Halle, also leading its surgical clinic. He was active as a surgeon during Seven Weeks' War with Austria in 1866 and the Franco-Prussian war 1870/1871, in the latter as consulting Generalarzt. He was important in the introduction of antiseptic wound treatment in Germany, and through it to the United States of America. Two observations in orthopaedic surgery bear his name to these days: Volkmans contracture and Heuter-Volkmans low. Volkmann also wrote poetry under the name Richard Leander and his book entitled "Dreams by French Firesides" which still has a place in literature. He died of paralysis due to a chronic spinal disease, following a prolonged illness, in the Binswanger institution in Jena in 1889, at the top of his careere. PMID:20954309

  7. Prophylaxis in von Willebrand Disease: Coming of Age?

    PubMed

    Saccullo, Giorgia; Makris, Mike

    2016-07-01

    Although in most cases von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a mild disorder, a subgroup of patients experience frequent bleeding. In contrast to severe hemophilia in which prophylaxis is the accepted standard of care, this is less frequently used in VWD. Most type 1 VWD patients can be adequately managed with episodic desmopressin and tranexamic acid. In patients with more severe disease, especially those with type 3 VWD, joint bleeds, epistaxis, menorrhagia, and gastrointestinal bleeding are problematic and usually require treatment with von Willebrand factor/factor VIII (VWF/FVIII) concentrate. While in the past these patients were managed with on-demand VWF/FVIII concentrate, several recent reports have demonstrated the value of prophylactic treatment. Despite some uncertainties about the economic impact of treatment of severe VWD, prophylaxis with VWF concentrate should now be considered as the standard of care for the more severe end of the spectrum of affected individuals. The recent introduction of recombinant VWF concentrate is likely to improve the acceptability of prophylaxis in VWD. PMID:27253087

  8. von Willebrand factor, Jedi knight of the bloodstream

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    When blood vessels are cut, the forces in the bloodstream increase and change character. The dark side of these forces causes hemorrhage and death. However, von Willebrand factor (VWF), with help from our circulatory system and platelets, harnesses the same forces to form a hemostatic plug. Force and VWF function are so closely intertwined that, like members of the Jedi Order in the movie Star Wars who learn to use “the Force” to do good, VWF may be considered the Jedi knight of the bloodstream. The long length of VWF enables responsiveness to flow. The shape of VWF is predicted to alter from irregularly coiled to extended thread-like in the transition from shear to elongational flow at sites of hemostasis and thrombosis. Elongational force propagated through the length of VWF in its thread-like shape exposes its monomers for multimeric binding to platelets and subendothelium and likely also increases affinity of the A1 domain for platelets. Specialized domains concatenate and compact VWF during biosynthesis. A2 domain unfolding by hydrodynamic force enables postsecretion regulation of VWF length. Mutations in VWF in von Willebrand disease contribute to and are illuminated by VWF biology. I attempt to integrate classic studies on the physiology of hemostatic plug formation into modern molecular understanding, and point out what remains to be learned. PMID:24928861

  9. Von Braun Rocket Team at Fort Bliss, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    The German Rocket Team, also known as the Von Braun Rocket Team, poses for a group photograph at Fort Bliss, Texas. After World War II ended in 1945, Dr. Wernher von Braun led some 120 of his Peenemuende Colleagues, who developed the V-2 rocket for the German military during the War, to the United Sttes under a contract to the U.S. Army Corps as part of Operation Paperclip. During the following five years the team worked on high altitude firings of the captured V-2 rockets at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, and a guided missile development unit at Fort Bliss, Texas. In April 1950, the group was transferred to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, and continued to work on the development of the guided missiles for the U.S. Army until transferring to a newly established field center of the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. Superfluid high REynolds von Kármán experiment.

    PubMed

    Rousset, B; Bonnay, P; Diribarne, P; Girard, A; Poncet, J M; Herbert, E; Salort, J; Baudet, C; Castaing, B; Chevillard, L; Daviaud, F; Dubrulle, B; Gagne, Y; Gibert, M; Hébral, B; Lehner, Th; Roche, P-E; Saint-Michel, B; Bon Mardion, M

    2014-10-01

    The Superfluid High REynolds von Kármán experiment facility exploits the capacities of a high cooling power refrigerator (400 W at 1.8 K) for a large dimension von Kármán flow (inner diameter 0.78 m), which can work with gaseous or subcooled liquid (He-I or He-II) from room temperature down to 1.6 K. The flow is produced between two counter-rotating or co-rotating disks. The large size of the experiment allows exploration of ultra high Reynolds numbers based on Taylor microscale and rms velocity [S. B. Pope, Turbulent Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2000)] (Rλ > 10000) or resolution of the dissipative scale for lower Re. This article presents the design and first performance of this apparatus. Measurements carried out in the first runs of the facility address the global flow behavior: calorimetric measurement of the dissipation, torque and velocity measurements on the two turbines. Moreover first local measurements (micro-Pitot, hot wire,…) have been installed and are presented. PMID:25362417

  11. Attractors and Long Time Behavior of von Karman Thermoelastic Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Chueshov, Igor Lasiecka, Irena

    2008-10-15

    This paper undertakes a study of asymptotic behavior of solutions corresponding to von Karman thermoelastic plates. A distinct feature of the work is that the model considered has no added dissipation-particularly mechanical dissipation typically added to plate equation when long time-behavior is considered. Thus, the model consists of undamped oscillatory plate equation strongly coupled with heat equation. Nevertheless we are able to show that the ultimate (asymptotic) behavior of the von Karman evolution is described by finite dimensional global attractor. In addition, the obtained estimate for the dimension and the size of the attractor are independent of the rotational inertia parameter {gamma} and heat/thermal capacity {kappa}, where the former is known to change the character of dynamics from hyperbolic ({gamma}>0) to parabolic like ({gamma}=0). Other properties of attractors such as additional smoothness and upper-semicontinuity with respect to parameters {gamma} and {kappa} are also established. The main ingredients of the proofs are (i) sharp regularity of Airy's stress function, and (ii) newly developed (Chueshov and Lasiecka in Memoirs of AMS, in press) 'compensated' compactness methods applicable to non-compact dynamics.

  12. Superfluid high REynolds von Kármán experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Diribarne, P.; Girard, A.; Poncet, J. M.; Herbert, E.; Salort, J.; Baudet, C.; Castaing, B.; Chevillard, L.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Gagne, Y.; Gibert, M.; Hébral, B.; Lehner, Th.; Roche, P.-E.; Saint-Michel, B.; Bon Mardion, M.

    2014-10-01

    The Superfluid High REynolds von Kármán experiment facility exploits the capacities of a high cooling power refrigerator (400 W at 1.8 K) for a large dimension von Kármán flow (inner diameter 0.78 m), which can work with gaseous or subcooled liquid (He-I or He-II) from room temperature down to 1.6 K. The flow is produced between two counter-rotating or co-rotating disks. The large size of the experiment allows exploration of ultra high Reynolds numbers based on Taylor microscale and rms velocity [S. B. Pope, Turbulent Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2000)] (Rλ > 10000) or resolution of the dissipative scale for lower Re. This article presents the design and first performance of this apparatus. Measurements carried out in the first runs of the facility address the global flow behavior: calorimetric measurement of the dissipation, torque and velocity measurements on the two turbines. Moreover first local measurements (micro-Pitot, hot wire,…) have been installed and are presented.

  13. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome associated with left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Angelo; Neelamegham, Sriram; Frazier, O H; Moake, Joel L; Dong, Jing-Fei

    2016-06-23

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) provide cardiac support for patients with end-stage heart disease as either bridge or destination therapy, and have significantly improved the survival of these patients. Whereas earlier models were designed to mimic the human heart by producing a pulsatile flow in parallel with the patient's heart, newer devices, which are smaller and more durable, provide continuous blood flow along an axial path using an internal rotor in the blood. However, device-related hemostatic complications remain common and have negatively affected patients' recovery and quality of life. In most patients, the von Willebrand factor (VWF) rapidly loses large multimers and binds poorly to platelets and subendothelial collagen upon LVAD implantation, leading to the term acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). These changes in VWF structure and adhesive activity recover quickly upon LVAD explantation and are not observed in patients with heart transplant. The VWF defects are believed to be caused by excessive cleavage of large VWF multimers by the metalloprotease ADAMTS-13 in an LVAD-driven circulation. However, evidence that this mechanism could be the primary cause for the loss of large VWF multimers and LVAD-associated bleeding remains circumstantial. This review discusses changes in VWF reactivity found in patients on LVAD support. It specifically focuses on impacts of LVAD-related mechanical stress on VWF structural stability and adhesive reactivity in exploring multiple causes of AVWS and LVAD-associated hemostatic complications. PMID:27143258

  14. Massive postoperative intramuscular bleeding in acquired von Willebrand's disease.

    PubMed

    Krebs, M; Meyer, B; Quehenberger, P; Turecek, P L; Hejna, M; Sperr, W R; Lechner, K; Pabinger, I

    2002-07-01

    We describe a case of acquired von Willebrand's disease (vWD) associated with monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance (MGUS) in a 54-year-old man who was admitted with hemarthrosis and extensive thigh muscle hematoma following arthroscopic surgery and postoperative prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin. Coagulation tests were compatible with acquired vWD: prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (56.1 s), decreased levels of factor VIII coagulant activity (23%), low concentrations of von Willebrand's factor (vWF) antigen (13%), and undetectable ristocetin cofactor activity (<10%). Infusion of a vWF-containing factor VIII concentrate failed to normalize the plasma levels of vWF-related parameters. Only additional intravenous administration of immunoglobulins led to a transient normalization of ristocetin cofactor activity, vWF antigen, and factor VIII coagulant activity. While the spontaneous bleeding tendency in this case was mild, surgery and administration of prophylactic doses of low molecular weight heparin led to life-threatening bleeding. PMID:12185511

  15. von Willebrand disease: advances in pathogenetic understanding, diagnosis, and therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common autosomally inherited bleeding disorder. The disease represents a range of quantitative and qualitative pathologies of the adhesive glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF). The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the type 2 qualitative variants of VWF are now well characterized, with most mutations representing missense substitutions influencing VWF multimer structure and interactions with platelet GPIbα and collagen and with factor VIII. The molecular pathology of type 3 VWD has been similarly well characterized, with an array of different mutation types producing either a null phenotype or the production of VWF that is not secreted. In contrast, the pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for type 1 VWD remain only partially resolved. In the hemostasis laboratory, the measurement of VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo are key components in the diagnostic algorithm for VWD, although the introduction of direct GPIbα-binding assays may become the functional assay of choice. Molecular genetic testing can provide additional benefit, but its utility is currently limited to type 2 and 3 VWD. The treatment of bleeding in VWD involves the use of desmopressin and plasma-derived VWF concentrates and a variety of adjunctive agents. Finally, a new recombinant VWF concentrate has just completed clinical trial evaluation and has demonstrated excellent hemostatic efficacy and safety. PMID:24065240

  16. Mutations in the D1 domain of von Willebrand factor impair their propeptide-dependent multimerization, intracellular trafficking and secretion.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Ma, Zhenni; Su, Jian; Wang, Jiong-Wei; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Ling, Jing; Bai, Xia; Ouyang, Wanyan; Wang, Zhaoyue; Yu, Ziqiang; Ruan, Changgeng

    2015-01-01

    We identified three novel mutations (p.Gly39Arg, p.Lys157Glu, p.Cys379Gly) and one previously known mutation (p.Asp141Asn) in the von Willebrand factor propeptide from three von Willebrand disease patients. All four mutations impaired multimerization of von Willebrand factor, due to reduced oxidoreductase activity of isomeric propeptide. These mutations resulted in the endothelial reticulum retention and impaired basal and stimulated secretions of von Willebrand factor. Our results support that the mutations in the D1 domain lead to defective multimerization, intracellular trafficking, and secretion of von Willebrand factor and result in bleeding of patients. PMID:26088471

  17. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  18. Biomarkers of xenobiotic exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.A.

    1988-07-01

    Direct measurement of xenobiotic (foreign) chemicals is not always feasible as an exposure assessment,--owing to rapid metabolism, sequestration into fatty tissues, or lack of suitable assay methods. Furthermore, suspect exposures often involve complex mixtures of organics. In these circumstances, indirect biomarkers of exposure can be most helpful. This paper reviews four urinary parameters that hold promise as biomarkers of exposure in occupational and environmental settings: glucaric acid (end-product of the glucuronidation pathway), thioethers (end-product of glutathione reaction with electrophilic or alkylating agents), porphyrin pattern (altered with disruption in heme biosynthesis), and the Ames mutagenicity test. 112 references.

  19. Exposure assessment of trichloroethylene.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Schaum, J

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews exposure information available for trichloroethylene (TCE) and assesses the magnitude of human exposure. The primary sources releasing TCE into the environment are metal cleaning and degreasing operations. Releases occur into all media but mostly into the air due to its volatility. It is also moderately soluble in water and can leach from soils into groundwater. TCE has commonly been found in ambient air, surface water, and groundwaters. The 1998 air levels in microg/m(3) across 115 monitors can be summarized as follows: range = 0.01-3.9, mean = 0.88. A California survey of large water utilities in 1984 found a median concentration of 3.0 microg/L. General population exposure to TCE occurs primarily by inhalation and water ingestion. Typical average daily intakes have been estimated as 11-33 microg/day for inhalation and 2-20 microg/day for ingestion. A small portion of the population is expected to have elevated exposures as a result of one or more of these pathways: inhalation exposures to workers involved in degreasing operations, ingestion and inhalation exposures occurring in homes with private wells located near disposal/contamination sites, and inhalation exposures to consumers using TCE products in areas of poor ventilation. More current and more extensive data on TCE levels in indoor air, water, and soil are needed to better characterize the distribution of background exposures in the general population and elevated exposures in special subpopulations. Images Figure 1 PMID:10807565

  20. Nonsense mutations of the von Willebrand factor gene in patients with von Willebrand disease type III and type I

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.P.; Lindstedt, M.; Falk, G.; Blombaeck, M.; Egberg, N.; Anvret, M. )

    1992-10-01

    von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder in humans. The disease is caused by qualitative and quantitative abnormalities of the von Willebrand factor (vWF). Genomic DNA from 25 patients with vWD type III, the most severe form of the disease, was studied using PCR followed by restriction-enzyme analysis and direct sequencing of the products. Nonsense mutations (CGA[yields]TGA) were detected in exons 28, 32, and 45 by screening of all 11 CGA arginine codons of the vWF gene. Two patients were found to be homozygous and five heterozygous for the mutation. Both parents and some of the relatives of the homozygous patients carry the mutation. These are the first reported examples of homozygous point mutations associated with the severe form of vWD. In the three heterozygous probands, one of the parents carried the mutation and had vWD type I. Family studies including parents and family members with or without vWD type I indicted that these three heterozygous patients are likely to be compound heterozygous. Twenty-one individuals from these seven families with vWD type I found to be heterozygous for the mutation. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. von Willebrand factor binds to the surface of dendritic cells and modulates peptide presentation of factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, Nicoletta; Hartholt, Robin B.; Bloem, Esther; Sedek, Magdalena; Brinke, Anja ten; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van Alphen, Floris P.; Meijer, Alexander B.; Voorberg, Jan

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that von Willebrand factor might affect factor VIII immunogenicity by reducing factor VIII uptake by antigen presenting cells. Here we investigate the interaction of recombinant von Willebrand factor with immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Surprisingly, von Willebrand factor was not internalized by immature dendritic cells, but remained bound to the cell surface. As von Willebrand factor reduces the uptake of factor VIII, we investigated the repertoire of factor VIII presented peptides when in complex with von Willebrand factor. Interestingly, factor VIII-derived peptides were still abundantly presented on major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, even though a reduction of factor VIII uptake by immature dendritic cells was observed. Inspection of peptide profiles from 5 different donors showed that different core factor VIII peptide sequences were presented upon incubation with factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex when compared to factor VIII alone. No von Willebrand factor peptides were detected when immature dendritic cells were pulsed with different concentrations of von Willebrand factor, confirming lack of von Willebrand factor endocytosis. Several von Willebrand factor derived peptides were recovered when cells were pulsed with von Willebrand factor/factor VIII complex, suggesting that factor VIII promotes endocytosis of small amounts of von Willebrand factor by immature dendritic cells. Taken together, our results establish that von Willebrand factor is poorly internalized by immature dendritic cells. We also show that von Willebrand factor modulates the internalization and presentation of factor VIII-derived peptides on major histocompatibility complex class II. PMID:26635035

  2. Krebs als Funktion von Disposition, Exposition und Alter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmähl, D.; Habs, M.

    1982-07-01

    Essential parameters in carcinogenesis are the genetic and extragenetic disposition of an individual, its exposure to chemical, physical or viral influences in the environment as well as its age as the time that is needed to induce cancer. Cancer prevention seems only possible by reducing the exposure. It will be discussed whether the increase in life expectancy has become so important during the past decades that it compensates all efforts of reducing the exposure.

  3. MODEL DEVELOPMENT - EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to mixtures of chemicals from multiple pathways and routes. These exposures may result from a single event or may accumulate over time if multiple exposure events occur. The traditional approach of assessing risk from a single chemical and a single route of e...

  4. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  5. Environmental Exposures and Development

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose of Review Summarize recent studies exploring the relationship between paternal and maternal environmental exposures to chemicals before, at the time of and after conception to adverse developmental outcomes including; preterm birth, death, structural and functional abnormalities and growth restriction. Recent Findings Recent studies have demonstrated that human pregnancy and development is vulnerable to environmental exposures of the father and mother to chemical, biological and physical agents. Exposures associated with adverse developmental outcomes include; air and water pollution, chemicals in foods, occupational exposures, agricultural chemicals, metals, persistent and volatile organics. Developmental endpoints which are linked with these exposures include; growth restriction, functional abnormalities, structural abnormalities, preterm delivery and death. Despite this general understanding we still have incomplete knowledge concerning most exposures and the biological interactions responsible for impaired development and preterm delivery. Summary While single genes and individual chemical exposures are responsible for some instances of adverse pregnancy outcome or developmental disease, gene-environment interactions are responsible for the majority. These gene-environment interactions may occur in the father, mother, placenta or fetus suggesting that critical attention be given to maternal and paternal exposures and gene expression as they relate to the mode of action of the putative developmental toxicant both prior to and during pregnancy. PMID:20216314

  6. EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The planned interagency National Children's Study (NCS) will be studying a number of exposure issues in the context of health and well-being of infants and young children from pre-conception to age 21. Some of the important environmental exposure questions for NCS, include: how c...

  7. Avian inhalation exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Briant, J.K.; Driver, C.J.

    1992-05-05

    An exposure system is designed for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder. 2 figs.

  8. Avian inhalation exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Briant, James K.; Driver, Crystal J.

    1992-01-01

    An exposure system for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder.

  9. Exposure Corrections for Macrophotography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolic, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a method for determining the exposure correction factors in close-up photography and macrophotography. The method eliminates all calculations during picture-taking, and allows the use of a light meter to obtain the proper f-stop/exposure time combinations. (Author/MLH)

  10. On conjugate families and Jeffreys priors for von Mises–Fisher distributions

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses characteristics of standard conjugate priors and their induced posteriors in Bayesian inference for von Mises–Fisher distributions, using either the canonical natural exponential family or the more commonly employed polar coordinate parameterizations. We analyze when standard conjugate priors as well as posteriors are proper, and investigate the Jeffreys prior for the von Mises–Fisher family. Finally, we characterize the proper distributions in the standard conjugate family of the (matrix-valued) von Mises–Fisher distributions on Stiefel manifolds. PMID:23805026

  11. Ein stochastisches Modell zur Beschreibung von Signalen in digitalen Schaltungen basierend auf quadratischer Optimierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeberger, V. B.; Maier, P.; Schlichtmann, U.

    2013-07-01

    Die kontinuierlich fortschreitende Miniaturisierung in integrierten Schaltungen führt zu einem erhöhten Modellierungsbedarf verschiedenster Effekte, wie z.B. Alterung oder Stromverbrauch. Diese hängen von den auftretenden Signalen innerhalb der Schaltung ab, wodurch deren statistische Modellierung ein zentrales Problem darstellt. Dieser Beitrag stellt eine neue Methode zur stochastischen Signalmodellierung basierend auf quadratischer Optimierung vor. Die Methode wird mit Hilfe von realen Daten mit existierenden Ansätzen verglichen. Die Testergebnisse zeigen hierbei im vorgestellten Modell einen Genauigkeitszuwachs von bis zu einem Faktor 10 im Vergleich zu bereits existierenden Modellen.

  12. Two different anesthetic managements of a patient with von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, I-Ren; Jean, Wei-Horng; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chan; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chuang, Yueh-Hsun; Sun, Wei-Zen

    2006-03-01

    Von Gierke's disease, a form of glycogen storage disturbance, is a rare metabolic disorder with important implications for anesthesiologists. It is caused by the lack of the glucose-6-phosphatase, which is necessary for the liver to convert glycogen to glucose. To avoid severe hypoglycemia, it is crucial to keep oral feeding at intervals 2-3 hr for maintaining a normal blood sugar level. The metabolic derangements of von Gierke's disease may result in serious complications in patients undergoing surgery and anesthesia. We report the anesthetic managements of a patient with von Gierke's disease in two operations with different encounters. PMID:16623410

  13. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    PubMed

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  14. Die Bedeutung der Volumen- und Oberflächeneigenschaften von Biomaterialien für die Adsorption von Proteinen und nachfolgende zelluläre Reaktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Es ist schon seit längerer Zeit bekannt, dass nach Kontakt des Biomaterials mit der biologischen Umgebung bei Implantation oder extrakorporaler Wechselwirkung zunächst Proteine aus dem umgebenden Milieu adsorbiert werden, wobei die Oberflächeneigenschaften des Materials die Zusammensetzung der Proteinschicht und die Konformation der darin enthaltenden Proteine determinieren. Die nachfolgende Wechselwirkung von Zellen mit dem Material wird deshalb i.d.R. von der Adsorbatschicht vermittelt. Der Einfluss der Oberflächen auf die Zusammensetzung und Konformation der Proteine und die nachfolgende Wechselwirkung mit Zellen ist von besonderem Interesse, da einerseits eine Aussage über die Anwendbarkeit ermöglicht wird, andererseits Erkenntnisse über diese Zusammenhänge für die Entwicklung neuer Materialien mit verbesserter Biokompatibilität genutzt werden können. In der vorliegenden Habilitationsschrift wurde deshalb der Einfluss der Zusammensetzung von Polymeren bzw. von deren Oberflächeneigenschaften auf die Adsorption von Proteinen, den Aktivitätszustand der plasmatischen Gerinnung und die Adhäsion von Zellen untersucht. Dabei wurden auch Möglichkeiten zur Beeinflussung dieser Vorgänge über eine Veränderung der Volumenzusammensetzung oder durch Oberflächenmodifikationen von Biomaterialien vorgestellt. Erkenntnisse aus diesen Arbeiten konnten für die Entwicklung von Membranen für Biohybrid-Organe genutzt werden. The implantation of biomaterials or the contact of blood with extracorporal devices leads to the rapid adsorption of proteins from the surrounding biological fluids. The surface properties of materials determine the composition of the adsorption layer and the conformation of adsorbed proteins. Hence, the subsequent interaction of cells with biomaterials is dependent on the adsorption layer of proteins. The detailed knowledge on the role of surface properties in protein adsorption and cellular interactions is a useful means to learn about the

  15. The von Restorff effect in rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Reed, P; Richards, A

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments examined the functional equivalence of memory in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) with memory in humans for serially presented items. Memory was assayed with an 8-arm radial maze, in which rats were allowed access to 5 arms of the maze and were then removed. Following a retention interval of 16 min, the rats were replaced in the maze and allowed to retrieve pellets from the 3 unvisited arms. The errors in reentering previously visited arms were noted. Both primacy and recency effects were found as with humans. Presenting a stimulus change after entry to 1 of the maze arms improved recall for that arm relative to when no change occurred. This effect was found using both handling and tone cues, and irrespective of whether the change consisted of presentation or nonpresentation of the cue. These results suggest that rats are subject to a von Restorff-like effect similar to that in humans. PMID:8681532

  16. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  17. Ludwig von Bertalanffy's organismic view on the theory of evolution.

    PubMed

    Drack, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a key figure in the advancement of theoretical biology. His early considerations already led him to recognize the necessity of considering the organism as a system, as an organization of parts and processes. He termed the resulting research program organismic biology, which he extended to all basic questions of biology and almost all areas of biology, hence also to the theory of evolution. This article begins by outlining the rather unknown (because often written in German) research of Bertalanffy in the field of theoretical biology. The basics of the organismic approach are then described. This is followed by Bertalanffy's considerations on the theory of evolution, in which he used methods from theoretical biology and then introduced his own, organismic, view on evolution, leading to the demand for finding laws of evolution. Finally, his view on the concept of homology is presented. PMID:25727202

  18. von Neumann entropy associated with the haldane exclusion statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopal, A.K. )

    1995-02-13

    We obtain the von Neumann entropy per state of the Haldane exclusion statistics with parameter [ital g] in terms of the mean occupation number [bar n][l brace][ital w]ln[ital w][minus](1+[ital w])ln(1+[ital w])[r brace], where [ital w]=(1[minus][bar n]). This reduces correctly to the well known expressions in the limiting cases of Bose ([ital g]=0) and Fermi ([ital g]=1) statistics. We have derived the second and third order fluctuations in the occupation numbers for arbitrary [ital g]. An elegant general duality relationship between the [ital w] factor associated with the particle and that associated with the hole at the reciprocal [ital g] is deduced along with the attendant relationship between the two respective entropies.

  19. Franz Xaver von Zach and Giovanni Battista Amici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschiari, Alberto

    The address explores the five-year relationship between Franz Xaver von Zach and the Italian instrument maker Giovanni Battista Amici (Modena 1786 - Florence 1863) from the time of their first meeting at Amici's workshop in Modena on 8 September 1820. Zach was particularly impressed by Amici's prismatic reflecting sector and helped him to obtain the optical glass required for its construction from Fraunhofer in Munich. With his "Correspondance astronomique", Zach was one of Amici's main publishers. In the space of four years he published seven of his scientific letters, discussing and commenting on them with extensive notes. The correspondence between Amici and Zach, kept at the Estense Library in Modena and covering a period of just under three years from July 1822 to May 1825, has been published by A. Meschiari in Nuncius, 1-2002.

  20. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-01

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  1. ADAMTS13 and von Willebrand Factor in Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, X. Long

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) was a mystery for over half a century until the discovery of ADAMTS13. ADAMTS13 is primarily synthesized in the liver, and its main function is to cleave von Willebrand factor (VWF) anchored on the endothelial surface, in circulation, and at the sites of vascular injury. Deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity (<10%) resulting from mutations of the ADAMTS13 gene or autoantibodies against ADAMTS13 causes hereditary or acquired (idiopathic) TTP. ADAMTS13 activity is usually normal or modestly reduced (>20%) in other forms of thrombotic microangiopathy secondary to hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation, infection, and disseminated malignancy or in hemolytic uremic syndrome. Plasma infusion or exchange remains the initial treatment of choice to date, but novel therapeutics such as recombinant ADAMTS13 and gene therapy are under development. Moreover, ADAMTS13 deficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction, stroke, cerebral malaria, and preeclampsia. PMID:25587650

  2. Dr. von Braun Standing by Five F-1 Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A pioneer of America's space program, Dr. von Braun stands by the five F-1 engines of the Saturn V launch vehicle. This Saturn V vehicle is an actual test vehicle which has been displayed at the U.S. Space Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Designed and developed by Rocketdyne under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, a cluster of five F-1 engines was mounted on the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage. The engines measured 19-feet tall by 12.5-feet at the nozzle exit and burned 15 tons of liquid oxygen and kerosene each second to produce 7,500,000 pounds of thrust. The S-IC stage is the first stage, or booster, of a 364-foot long rocket that ultimately took astronauts to the Moon.

  3. Von Glaserfeld`s Radical Constructivism: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Michael D.

    We explore Ernst von Glaserfelds radical constructivism, its criticisms, and our own thoughts on what it promises for the reform of science and mathematics teaching. Our investigation reveals that many criticisms of radical constructivism are unwarranted; nevertheless, in its current cognitivist form radical constructivism may be insufficient to empower teachers to overcome objectivist cultural traditions. Teachers need to be empowered with rich understandings of philosophies of science and mathematics that endorse relativist epistemologies; for without such they are unlikely to be prepared to reconstruct their pedagogical practices. More importantly, however, is a need for a powerful social epistemology to serve as a referent for regenerating the culture of science education. We recommend blending radical constructivism with Habermas theory of communicative action to provide science teachers with a moral imperative for adopting a constructivist epistemology.

  4. Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind. PMID:19852391

  5. Voluntarism in early psychology: the case of Hermann von Helmholtz.

    PubMed

    De Kock, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    The failure to recognize the programmatic similarity between (post-)Kantian German philosophy and early psychology has impoverished psychology's historical self-understanding to a great extent. This article aims to contribute to recent efforts to overcome the gaps in the historiography of contemporary psychology, which are the result of an empiricist bias. To this end, we present an analysis of the way in which Hermann von Helmholtz's theory of perception resonates with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Ego-doctrine. It will be argued that this indebtedness is particularly clear when focusing on the foundation of the differential awareness of subject and object in perception. In doing so, the widespread reception of Helmholtz's work as proto-positivist or strictly empiricist is challenged, in favor of the claim that important elements of his theorizing can only be understood properly against the background of Fichte's Ego-doctrine. PMID:24818740

  6. A Powerful Friendship: Theodore von Karman and Hugh L. Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorn, Michael

    2003-01-01

    During their long personal friendship and professional association, Theodore von Karman (1882-1963) and Hugh L. Dryden (1898-1965) exercised a pivotal if somewhat elusive influence over American aeronautics and spaceflight. Both decisive figures in organizing scientists and engineers at home and abroad, both men of undisputed eminence in their technical fields, their range of contacts in government, academia, the armed forces, industry, and professional societies spanned the globe to an extent unparalleled then as now. Moreover, because they coordinated their activities closely, their combined influence far exceeded the sum of each one s individual contributions. This paper illustrates their personal origins as well as the foundations of their friendship, how their relationship became a professional alliance, and their joint impact on the world of aeronautics and astronautics during the twentieth century.

  7. Dynamics of Diffusion Flames in von Karman Swirling Flows Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2002-01-01

    Von Karman swirling flow is generated by the viscous pumping action of a solid disk spinning in a quiescent fluid media. When this spinning disk is ignited in an oxidizing environment, a flat diffusion flame is established adjacent to the disk, embedded in the boundary layer (see the preceding illustration). For this geometry, the conservation equations reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations, enabling researchers to carry out detailed theoretical models to study the effects of varying strain on the dynamics of diffusion flames. Experimentally, the spinning disk burner provides an ideal configuration to precisely control the strain rates over a wide range. Our original motivation at the NASA Glenn Research Center to study these flames arose from a need to understand the flammability characteristics of solid fuels in microgravity where slow, subbuoyant flows can exist, producing very small strain rates. In a recent work (ref. 1), we showed that the flammability boundaries are wider and the minimum oxygen index (below which flames cannot be sustained) is lower for the von Karman flow configuration in comparison to a stagnation-point flow. Adding a small forced convection to the swirling flow pushes the flame into regions of higher strain and, thereby, decreases the range of flammable strain rates. Experiments using downward facing, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) disks spinning in air revealed that, close to the extinction boundaries, the flat diffusion flame breaks up into rotating spiral flames (refs. 2 and 3). Remarkably, the dynamics of these spiral flame edges exhibit a number of similarities to spirals observed in biological systems, such as the electric pulses in cardiac muscles and the aggregation of slime-mold amoeba. The tail of the spiral rotates rigidly while the tip executes a compound, meandering motion sometimes observed in Belousov-Zhabotinskii reactions.

  8. John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs: an Unlikely Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    I discuss the origin of the idea of making a fusion (hydrogen) bomb and the physics involved in it, and then turn to the design proposed for one by the unlikely collaborators John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs in a patent application they filed at Los Alamos in May 1946, which Fuchs passed on to the Russians in March 1948, and which with substantial modifications was tested on the island of Eberiru on the Eniwetok atoll in the South Pacific on May 8, 1951. This test showed that the fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei could be ignited, but that the ignition would not propagate because the heat produced was rapidly radiated away. Meanwhile, Stanislaw Ulam and C.J. Everett had shown that Edward Teller’s Classical Super could not work, and at the end of December 1950, Ulam had conceived the idea of super compression, using the energy of a fission bomb to compress the fusion fuel to such a high density that it would be opaque to the radiation produced. Once Teller understood this, he invented a greatly improved, new method of compression using radiation, which then became the heart of the Ulam-Teller bomb design, which was tested, also in the South Pacific, on November 1, 1952. The Russians have freely acknowledged that Fuchs gave them the fission bomb, but they have insisted that no one gave them the fusion bomb, which grew out of design involving a fission bomb surrounded by alternating layers of fusion and fission fuels, and which they tested on November 22, 1955. Part of the irony of this story is that neither the American nor the Russian hydrogen-bomb programs made any use of the brilliant design that von Neumann and Fuchs had conceived as early as 1946, which could have changed the entire course of development of both programs.

  9. [Von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 balancing primary haemostasis].

    PubMed

    Schneppenheim, R; Budde, U

    2011-11-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is an adhesive, multi-functional huge multimerized protein with multiple domains harboring binding sites for collagen, platelet glycoprotein receptors and coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). The functional domains enable VWF to bind to the injured vessel wall, to recruit platelets to the site of injury by adhesion and aggregation and to bind and protect FVIII, an important cofactor of the coagulation cascade. VWF function in primary haemostasis is located in particular in the arterial and micro-circulation. This environment is exposed to high shear forces with hydrodynamic shear rates ranging over several orders of magnitude from 10⁻¹ to 10⁵ s-1 and requires particular mechanisms to enable platelet adhesion and aggregation under these variable conditions. The respective VWF function is strictly correlating with its multimer size. Lack or reduction of large VWF multimers is seen in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) type 2A which correlates with reduction of both VWF:platelet GPIb-binding and VWF:collagen binding and a bleeding phenotype. To prevent unlimited platelet adhesion and aggregation which is the cause of the microangiopathic disorder thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), VWF function is regulated by its specific protease ADAMTS13. Whereas a particular susceptibility of VWF to ADAMTS13 proteolysis is the cause of a frequent VWD type 2A phenotype, lack or dysfunction of ADAMTS13, either acquired by ADAMTS13 antibodies or by inherited ADAMTS13 deficiency (Upshaw-Schulman Syndrome), causes TTP. Therefore VWD and TTP represent the opposite manifestations of VWF related disorders, tightly linked to each other. PMID:21792464

  10. Force-Sensitive Autoinhibition of the von Willebrand Factor Is Mediated by Interdomain Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aponte-Santamaría, Camilo; Huck, Volker; Posch, Sandra; Bronowska, Agnieszka K.; Grässle, Sandra; Brehm, Maria A.; Obser, Tobias; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Schneider, Stefan W.; Baldauf, Carsten; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a central role in hemostasis. Triggered by shear-stress, it adheres to platelets at sites of vascular injury. Inactivation of VWF has been associated to the shielding of its adhesion sites and proteolytic cleavage. However, the molecular nature of this shielding and its coupling to cleavage under shear-forces in flowing blood remain unknown. In this study, we describe, to our knowledge, a new force-sensory mechanism for VWF-platelet binding, which addresses these questions, based on a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microfluidic experiments. Our MD simulations demonstrate that the VWF A2 domain targets a specific region at the VWF A1 domain, corresponding to the binding site of the platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) receptor, thereby causing its blockage. This implies autoinhibition of the VWF for the binding of platelets mediated by the A1-A2 protein-protein interaction. During force-probe MD simulations, a stretching force dissociated the A1A2 complex, thereby unblocking the GPIbα binding site. Dissociation was found to be coupled to the unfolding of the A2 domain, with dissociation predominantly occurring before exposure of the cleavage site in A2, an observation that is supported by our AFM experiments. This suggests that the A2 domain prevents platelet binding in a force-dependent manner, ensuring that VWF initiates hemostasis before inactivation by proteolytic cleavage. Microfluidic experiments with an A2-deletion VWF mutant resulted in increased platelet binding, corroborating the key autoinhibitory role of the A2 domain within VWF multimers. Overall, autoinhibition of VWF mediated by force-dependent interdomain interactions offers the molecular basis for the shear-sensitive growth of VWF-platelet aggregates, and might be similarly involved in shear-induced VWF self-aggregation and other force-sensing functions in hemostasis. PMID:25954888

  11. Paradoxical Effect of Nonphysiological Shear Stress on Platelets and von Willebrand Factor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengsheng; Mondal, Nandan K; Ding, Jun; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2016-07-01

    Blood can become hypercoagulable by shear-induced platelet activation and generation of microparticles. It has been reported that nonphysiological shear stress (NPSS) could induce shedding of platelet receptor glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, which may result in an opposite effect to hemostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the NPSS on platelets and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Human blood was exposed to two levels of NPSS (25 Pa, 125 Pa) with an exposure time of 0.5 s, generated by using a novel blood-shearing device. Platelet activation (P-selectin expression, GPIIb/IIIa activation and generation of microparticles) and shedding of three platelet receptors (GPIbα, GPVI, GPIIb/IIIa) in sheared blood were quantified using flow cytometry. Aggregation capacity of sheared blood induced by ristocetin and collagen was evaluated using an aggregometer. Shear-induced vWF damage was characterized with Western blotting. Consistent with the published data, the NPSS caused significantly more platelets to become activated with increasing NPSS level. Meanwhile, the NPSS induced the shedding of platelet receptors. The loss of the platelet receptors increased with increasing NPSS level. The aggregation capacity of sheared blood induced by ristocetin and collagen decreased. There was a loss of high molecular weight multimers (HMWMs) of vWF in sheared blood. These results suggest that the NPSS induced a paradoxical effect. More activated platelets increase the risk of thrombosis, while the reduction in platelet receptors and the loss of HMWM-vWF increased the propensity of bleeding. The finding might provide a new perspective to understand thrombosis and acquired bleeding disorder in patients supported with blood contacting medical devices. PMID:26582038

  12. Occupational exposure in MRI.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, D W

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B(0), imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B(0) fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2-0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42 ± 24% of B(0), with time-averaged exposures of 5.2 ± 2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6-4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B(0) fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s(-1). Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  13. Evidence that the primary binding site of von Willebrand factor that mediates platelet adhesion on subendothelium is not collagen.

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, P G; Ottenhof-Rovers, M; van Mourik, J A; Sixma, J J

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the binding of von Willebrand factor to extracellular matrices of endothelial cells and to the vessel wall of human umbilical arteries in relation to its function in supporting platelet adhesion. CLB-RAg 201, an MAb against von Willebrand factor, completely inhibits the binding of von Willebrand factor to collagen type I and type III. CLB-RAg 201 does not inhibit the binding of 125I-von Willebrand factor to extracellular matrices of endothelial cells, to smooth muscle cells, or to the subendothelium. CLB-RAg 201 partly inhibits platelet adhesion to these surfaces, but this directly affects the interaction between von Willebrand factor and platelets and is not due to inhibition of binding of von Willebrand factor to these surfaces. Another MAb, CLB-RAg 38, does not inhibit the binding of von Willebrand factor to collagen. CLB-RAg 38 completely inhibits the binding of von Willebrand factor to extracellular matrices. CLB-RAg 38 inhibits platelet adhesion to cellular matrices completely insofar as it is dependent on plasma von Willebrand factor. CLB-RAg 38 does not inhibit the total binding of von Willebrand factor to subendothelium, as there are too many different binding sites, but it completely inhibits the functional binding sites for von Willebrand factor that support platelet adhesion. The epitopes for CLB-RAg 38 and 201 on the von Willebrand factor molecule are located on different fragments of the molecule. These results indicate that von Willebrand factor binds to subendothelium and matrices of cultured cells by a mechanism that is different from that by which it binds to collagen. Images PMID:2839553

  14. Biomonitoring - An Exposure Science Tool for Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring studies of environmental stressors are useful for confirming exposures, estimating dose levels, and evaluating human health risks. However, the complexities of exposure-biomarker and biomarker-response relationships have limited the use of biomarkers in exposure sc...

  15. Occupational arsine gas exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pullen-James, Shayla; Woods, Scott E.

    2006-01-01

    Arsine gas exposure is a rare occupational event and can be completely prevented with the use of appropriate protective gear. Exposure often occurs when arsine gas is generated while arsenic-containing crude ores or metals are treated with acid. Cases of toxicity require an index of suspicion and a good history. In particular, it should be in the differential diagnosis in patients who present acutely with red/bronze skin and hemoglobinuria. Treatment is supportive and may include transfusions and dialysis in severe cases. Clinical severity is proportionate to the level of exposure, and severity is directly related to the onset of symptoms. Images Figure 2 PMID:17225850

  16. A project to publish the collected correspondence of Baron Franz Xaver von Zach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    The complete extant correspondence of Baron von Zach will be edited and published by the author, beginning in 2004, the 250th anniversary of his birth. Volume 1 of this work, featuring his correspondence with Jan Sniadecki, has been published.

  17. Dr. Wernher Von Braun leads a tour of the S-IC checkout area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Eberhard Rees, Charles Schultze, James Webb, Elmer Staats, Comptroller General of the United States, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun tour the S-IC checkout area in the Marshall Space Flight Center quality lab.

  18. APOLLO 14 DR. WERNHER VON BRAUN WATCHES FROM FIRING ROOM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, the NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Future Programs, uses binoculars to monitor data on closed- circuit television screens in Firing Room 2 of the Launch Control Center during final Apollo 14 launch preparations today.

  19. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN AORTAS AND CORONARY ARTERIES OF SWINE WITH VON WILLEBRAND'S DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of coronary and aortic atherosclerosis was determined after balloon catheter injury of coronary arteries and administration of an atherogenic diet in normal pigs and pigs that were homozygous and heterozygous for von Willebrand's disease. Coronary atherosclerosis ...

  20. von Neumann's Law: Theoretical and Microgravity Experimental Comparison for Coarsening Diffusion in Bubble Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gravity in influencing the theoretical limit for bubble lattice coarsening and aging behavior, otherwise called von Neumann's law, is examined theoretically and experimentally. Preliminary microgravity results will be discussed.

  1. 76 FR 36166 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Gabriel von Max: Be...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... and Phantasms of the Soul'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant... the exhibition ``Gabriel von Max: Be-Tailed Cousins and Phantasms of the Soul,'' imported from...

  2. Alexander von Humboldt's charts of the Earth's magnetic field: an assessment based on modern models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, M.; Korte, M.; Soloviev, A.; Gvishiani, A.

    2010-11-01

    The 19th century witnessed a resurgence of interest in Earth's magnetic field. Both observational and theoretical aspects were involved, and one of the emblematic figures of this period was Alexander von Humboldt. Throughout a long life he maintained a strong interest in a broad area of subjects, however, here we are interested in his role in geomagnetism, and particularly in his pioneering contributions to charting the geomagnetic field. Alexander von Humboldt efforts in measuring and charting the Earth's magnetic field are recounted and the maps of declination, inclination and total intensity he had prepared are compared, favorably, with maps for the same epoch based on a modern model of the geomagnetic field, gufm1. This modern assessment of the accuracy of von Humboldt's geomagnetic charts illustrates the importance of his work, being also our homage to the 150th anniversary of the death of Alexander von Humboldt.

  3. Anwendung von Methoden der Logistik und Netzplantechnik zur präzedenz- und ressourcenbeschränkten Ablaufplanung von Echtzeitsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumzej, Roman; Lipičnik, Martin

    Grundlegende Zusammenhänge zwischen Logistik, Netzplantechnik und Echtzeit sowie den zugehörigen Arten der Ablaufplanung und ihrer Nutzung werden dargestellt. Das Echtzeitprinzip beinhaltet Rechtzeitigkeit von Abläufen, wobei es für eine frühzeitige Beendigung eines Ablaufs keinen Bonus gibt; im Gegensatz zum verspäteten Ablauf, dessen Konsequenzen in der Regel negativ und unabschätzbar sind. Das Just-in-Time-Prinzip gleicht dem der Echtzeit und wird vor allem in der Logistik zur Bezeichnung reibungsloser Abläufe in Beschaffungsketten verwendet. In der Netzplantechnik werden die kritischen Aktivitäten binnen eines Projektes bestimmt, die nicht verzögert werden dürfen, um das Projekt rechtzeitig zu beenden. Außerdem haben die drei Bereiche noch eine Gemeinsamkeit: um realistische Ablaufszenarien darzustellen, müssen in den Analysen auch begrenzte Ressourcen angemessen berücksichtigt werden.

  4. Markov property and strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Hajime

    2006-03-15

    The quantum Markov property is equivalent to the strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems. The additivity of von Neumann entropy for bipartite graded systems implies the statistical independence of states. However, the structure of Markov states for graded systems is different from that for tensor-product systems which have trivial grading. For three-composed graded systems we have U(1)-gauge invariant Markov states whose restriction to the marginal pair of subsystems is nonseparable.

  5. In memory of Eugene (Jenő) von Gothard: a pioneering nineteenth century Hungarian astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Ildikő J.; Jankovics, István

    2012-07-01

    Eugene von Gothard was a Hungarian engineer/scientist, instrument-maker and astrophysicist who founded the Herény Astrophysical Observatory in 1881 and carried out pioneering work in astronomical photography and spectroscopy. In this paper we provide biographical material about von Gothard and describe his observatory, before discussing his astronomical observations and the contribution that hemade to the early development of astrophysics.

  6. Persuasion Via Mere Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Raymond K.; Ware, Paul D.

    1971-01-01

    Describes an experiment which sought to effect persuasion by merely exposing subjects to the name of a stimulus object for a specified number of times. Through illustration, explains the theoretical basis and methodology employed in a mere exposure experiment. (Author)

  7. Paternal Exposures and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances in the workplace including lead, organic solvents, pesticides and radiation. Some studies suggest that such exposures ... for birth defects. Men exposed to heavy metals, pesticides, and other chemicals in the workplace may carry ...

  8. Nanotechnology and Exposure Science

    PubMed Central

    LIOY, PAUL J.; NAZARENKO, YEVGEN; HAN, TAE WON; LIOY, MARY JEAN; MAINELIS, GEDIMINAS

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the gaps in our understanding of human exposures to nanoparticles stemming from the use of nanotechnology-based consumer products by the general public. It also describes a series of steps that could be taken to characterize such exposures. The suggested steps include classification of the nanotechnology-based products, simulation of realistic exposure patterns, characterization of emissions, analysis of the duration of activities resulting in exposures, and consideration of the bioaccessibility of nanoparticles. In addition, we present a preliminary study with nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders where particle release was studied under realistic powder application conditions. The data demonstrated that when nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders were used, there was a potential for inhaling airborne particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. PMID:21222382

  9. NATIONAL EXPOSURE REGISTRY (NER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This system is a listing of persons (general population) with documented exposure to select hazardous substances (superfund related). All adverse health outcomes are monitored prospectively. Retrospective identification of adverse health outcomes (usually verified by medical reco...

  10. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  11. Poinsettia plant exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  12. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instruction concerning prenatal radiation exposure. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; NUREG 8.13, Revision 3; June 1999. The Health Physics Society is a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose ...

  13. Radiation exposure and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposure to pregnant women and infants following a radiological incident. Information about radiation, health effects of prenatal radiation exposure, assessment, patient care, and treatment of pregnant women and infants are presented. PMID:25333800

  14. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  15. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... had that might impact the development of their sperm or their eggs (ova) and their risk of ... your concerns with them. Radiation Exposure to the Sperm from Diagnostic X-Ray Studies There are no ...

  16. The effects of epinephrine infusion in patients with von Willebrand's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rickles, F R; Hoyer, L W; Rick, M E; Ahr, D J

    1976-01-01

    Epinephrine infusion causes variable increases in the components of the Factor VIII (antihemophilic factor) complex in patients with von Willebrand's disease. The increase in antihemophilic factor procoagulant activity was greater than that of Factor VIII-related antigen and von Willebrand factor activity in two patients with von Willebrand's disease. Similar increases in the three individual factors were demonstrated in two other patients. A 4-10-fold increase in Factor VIII-related properties was identified in each of these individuals after infusion. One patient has been studied with very severe von Willebrand's disease; none of the Factor VIII-related properties increased despite two infusions of epinephrine. Bleeding times were normalized or remained normal in the two patients whose von Willebrand factor activity was greater than 25 U/100 ml. It remained prolonged in those three patients whose von Willebrand factor activity levels remained below that concentration. The increase in procoagulant activity was transient in all patients and t 1/2 values were estimated to be between 0.8 and 3.4 h. PMID:1084352

  17. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  18. Household exposure models

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tap water is often assumed to be dominated by ingestion of drinking water. This paper addresses the relative importance of inhalation and dermal exposures in a typical household. A three-compartment model is used to simulate the 24-h concentration history of VOCs in the shower, bathroom, and remaining household volumes as a result of tap water use. Mass transfers from water to air are derived from measured data for radon and used to estimate mass-transfer properties for VOCs. The model is used to calculate a range of concentrations and human exposures in US dwellings. The estimated ratio of household- inhalation uptake to ingestion uptake is in the range of 1 to 6 for VOCs. We use a dermal absorption model to assess exposure across the skin boundary during baths and showers. The ratio of dermal exposure to ingestion exposure is in the range 0.6 to 1. 24 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. Particle exposures and infections.

    PubMed

    Ghio, A J

    2014-06-01

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, agricultural work, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), wood stoves, traffic-related emissions, gas stoves, and ambient air pollution are all particle-related exposures associated with an increased risk for respiratory infections. In addition, cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, and ETS can result in an elevated risk for tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis. One of the mechanisms for particle-related infections includes an accumulation of iron by surface functional groups of particulate matter (PM). Since elevations in metal availability are common to every particle exposure, all PM potentially contributes to these infections. Therefore, exposures to wood stove emissions, diesel exhaust, and air pollution particles are predicted to increase the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis, albeit these elevations are likely to be small and detectable only in large population studies. Since iron accumulation correlates with the presence of surface functional groups and dependent metal coordination by the PM, the risk for infection continues as long as the particle is retained. Subsequently, it is expected that the cessation of exposure will diminish, but not totally reverse, the elevated risk for infection. PMID:24488331

  20. Indoor fungal exposure.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christine A

    2003-08-01

    Fungi affect humans in complex ways and are capable of eliciting a number of disease responses, such as infectious, allergic, and irritant and toxic effects. Fungal exposure is unequivocally associated with exacerbations of asthma, although the role of fungi in causing the disease is yet to be determined. The association between home dampness and respiratory health effects is strong, and fungal exposure is suspected to be associated with this linkage. Fear of toxin exposures has generated debate over the possible toxic health effects of airborne fungi; however, several recent reviews discount the health impacts of mycotoxin through indoor exposures. Nevertheless, fungal contamination of indoor environments is undesirable. Knowledge of sources and characteristics of fungal spore release and dispersal are important for understanding the processes of exposure. Environmental monitoring for fungi and their disease agents are important aspects of exposure assessment, but few guidelines exist for interpreting their health impacts. Much work is needed in isolating, characterizing and standardizing fungal disease agents to properly assess the prevalence of fungal health effects. PMID:14524388

  1. Intracranial pressure monitoring and caesarean section in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease and symptomatic cerebellar haemangioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, D; Thompson, J; Wilkinson, D; Kerr, R S C; Russell, R

    2015-02-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease is a rare genetic disorder which gives rise to a range of tumours including central nervous system haemangioblastomas. We report a case of caesarean section in a patient with symptomatic cerebellar haemangioblastomas associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. An intracranial pressure monitor was inserted before surgery, which enabled intracranial pressure to be monitored throughout. The anaesthetic implications of von Hippel-Lindau disease are discussed and clinical options explored. PMID:25499015

  2. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001, Friedman test) with a median rating of 8 mm (corresponding to “hardly at all”) at the 0.1 ppm condition and with no influence from EA. No significant exposure-related effects were found for pulmonary function, or nasal swelling, nor for markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood (IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and Clara cell protein) or induced sputum (cell count, differential cell count, IL-6 and IL-8). Blink frequency recorded by electromyography was increased during exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  3. Asbestos exposure in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Gaensler, E.A. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are dose-related. Among these, asbestosis has occurred only with the heavy exposures of the past, is a disappearing disease, and is of no concern with the very small exposures from building occupancy. A possibly increased incidence of lung cancer has been included in risk analysis, but probably is also related to high exposure in that both epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a link between the process of alveolar inflammation and fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. The major concern has been mesothelioma in that it has occurred with much lower household and neighborhood exposure. Additionally, anxiety concerning buildings with ACM has been heightened by finding of friable asbestos in about 20% of public buildings, discovery of environmental asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in autopsies, and demonstration of a linear relationship between exposure and lung cancer risk in occupational groups, inviting extrapolation to a much lower dose. Legislative and regulatory mandates, promotional activities of abatement companies, adverse court decisions placing the onus of repairs on asbestos manufacturers, and a pandemic of mediagenic disease' all have contributed to panic among building owners, school boards, insurers, and others. In that there is neither clinical nor epidemiologic support for asbestos-related disease from building occupancy, risk estimates have been based on extrapolation from past experience with generally high-dose occupational exposure. However, only a few epidemiologic studies have contained quantitative estimates of exposure, and these have been measured in terms of all particles, with conversion to asbestos fibers uncertain and the fiber type and dimension largely unknown.

  4. Schirmwirkung von Hochfrequenz (HF)-Schutzkleidung: Untersuchung verschiedener Konstruktionsmerkmale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arps, V.; Scheibe, K.

    2005-05-01

    Die Messverfahren zur Bestimmung der Schutzwirkung von HF-Schutzkleidung sind in der Norm DIN 32780-100 festgelegt. Entsprechend diesen Anforderungen wird die elektrische und magnetische Schirmdämpfung bestimmt und daraus als Maß für die Schutzwirkung die elektromagnetische Schirmdämpfung berechnet. Diese ist eine der SAR vergleichbare Größe. In diesem Beitrag werden die Einflüsse verschiedener Konstruktionsmerkmale von HF-Schutzanzügen auf die elektromagnetische Schirmdämpfung untersucht. Zu diesen gehören die nach MIL STD 285 vermessene elektrische Schirmdämpfung der verwendeten Gewebe. Weiter werden verschiedene Teilbereiche der HF-Schutzkleidung auf ihre Schutzwirkung untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt liegt hierbei auf der Fragestellung inwieweit Verschlüsse, Reißverschlüsse oder leitfähiges Klettband, die Schutzwirkung beeinträchtigen. Zu diesem Zweck werden zwei Schutzanzüge unterschiedlicher Konstruktion vergleichend vermessen. Es handelt sich dabei um einen bereits im Handel befindlichen und entsprechend der Norm zertifizierten Anzug und einen neuen Prototyp, welcher nach verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten optimiert wurde. Schwachstellen der Konstruktion werden herausgearbeitet und Ansatzpunkte für weitere Verbesserungen erarbeitet. The measuring methods for determining the shielding effectiveness of radiofrequency (RF)-protective clothing are defined in German Standard DIN 32780-100. According to this standard, both the electric and the magnetic shielding effectiveness are measured in order to calculate the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. The electromagnetic shielding effectiveness is an adequate quality criterion for the degree of protection and also compares well with the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). In this article, the impact of different design features on the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness is analyzed. The electric shielding effectiveness of the used shielding materials is measured according to MIL STD 285 and thereupon

  5. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: data from an international registry.

    PubMed

    Federici, A B; Rand, J H; Bucciarelli, P; Budde, U; van Genderen, P J; Mohri, H; Meyer, D; Rodeghiero, F; Sadler, J E

    2000-08-01

    The acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those of congenital von Willebrand disease (vWD). Despite the numerous cases reported in the literature until 1999 (n = 266), large studies on AvWS are not available. Moreover, diagnosis of AvWS has been difficult and treatment empirical. These considerations prompted us to organize an international registry. A questionnaire, devised to collect specific information on AvWS, was sent to all the members of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH), who were invited to respond if they had diagnosed cases with the AvWS cases. 156 members answered the questionnaire and 54 of them sent information on 211 AvWS cases from 50 centers. Data were compared with those already published in the literature and 25 cases already described or not correctly diagnosed were excluded. The 186 AvWS cases that qualified for the registry were associated with lymphoproliferative (48%) and myeloproliferative disorders (15%), neoplasia (5%), immunological (2%), cardiovascular (21%) and miscellaneous disorders (9%). Ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo) or collagen binding activity (vWF:CBA) were usually low in AvWS (median values 20 U/dL, range 3-150), while factor VIII coagulant activity was sometimes normal (median 25 U/dL, range 3-191). FVIII/vWF inhibiting activities were present in only a minority of cases (16%). Bleeding episodes in AvWS were mostly of mucocutaneous type (68%) and were managed by DDAVP (32%), FVIII/vWF concentrates (37%), intravenous immunoglobulins (33%), plasmapheresis (19%), corticosteroids (19%) and immunosuppressive or chemotherapic agents (35%). Based upon the data of this international registry, it appears that AvWS is especially frequent in lympho- or myeloproliferative and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AvWS should be suspected and searched with the appropriate laboratory tests especially when excessive bleeding occurs in

  6. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of von Willebrand disease in India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2011-07-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) in all developing countries including India is considered a rare coagulation disorder, contrary to many reports from Western countries. Prevalence data based on hospital referrals identifies type 3 VWD as the most common subtype followed by type 1 and type 2. Approximately 60 to 70% cases of type 3 VWD are reportedly born of consanguineous marriages. The discriminatory diagnostic tests mainly include assays for factor (F)VIII:C and ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination and Von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen either by immunoelectrophoresis or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. VWD-type assisting tests like VWF collagen binding, VWF ristocetin cofactor assay, VWF-FVIII binding assay, and multimer analysis are occasionally used but not routinely applied in many laboratories. Among women, menorrhagia is an important presenting manifestation. Except for a handful of centers mainly in metropolitan cities, most laboratories in the remote parts of the country have no facilities for VWD-related investigations, resulting in occasional misdiagnoses of VWD as hemophilia A. Genetic diagnosis is being offered in two or three centers using the indirect linkage method in type 3 VWD, and efforts are continuing to implementing a direct mutation detection technique for routine practice in a few laboratories. Depending on the subtype or the severity of VWD, desmopressin, cryoprecipitate, fresh-frozen plasma, and factor VIII/VWF concentrates are used for management. Antifibrinolytic agents like epsilon-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid are widely used as an adjuvant therapy. In women with menorrhagia, oral contraceptives as a supplementary treatment are also being widely advocated to reduce bleeding. Products like danazol, ethenyl estradiol, thalidomide, and atorvastatin have been used in individual patients; acquired VWD associated with hypothyroidism has been managed successfully with thyroid hormone treatment. Both minor and major surgical

  7. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s−1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  8. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  9. Exposure to atmospheric radon.

    PubMed Central

    Steck, D J; Field, R W; Lynch, C F

    1999-01-01

    We measured radon (222Rn) concentrations in Iowa and Minnesota and found that unusually high annual average radon concentrations occur outdoors in portions of central North America. In some areas, outdoor concentrations exceed the national average indoor radon concentration. The general spatial patterns of outdoor radon and indoor radon are similar to the spatial distribution of radon progeny in the soil. Outdoor radon exposure in this region can be a substantial fraction of an individual's total radon exposure and is highly variable across the population. Estimated lifetime effective dose equivalents for the women participants in a radon-related lung cancer study varied by a factor of two at the median dose, 8 mSv, and ranged up to 60 mSv (6 rem). Failure to include these doses can reduce the statistical power of epidemiologic studies that examine the lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9924007

  10. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  11. Toxic inhalational exposures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tze-Ming Benson; Malli, Harjoth; Maslove, David M; Wang, Helena; Kuschner, Ware G

    2013-01-01

    Respirable toxicants are a spectrum of irritant and nonirritant gases, vapors, fumes, and airborne particles that can be entrained into the body through the respiratory tract, resulting in exposures that cause pulmonary injury and/or systemic disease. Sources of respirable toxicants include structural fires, industrial accidents, domestic mishaps, and intentional releases of injurious agents on the battleground (warfare) or in civilian settings (acts of terrorism). Acute toxic inhalational exposures may result in respiratory failure, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death. Management of victims includes assessment and protection of the airway, monitoring and treatment of systemic toxicity, and delivery of exposure-specific and nonspecific therapies that improve outcomes. Treatments may include antidotes, hyperbaric oxygen, and other nonspecific life-supporting interventions. PMID:22232204

  12. [Hermann von Helmholtz and Carl Stumpf on consonance and dissonance].

    PubMed

    Kursell, Julia

    2008-06-01

    The article juxtaposes Hermann von Helmholtz's work in the experimental physiology of hearing and Carl Stumpf's tone psychology, focusing on the problem of consonance and dissonance in music. It argues that the experimental set-up plays a major role in the approaches to hearing of both Helmholtz and Stumpf, shaping their redefinition of the musical concepts of consonance and dissonance. Helmholtz, however, explains dissonance as resulting from the beats that are heard when sound waves interfere, while Stumpf explains consonance from the fusion (Verschmelzung) of sounds, noting that two tones, depending on their distance cannot always be recognized as two but are heard as one single tone. Helmholtz's definition of dissonance eventually threatens his own theory of hearing, which is based on the mechanical principle of resonance and considers sound to be composed of sinusoidal waves. Both the physical and the mathematical tools he uses cannot easily be brought into accordance with his experimental findings on beats, which ask for a discrimination of fast changes in intensity. Dissonance thus becomes "unrecomendable" for Helmholtz, because it overstrains the ear. Stumpf's research, in contrast, has its point of departure in the historically given set of intervals and tries to find a principle that would explain this choice. His tests with experimental subjects who have no conscious knowledge of musical harmony and prove incapable to follow or reproduce music reveals to him a difference between the unity and multiplicity of tones. PMID:19048722

  13. Emperor Ashoka: Did he suffer from von Recklinghausen's diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Wig, N. N.; Sharma, Sheetal

    2015-01-01

    Emperor Ashoka is widely regarded as one of the greatest rulers of India. This paper mainly deals with his medical condition as recorded in the Buddhist texts of Sri Lanka as well as in the Buddhist texts of North India and Nepal. These sources mention his skin disorder which is described as very rough and unpleasant to touch. He is also known to have episodes of loss of consciousness at various times in his life. One of the earliest representations of Ashoka, about 100 years after his death at one of the gates of Sanchi Stupa, shows Ashoka fainting when visiting the Bodhi tree and being held by his queens. In this sculpture, Emperor Ashoka is shown as a man of short height, large head and a paunchy abdomen. In this paper, it is speculated that Emperor Ashoka was probably suffering from von Recklinghausen disease (Neurofibromatosis Type 1), which could explain his skin condition, episodes of loss of consciousness (probably epilepsy) and other bodily deformities. PMID:25657467

  14. [Hans von Hattingberg between psychoanalysis and National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Keifenheim, Katharina Eva

    2011-01-01

    Hans von Hattingberg (1879-1944) worked as a neurologist and psychoanalyst in Munich and Berlin from about 1910 to 1944. He was a prolific writer, but met with increasing disapproval from Freud and his circle. An advocate of the union of different psychotherapeutic schools, he was initially a marginal figure in the professional field. With Hitler's rise to power his career prospered: He was offered the position of a lecturer for psychotherapy and became head of the research department at the "Göring Institute". He came to prominence with his writings on the "Neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde" despite the fact that this was never his preferred topic. The main themes of his publications were marriage, love and female emancipation. Those works contain only little of the standard Nazi ideology of the time. Not only was Hattingberg never a member of the NSDAP (the ruling party), but in some respects he could conceivably be considered a member of the resistance. The article outlines the most important stages of Hattingberg's life and focuses on the question of how he positioned himself after 1933, when it became vital for him to reconcile psychoanalysis and National Socialism. PMID:22164713

  15. Empathy and identification in Von Donnersmarck's The Lives of Others.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Diana

    2008-09-01

    Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck's The Lives of Others, set in the German Democratic Republic in 1984, five years before the fall of the Berlin Wall, has been called the first accurate depiction of the psychological terror wielded by the Stasi, the East German secret police, who safeguarded the dictatorship of the proletariat. The film is about the psychological and political transformation of a Stasi officer, Wiesler, who undertakes the surveillance of a prominent playwright and his actress lover. The mechanisms through which Wiesler comes to empathize and identify with the subjects of his investigation, as he observes and listens in on the rich blend of passion, poetry, and politics that characterizes their lives, are explored in depth. Wiesler's transformation is based in part on the capacity to form implicit models of the behavior and experiences of others, based on the mirror neuron system, that Gallese and his colleagues call "embodied simulation." Underpinning the processes of empathy and identification so central to this film, embodied simulation is an unconscious and prereflexive mechanism through which the actions, emotions, and sensations we observe activate internal representations of the bodily and mental states of the other. Embodied simulation also expands our understanding of the power of the primal scene, which has long been identified as a major organizer of unconscious fantasies and conflicts throughout life, and which forms the central metaphor of the film. Embodied simulation scaffolds our aesthetic response to art, music, and literature, underlies the dynamics of spectatorship, and potentially catalyzes resistance to totalitarian mass movements. PMID:18802131

  16. [Recollections of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker].

    PubMed

    Gottstein, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Reminiscences and a diary of the author allow a report on meetings, conversations, experiences and joint undertakings with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during five decades. They began in the winter of 1948/49 in Göttingen in the Max Planck Institute for Physics where Werner Heisenberg was the director and Weizsäcker head of the Theory Division and where the author was graduate and post-graduate student and later group and division leader. In the 1960s a close cooperation with Weizsäcker resulted from common membership in Working Committee and Board of the Federation of German Scientists (VDW). As Science Attaché at the Embassy in Washington from 1971 to 1974 the author prepared for Weizsäcker the programme of his visits to the U.S. From 1974 to 1977 he cooperated closely with Weizsäcker, preparing the sessions of the Advisory Committee to the Federal Minister of Research and Technology of which Weizsäcker was Chair. Also in later years there were illuminating discussions and correspondences. PMID:24974623

  17. [Heinrich von Kleist--crisis and creative overcoming].

    PubMed

    Schlimme, J

    2001-07-01

    Heinrich von Kleist's life was shaken repeatedly by negative life-events, finally he committed suicide in his last life-crisis (1811). His work was mostly understood as descriptions of negative life-events and failed-being. In this article it will be shown that in at least two "crises" Kleist's work can be understood as a creative overcome of those. Kleist shows in his "Essay to Find a Sure Way to Happiness" (1799) his way of solving his "Soldier-Crisis" (1798), a depressive episode. In "The Broken Jug" (1802 - 1805) he shows the implications of a philosophical problem experienced in his "Kant-Crisis" (1801) and offers chances to overcome this particular crisis, which still seems to be an actual problem of ourselves. Though his crises must be understood as depressive episodes, at least the "Kant-Crisis" with its connections to philosophical and artistical matters seems to be more complicated than a simple depressive syndrome. Kleist formulates his basic life-experience, to be repeatedly shaken by "crises" respectively depressive episodes and the necessity to overcome each in a new way of living. PMID:11479830

  18. Early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We present quantitative experimental results on the transition to early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of water- and water-sugar-based polymer solutions compared to the transition to turbulence in their Newtonian solvents by measurements of solely global quantities as torque Γ(t) and pressure p(t) with large statistics as a function of Re. For the first time the transition values of Re_c\\textit{turb} to fully developed turbulence and turbulent drag reduction regime Re_c\\textit{TDR} are obtained as functions of elasticity El by using the solvents with different viscosities and polymer concentrations ϕ. Two scaling regions for fundamental turbulent characteristics are identified and they correspond to the turbulent and TDR regimes. Both Re_c\\textit{turb} and Re_c\\textit{TDR} are found via the dependence of the friction coefficient Cf and Cp, defined through scaled average torque \\barΓ and rms pressure fluctuations p\\textit{rms} , respectively, on Re for different El and ϕ and via the limits of the two scaling regions.

  19. Front End Schaltung zur Online Auswertung von EKG-Signalen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, E.; Tielert, R.

    2007-06-01

    Ein mobiles EKG-System zur Online Auswertung von EKG-Signalen wird dargestellt. Die Auswertung beruht auf ein energiesparendes Verfahren, das den Vorteil einer zulässigen Unterabtastung des Signals bietet und eine Interaktion zwischen der messenden Elektronik und dem funkgebundenen Auswertungsrechner ermöglicht. Diese Interaktion besteht darin, sowohl die Front End Schaltung im EKG-Sensor als auch den im ATmega8L eingebetteten A/D-Wandler vom Auswertungsrechner zu steuern und den Datenbedarf des Rechners dynamisch an die Erfordernisse des Analyseprogramms anzupassen. Das entwickelte EKG-System liefert erfolgreiche Charakterisierungen erfasster Elektrokardiogramme. A mobile ecg-system for an online analysis of electrocardiogram signals is presented. The analysis is based on an energy-saving procedure, which offers the advantage of an acceptable undersampling of the signal, and which allows an interaction between the measuring electronic and the radio-bound analysis-computer. In this interaction both the front-end circuit in the ecg-sensor and the A/D converter, which is embedded in the ATmega8L, are steered by the analysis computer. The data requirement of the computer is also dynamically adapted to the requirements of the analysis-program. The developed ecg-system supplies successful characterisations of measured electrocardiograms.

  20. Allosteric activation of ADAMTS13 by von Willebrand factor

    PubMed Central

    Muia, Joshua; Zhu, Jian; Gupta, Garima; Haberichter, Sandra L.; Friedman, Kenneth D.; Feys, Hendrik B.; Deforche, Louis; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Westfield, Lisa A.; Roth, Robyn; Tolia, Niraj Harish; Heuser, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The metalloprotease ADAMTS13 cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF) within endovascular platelet aggregates, and ADAMTS13 deficiency causes fatal microvascular thrombosis. The proximal metalloprotease (M), disintegrin-like (D), thrombospondin-1 (T), Cys-rich (C), and spacer (S) domains of ADAMTS13 recognize a cryptic site in VWF that is exposed by tensile force. Another seven T and two complement C1r/C1s, sea urchin epidermal growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein (CUB) domains of uncertain function are C-terminal to the MDTCS domains. We find that the distal T8-CUB2 domains markedly inhibit substrate cleavage, and binding of VWF or monoclonal antibodies to distal ADAMTS13 domains relieves this autoinhibition. Small angle X-ray scattering data indicate that distal T-CUB domains interact with proximal MDTCS domains. Thus, ADAMTS13 is regulated by substrate-induced allosteric activation, which may optimize VWF cleavage under fluid shear stress in vivo. Distal domains of other ADAMTS proteases may have similar allosteric properties. PMID:25512528

  1. Ludwig von Bertalanffy's Organismic View on the Theory of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Drack, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a key figure in the advancement of theoretical biology. His early considerations already led him to recognize the necessity of considering the organism as a system, as an organization of parts and processes. He termed the resulting research program organismic biology, which he extended to all basic questions of biology and almost all areas of biology, hence also to the theory of evolution. This article begins by outlining the rather unknown (because often written in German) research of Bertalanffy in the field of theoretical biology. The basics of the organismic approach are then described. This is followed by Bertalanffy's considerations on the theory of evolution, in which he used methods from theoretical biology and then introduced his own, organismic, view on evolution, leading to the demand for finding laws of evolution. Finally, his view on the concept of homology is presented. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 77–90, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25727202

  2. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed.

  3. Diagnosis and management of von Willebrand disease in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Wee, Eva M; Leebeek, Frank W G; Eikenboom, Jeroen C J

    2011-07-01

    In the Netherlands, specialized care for patients with a bleeding disorder, including hemophilia, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and allied disorders, is concentrated in 13 Hemophilia Treatment Centers. The Dutch Hemophilia Treaters Society, the Dutch Hemophilia Nurses' Society, and the Netherlands Hemophilia Patients Society collaborate to optimize management of patients with a bleeding disorder. A recently updated consensus guideline of hemophilia and allied bleeding disorders provide guidance on the current optimal diagnostic strategy and treatment of VWD. Genetic testing is not routinely performed in the Netherlands. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is the choice of treatment in VWD patients responsive to DDAVP, as determined by a test infusion. Coagulation factor concentrates are used in nonresponsive individuals, in case of a contraindication for DDAVP, or in type 2B and type 3 VWD. These concentrates are available for all patients in the Netherlands; however, these may only be administered in a Hemophilia Treatment Center or under the care of a Hemophilia Treatment Center. Recently a study on moderate and severe VWD (the Willebrand in Netherlands study) was initiated to obtain more insight on VWD diagnosis, treatment, and the burden of the disease. PMID:22102190

  4. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  5. OPTIMIZING EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research reported in this task description addresses one of a series of interrelated NERL tasks with the common goal of optimizing the predictive power of low cost, reliable exposure measurements for the planned Interagency National Children's Study (NCS). Specifically, we w...

  6. Liquid sulfur mustard exposure.

    PubMed

    Newmark, Jonathan; Langer, Janice M; Capacio, Benedict; Barr, John; McIntosh, Roger G

    2007-02-01

    A 35-year-old active duty service member sustained a 6.5% body surface area burn as a result of exposure to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, which is the most severe mustard exposure of a U.S. military member since World War II that is known to us. New techniques were used to demonstrate the detectable persistence of mustard metabolites in the patient's blood for at least 41 days after exposure, validating these techniques for the first time for a human mustard patient; they were also used for the first time with human mustard blister fluid. The techniques extend eightfold the period of time that mustard exposure can be definitively diagnosed, compared with previous techniques. Although this patient's lesions were never life-threatening, he required 2 weeks of intensive burn care. He has been left with ongoing posttraumatic stress disorder and has had an incomplete dermatological recovery. In a major terrorist attack involving many patients exposed to sulfur mustard, care resources would be depleted quickly. PMID:17357776

  7. DIOXIN EXPOSURE INITIATIVE PUBLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following is a listing of published articles that have come out of EPA's Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    SOURCES:

      <...

    1. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FACILITY CORE

      EPA Science Inventory

      The Exposure Assessment Facility Core will continue to collect environmental measures including personal and indoor air monitoring and repeat collection of dust samples from the home and biologic measures including urine and blood samples collected from the mother during pregn...

    2. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

      MedlinePlus

      ... childhood and last a lifetime. The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are brain damage and the resulting impairments ... these individuals. Risk Factors 9 The severity of alcohol’s effects on a fetus primarily depends on the following: » ...

    3. Wilhelm von Hboldt and James Parkinson. An appraisal of observation and creativity.

      PubMed

      Lakke, J P

      1996-10-01

      Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) was an educational reformer, a statesman serving Frederick William III, King of Prussia and a philologist, who influenced the contemporary linguist Chomsky. Moreover von Humbolt was a prolific writer, he kept up a substantial correspondence with family and a circle of acquaintances. His letters also contain references to his physical fitness. In the year of James Parkinson's death, 1824, von Humboldt mentioned difficulties with writing for the first time. From his correspondence during the last 11 years of his life we can reconstruct a classic development of the shaking palsy based on clever self-observations. Von Humboldt supplemented James Parkinson's description with micrographia, and dysdiadochokinesia. In addition, he observed, that turning over in bed was impeded, that after 9 years of misery his tremor subsided, and that writing was possible using Latin print lettering instead of his usual gothic handwriting, von Humboldt died on the 8th April 1835 of pneumonia, a complication of his illness; he kept his full intellectual and artistic capacities until the end. PMID:18591044

    4. Test of Von Baer's law of the conservation of early development.

      PubMed

      Poe, Steven

      2006-11-01

      One of the oldest and most pervasive ideas in comparative embryology is the perceived evolutionary conservation of early ontogeny relative to late ontogeny. Karl Von Baer first noted the similarity of early ontogeny across taxa, and Ernst Haeckel and Charles Darwin gave evolutionary interpretation to this phenomenon. In spite of a resurgence of interest in comparative embryology and the development of mechanistic explanations for Von Baer's law, the pattern itself has been largely untested. Here, I use statistical phylogenetic approaches to show that Von Baer's law is an unnecessarily complex explanation of the patterns of ontogenetic timing in several clades of vertebrates. Von Baer's law suggests a positive correlation between ontogenetic time and amount of evolutionary change. I compare ranked position in ontogeny to frequency of evolutionary change in rank for developmental events and find that these measures are not correlated, thus failing to support Von Baer's model. An alternative model that postulates that small changes in ontogenetic rank are evolutionarily easier than large changes is tentatively supported. PMID:17236417

    5. Multiple substitutions in the von Willebrand factor gene that mimic the pseudogene sequence

      SciTech Connect

      Eikenboom, J.C.; Brieet, E.; Reitsma, P.H.; Vink, T.; Sixma, J.J.

      1994-03-15

      The authors have analyzed a type IIB and a type I von Willebrand disease family for the presence of mutations in the region coding for the glycoprotein Ib binding domain of the von Willebrand factor. Since this sequence is also present in the highly homologous von Willebrand factor pseudogene, the authors have studied genomic DNA as well as cDNA, which was produced from RNA isolated from endothelial cells or platelets. In both families, they have detected multiple consecutive nucleotide substitutions in the 5{prime} end of exon 28 that result in a sequence identical to the von Willebrand factor pseudogene. These substitutions were also found in cDNA, which proves that they are present in the active gene. The occurrence of multiple adjacent substitutions that exactly reflect a part of the sequence of the von Willebrand factor pseudogene is difficult to reconcile with sequential single mutational events. They therefore hypothesize that each of these multiple substitutions arose from one recombinational event between gene and pseudogene. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

    6. Von Bertalanffy's dynamics under a polynomial correction: Allee effect and big bang bifurcation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leonel Rocha, J.; Taha, A. K.; Fournier-Prunaret, D.

      2016-02-01

      In this work we consider new one-dimensional populational discrete dynamical systems in which the growth of the population is described by a family of von Bertalanffy's functions, as a dynamical approach to von Bertalanffy's growth equation. The purpose of introducing Allee effect in those models is satisfied under a correction factor of polynomial type. We study classes of von Bertalanffy's functions with different types of Allee effect: strong and weak Allee's functions. Dependent on the variation of four parameters, von Bertalanffy's functions also includes another class of important functions: functions with no Allee effect. The complex bifurcation structures of these von Bertalanffy's functions is investigated in detail. We verified that this family of functions has particular bifurcation structures: the big bang bifurcation of the so-called “box-within-a-box” type. The big bang bifurcation is associated to the asymptotic weight or carrying capacity. This work is a contribution to the study of the big bang bifurcation analysis for continuous maps and their relationship with explosion birth and extinction phenomena.

    7. Epidemiologic interactions, complexity, and the lonesome death of Max von Pettenkofer.

      PubMed

      Morabia, Alfredo

      2007-12-01

      In the mid-19th century, the German hygienist Max von Pettenkofer viewed cholera as resulting from the interaction between a postulated cholera germ and the characteristics of soils. In order to cause cholera, the cholera germ had to become a cholera miasma, but this transformation required prolonged contact of the germ with dry and porous soils when groundwater levels were low. This hypothetical germ-environment interaction explained more observations than did contagion alone. Despite its attraction, von Pettenkofer's postulate also implied that cholera-patient quarantine or water filtration was useless to prevent and/or control cholera epidemics. The disastrous consequences of the lack of water filtration during the massive outbreak of cholera in the German town of Hamburg in 1892 tarnished von Pettenkofer's reputation and marked thereafter the course of his life. von Pettenkofer's complex mode of thinking sank into oblivion even though, in hindsight, germ-environment interactions are more appropriate than is bacteriology alone for explaining the occurrence of cholera epidemics in populations. Revisiting the fate of von Pettenkofer's theory with modern lenses can benefit today's quest for deciphering the causes of complex associations. PMID:17934200

    8. Type II PI4-kinases control Weibel-Palade body biogenesis and von Willebrand factor structure in human endothelial cells

      PubMed Central

      Lopes da Silva, Mafalda; O'Connor, Marie N.; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; White, Ian J.; Al-Shawi, Raya; Simons, J. Paul; Mössinger, Julia; Haucke, Volker

      2016-01-01

      ABSTRACT Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are endothelial storage organelles that mediate the release of molecules involved in thrombosis, inflammation and angiogenesis, including the pro-thrombotic glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF). Although many protein components required for WPB formation and function have been identified, the role of lipids is almost unknown. We examined two key phosphatidylinositol kinases that control phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate levels at the trans-Golgi network, the site of WPB biogenesis. RNA interference of the type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases PI4KIIα and PI4KIIβ in primary human endothelial cells leads to formation of an increased proportion of short WPB with perturbed packing of VWF, as exemplified by increased exposure of antibody-binding sites. When stimulated with histamine, these cells release normal levels of VWF yet, under flow, form very few platelet-catching VWF strings. In PI4KIIα-deficient mice, immuno-microscopy revealed that VWF packaging is also perturbed and these mice exhibit increased blood loss after tail cut compared to controls. This is the first demonstration that lipid kinases can control the biosynthesis of VWF and the formation of WPBs that are capable of full haemostatic function. PMID:27068535

    9. Neurocognitive profile of a young adolescent with DK phocomelia/von Voss phocomelia/von Voss Cherstvoy syndrome.

      PubMed

      Antonini, Tanya N; Van Horn Kerne, Valerie; Axelrad, Marni E; Karaviti, Lefkothea P; Schwartz, David D

      2015-07-01

      DK phocomelia/von Voss Cherstvoy syndrome is a rare condition characterized by upper limb and urogenital abnormalities and various brain anomalies. Previously reported cases have noted significant developmental delays, although no formal testing of cognitive abilities has been reported. In this paper we describe results from a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of a 12-year-old male with DK phocomelia syndrome. Test findings indicated mild impairment in intellectual functioning, with more significant impairment in adaptive skills and academic achievement. The neuropsychological profile converged with neurological findings, showing a distinct pattern of strengths and weaknesses that suggests functional compromise of posterior brain regions with relatively well-preserved functioning of more anterior regions. Specifically, impairments were evident in perceptual reasoning, visual perception, and visuomotor integration, whereas normal or near normal functioning was evident in memory, receptive language, social cognition, attention, and most aspects of executive functioning. To our knowledge this is the first report to describe the neurocognitive profile of an individual with DK phocomelia syndrome. PMID:25899150

    10. Carcinoid tumour of the common bile duct--a novel complication of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

      PubMed Central

      Fellows, I W; Leach, I H; Smith, P G; Toghill, P J; Doran, J

      1990-01-01

      A 30 year old man with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome presented with obstructive jaundice caused by a carcinoid tumour of the mid- and upper common bile duct. This association is probably causally related in view of the propensity for patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome to develop neuroendocrine tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2379881

    11. "'And They Lived Happily Ever After": The Fairy Tale of Radical Constructivism and Von Glasersfeld's Ethical Disengagement

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      d'Agnese, Vasco

      2015-01-01

      Is von Glasersfeld's constructivism actually radical? In this article, I respond to this question by analyzing von Glasersfeld's main works. I argue that the essential theoretical move of radical constructivism--namely the assertion that reality is the construction of a human mind that only responds to the subjective perception of "what…

    12. BOOK REVIEW: Meilensteine der Astronomie - Von Aristoteles bis Hawking

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, J.

      2006-12-01

      A writer, more specific a writer on the history of astronomy, might from time to time look at the collected document folders with all the research material and reprints, and might wonder: has this been all? Especially at a time when recycling is in vogue? And, perhaps with a request or an invitation to submit something, he or she might consider re-using the material before its definitive disposal. Well, such are my feelings when I looked at Jurgen Hamel's new book Milestones of Astronomy - From Aristoteles to Hawking . A slight chance for survival of medium-sized publishers like Kosmos is to offer popular books, and a title must attract potential buyers: Aristoteles means the "old" times, and as concerns the "mad scientist" of modern times, Stephen Hawking has by now dethroned Einstein. In 1998, Hamel had published a Geschichte der Astronomie - Von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart (History of astronomy, from the beginnings to the present), which, of course, he could not simply copy. This time, he selected some stones from his research areas - milestones, touchstones, stumbling blocks in the long road of astronomical evolution - and put them between the covers of his new book. So let us look at these (mile)stones . The reader is informed about Aristoteles on 2 pages, but his medieval interpreter Johannes de Sacrobosco gets 8 pages! Copernicus' life and achievements are described on 9 pages, closely followed by his devotee and translator Rothmann with 8 pages; Copernicus' contemporary, Peter Apian, however, gets about 13! Bessel's and Herschel's lifes and works are described on well-deserved 13 and 15 pages, while the achievements of the two Lucasian professors, Isaac Newton and Stephen Hawking, are just outlined in a single paragraph! Thus, importance is sometimes inversely proportional to text length... But let us become serious now. Why should an active historian outline, for the hundreth time, the life of Copernicus, while there are so many interesting, and often

    13. Evaluation of von Willebrand factor in COPD patients*

      PubMed Central

      Bártholo, Thiago Prudente; da Costa, Cláudia Henrique; Rufino, Rogério

      2014-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To compare the absolute serum von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels and relative serum vWF activity in patients with clinically stable COPD, smokers without airway obstruction, and healthy never-smokers. METHODS: The study included 57 subjects, in three groups: COPD (n = 36); smoker (n = 12); and control (n = 9). During the selection phase, all participants underwent chest X-rays, spirometry, and blood testing. Absolute serum vWF levels and relative serum vWF activity were obtained by turbidimetry and ELISA, respectively. The modified Medical Research Council scale (cut-off score = 2) was used in order to classify COPD patients as symptomatic or mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic. RESULTS: Absolute vWF levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the smoker and COPD groups: 989 ± 436 pg/mL vs. 2,220 ± 746 pg/mL (p < 0.001) and 1,865 ± 592 pg/mL (p < 0.01). Relative serum vWF activity was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the smoker group (136.7 ± 46.0% vs. 92.8 ± 34.0%; p < 0.05), as well as being significantly higher in the symptomatic COPD subgroup than in the mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic COPD subgroup (154 ± 48% vs. 119 ± 8%; p < 0.05). In all three groups, there was a negative correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and relative serum vWF activity (r2 = −0.13; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that increases in vWF levels and activity contribute to the persistence of systemic inflammation, as well as increasing cardiovascular risk, in COPD patients. PMID:25210959

  1. Philipp Frank, Richard von Mises, and the Frank-Mises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    The theoretical physicist Philipp Frank (1884 1966) and the applied mathematician Richard von Mises (1883 1953) both received their university education in Vienna shortly after 1900 and became friends at the latest during the Great War.They were attached to the Vienna Circle of Logical Positivists and wrote an influential two-part work on the differential and integral equations of mechanics and physics, the Frank-Mises, of 1925 and 1927, with its second edition following in 1930 and 1935.This work originated in the lectures that the mathematician Bernhard Riemann (1826 1866) delivered on partial differential equations and their applications to physical questions at the University of Göttingen between 1854 and 1862, which were edited and published posthumously in1869 by the physicist Karl Hattendorff (1834 1882).The immediate precursor of the Frank-Mises, however, was the extensive revision of Hattendorff’s edition of Riemann’s lectures that the mathematician Heinrich Weber (1842 1913) published in two volumes, the Riemann-Weber, of 1900 and 1901, with its second edition following in 1910 and 1912. I trace this historical lineage, explore the nature and contents of the Frank-Mises, and discuss its complementary relationship to the first volume of the text that the mathematicians Richard Courant (1888 1972) and David Hilbert (1862 1943) published on the methods of mathematical physics in 1924, the Courant-Hilbert,which, when it and its second volume of 1937 were translated into English and extensively revised in 1953 and 1961, eclipsed the classic Frank-Mises.

  2. Biochemical specificity of von Economo neurons in hominoids

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Tetreault, Nicole A.; Allman, John M.; Jacobs, Bob; Butti, Camilla; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2010-01-01

    Von Economo neurons (VENs) are defined by their thin, elongated cell body and long dendrites projecting from apical and basal ends. These distinctive neurons are mostly present in anterior cingulate (ACC) and fronto-insular (FI) cortex, with particularly high densities in cetaceans, elephants, and hominoid primates (i.e., humans and apes). This distribution suggests that VENs contribute to specializations of neural circuits in species that share both large brain size and complex social cognition, possibly representing an adaptation to rapidly relay socially-relevant information over long distances across the brain. Recent evidence indicates that unique patterns of protein expression may also characterize VENs, particularly involving molecules that are known to regulate gut and immune function. In this study, we used quantitative stereologic methods to examine the expression of three such proteins that are localized in VENs – activating-transcription factor 3 (ATF3), interleukin 4 receptor (IL4Rα) and neuromedin B (NMB). We quantified immunoreactivity against these proteins in different morphological classes of ACC layer V neurons of hominoids. Among the different neuron types analyzed (pyramidal, VEN, fork, enveloping, and other multipolar), VENs showed the greatest percentage that displayed immunostaining. Additionally, a higher proportion of VENs in humans were immunoreactive to ATF3, IL4Rα, and NMB than in other apes. No other ACC layer V neuron type displayed a significant species difference in the percentage of immunoreactive neurons. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic variation exists in the protein expression profile of VENs, suggesting that humans might have evolved biochemical specializations for enhanced interoceptive sensitivity. PMID:21140465

  3. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Nada; Bereczky-Veress, Biborka; Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  4. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V.; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines—generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89–174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11–2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  5. An Alternative to Von Glasersfeld's Subjectivism in Science Education: Deweyan Social Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Jim

    An influential view of constructivism in science and mathematics educational research and practice is that of Ernst von Glasersfeld. It is a peculiarly subjectivist form of constructivism that should not be attractive to science and mathematics educators concerned with retaining some sort of realism that leaves room for objectivity. The subjectivist constructivism of von Glasersfeld also becomes entangled in untenable mind/body and subject/object dualisms. Finally, these dualisms are unnecessary for social constructivism. I will provide one example of a social constructivist alternative to social constructivism, that of the pragmatic philosopher John Dewey. In presenting Dewey's position I will appeal to Ockham's razor, that is, the admonition not to multiply entities beyond necessity, to shave off the needless mentalistic and psychic entities that lead von Glasersfeld into his subjectivism and dualism.

  6. Von der Prägeometrie zur Topologischen Komplexität.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, D.

    Der Autor macht in seinem Beitrag gegen das vorherrschende reduktionistische Selbstverständnis der modernen Physik geltend, daß eine umfassende Theorie von Allem (TOE) nicht schon durch eine Alles vereinheitlichende Theorie als Abschluß des reduktionistischen Programms der Elementarteilchenphysik gegeben sein kann. Zum einen muß der initialen Kontingenz unseres Universums durch eine entsprechende quantenkosmologische Theorie Rechnung getragen werden, zum anderen muß auch die in dieser Kontingenz begründete Geschichtlichkeit unseres Universums, d.h. die Emergenz von Komplexität, von einer angemessenen TOE erklärt werden können. Der Autor zeigt, daß ein solcher Anspruch nicht mit den üblichen Komplexitätsmaßen der heutigen Komplexitätstheorien eingelöst werden kann, und schlägt als Alternative einen unmittelbar emergenztheoretisch begründeten Komplexitätsbegriff, den der Topologischen Komplexität vor.

  7. Umsetzung von CE-Prozessen durch neue Methoden und interaktive 3-D-Modelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Andrea; Schulz, Torsten; Szymanski, Hans

    Innerhalb der EU gelten einheitliche Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von Maschinen, die in Form von grundlegenden Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutzanforderungen in der Maschinenrichtlinie (MaschRL) formuliert sind. Ihre Einhaltung dokumentiert der Hersteller mit der Konformitätserklärung und der Vergabe des CE-Zeichens. Die Maschinenrichtlinie ist ein Element des 1985 von der Europäischen Gemeinschaft (EG) beschriebenen "New Approach“ Rechtsetzungsmodells, das technologische Innovation ermöglicht und die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der europäischen Industrie regelt. Es wurde erschaffen, um technische Handelshemmnisse im europäischen Binnenmarkt zu beseitigen und ein einheitliches Niveau hinsichtlich der Sicherheit der Produkte und dem Gesundheits- bzw. Verbraucherschutz zu gewährleisten. Alle Produkt-Richtlinien der EG, die später auf Grundlage des New Approach entstanden sind, weisen eine einheitliche Vorgehensweise auf, mit der diese Ziele erreicht werden sollen (VDI Verlag 11/2008).

  8. [Viktor Borisovich von Gyubbenet--a military physician, a surgeon and a social activist].

    PubMed

    Ishutin, O S

    2015-02-01

    The current article is dedicated to a talented surgeon, an organizer of military health care, an extraordinary personality and a public figure--Doctor of Medicine, a privy councilor Victor Borisovich von Guebbenet. A talent of von Gyubbenea as a doctor-surgeon and an organizer of the surgical help on theater of war was especially brightly shown during two big military conflicts of the beginning of the XX century--the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and the First World War I (1914-1918). In the first case doctor von Gyubbenet, being a surgeon of the 3rd Siberian corps successfully manage the activity of military-medical divisions and establishments of Port Arthur garrison. In the second military conflict Victor Borisovich as a doctor and an organizer headed sanitary part of armies of the Western front and successfully directed a medical support of armies of the front since 1915 and until the end of war. PMID:25920178

  9. Static task of von Mises planar truss analyzed using the potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, Martin

    2013-10-01

    A Von Mises planar truss subjected to vertical static load at its top joint is studied. The mathematical concept of large displacement elastic analysis of the von Mises truss targeted for computers is described. The model geometry is described using finite mass points. Formulae for the evaluation of displacements of mass points and rotation of segments were derived with the help of geometrical and physical conditions. Formulae for the determination of potential energy of the system are listed. Deformation of the structure is evaluated by seeking the minimal potential energy. The step-by-step increment method combined with Newton-Raphson method is used. The mathematical solution described in the article enables the modelling of Mises truss using a finite amount of segments. The described solution is suitable for load-deflection curve computation of a limit load model. The equilibrium stability problem of von Mises truss is discussed in connection with the random effects of imperfections.

  10. A historical perspective: Bernhard von Langenbeck German surgeon (1810-1887).

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Oelhafen, Kim; Shayota, Brian J; Klaassen, Zachary; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-10-01

    Bernhard von Langenbeck is undeniably one of the world's greatest surgeons and inventors. The influence which he exerted upon the practice of surgery, as apparent by the numerous surgical tools and 21 operations credited to his name, represents the notable contributions of this amazing man. Despite the tools and techniques which bear his name, the establishment of a surgical journal, and his role in co-founding the German Surgical Society, many attest that Bernhard von Langenbeck's greatest contribution to the professional field was the vast knowledge he imparted on his pupils. Commonly credited with training nearly every celebrated surgical operator of his time, von Langenbeck merits posthumous acknowledgement for his vast contributions to the field of medicine and surgery. PMID:25044221

  11. IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Rezentralisierung von E-Mail-Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehn, Max; Haarer, Ado; Schreiner, Alexander; Storz, Michael

    Das Teilprojekt E-Mail hatte ursprünglich die Aufgabe einen zentralen Mailservice mit verteilter Administration der Mailadressen für die TUM aufzubauen und diesen durch Anti-Spam- und Anti-Viren-Maßnahmen zu schützen. Auf diesen Mailservice sollten sowohl die am LRZ gehosteten Maildomains als auch die vielen lokal betriebenen Mailserver - soweit von deren Betreibern gewünscht - migriert werden. Neben einigen Rückschlägen und Hindernissen kam es im Laufe des Projektes auch zu einer Änderung der Anforderungen, sodass zum Ende des Projektes statt eines reinen Mailsystems ein Doppelsystem mit "shared SMTP address space" bestehend aus einem klassischen Message-Store mit POP/IMAP-Zugriff auf Basis von Postfix + Dovecot und einem Groupware-System auf Basis von Microsoft Exchange in Produktion ging, wobei jeder Mitarbeiter und Student der TUM wählen kann, auf welchem der beiden Systeme sich seine Mailbox befindet.

  12. Estimating the probability distribution of von Mises stress for structures undergoing random excitation. Part 1: Derivation

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.; Reese, G.

    1998-09-01

    The von Mises stress is often used as the metric for evaluating design margins, particularly for structures made of ductile materials. For deterministic loads, both static and dynamic, the calculation of von Mises stress is straightforward, as is the resulting calculation of reliability. For loads modeled as random processes, the task is different; the response to such loads is itself a random process and its properties must be determined in terms of those of both the loads and the system. This has been done in the past by Monte Carlo sampling of numerical realizations that reproduce the second order statistics of the problem. Here, the authors present a method that provides analytic expressions for the probability distributions of von Mises stress which can be evaluated efficiently and with good precision numerically. Further, this new approach has the important advantage of providing the asymptotic properties of the probability distribution.

  13. [Acquired von Willebrand's disease in the course of severe primary hypothyroidism in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3].

    PubMed

    Lubińska, Monika; Swiatkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Kazimierska, Ewa; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The case of a 20-year old female, who had been followed because of von Willebrand disease (vWD) was presented in this paper . She had a past history of menorrhagia and bleeding after dental procedures and the activity of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was decreased. Because of suggestive clinical features, the workup for hypothyroidism was performed and the patient was found to have severe hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto thyroiditis. After the institution of replacement therapy with levothyroxine, von Willebrand factor activity returned to normal range and symptoms of von Willebrand disease disappeared. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) due to hypothyroidism was made. The development of myasthenia led to the final diagnosis of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (APS) with myasthenia gravis and vitiligo. PMID:18335399

  14. Human von Willebrand factor gene and pseudogene: Structural analysis and differentiation by polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, D.J.; Tuley, E.A.; Westfield, L.A.; Lester-Mancuso, T.L.; Sorace, J.M.; Sadler, J.E. ); Le Beau, M.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Structural analysis of the von Willebrand factor gene located on chromosome 12 is complicated by the presence of a partial unprocessed pseudogene on chromosome 22q11-13. The structures of the von Willebrand factor pseudogene and corresponding segment of the gene were determined, and methods were developed for the rapid differentiation of von Willebrand factor gene and pseudogene sequences. The pseudogene is 21-29 kilobases in length and corresponds to 12 exons (exons 23-34) of the von Willebrand factor gene. Approximately 21 kilobases of the gene and pseudogene were sequenced, including the 5{prime} boundary of the pseudogene. The 3{prime} boundary of the pseudogene lies within an 8-kb region corresponding to intron 34 of the gene. The presence of splice site and nonsense mutations suggests that the pseudogene cannot yield functional transcripts. The pseudogene has diverged {approximately}3.1{percent} in nucleotide sequence from the gene. This suggests a recent evolutionary origin {approximately}19-29 million years ago, near the time of divergence of humans and apes from monkeys. Several repetitive sequences were identified, including 4 Alu, one Line-1, and several short simple sequence repeats. Several of these simple repeats differ in length between the gene and pseudogene and provide useful markers for distinguishing these loci. Sequence differences between the gene and pseudogene were exploited to design oligonucleotide primers for use in the polymerase chain reaction to selectivity amplify sequences corresponding to exons 23-34 from either the von Willebrand factor gene or the pseudogene. This method is useful for the analysis of gene defects in patients with von Willebrand disease, without interference from homologous sequences in the pseudogene.

  15. Systems genetic and pharmacological analysis identifies candidate genes underlying mechanosensation in the von Frey test.

    PubMed

    Young, E E; Bryant, C D; Lee, S E; Peng, X; Cook, B; Nair, H K; Dreher, K J; Zhang, X; Palmer, A A; Chung, J M; Mogil, J S; Chesler, E J; Lariviere, W R

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical sensitivity is commonly affected in chronic pain and other neurological disorders. To discover mechanisms of individual differences in punctate mechanosensation, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of the response to von Frey monofilament stimulation in BXD recombinant inbred (BXD) mice. Significant loci were detected on mouse chromosome (Chr) 5 and 15, indicating the location of underlying polymorphisms that cause heritable variation in von Frey response. Convergent evidence from public gene expression data implicates candidate genes within the loci: von Frey thresholds were strongly correlated with baseline expression of Cacna2d1, Ift27 and Csnk1e in multiple brain regions of BXD strains. Systemic gabapentin and PF-670462, which target the protein products of Cacna2d1 and Csnk1e, respectively, significantly increased von Frey thresholds in a genotype-dependent manner in progenitors and BXD strains. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed differential expression of Cacna2d1 and Csnk1e in multiple brain regions in progenitors and showed differential expression of Cacna2d1 and Csnk1e in the dorsal root ganglia of the progenitors and BXD strains grouped by QTL genotype. Thus, linkage mapping, transcript covariance and pharmacological testing suggest that genetic variation affecting Cacna2d1 and Csnk1e may contribute to individual differences in von Frey filament response. This study implicates Cacna2d1 and Ift27 in basal mechanosensation in line with their previously suspected role in mechanical hypersensitivity. Csnk1e is implicated for von Frey response for the first time. Further investigation is warranted to identify the specific polymorphisms involved and assess the relevance of these findings to clinical conditions of disturbed mechanosensation. PMID:27231153

  16. Exposure, Uptake, and Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Lanone, Sophie

    The nanotechnologies market is booming, e.g., in the food industry (powder additives, etc.) and in medical applications (drug delivery, prosthetics, diagnostic imaging, etc.), but also in other industrial sectors, such as sports, construction, cosmetics, and so on. In this context, with an exponential increase in the number of current and future applications, it is particularly important to evaluate the problem of unintentional (i.e., non-medical) exposure to manufactured nanoparticles (so excluding nanoparticles found naturally in the environment). In this chapter, we begin by discussing the various parameters that must be taken into account in any serious assessment of exposure to man-made nanoparticles. We then list the potential routes by which nanoparticles might enter into the organism, and outline the mechanisms whereby they could get past the different biological barriers. Finally, we describe the biodistribution of nanoparticles in the organism and the way they are eliminated.

  17. Fluconazole exposure during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question One of my patients has just learned that she is 8 weeks pregnant. She took a 150-mg dose of fluconazole 2 weeks ago for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis and she is worried about the effect on her child and pregnancy. Can I reassure her? Answer Short-term and low-dose fluconazole exposure, such as that indicated in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, is not expected to increase the overall risk of major congenital malformations. PMID:26505064

  18. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  19. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN EXPOSURE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure is the contact between a stressor and a human or ecological receptor. Risk analysis step in which receptor interaction with the exposure stressor of concern is evaluated. To assess exposure to a particular stressor we need to know - Properties of the stressor; Sources, p...

  20. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the foundations of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A.; Janssen, M.

    2013-03-01

    In 1927, in two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begründung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. Jordan and Paul Dirac arrived at essentially the same theory independently of one another at around the same time. Later in 1927, partly in response to Jordan and Dirac and avoiding the mathematical difficulties facing their approach, John von Neumann developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. We focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identification of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identification of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan and Dirac were the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann rephrased them and, in a paper published a few months later, sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim. We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics. This paper was written as part of a joint project in the history of quantum physics of the Max Planck

  1. Shannon and von Neumann entropy of random networks with heterogeneous expected degree.

    PubMed

    Anand, Kartik; Bianconi, Ginestra; Severini, Simone

    2011-03-01

    Entropic measures of complexity are able to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Several entropic measures have been proposed in this respect. Here we study the relation between the Shannon entropy and the von Neumann entropy of networks with given expected degree sequence. We find in different examples of network topologies that when the degree distribution contains some heterogeneity, an intriguing correlation emerges between the two entropic quantities. This results seems to suggest that heterogeneity in the expected degree distribution is implying an equivalence between a quantum and a classical description of networks, which respectively corresponds to the von Neumann and the Shannon entropy. PMID:21517560

  2. Somatostatinoma of the first jejunal loop in a patient with neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen and bilateral pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Constantinoiu, Silviu; Constantin, Adrian; Predescu, Dragos; Iosif, Cristina; Hoara, Petre; Achim, Florin; Surugiu, Paul; Bacanu, Florin; Cociu, Luminita

    2012-09-01

    Somatostatinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor which especially develops in the pancreas. There are few communicated cases about extra-pancreatic localization, having as a particularity the absence of somatostatin hypersecretion syndrome and frequent association with von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. We present the case of a 42-year old patient with Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis admitted in our clinic with a chronic upper digestive obstruction syndrome. The presence of a first jejunal loop somatostatinoma was an intraoperative surprising diagnosis that imposed jejunal resection and association of complementary specific treatment. Despite the therapeutic correct management, the status of the patient deteriorated very fast, confirming the aggressiveness of this neoplasia. PMID:22819908

  3. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  4. Acquired von Willebrand's disease associated with gastrointestinal angiodysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Kannan, M; Chatterjee, T; Dixit, A; Mahapatra, M; Choudhry, V P; Saxena, R

    2006-07-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare and probably underestimated bleeding disorder which mimics most of the clinical symptoms and laboratory features of hereditary von Willebrand disease (VWD) in patients devoid of both personal and family history of bleeding diathesis. In this study, we present a case of 55 yrs male patient, presented with gastrointestinal bleeds since three years, diagnosed to have AVWS with inhibitors. From this study it is concluded that AVWS is rare and it is important to diagnose this bleeding disorder so that appropriate treatment with plasmapheresis and IV:Ig can effectively correct the haemostatic defect and manage severe bleeding in these patients. PMID:16834752

  5. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

  6. The Promise of Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure science is the bedrock for protection of public health. It fundamentally informs decisions that relate to smart and sustainable design, prevention and mitigation of adverse exposures, and ultimately health protection.

  7. EXPOSURE MODELING OF ACID AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting an intensive characterization and human exposure monitoring program of acid species and related air pollutants in an urban environment. he EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) in coopera...

  8. Human von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates in the management of pediatric patients with von Willebrand disease/hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Castaman, Giancarlo; Linari, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Several plasma-derived intermediate and high-purity concentrates containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) are currently available. The main role of these products in the management of the pediatric population is represented by the replacement therapy in patients with severe or intermediate forms of von Willebrand disease, in whom other treatments are ineffective or contraindicated. Another important role of VWF/FVIII concentrates in children may be their use in immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols. ITI is particularly recommended for hemophilia A children who have developed an inhibitor against FVIII, currently the most serious complication of substitutive treatment in hemophilia. Although recombinant concentrates may represent the preferred option in children with hemophilia A, VWF/FVIII concentrates may offer an advantage in rescuing patients who failed previous ITI. PMID:27445481

  9. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy's "general systemology", and on its relationship to cybernetics - Part II: Contexts and developments of the systemological hermeneutics instigated by von Bertalanffy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouvreau, David

    2014-02-01

    The history of "general system theory" is investigated in order to clarify its meanings, vocations, foundations and achievements. It is characterized as the project of a science of the systemic interpretation of the "real", renamed here "general systemology". The contexts and modes of its elaboration, publication and implementation are discussed. The paper mostly focuses on the works of its instigator: Ludwig von Bertalanffy. However, general systemology was a collective project: the main contributions of other "systemologists", from the 1950s until the 1970s, are hence also considered. Its solidarity with the history of the Society for General Systems Research is notably discussed. A reconstruction of the systemological hermeneutics is undertaken on this basis. It finds out the potential systematic unity underlying the diversity of the contributions to this both scientific and philosophical project. Light is thus shed on the actual scope of von Bertalanffy's works.

  10. Human von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates in the management of pediatric patients with von Willebrand disease/hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Castaman, Giancarlo; Linari, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Several plasma-derived intermediate and high-purity concentrates containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) are currently available. The main role of these products in the management of the pediatric population is represented by the replacement therapy in patients with severe or intermediate forms of von Willebrand disease, in whom other treatments are ineffective or contraindicated. Another important role of VWF/FVIII concentrates in children may be their use in immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols. ITI is particularly recommended for hemophilia A children who have developed an inhibitor against FVIII, currently the most serious complication of substitutive treatment in hemophilia. Although recombinant concentrates may represent the preferred option in children with hemophilia A, VWF/FVIII concentrates may offer an advantage in rescuing patients who failed previous ITI. PMID:27445481

  11. Accidental acute exposure to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Curran, C F; Luce, J K

    1989-12-01

    Accidental ocular exposure to doxorubicin was followed by no reaction or rapidly resolving conjunctivitis in 13 of 15 cases (87%). In the two remaining cases, persistent photophobia and chronic inflammation were reported. Of 28 accidental exposures to sites other than the eyes, no reactions or rapidly resolving local reactions were reported in 24 cases (86%). Nurses are at particular risk for accidental exposure to doxorubicin and accounted for 20 of the 43 reported exposures (47%). PMID:2590899

  12. AIR TOXICS HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to improve the scientific basis for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of human exposures to air toxics by developing improved human exposure models. The research integrates the major components of the exposure paradigm, i.e., sources, tr...

  13. HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory-Las Vegas is developing analytical methods for human exposure assessment studies. Critical exposure studies generate a large number of samples which must be analyzed in a reliable, cost-effective and timely manner. TCP (3,5,6-trichlor...

  14. Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Care Association, Atlanta, GA.

    This sample exposure control plan is a guide to assist child care providers in complying with the blood-borne pathogens standard issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The standard requires employers to establish a written exposure control plan by May 5, 1992 (for exposure to microorganisms in human blood that cause…

  15. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  16. DIETARY EXPOSURE METHODS AND MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research reported in this task description constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL aggregate and cumulative exposure program. Its purpose is to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving N...

  17. "The captain and canon" C. W. A. von Wahl (1760-1846) (German Title: "Der Hauptmann und Kanonikus" C. W. A. von Wahl (1760-1846) )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosche, Peter

    Von Wahl was an active member of the group of independent scholars, who were working in the German states within Goethe's time, and who performed astrometric and geodetic observations and calculations. Here we present some cornerstones of his life; longer intervals of it took place in Allstedt south of the Harz and in Halberstadt. Small scientific assets have been preserved at the Universitäts-Sternwarte Bonn. Therein, a lecture on secular variations of the ecliptic is of singular nature.

  18. Pharmacokinetic studies with FVIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate can be a diagnostic tool to distinguish between subgroups of patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Luboshitz, J; Lubetsky, A; Schliamser, L; Kotler, A; Tamarin, I; Inbal, A

    2001-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) has been associated mainly with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS), clonal lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative disorders and autoimmunity. In the present work we studied 6 patients with AVWS: four with MGUS IgG (lambda or kappa), one with small lymphocytic lymphoma and one with agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM). All the patients underwent a pharmacokinetic analysis at presentation in order to study potential differences in recovery, clearance (CL) or terminal half-life (THL) following administration of von Willebrand factor (VWF) concentrate. In all the patients with AVWS an increase in clearance and a decrease in THL was observed as compared to these parameters in patients with hereditary type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD). No difference in recovery was observed among the groups. The increase in clearance and the decrease in THL were significantly more pronounced in the group of MGUS patients (57.93 +/- 25.6 ml/h/kg, and 1.39 +/- 0.5 h, respectively) as compared to these parameters in the AMM (8.06 ml/h/kg, and 6.96 h, respectively) or the lymphoma (4.76 ml/h/kg, and 6.76 h. respectively) patients (p = 0.03 for clearance and 0.001 for THL). These data indicate that the pharmacokinetic analysis can be a useful tool to distinguish between MGUS-related and other causes of AVWS, and to plan an appropriate treatment accordingly. PMID:11372672

  19. Experimental Bullard-von Karman dynamo: MHD saturated regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles, Sophie; Plihon, Nicolas; Pinton, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The dynamo instability, converting kinetic energy into magnetic energy, creates the magnetic fields of many astrophysical bodies for which the flows are highly turbulent. Those turbulent fluctuations restricts the range of parameters of numerical and theoretical predictions. As laboratory experiments are closer from natural parameters, this approach is favored in this work. In the past decades, dynamo action has been observed in experiments involving laminar flows [1] or fully turbulent flows [2] in liquid sodium. Nevertheless, the saturation of the velocity field by the Lorentz force due to the dynamo magnetic field is weak in those experiment because the control parameter is always close to the threshold of the instability (which is not the case in astrophysical situations). The details of the mechanism of the back reaction of Lorentz force on the flow are not known. We present here an experimental semi-synthetic dynamo, for which a fluid turbulent induction mechanism ('omega' effect) is associated to an external amplification applying a current into a pair of coils. The flow, called von-Karman, is produced by the counter rotation of two coaxial propellers in a cylindrical tank filled with liquid gallium. The resulting flow is highly turbulent (Re > 10 ^ 5). The amplification, mimicking a turbulent 'alpha' effect, allow to observe the dynamo instability at low magnetic Reynolds number (Rm ~ 2), far below the threshold of natural homogeneous dynamo. This experiment reaches non linear regimes, for which the saturation is a MHD process, at control parameter several times the critical value. The instability grows through an on-off intermittent regime evolving into a full MHD saturated regime for which the Lorentz force is in balance with the inertial one. The power budget is strongly modified by the dynamo magnetic field and we give an insight of the estimated rate of conversion of kinetic energy into magnetic one from experimental data. Very rich regimes such as

  20. [The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome with pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Palmar, Ivan; Vircburger, Mirko; Manojlović, Dusan; Radević, Bozina; Andjelković, Zoran; Burić, Bogdan; Savicević, Milorad; Nesković, Gorana

    2002-07-01

    The members of four generations of a family with Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) have been followed by one of us (I.P.) for 30 years. The disease was proved in four members of this family, in three of them associated with pheochromocytoma. The grandmother (I-1) died at the age of 16 years two months after her first birth. The cause of death was not established. Her daughter (II-1) had 9 births with 5 children alive. Paresthesia and difficulties in walking followed by paraparesis and paraplegia were the first signs of the disease at the age of 58 years. The surgical treatment was performed because of an expansive lesion at the level of Th 3-4. Pathohistological examination was not done. It seems that a haemangioblastoma might be the cause of her disease. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was documented in a female patient (III-2) in 1972. Two years later she was successfully operated on. Pathohistological examination proved clinical diagnosis. She had also diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis and cardiomyopathy. She died at the age of 56 years. A right-sided pheochromocytoma was diagnosed in a next female patient (III-4) at the age of 22 years. Her surgical treatment was successful. Retinal haemangioblastomatosis was established 7 years later in this patient. She was blind at the end of her life. Haemangioblastomatosis cerebelli was diagnosed soon, and she died at the age of 51 years. A 12- year old boy (IV-3) presented severe hypertension (36/24 kPa). Left-sided pheochromocytoma was removed in this patient one year later. Right-sided pheochromocytoma was operated on in the same patient at the age of 24 years. An elevated level of urinary dopamine was documented four years after the second operation. A malignant right-sided pheochromocytoma was operated on in the same patient 15 years later. At the same time metastases were found in the lower part of the right lung lobe. A 131-I-MIBG therapy could not be realized. He died at the age of 41. Pathohistological examinations

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Meilensteine der Astronomie - Von Aristoteles bis Hawking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, J.

    2006-12-01

    A writer, more specific a writer on the history of astronomy, might from time to time look at the collected document folders with all the research material and reprints, and might wonder: has this been all? Especially at a time when recycling is in vogue? And, perhaps with a request or an invitation to submit something, he or she might consider re-using the material before its definitive disposal. Well, such are my feelings when I looked at Jurgen Hamel's new book Milestones of Astronomy - From Aristoteles to Hawking . A slight chance for survival of medium-sized publishers like Kosmos is to offer popular books, and a title must attract potential buyers: Aristoteles means the "old" times, and as concerns the "mad scientist" of modern times, Stephen Hawking has by now dethroned Einstein. In 1998, Hamel had published a Geschichte der Astronomie - Von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart (History of astronomy, from the beginnings to the present), which, of course, he could not simply copy. This time, he selected some stones from his research areas - milestones, touchstones, stumbling blocks in the long road of astronomical evolution - and put them between the covers of his new book. So let us look at these (mile)stones . The reader is informed about Aristoteles on 2 pages, but his medieval interpreter Johannes de Sacrobosco gets 8 pages! Copernicus' life and achievements are described on 9 pages, closely followed by his devotee and translator Rothmann with 8 pages; Copernicus' contemporary, Peter Apian, however, gets about 13! Bessel's and Herschel's lifes and works are described on well-deserved 13 and 15 pages, while the achievements of the two Lucasian professors, Isaac Newton and Stephen Hawking, are just outlined in a single paragraph! Thus, importance is sometimes inversely proportional to text length... But let us become serious now. Why should an active historian outline, for the hundreth time, the life of Copernicus, while there are so many interesting, and often

  2. Physical Realization of von Neumann Lattices in Rotating Bose Gases with Dipole Interatomic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446

  3. Citizenship Ceremony for Dr. von Braun and German-Born Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    In a swearing-in ceremony held at Huntsville High School, one hundred and three German-born scientists and engineers, along with family members, took the oath of citizenship to become United States citizens. Among those taking the oath was Dr. Wernher von Braun, located in the second row, right side, third from the end.

  4. Physical Realization of von Neumann Lattices in Rotating Bose Gases with Dipole Interatomic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446

  5. Beyond victimhood. The struggle of Munich anatomist Titus von Lanz during National Socialism.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Mathias; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2015-09-01

    The article analyzes the life and career of the anatomist Titus von Lanz (1897-1967) of Munich focusing on the period of National Socialism (NS). Von Lanz lost his position as an associate professor at the Anatomical Institute of Munich University because of his marriage to a "half-Jewish" woman in 1938. In contrast to most of his colleagues affected by National Socialist measures, von Lanz had opportunities to save his career and made extensive use of them. His story is that of a complicated struggle for the continuation of his work, involving a wide range of supporters from prestigious physicians to high-ranking National Socialist officials as well as the alienation of his colleagues at the Munich department of anatomy. The article tries to clarify these developments through the presentation of his social background, his supporters, his enemies, the research he conducted during NS and von Lanz' own remembrance of these developments from the post-war period. It aims at laying out a critical appreciation of his motives and actions, thereby contributing to the understanding of individual behavior of anatomists under NS. PMID:26208340

  6. von Braun and Miller in the S-IVB Orbital Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    During a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Congressional House Committee on Science and Astronautics toured the S-IVB workshop. Pictured here are MSFC's Dr. Wernher von Braun (standing) and Congressman Miller, Democratic representative of California (sitting on the ergometer bicycle) inside the workshop.

  7. Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messling, Markus

    2008-01-01

    From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."…

  8. Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) and cholera: the cause of World War II?

    PubMed

    Spellberg, Brad

    2005-05-01

    Here it is proposed that, by killing Prussian Major General Carl von Clausewitz before he could complete the work on his military text On War, cholera strongly influenced the nature of World War I (1914-18) and, by direct extension, contributed to the cause of World War II (1939-45). PMID:19813314

  9. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  10. Dr. Wernher Von Braun at the Marshall Space Flight Center's neutral buoyancy simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Marshall Space Flight Center director, points and asks a question about the operation of the center's neutral buoyancy facility in the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory. The facility was used to test and evaluate hardware and operations hat were planned for Apollo applications program flights.

  11. Dr. Wernher Von Braun on Tour With U.S. congressman Armistead Seldon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    U.S. representative Armistead Seldon (D.-Al) tries on an astronaut maneuvering unit mockup during a tour of the Saturn I workshop at the Marshall Space Flight center. Explaining the unit and the workshop to Representative Seldon is Dr. Wernher Von Braun, director of the Marshall Center.

  12. Dr. Wernher Von Braun greeting dignitaries at the Redstone Arsenal airfield.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. George E. Mueller, center, associate administrator for manned space flight, is flanked by Dr. Wernher Von Braun, left, and Dr. Eberhard Rees at the Redstone Arsenal airstrip. the associate adminstrator was making his annual staff visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. Einheit von Forschung und Lehre: Implications for State Funding of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolich, Nicoline; Coate, Kelly; Mignot-Gerard, Stephanie; Knill, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The Humboldtian educational ideal is based on the idea of the unity of teaching and research in universities ("Einheit von Forschung und Lehre"). The role of the state, according to Humboldt, was to fund universities in such a way that their autonomy was maintained. Much has changed in the funding mechanisms of higher education systems since the…

  14. Prospective clinical trial comparing outcome measures between Furlow and von Langenbeck Palatoplasties for UCLP.

    PubMed

    Williams, William N; Seagle, M Brent; Pegoraro-Krook, Maria Ines; Souza, Telma V; Garla, Luis; Silva, Marcos L; Machado Neto, José S; Dutka, Jeniffer C R; Nackashi, John; Boggs, Steve; Shuster, Jonathan; Moorhead, Jacquelyn; Wharton, William; Graciano, Maria I G; Pimentel, Maria C; Feniman, Mariza; Piazentin-Penna, Silvia H A; Kemker, Joseph; Zimmermann, Maria C; Bento-Gonçalvez, Cristina; Borgo, Hilton; Marques, Ilza L; Martinelli, Angela P M C; Jorge, José C; Antonelli, Patrick; Neves, Josiane F A; Whitaker, Melina E

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this prospective randomized clinical trial was to compare 2 cohorts of standardized cleft patients with regard to functional speech outcome and the presence or absence of palatal fistulae. The 2 cohorts are randomized to undergo either a conventional von Langenbeck repair with intravelar velarplasty or the double-opposing Z-plasty Furlow procedure. A prospective 2 × 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial was used in which each subject was randomly assigned to 1 of 8 different groups: 1 of 2 different lip repairs (Spina vs. Millard), 1 of 2 different palatal repair (von Langenbeck vs. Furlow), and 1 of 2 different ages at time of palatal surgery (9-12 months vs. 15-18 months). All surgeries were performed by the same 4 surgeons. A cul-de-sac test of hypernasality and a mirror test of nasal air emission were selected as primary outcome measures for velopharyngeal function. Both a surgeon and speech pathologist examined patients for the presence of palatal fistulae. In this study, the Furlow double-opposing Z-palatoplasty resulted in significantly better velopharyngeal function for speech than the von Langenbeck procedure as determined by the perceptual cul-de-sac test of hypernasality. Fistula occurrence was significantly higher for the Furlow procedure than for the von Langenbeck. Fistulas were more likely to occur in patients with wider clefts and when relaxing incisions were not used. PMID:21042188

  15. Zuverlässigkeit digitaler Schaltungen unter Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeberger, V. B.; Schlichtmann, U.

    2011-08-01

    Die kontinuierlich fortschreitende Miniaturisierung in integrierten Schaltungen führt zu einem Anstieg des intrinsischen Rauschens. Um den Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen auf die Zuverlässigkeit zukünftiger digitaler Schaltungen analysieren zu können, werden Methoden benötigt, die auf CAD-Verfahren wie Analogsimulation statt auf abschätzenden Berechnungen beruhen. Dieser Beitrag stellt eine neue Methode vor, die den Einfluss von intrinsischem Rauschen in digitalen Schaltungen für eine gegebene Prozesstechnologie analysieren kann. Die Amplituden von thermischen, 1/f und Schrotrauschen werden mit Hilfe eines SPICE Simulators bestimmt. Anschließend wird der Einfluss des Rauschens auf die Schaltungszuverlässigkeit durch Simulation analysiert. Zusätzlich zur Analyse werden Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt, wie die durch Rauschen hervorgerufenen Effekte im Schaltungsentwurf mit berücksichtigt werden können. Im Gegensatz zum Stand der Technik kann die vorgestellte Methode auf beliebige Logikimplementierungen und Prozesstechnologien angewendet werden. Zusätzlich wird gezeigt, dass bisherige Ansätze den Einfluss von Rauschen bis um das Vierfache überschätzen.

  16. Untersuchung der Störwirkung von LTE auf SRD Anwendungen bei 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welpot, M.; Wunderlich, S.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    Moderne Hausautomatisierungssysteme, Alarmanlagen oder auch Funk-Zugangssysteme in Haus und Automobil setzen auf frei nutzbare Frequenzen in ISM/SRD-Bändern. Die rasante Zunahme an privaten und kommerziell genutzten Applikationen im SRD-Band bei 868 MHz und der Ausbau der LTE-Mobilfunknetze im Frequenzbereich unterhalb von 1 GHz ("Digital Dividend") wirft zunehmend die Frage nach der Funkverträglichkeit dieser Systeme untereinander auf. Während die SRD-Funkmodule auf eine geringe Sendeleistung von ~ +14 dBm beschränkt sind (Ralf and Thomas, 2009), beträgt die maximale LTE-Sendeleistung im Uplink nach (ETSI-Norm, 2011) +23 dBm. Zusammen mit der Einführung von LTE im Frequenzbereich unterhalb 1 GHz als DSL-Ersatz vor allem in ländlichen Gebieten, ergibt sich damit als mögliches Störszenario, dass durch die Aussendung des LTE-Endgerätes im Bereich von ca. 850 MHz die SRD-Funkverbindungen bei 868 MHz insbesondere dann gestört werden, wenn die Antennen beider Funksysteme räumlich nahe zueinander angeordnet sind und folglich nur eine geringe zusätzliche Entkopplung der Systeme bieten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das LTE-Störpotential auf SRD-Empfänger praxisnah untersucht.

  17. Fatal Intramyocardial Hemorrhage After Pericardiotomy in a Patient With von Willebrand Disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karen E; Hirsch, Benjamin; Colquhoun, Douglas; Durieux, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Patients with large pericardial effusions and possible tamponade undergoing general anesthesia for pericardial drainage are generally thought to be at a highest risk of cardiovascular collapse before drainage of the effusion. Here, we report a case of extensive and fatal intramyocardial hemorrhage after drainage of a pericardial effusion in a patient with von Willebrand disease. PMID:27580407

  18. Perfecting the Individual: Wilhelm von Humboldt's Concept of Anthropology, "Bildung" and Mimesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    In the works of Wilhelm von Humboldt education took on a new quality, focusing firmly on the importance of the individual. "Bildung" was to become the principal task with a view to preparing the individual for the requirements of future life. In this article, the author investigates two aspects relating to the "Bildung" of the individual. First,…

  19. Displacements Of Brownian Particles In Terms Of Marian Von Smoluchowski's Heuristic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Hermann; Woermann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein's theory of the Brownian motion, Marian von Smoluchowski's heuristic model, and Perrin's experimental results helped to bring the concept of molecules from a state of being a useful hypothesis in chemistry to objects existing in reality. Central to the theory of Brownian motion is the relation between mean particle displacement and…

  20. Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krewson, Margrit B.

    This Library of Congress selected bibliography highlights the efforts of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, other German and German-American military leaders, and the Hessian auxiliary military forces in assisting the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. The booklet is divided into five parts. Part 1 provides historical information…

  1. A newborn with very rare von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Basudev; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome is a part of a group of syndromes with radial and hematologic abnormalities, and until now approximately ten cases have been reported in the literature. This syndrome is characterized by a triad of radial ray defects, occipital encephalocele, and urogenital abnormalities. Case presentation We report a neonate from Indian ethnicity who was diagnosed with von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome. The neonate had radial ray defect, occipital encephalocele, tetralogy of Fallot, and bilateral agenesis of kidney, ureter, and bladder. The neonate was suspected to have von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome on the basis of clinical features, which was further confirmed by fibroblast analysis showing somatic mosaicism for del(13q). Conclusion von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome is a very rare syndrome that can be suspected on the basis of typical clinical features and confirmed by fibroblast analysis showing somatic mosaicism for del(13q). This adds a second case of this chromosome anomaly described in this syndrome. PMID:27499650

  2. von Willebrand factor antigen as a therapeutic target of portal hypertension in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalambokis, Georgios N; Baltayiannis, Gerasimos; Christodoulou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Increased thrombotic potential within the liver sinusoids due to local endothelial production of von Willebrand factor antigen macromolecules could represent an additional therapeutic target of portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. In this case, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic drugs could modulate portal pressure by preventing the formation of intrahepatic platelet-induced microthrombi. PMID:27217711

  3. Deriving exposure limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1990-07-01

    Historically many different agencies and standards organizations have proposed laser occupational exposure limits (EL1s) or maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels. Although some safety standards have been limited in scope to manufacturer system safety performance standards or to codes of practice most have included occupational EL''s. Initially in the 1960''s attention was drawn to setting EL''s however as greater experience accumulated in the use of lasers and some accident experience had been gained safety procedures were developed. It became clear by 1971 after the first decade of laser use that detailed hazard evaluation of each laser environment was too complex for most users and a scheme of hazard classification evolved. Today most countries follow a scheme of four major hazard classifications as defined in Document WS 825 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The classifications and the associated accessible emission limits (AEL''s) were based upon the EL''s. The EL and AEL values today are in surprisingly good agreement worldwide. There exists a greater range of safety requirements for the user for each class of laser. The current MPE''s (i. e. EL''s) and their basis are highlighted in this presentation. 2. 0

  4. The natural history of occult or angiodysplastic gastrointestinal bleeding in von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Makris, M; Federici, A B; Mannucci, P M; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Yee, T T; Abshire, T; Berntorp, E

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most challenging complications encountered in the management of patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). The commonest cause is angiodysplasia, but often no cause is identified due to the difficulty in making the diagnosis. The optimal treatment to prevent recurrences remains unknown. We performed a retrospective study of VWD patients with occult or angiodysplastic bleeding within the setting of the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network (VWD PN) to describe diagnostic and treatment strategies. Centres participating in the VWD PN recruited subjects under their care with a history of congenital VWD and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia, or cases in which the cause was not identified despite investigation. Patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome or those for whom the GI bleeding was due to another cause were excluded. Forty-eight patients from 18 centres in 10 countries were recruited. Seven individuals had a family history of GI bleeding and all VWD types except 2N were represented. Angiodysplasia was confirmed in 38%, with video capsule endoscopy and GI tract endoscopies being the most common methods of making the diagnosis. Recurrent GI bleeding in VWD is associated with significant morbidity and required hospital admission on up to 30 occasions. Patients were treated with multiple pharmacological agents with prophylactic von Willebrand factor concentrate being the most efficient in preventing recurrence of the GI bleeding. The diagnosis and treatment of recurrent GI bleeding in congenital VWD remains challenging and is associated with significant morbidity. Prophylactic treatment with von Willebrand factor concentrate was the most effective method of preventing recurrent bleeding but its efficacy remains to be confirmed in a prospective study. PMID:25381842

  5. Modeling exposure to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, Demetrios J; Saksena, Sumeet

    2002-12-01

    Exposure assessment, a component of risk assessment, links sources of pollution with health effects. Exposure models are scientific tools used to gain insights into the processes affecting exposure assessment. The purpose of this paper is to review the process and methodology of estimating inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM) using various types of models. Three types of models are discussed in the paper. Indirect type of models are physical models that employ inventories of outdoor and indoor sources and their emission rates to identify major sources contributing to exposure to PM, and use fate and transport and indoor air quality models to estimate PM concentrations at receptor sites. PM concentrations and time spent by a subject at each receptor site are input variables to the conventional exposure model that estimates the desired exposure levels. Direct type models use measured exposure or exposure concentrations in conjunction with information obtained from questionnaires to formulate exposure regression models. Stochastic models use exposure measurements, estimates can also be used, to formulate exposure population distributions and investigate associated uncertainty and variability. Since models developed using databases from western countries are not necessarily applicable in developing countries, the difference in requirements among western and developing countries is highlighted in the paper. Employment of exposure modeling methods in developing countries requires development of local information. Such information includes local outdoor and indoor source inventories, local or regional meteorological conditions, adjustment of indoor models to reflect local building construction conditions, and use of questionnaires to obtain local time budget and activity patterns of the subject population. PMID:12492168

  6. Exposure history of shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Elmore, D.

    1986-01-01

    The cosmogenic nuclides Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, and Mn-53 were analyzed in Shergotty, ALHA 77005, and EETA 79001 shergottites by means of accelerator mass spectrometry and neutron activation. The cosmogenic radionuclide data were combined with noble gas data and cosmic ray track data to obtain the exposure ages, terrestrial ages, preatmospheric radii, and ablation depths for the three shergottites. The results indicate that none of the three meteorites was irradiated measurably by cosmic rays on its parent body, and that all three objects were ejected from greater than a 3-m depth in their parent bodies. The EETA 79001 meteorite was ejected in an event distinct from that of ALHA 77005 and Shergotty. All three shergottites show a very small amount of ablation, suggesting low velocities on entry into the earth's atmosphere.

  7. Asbestos exposure and neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J.; Churg, J.; Hammond, E.C.

    1984-07-06

    Builiding trades insulation workers have relatively light, intermittent, exposure to asbestos. Of 632 insulation workers, who entered the trade before 1943 and were traced through 1962, forty-five died of cancer of the lung or pleura, whereas only 6.6 such deaths were expected. Three of the pleural tumors were mesotheliomas; there was also one peritoneal mesothelioma. Four mesotheliomas in a total of 255 deaths is an exceedingly high incidence for such a rare tumor. In addition, an unexpectedly large number of men died of cancer of the stomach, colon, or rectum (29 compared with 9.4 expected). Other cancers were not increased; 20.5 were expected, 21 occurred. Twelve men died of asbestosis. This landmark article appeared originally in this journal 188:22-26, 1964.

  8. ETC: Exposure Time Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Gehrels, Neil; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey; Rhodes, Jason; Wang, Yun; Zoubian, Julien

    2013-11-01

    Written for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) high-latitude survey, the exposure time calculator (ETC) works in both imaging and spectroscopic modes. In addition to the standard ETC functions (e.g. background and S/N determination), the calculator integrates over the galaxy population and forecasts the density and redshift distribution of galaxy shapes usable for weak lensing (in imaging mode) and the detected emission lines (in spectroscopic mode). The program may be useful outside of WFIRST but no warranties are made regarding its suitability for general purposes. The software is available for download; IPAC maintains a web interface for those who wish to run a small number of cases without having to download the package.

  9. Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.; Kempf, Michael; Kirschner, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature. A typical prototype TSEV (see figure) includes a flat-bottomed stainless-steel cylinder 4 in. (10.16 cm) long, 0.5 in. (1.27 cm) in diameter, having a wall thickness of 0.010 plus or minus 0.002 in. (0.254 plus or minus 0.051 mm). Microbial spores are deposited in the bottom of the cylinder, then the top of the cylinder is closed with a sterile rubber stopper. Hypodermic needles are used to puncture the rubber stopper to evacuate the inside of the cylinder or to purge the inside of the cylinder with a gas. In a typical application, the inside of the cylinder is purged with dry nitrogen prior to a test. During a test, the lower portion of the cylinder is immersed in a silicone-oil bath that has been preheated to and maintained at the test temperature. Test temperatures up to 220 C have been used. Because the spores are in direct contact with the thin cylinder wall, they quickly become heated to the test temperature.

  10. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  11. von Kossa staining alone is not sufficient to confirm that mineralization in vitro represents bone formation.

    PubMed

    Bonewald, L F; Harris, S E; Rosser, J; Dallas, M R; Dallas, S L; Camacho, N P; Boyan, B; Boskey, A

    2003-05-01

    Numerous techniques are currently used to characterize biological mineralization in intact tissues and cell cultures; the von Kossa staining method, electron microscopic analysis (EM), X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are among the most common. In this study, we utilized three of these methods to compare the mineralization of cultured fetal rat calvarial cells (FRC) and the osteoblast cell lines 2T3 and MC3T3-E1 with the in vivo mineral of rat calvarial bone. The cells were cultured with or without ascorbic acid (100 microg/ml) and beta-glycerophosphate (2.5, 5, or 10 mM betaGP), and harvested between 16 and 21 days (FRC cells and 2T3 cells) or at 30 days of culture (MC3T3-E1 cells). In the FRC cultures, maximal von Kossa staining was observed with 2.5 and 5 mM betaGP in the presence of 100 microg/ml ascorbate. FRC cells also showed some von Kossa staining when cultured with bGP alone. In contrast, maximal von Kossa staining for MC3T3-E1 cells was observed with 10 mM betaGP. Only the cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells that received both ascorbate and betaGP produced von Kossa positive structures. The 2T3 cultures produced von Kossa positive staining only upon treatment with ascorbic acid and betaGP, which was greatly accelerated by bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). FTIR was performed on the mineral and matrix generated in FRC, MC3T3, and 2T3 cultures, and the results were compared with spectra derived from 16-day-old rat calvaria. The mineral-to-matrix ratios calculated from FTIR spectra for rat calvaria ranged from 2.97 to 7.44. FRC cells made a bonelike, poorly crystalline apatite, and, with increasing betaGP, there was a statistically significant (P

  12. Environmental exposures and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Jeffrey K; Loeb, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Many malignancies have been linked to specific environmental exposures. Several environmental and occupational factors have been studied for an association to prostate cancer (CaP) risk. These include Agent Orange exposure, farming and pesticides, sunlight/ultraviolet radiation, as well as trace minerals used in tire and battery manufacturing. This manuscript reviews the literature on these environmental exposures and CaP. PMID:22385992

  13. Gene silencing of endothelial von Willebrand Factor attenuates angiotensin II-induced endothelin-1 expression in porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dushpanova, Anar; Agostini, Silvia; Ciofini, Enrica; Cabiati, Manuela; Casieri, Valentina; Matteucci, Marco; Del Ry, Silvia; Clerico, Aldo; Berti, Sergio; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Expression of endothelin (ET)-1 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disorders. Since von Willebrand Factor (vWF) blockade improves endothelial function in coronary patients, we hypothesized that targeting endothelial vWF with short interference RNA (siRNA) prevents Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation. Nearly 65 ± 2% silencing of vWF in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAOECs) was achieved with vWF-specific siRNA without affecting cell viability and growth. While showing ET-1 similar to wild type cells at rest, vWF-silenced cells did not present ET-1 upregulation during exposure to Ang II (100 nM/24 h), preserving levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity similar to wild type. vWF silencing prevented AngII-induced increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity and superoxide anion (O2-) levels, known triggers of ET-1 expression. Moreover, no increase in O2- or ET-1 levels was found in silenced cells treated with AngII or NOX-agonist phorbol ester (PMA 5 nM/48 h). Finally, vWF was required for overexpression of NOX4 and NOX2 in response to AngII and PMA. In conclusion, endothelial vWF knockdown prevented Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation through attenuation of NOX-mediated O2- production. Our findings reveal a new role of vWF in preventing of Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27443965

  14. Gene silencing of endothelial von Willebrand Factor attenuates angiotensin II-induced endothelin-1 expression in porcine aortic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dushpanova, Anar; Agostini, Silvia; Ciofini, Enrica; Cabiati, Manuela; Casieri, Valentina; Matteucci, Marco; Del Ry, Silvia; Clerico, Aldo; Berti, Sergio; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Expression of endothelin (ET)-1 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disorders. Since von Willebrand Factor (vWF) blockade improves endothelial function in coronary patients, we hypothesized that targeting endothelial vWF with short interference RNA (siRNA) prevents Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation. Nearly 65 ± 2% silencing of vWF in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAOECs) was achieved with vWF-specific siRNA without affecting cell viability and growth. While showing ET-1 similar to wild type cells at rest, vWF-silenced cells did not present ET-1 upregulation during exposure to Ang II (100 nM/24 h), preserving levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity similar to wild type. vWF silencing prevented AngII-induced increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity and superoxide anion (O2−) levels, known triggers of ET-1 expression. Moreover, no increase in O2− or ET-1 levels was found in silenced cells treated with AngII or NOX-agonist phorbol ester (PMA 5 nM/48 h). Finally, vWF was required for overexpression of NOX4 and NOX2 in response to AngII and PMA. In conclusion, endothelial vWF knockdown prevented Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation through attenuation of NOX-mediated O2− production. Our findings reveal a new role of vWF in preventing of Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27443965

  15. The functions of the A1A2A3 domains in von Willebrand factor include multimerin 1 binding.

    PubMed

    Parker, D'Andra N; Tasneem, Subia; Farndale, Richard W; Bihan, Dominique; Sadler, J Evan; Sebastian, Silvie; de Groot, Philip G; Hayward, Catherine P M

    2016-07-01

    Multimerin 1 (MMRN1) is a massive, homopolymeric protein that is stored in platelets and endothelial cells for activation-induced release. In vitro, MMRN1 binds to the outer surfaces of activated platelets and endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix (including collagen) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) to support platelet adhesive functions. VWF associates with MMRN1 at high shear, not static conditions, suggesting that shear exposes cryptic sites within VWF that support MMRN1 binding. Modified ELISA and surface plasmon resonance were used to study the structural features of VWF that support MMRN1 binding, and determine the affinities for VWF-MMRN1 binding. High shear microfluidic platelet adhesion assays determined the functional consequences for VWF-MMRN1 binding. VWF binding to MMRN1 was enhanced by shear exposure and ristocetin, and required VWF A1A2A3 region, specifically the A1 and A3 domains. VWF A1A2A3 bound to MMRN1 with a physiologically relevant binding affinity (KD: 2.0 ± 0.4 nM), whereas the individual VWF A1 (KD: 39.3 ± 7.7 nM) and A3 domains (KD: 229 ± 114 nM) bound to MMRN1 with lower affinities. VWF A1A2A3 was also sufficient to support the adhesion of resting platelets to MMRN1 at high shear, by a mechanism dependent on VWF-GPIbα binding. Our study provides new information on the molecular basis of MMRN1 binding to VWF, and its role in supporting platelet adhesion at high shear. We propose that at sites of vessel injury, MMRN1 that is released following activation of platelets and endothelial cells, binds to VWF A1A2A3 region to support platelet adhesion at arterial shear rates. PMID:27052467

  16. von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor mutants faithfully model pathological hypoxia-driven angiogenesis and vascular retinopathies in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, Ellen; Voest, Emile E; Logister, Ive; Bussmann, Jeroen; Korving, Jeroen; van Eeden, Fredericus J; Giles, Rachel H; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Biallelic inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene predisposes human patients to the development of highly vascularized neoplasms in multiple organ systems. We show that zebrafish vhl mutants display a marked increase in blood vessel formation throughout the embryo, starting at 2 days post-fertilization. The most severe neovascularization is observed in distinct areas that overlap with high vegfa mRNA expression, including the vhl mutant brain and eye. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of the duplicated VEGFA orthologs vegfaa and vegfab, and of vegfb and its receptors flt1, kdr and kdr-like, indicating increased vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) signaling in vhl mutants. Similar to VHL-associated retinal neoplasms, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, we show, by tetramethyl rhodamine-dextran angiography, that vascular abnormalities in the vhl(-/-) retina lead to vascular leakage, severe macular edema and retinal detachment. Significantly, vessels in the brain and eye express cxcr4a, a marker gene expressed by tumor and vascular cells in VHL-associated hemangioblastomas and renal cell carcinomas. VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibition (through exposure to sunitinib and 676475) blocked vhl(-/-)-induced angiogenesis in all affected tissues, demonstrating that Vegfaa, Vegfab and Vegfb are key effectors of the vhl(-/-) angiogenic phenotype through Flt1, Kdr and Kdr-like signaling. Since we show that the vhl(-/-) angiogenic phenotype shares distinct characteristics with VHL-associated vascular neoplasms, zebrafish vhl mutants provide a valuable in vivo vertebrate model to elucidate underlying mechanisms contributing to the development of these lesions. Furthermore, vhl mutant zebrafish embryos carrying blood vessel-specific transgenes represent a unique and clinically relevant model for tissue-specific, hypoxia-induced pathological angiogenesis and vascular retinopathies. Importantly

  17. Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring. PMID:6499824

  18. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  19. Prenatal microwave exposure and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The hypotheses for the initial investigation was based on the idea that failure to observe structural teratogenesis following microwave exposure did not preclude the possibility that such exposure would result in behavioral changes. We also proposed that such exposure might specifically alter some aspect of thermoregulatory behavior. The results of these studies support both of these hypotheses. Whether the studies show enhanced thermal sensitivity or enhanced development, they do support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to microwave radiation is more likely to alter postnatal sensitivity to thermally related stimuli or conditions as compared to stimuli that are thermally neutral.

  20. Halbautomatische Segmentierung von Pulmonalgefäßen in CT Daten als Referenz zur Validierung automatischer Verfahren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Jens N.; Bakai, Annemarie; Maier, Florian; Aach, Til

    Das Segmentieren von Pulmonalgefäßen in Computertomographie (CT) Daten wurde schon vielfach behandelt und wird z.B. bei der computerunterstützten Detektion von Lungenembolien angewendet. Vielen Segmentierverfahren fehlt jedoch eine quantitative Validierung aufgrund mangelnder Referenzsegmentierungen. Wir stellen ein System zur halbautomatischen Segmentierung von Blutgefäßen in definierten Bereichen der Lunge basierend auf dem Random-Walker-Algorithmus vor. Durch Initialisierung der Methode mittels automatisch generierter Saatpunkte wird die Effizienz des Verfahrens erhöht und die erforderliche Benutzerinteraktion reduziert. Die resultierenden Segmentierungen können zur Validierung von automatischen Verfahren verwendet werden. Exemplarisch evaluieren wir ein vollautomatisches Segmentierverfahren basierend auf dem Fuzzy-Connectedness-Algorithmus.

  1. Exposure Space: Integrating Exposure Data and Modeling with Toxicity Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances have been made in high-throughput (HTP) toxicity testing, e.g. from ToxCast, which will ultimately be combined with HTP predictions of exposure potential to support next-generation chemical safety assessment. Rapid exposure methods are essential in selecting chemi...

  2. OUTDOOR VS. HUMAN EXPOSURE: NERL PM EXPOSURE PANEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An association has been demonstrated between ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) concentrations and human morbidity/mortality. However, little is known regarding the most important sources of PM exposure, interpersonal and intrapersonal variability in exposure, and the...

  3. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  4. Estimation of two dimensional von Karman stochastic parameters from the seismic coda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppeliers, C.; Levander, A.; Symes, W. W.

    2003-12-01

    Coda waves are generated from singly and multiply- scattered primary waves in the Earth. The scattered wavefield is composed of converted phases, transmissions, and reflections arising from three dimensional fluctuations in seismic velocities and density. Statistical models of the complex medium are customarily used to explain seismic scattering. Our goal is to invert the coda directly for stochastic properties of the medium through which the seismic energy travels. We characterize the medium with the von Karman autocorrelation model which can accurately model the statistical distribution of velocity/density variations of the crystalline portions of the Earth's crust. Synthetic data generated through von Karman media closely resemble real data. The von Karman autocorrelation model mimics the Earth's self affine nature and can be described in two-dimensions by three parameters; 1) the horizontal characteristic length, 2) the vertical characteristic length, and 3) the Hurst exponent, which describes the roughness of the statistical model. We present two inversion schemes to estimate von Karman parameters. In the first scheme, we show that inverting seismic array data for the lateral characteristic length is possible, but that the inversion has to be calibrated against the central frequency of the input seismic wavelet. In the second inversion scheme, we make use of the multiplicative relation between the power spectra of the observations and that of the source pulse and the stochastic medium. Thus, if we have a good estimate of the seismic pulse, we can invert directly for von Karman parameters. In the absence of complete knowledge of the pulse, we can formulate a nonlinear inversion and estimate the seismic pulse and the von Karman parameters simultaneously. The products of our inversions are cross sections of stochastic properties that can define different areas of texture and/or fabric in the Earth. We demonstrate our inversion on synthetic data as well as a

  5. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome--report of 10 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nitu-Whalley, I C; Lee, C A

    1999-09-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with clinical and laboratory features closely resembling hereditary von Willebrand disease (vWD), arising in previously haemostatically normal individuals. We present a retrospective review of 10 cases with AvWS diagnosed over 17 years. The severity of the bleeding tendency varied from mild to severe forms. Multimers electrophoresis showed that 8/10 patients had a normal pattern similar to type 1 vWD, 1/10 had a type 2A vWD pattern (with absence of high and intermediate molecular weight multimers) and 1/10 had a type 3 vWD pattern. An inhibitor screen was performed in 6/10 patients and autoantibodies against von Willebrand factor were found in only two cases. The underlying cause/associated conditions were identified in 8/10 patients. Treatment of the bleeding diathesis was successfully achieved with desmopressin or clotting factor concentrates. Resolution of underlying hypothyroidism (in two cases) and multiple myeloma (in one case) led to normalization of the coagulation parameters. The report on this cohort of 10 patients with AvWS illustrates the complexity of AvWS and its multifactorial aetiology. A brief review of the recent literature on AvWS is also presented, with emphasis on the current opinions in pathogenesis and treatment. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is an acquired bleeding disorder, characterized by a phenotype similar to the inherited von Willebrand disease (vWD), with a prolonged bleeding time and low plasma levels of factor VIII - von Willebrand factor (vWF) measurements. It occurs in patients with no family history of vWD, who present with recent onset of bleeding symptoms. AvWS appears to be associated mainly with lymphoproliferative disorders, immunological conditions and neoplasia. AvWS is a rare condition and it is difficult to conduct prospective studies, therefore it is important to document the experience with such cases. The aim of this paper is first, to

  6. Versuche zur Gewinnung von katalytischen Antikörpern zur Hydrolyse von Arylcarbamaten und Arylharnstoffen. (English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Deljana

    2002-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit gelang es, katalytische Antikörper zur Hydrolyse von Benzylphenylcarbamaten sowie zahlreiche monoklonale Antikörper gegen Haptene herzustellen. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert. Zur Generierung der hydrolytisch aktiven Antikörper wurden Inzuchtmäuse mit KLH-Konjugaten von 4 Übergangszustandsanaloga (ÜZA) immunisiert. Mit Hilfe der Hybridomtechnik wurden verschiedene monoklonale Antikörper gegen diese ÜZA gewonnen. Dabei wurden sowohl verschiedene Immunisierungsschemata als auch verschiedene Inzuchtmausstämme und Fusionstechniken verwendet. Insgesamt wurden 32 monoklonale Antikörper gegen die verwendeten ÜZA selektiert. Diese Antikörper wurden in groen Mengen hergestellt und gereinigt. Zum Nachweis der Antikörper-vermittelten Katalyse wurden verschiedene Methoden entwickelt und eingesetzt, darunter immunologische Nachweismethoden mit Anti-Substrat- und Anti-Produkt-Antikörpern und eine photometrische Methode mit Dimethylaminozimtaldehyd. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität gelang mit Hilfe eines Enzymsensors, basierend auf immobilisierter Tyrosinase. Die Antikörper N1-BC1-D11, N1-FA7-C4, N1-FA7-D12 und R3-LG2-F9 hydrolysierten die Benzylphenylcarbamate POCc18, POCc19 und Substanz 27. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität dieser Antikörper gelang auch mit Hilfe der HPLC. Der katalytische Antikörper N1-BC1-D11 wurde kinetisch und thermodynamisch untersucht. Es wurde eine Michaelis-Menten-Kinetik mit Km von 210 µM, vmax von 3 mM/min und kcat von 222 min-1 beobachtet. Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Die Beschleunigungsrate des Antikörpers N1-BC1-D11 betrug 10. Das ÜZA Hei3 hemmte die hydrolytische Aktivität. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. Weiter wurde zwischen der Antikörperkonzentration und der

  7. Determining the von Mises stress power spectral density for frequency domain fatigue analysis including out-of-phase stress components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonte, M. H. A.; de Boer, A.; Liebregts, R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper provides a new formula to take into account phase differences in the determination of an equivalent von Mises stress power spectral density (PSD) from multiple random inputs. The obtained von Mises PSD can subsequently be used for fatigue analysis. The formula was derived for use in the commercial vehicle business and was implemented in combination with Finite Element software to predict and analyse fatigue failure in the frequency domain.

  8. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  9. Prostatic artery embolization: radiation exposure to patients and staff.

    PubMed

    Garzón, W J; Andrade, G; Dubourcq, F; Abud, D G; Bredow, M; Khoury, H J; Kramer, R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation doses to patients and staff received from the first cases of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) conducted in a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. Five PAE procedures for 5 men diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia were investigated. In order to characterize patient exposure, dosimetric quantities, such as the air kerma-area product (P KA), the cumulative air kerma at the interventional reference point (Ka,r), the number of images, etc, were registered. To evaluate the possibility for deterministic effects, the peak skin dose (PSD) was measured using radiochromic films. For evaluation of personal dose equivalent and effective dose to the medical staff, thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-100) were used. The effective dose was estimated using the double dosimetry alghoritm of von Boetticher. The results showed that the mean patient's PSD per procedure was 2674.2 mGy. With regard to the medical staff, the mean, minimum and maximum effective doses estimated per procedure were: 18 μSv, 12 μSv and 21 μSv respectively. High personal equivalent doses were found for the feet, hands and lens of the eye, due to the use of multiple left anterior oblique projections and the improper use of the suspended lead screen and the lead curtain during procedures. PMID:27025551

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although people of color and low-income groups bear a disproportionate share of the health risks from exposure to pesticides, research attention has been meager, and data on acute and chronic health effects related to their toxic exposures are generally lacking. ncreased resource...

  11. Nonoccupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls became worldwide environmental contaminants during five decades of industrial use. They cause cancer in some animals and are suspected of causing birth defects and elevated triglycerides in humans. The risk to humans from low-level exposure is unclear. No clinical symptoms have yet been identified in people who eat contaminated fish, a major source of low-level exposure. 19 references.

  12. About the Exposure Factors Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of the latest version of the Exposure Factors Handbook (EFH): 2011 Edition (EPA/600/R-09/052F) has maintained the need for a more comprehensive program that addresses issues related to exposure factors. Since the first version of the EFH was r...

  13. Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L

    1990-03-01

    Although the sun remains the main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in humans, the advent of artificial UVR sources has increased the opportunity for both intentional and unintentional exposure. Intentional exposure is most often to tan the skin. People living in less sunny climates can now maintain a year-round tan by using sunbeds and solaria emitting principally UVA radiation. Another reason for intentional exposure to artificial UVR is treatment of skin diseases, notably psoriasis. Unintentional exposure is normally the result of occupation. Outdoor workers, such as farmers, receive three to four times the annual solar UV exposure of indoor workers. Workers in many industries, eg, photoprinting or hospital phototherapy departments, may be exposed to UVR from artificial sources. One group particularly at risk is electric arc welders, where inadvertent exposure is so common that the terms "arc eye" or "welders flash" are often used to describe photokeratitis. In addition to unavoidable exposure to natural UVR, the general public is exposed to low levels of UVR from sources such as fluorescent lamps used for indoor lighting and shops and restaurants where UVA lamps are often used in traps to attract flying insects. PMID:2203439

  14. MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODEL (MULTIMED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model (MULTIMED) for exposure assessment simulates the movement of contaminants leaching from a waste disposal facility. The model consists of a number of modules which predict concentrations at a receptor due to transport in the subsurface, sur...

  15. HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS - CHILDREN'S FOCUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, research under this task is designed to identify those pesticides, pathways, and activities that represent the highest potential exposures to children and to determine the factors that influence these exposures. The research...

  16. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the accompanying decrease in lead emissions, resulted in a dramatic decline in mean blood lead levels from the late 1970s through the early 1990s. Nonetheless, lead exposures remain a public health concern. Long-term exposures to even low...

  17. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    This study shows the developed methodology to analyze the exposure level on a 1:25000 scale, and the results obtained by applying it to an important part of the Monataña de Montserrat Natural Park for vehicles with and without considering their occupants. The development of this proposal is part of an ongoing study which focuses more in-depth in the analysis of the rockfall risk exposure in different scales and in different natural and social contexts. This research project applies a methodology to evaluate the rockfall exposure level based on the product of the frequency of occurrence of the event by an exposure function of the vulnerable level on a 1:25,000 scale although the scale used for the study was 1:10,000. The proposed methodology to calculate the exposure level is based on six phases: 1- Identification, classification and inventory of every element potentially under risk. 2- Zoning of the frequency of occurrence of the event in the studied area. 3- Design of the exposure function for each studied element. 4- Obtaining the Exposure index, it can be defined as the product of the frequency of occurrence by the exposure function of the vulnerable element through SIG analysis obtained with ArcGis software (ESRI) 5- Obtaining exposure level by grouping into categories the numerical values of the exposure index. 6- Production of the exposition zoning map. The different types of vulnerable elements considered in the totality of the study are: Vehicles in motion, people in vehicles in motion, people on paths, permanent elements and people in buildings. Each defined typology contains all elements with same characteristics and an exposure function has been designed for each of them. For the exposure calculation, two groups of elements have been considered; firstly the group of elements with no people involved and afterwards same group of elements but with people involved. This is a first comprehensive and synthetic work about rockfall exposure on the Montserrat

  18. [On the Awarding of the First Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine to Emil von Behring].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Enke, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    In his will of 1895, the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel laid the foundation for prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace to those who had "conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" during the last year. The Nobel Prize is today widely considered as the most prestigious international symbol of scientific excellence, but it still is an exciting research question how it gained such prestige. Drawing on files from the Emil von Behring Archive in Marburg, Germany, and the Archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm this essay aims at shedding light on why the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1901 was awarded the German immunologist Emil von Behring, and how this decision was viewed at that time. This study is part of a research project that explores mechanisms leading to scientific recognition by using the example of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. PMID:26676474

  19. Foam coarsening: von Neumann's law in three dimensions is non-linear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kraynik, Andrew M.; Koehler, Stephan A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2001-11-01

    Fifty years ago, John von Neumann proved that the coarsening rate of individual bubbles in a 2-D dry foam is a linear function of the number of edges of the polygonal bubble. By analogy, it has been conjectured that the average growth rates of 3-D polyhedral bubbles scale linearly with the number F of faces. Using a theorem by Minkowski, we derive a parameter-free analytical expression for the average growth rates and show that the 3-D von Neumann law is non-linear, asymptoting to a square-root power in F. Detailed simulations are in exceptionally good agreement with the analytical formula. This result is important for the understanding of the geometrical structure and aging dynamics of many random cellular materials beyond foams, such as metal grains, spin glasses, or living cells.

  20. Meningeal supratentorial hemangioblastoma in a patient with von hippel-lindau disease mimicking angioblastic menigioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Park, Ik-Seong; Jo, Kwang Wook

    2013-11-01

    Hemangioblastomas are sporadic tumors found in the cerebellum or spinal cord. Supratentorial hemangioblastomas are rare, and those with meningeal involvement are extremely rare and have been reported in only approximately 130 patients. Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old female patient with supratentorial meningeal hemangioblastoma detected 5 years after surgical resection of an infratentorial hemangioblastoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome are at risk for developing multiple hemangioblastomas, with new tumor formation and growth and possible meningeal infiltration. Regular lifelong follow-up in at-risk patients is recommended and should include the differential diagnosis of dural-based tumors such as angioblastic meningioma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24379949

  1. Up to date concepts about Von Willebrand disease and the diagnose of this hemostatic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Buga-Corbu, I; Arion, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The authors review the current data in literature regarding the recent knowledge about hemostase, coagulation and clinical and laboratory diagnostic algorithms of hemostatic disorders. They also present the pathological classification of bleeding disorders - the basis to clinical approach of these diseases. Abbreviations: AD=autosomal dominant; Ag=antigen; DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid; ADAMTS13=serum metalloproteinase; AR=autosomal recessive; Arg=arginine; RNA=ribonucleic acid; VWD=von Willebrand disease; Cys=cysteine; C1—C9=factors of the seric complement; ELISA=enzyme linked immuno assay; FI---FXIII=plasmatic factors of coagulation; Glu=glutamines; Pg=platelet glycoprotein; HMW=high molecular weight; IL=interleukin; SLE=systemic lupus erythematosus; Met=methionine; PFA=automated study test of platelets aggregation; RCo=ristocetin cofactor; RI PA=ristocetin induced platelet aggregation; Tyr=tyrosine; VWF= von Willebrand factor PMID:25408749

  2. A Case of Acute Generalized Pustular Psoriasis of von Zumbusch Triggered by Hypocalcemia

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro de Moura, Carlos Antônio Gusmão; de Assis, Luiz Henrique; Góes, Paulo; Rosa, Fabiana; Nunes, Victor; Gusmão, Ítalo Magalhães; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease triggered by different conditions in genetically susceptible people. It is characterized by variable cutaneous manifestations including localized or disseminated pustules. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) has two main clinical forms: von Zumbusch psoriasis, characterized by severe erythrodermia and scaling skin after the resolution of pustules, and the annular form. GPP may also present severe extracutaneous manifestations including pneumonitis, heart failure and hepatitis. Old reports showed a relationship between hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia as triggers for GPP highlighting the importance of adequate workup of the patient and possible therapeutic changes in acute situations. Here, we present a case of severe von Zumbusch psoriasis with life-threatening complications triggered by severe hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism successfully treated with aggressive calcium reposition. PMID:26955330

  3. Absence of the SRC-2 Coactivator Results in a Glycogenopathy Resembling Von Gierke's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Atul R.; Louet, Jean-Francois; Saha, Pradip; An, Jie; DeMayo, Franco; Xu, Jianming; York, Brian; Karpen, Saul; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David; Chan, Lawrence; Newgard, Christopher B.; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic glucose production is critical for basal brain function and survival when dietary glucose is unavailable. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is an essential, rate-limiting enzyme that serves as a terminal gatekeeper for hepatic glucose release into the plasma. Mutations in G6Pase result in Von Gierke's disease (glycogen storage disease–1a), a potentially fatal genetic disorder. We have identified the transcriptional coactivator SRC-2 as a regulator of fasting hepatic glucose release, a function that SRC-2 performs by controlling the expression of hepatic G6Pase. SRC-2 modulates G6Pase expression directly by acting as a coactivator with the orphan nuclear receptor RORα. In addition, SRC-2 ablation, in both a whole-body and liver-specific manner, resulted in a Von Gierke's disease phenotype in mice. Our results position SRC-2 as a critical regulator of mammalian glucose production. PMID:19039140

  4. Type 2M and Type 2A von Willebrand Disease: Similar but Different.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Pasalic, Leonardo; Curnow, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Analogous to the differentiation between hemophilia A and B, respectively, reflecting deficiency in factor VIII (FVIII) and FIX, and increasing being recognized as reflecting clinically different disorders, types 2A and 2M von Willebrand disease (VWD) can also be shown to express both similarities and differences in their prevalence, genetic defects, laboratory test results, clinical features, and treatment responses. In this narrative review, we explore these two "subtypes" of type 2 VWD, identifying parallels and dissimilarities in various aspects of their presentation to clinicians and to scientists/laboratories. This differential will become increasingly important as we strive to provide personalized approaches to future management of patients with VWD, particularly in the emerging landscape of recombinant von Willebrand factor. PMID:27148841

  5. Instrumentation for Studies of Cochlear Mechanics: From von Békésy forward

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Alfred L; Fridberger, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Georg von Békésy designed the instruments needed for his research. He also created physical models of the cochlea allowing him to manipulate the parameters (such as volume elasticity) that could be involved in controlling traveling waves. This review is about the specific devices that he used to study the motion of the basilar membrane thus allowing the analysis that lead to his Nobel Prize Award. The review moves forward in time mentioning the subsequent use of von Békésy’s methods and later technologies important for motion studies of the organ of Corti. Some of the seminal findings and the controversies of cochlear mechanics are mentioned in relation to the technical developments. PMID:22975360

  6. Jahre Entwicklung der Instandhaltung - von der ausfallorientierten Instandhaltung zum gemeinsamen TPM und RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iske, Friedhelm

    Zur Einleitung meines Beitrages möchte ich von einem Gespräch mit einem Mitarbeiter berichten, das ich als junger Vorgesetzter einer Instandhaltungsgruppe 1988 führte. Der engagierte Mitarbeiter feierte damals sein vierzigjähriges Dienstjubiläum und war stolz auf das von ihm Geleistete sowie auf den besonderen Einsatz seiner Altersgruppe, die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg das Werk wieder aufgebaut hatte. Auf meine Frage, was denn damals die erste Aufgabe in der Firma war, bekam ich kurz und knapp und mit einer Selbstverständlichkeit die selbstbewusste Antwort: "Unser Pferd füttern und mit dem Pferd die innerbetrieblichen Transporte erledigen“. Als junger, technisch orientierter Vorgesetzter war ich über diese Antwort sehr überrascht. Gedanklich weit entfernt war die Vorstellung, dass in der Vergangenheit Transporte mit einem Pferd erledigt wurden.

  7. Current controversies in the diagnosis and management of von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder in the world. The spectrum of VWD spans quantitative and qualitative deficiencies of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a platelet adhesive protein. It manifests primarily as mucocutaneous bleeding, but severely affected patients may suffer soft tissue bleeding and hemarthroses. There is disagreement in the multiple guidelines published regarding diagnosis, especially of type 1 VWD, which also remains the most opaque with respect to molecular characterization. Treatment with desmopressin (DDAVP) is most effective in type 1 VWD, but regimens are not standardized. It is not clear which type 2 VWD patients with qualitative deficiencies can be treated with DDAVP and which ones should receive VWF concentrates. No guidelines stipulate which patients might benefit from prophylactic VWF infusions and how they should be dosed. These are some current controversies in VWD that are discussed in this review. PMID:26288715

  8. CT scan diagnosis of hepatic adenoma in a case of von Gierke disease

    PubMed Central

    Daga, Bipin Valchandji; Shah, Vaibhav R; More, Rahul B

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic adenoma is a well-defined, benign, solitary tumor of the liver. In individuals with glycogen storage disease I, adenoma tends to occur at a relatively younger age and can be multiple (adenomatosis). Imaging plays a pivotal role in diagnosing hepatic adenoma and in differentiating adenoma from other focal hepatic lesions. Especially in patients with von Gierke disease, in addition to the associated hepatomegaly caused by steatohepatitis and the diffusely reduced attenuation of the liver parenchyma seen on CT, there may be more than one hepatic adenoma in up to 40% of patients. Malignant degeneration of hepatic adenoma into hepatocellular carcinoma can occur and hence imaging is important for prompt diagnosis of adenoma and its complications. In this case report, we present a case of liver adenoma diagnosed by CT scan in a patient with von Gierke disease. PMID:22623817

  9. Acquired von Willebrand disease and multiple myeloma: a case report of a breast cancer survivor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ning; Salahuddin, Farah F; Nesbitt, John A

    2014-12-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (aVWD) is rare disease and is associated with a variety of underlying diseases. We report a case of aVWD in the setting of multiple myeloma. The patient was a 63-year-old female with breast cancer in remission who was admitted for symptomatic anemia. She was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. She also had subcutaneous bleeding before admission. Laboratory studies revealed isolated prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time, which corrected in a mixing study. Her factor VIII activity, von Willebrand factor (VWF) Ag, and VWF activity were low. VWF multimer study confirmed the patient had aVWD. The treatment of aVWD is discussed in this article, including the treatment of underlying diseases, and acute management in emergent situations. An intriguing question in this case is whether the patient's multiple myeloma is a chemotherapy-induced hematological malignancy or a second primary malignancy. PMID:24911454

  10. Absence of the SRC-2 coactivator results in a glycogenopathy resembling Von Gierke's disease.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Atul R; Louet, Jean-Francois; Saha, Pradip; An, Jie; Demayo, Franco; Xu, Jianming; York, Brian; Karpen, Saul; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David; Chan, Lawrence; Newgard, Christopher B; O'Malley, Bert W

    2008-11-28

    Hepatic glucose production is critical for basal brain function and survival when dietary glucose is unavailable. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is an essential, rate-limiting enzyme that serves as a terminal gatekeeper for hepatic glucose release into the plasma. Mutations in G6Pase result in Von Gierke's disease (glycogen storage disease-1a), a potentially fatal genetic disorder. We have identified the transcriptional coactivator SRC-2 as a regulator of fasting hepatic glucose release, a function that SRC-2 performs by controlling the expression of hepatic G6Pase. SRC-2 modulates G6Pase expression directly by acting as a coactivator with the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha. In addition, SRC-2 ablation, in both a whole-body and liver-specific manner, resulted in a Von Gierke's disease phenotype in mice. Our results position SRC-2 as a critical regulator of mammalian glucose production. PMID:19039140

  11. Pathologic studies of the osteoporosis of Von Gierke's disease (glycogenosis 1a).

    PubMed

    Soejima, K; Landing, B H; Roe, T F; Swanson, V L

    1985-01-01

    Pathologic and point count-morphometric studies of ribs, vertebrae, and iliac crests of 7 patients with Von Gierke's glycogenesis type Ia aged 5 months to 30 years were performed. The bone lesion is a pure osteoporosis (reduction in mass of bone matrix) with no evidences of significant physeal cartilage abnormality or of osteitis fibrosa or osteomalacia (reduced mineralization of bone matrix). The osteoporosis was already marked in the youngest patient studied (5 months). The discrepancy between normal and glycogen storage disease (GSD) bones increased progressively with age for ribs and was less severe for vertebrae. Available biochemical data give no indication of primary disturbance of calcium or phosphate metabolism, of parathyroid activity, or of vitamin D metabolism. Clinical data suggest that the osteoporosis of Von Gierke's disease is due to hypoglycemia or a metabolic sequela thereof, such as insulinopenia, but pathologic study of patients treated by newer techniques of maintaining euglycemia in GSD is needed. PMID:3867867

  12. Commutation of Projections and Characterization of Traces on von Neumann Algebras. III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikchentaev, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    We obtain new necessary and sufficient commutation conditions for nonnegative operators and projections in terms of operator inequalities. It is shown that in the general case in this inequalities the projections cannot be replaced by arbitrary nonnegative operators with preservation of operators commutativity. We also present new necessary and sufficient commutation conditions for projections in terms of operator inequalities. These inequalities are applied for trace characterization on von Neumann algebras in the class of all positive normal functionals. We also consider the following problems: I. Characterization of traces among arbitrary weights on von Neumann algebras. II. Characterization of tracial functionals among all positive linear functionals on C ∗-algebras. III. Characterization of commutativity for C ∗-algebras.

  13. Use of recombinant factor VIIa in inherited and acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Sucker, Christoph; Scharf, Rüdiger E; Zotz, Rainer B

    2009-02-01

    Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is increasingly used outside the labeled indications for the treatment of life-threatening bleeding episodes after failure of respective standard therapy. In this article, the authors focus on the use of the agent in patients with inherited or acquired von Willebrand disease (vWD). Although the current experience is sparse, published cases indicate the high efficacy of rFVIIa for the treatment of patients refractory to conventional treatment. The agent may be used in patients with congenital vWD complicated by alloantibodies directed against substituted von Willebrand factor or in the presence of concomitant hemostatic defects as well as acquired vWD with hitherto limited therapeutic options. Controlled clinical studies are necessary to define the use of rFVIIa in this clinical setting. PMID:18263636

  14. Von Willebrand disease-associated angiodysplasia: a few answers, still many questions.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-04-01

    The association between angiodysplasia and von Willebrand disease (VWD) has been known for more than 40 years. Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract associated with angiodysplasia worsens the clinical course of this inherited haemorrhagic disorder and management may become difficult and challenging. Angiodysplasia associated with acquired defects or dysfunctions of von Willebrand factor (VWF) has also been reported in a variety of conditions such as monoclonal gammopathies, Heyde syndrome and in carriers of ventricular assist devices. The most recent advances concerning the mechanistic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of VWD-associated angiodysplasia are summarized in this review, together with the limitations of our knowledge that warrant further research in the frame of international cooperation. PMID:23432086

  15. Noise exposure among construction electricians.

    PubMed

    Seixas, N S; Ren, K; Neitzel, R; Camp, J; Yost, M

    2001-01-01

    Data-logging noise dosimetry was used to assess the exposure levels of electricians working for a major electrical subcontractor in Washington State at five sites using four types of construction methods. Subjects documented activities and work environment information throughout their work shift, resulting in an activity/exposure record for each of the 174 full-shift samples collected over the 4-month duration of the study. Over 24% of the TWA samples exceeded 85 dBA; 5.2% exceeded the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health exposure metric, which specifies a 3-dB ER, was also utilized; using this metric, 67.8% of the samples exceeded 85 dBA and 27% exceeded 90 dBA. Subjects were directly observed for a subset of 4469 min during which more detailed activity and environmental information was recorded. Linear and logistic regression models using this subset were used to identify the determinants of average exposure, and exposure exceedences, respectively. These models demonstrated the importance of multiple variable modeling in interpreting exposure assessments, and the feasibility and utility of modeling exposure exceedences using logistic regression. The results further showed that presumably quiet trades such as electrician are at risk of exposure to potentially harmful noise exposures, and that other workers' activities and the general environment contribute substantially to that risk. These results indicate that noise control strategies will have to address the construction work environment as an integrated system. PMID:11669388

  16. A Giant Intrathoracic Malignant Schwannoma Causing Respiratory Failure in a Patient without von Recklinghausen's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Angelopoulos, Epameinondas; Eleftheriou, Konstantinos; Kyriakopoulos, Georgios; Athanassiadi, Kalliopi; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Routsi, Christina

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a thoracic opacity due to a huge mediastinal malignant schwannoma which compressed the whole left lung and the mediastinum causing respiratory failure in a 73-year-old woman without von Recklinghausen's disease. Although the tumor was resected, the patient failed to wean from mechanical ventilation and died one month later because of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. PMID:27118974

  17. Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker: A Fifty-Year Friendship*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper follows Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during their fifty-year friendship from 1926, when they first met in Copenhagen, to Heisenberg's death in Munich in 1976. The relationship underwent profound changes during that period, as did physics, philosophy, and German society and politics, all of which exerted important influences on their lives, work, and interactions with each other. The nature of these developments and their impact are explored in this paper.

  18. Kamera-basierte Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen auf deutschen Straen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhüser, Dennis; Ziegenmeyer, Marco; Gumpp, Thomas; Scholl, Kay-Ulrich; Zöllner, J. Marius; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    An Fahrerassistenzsysteme im industriellen Einsatz werden hohe Anforderungen bezüglich Zuverlässigkeit und Robustheit gestellt. In dieser Arbeit wird die Kombination robuster Verfahren wie der Hough-Transformation und Support-Vektor-Maschinen zu einem Gesamtsystem zur Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen beschrieben. Es setzt eine Farbvideokamera als Sensorik ein. Die Evaluation auf Testdaten bestätigt durch die ermittelte hohe Korrektklassifikationsrate bei gleichzeitig geringer Zahl Fehlalarme die Zuverlässigkeit des Systems.

  19. Finite element approximation of an optimal control problem for the von Karman equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, L. Steven; Turner, James C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal control problems for the von Karman equations with distributed controls. We first show that optimal solutions exist. We then show that Lagrange multipliers may be used to enforce the constraints and derive an optimality system from which optimal states and controls may be deduced. Finally we define finite element approximations of solutions for the optimality system and derive error estimates for the approximations.

  20. Dr. von Braun and Dr. Stuhlinger With a Model of the Nuclear-Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, taken at the Walt Disney Studios in California, Dr. Wernher von Braun and Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger are shown discussing the concepts of nuclear-electric spaceships designed to undertake the mission to the planet Mars. As a part of the Disney 'Tomorrowland' series on the exploration of space, the nuclear-electric vehicles were shown in the last three television films, entitled 'Mars and Beyond,' which first aired in December 1957.

  1. Analytical and numerical analysis of the slope of von Mises planar trusses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, M.; Frantík, P.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, there are presented post-critical stress states which will occur at loading by vertical shift of the top joint in the direction downwards. The formation of certain stress states depends on the size of the angle formed by a straight beam of the von Mises planar truss with horizontal plane. Numerical and analytical methods and their problems with finding the angle were described. The numerical solution applies the method of searching for a minimum of potential energy.

  2. Benard-von Karman Vortex Street in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki

    2010-04-16

    Vortex shedding from an obstacle potential moving in a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. Long-lived alternately aligned vortex pairs are found to form in the wake, which is similar to the Benard-von Karman vortex street in classical viscous fluids. Various patterns of vortex shedding are systematically studied and the drag force on the obstacle is calculated. It is shown that the phenomenon can be observed in a trapped system.

  3. Differential proteolytic activation of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex by thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Hill-Eubanks, D.C.; Parker, C.G.; Lollar, P. )

    1989-09-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is a plasma protein that is decreased or absent in hemophilia A. It is isolated as a mixture of heterodimers that contain a variably sized heavy chain and a common light chain. Thrombin catalyzes the activation of fVIII in a reaction that is associated with cleavages in both types of chain. The authors isolated a serine protease from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that catalyzes thrombin-like heavy-chain cleavage but not light-chain cleavage in porcine fVIII as judged by NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE and N-terminal sequence analysis. Using a plasma-free assay of the ability of activated {sup 125}I-fVIII to function as a cofactor in the activation of factor X by factor IXa, they found that fVIII is activated by the venom enzyme. The venom enzyme-activated fVIII was isolated in stable form by cation-exchange HPLC. von Willebrand factor inhibited venom enzyme-activated fVIII but not thrombin-activated fVIII. These results suggest that the binding of fVIII to von Willebrand factor depends on the presence of an intact light chain and that activated fVIII must dissociate from von Willebrand factor to exert its cofactor effect. Thus, proteolytic activation of fVIII-von Willebrand factor complex appears to be differentially regulated by light-chain cleavage to dissociate the complex and heavy-chain cleavage to activate the cofactor function.

  4. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb". PMID:24974611

  5. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's philosophy of the mind].

    PubMed

    Lyre, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's position within the philosophy of mind. It turns out that Weizsäcker's ontology is based on an unorthodox conception both in the philosophy of physics and in the philosophy of mind. His quantum information theoretic reductionism is based on a subtle combination of atomism and holism, his philosophy of mind connected to this is a neutral monism, which proposes a bold intertwining of mind, matter, and space. PMID:24974603

  6. A note on the numerical solution of the von Karman small disturbance equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, M. S.

    1985-09-01

    In this short note, the von Karman small disturbance equation is derived from the full potential equation of gas dynamics through perturbation methods. Guderley (1962) and Germain (1964) have previously computed exact solutions, in similarity form, for the small disturbance equation. It is shown that these solutions can be computed efficiently by solving a single nonlinear second-order differential equation. The shock and entropy conditions are automatically satisfied, and a one-parameter family of solutions is recovered.

  7. An efficient method for calculating RMS von Mises stress in a random vibration environment

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Fulcher, C.W.G.; Reese, G.M.; Field, R.V. Jr.

    1998-02-01

    An efficient method is presented for calculation of RMS von Mises stresses from stress component transfer functions and the Fourier representation of random input forces. An efficient implementation of the method calculates the RMS stresses directly from the linear stress and displacement modes. The key relation presented is one suggested in past literature, but does not appear to have been previously exploited in this manner.

  8. An efficient method for calculating RMS von Mises stress in a random vibration environment

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Fulcher, C.W.G.; Reese, G.M.; Field, R.V. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    An efficient method is presented for calculation of RMS von Mises stresses from stress component transfer functions and the Fourier representation of random input forces. An efficient implementation of the method calculates the RMS stresses directly from the linear stress and displacement modes. The key relation presented is one suggested in past literature, but does not appear to have been previously exploited in this manner.

  9. Probabilistic exposure fusion.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Chen, Chun; Bu, Jiajun; Luo, Jiebo; Zhang, Chengqi

    2012-01-01

    The luminance of a natural scene is often of high dynamic range (HDR). In this paper, we propose a new scheme to handle HDR scenes by integrating locally adaptive scene detail capture and suppressing gradient reversals introduced by the local adaptation. The proposed scheme is novel for capturing an HDR scene by using a standard dynamic range (SDR) device and synthesizing an image suitable for SDR displays. In particular, we use an SDR capture device to record scene details (i.e., the visible contrasts and the scene gradients) in a series of SDR images with different exposure levels. Each SDR image responds to a fraction of the HDR and partially records scene details. With the captured SDR image series, we first calculate the image luminance levels, which maximize the visible contrasts, and then the scene gradients embedded in these images. Next, we synthesize an SDR image by using a probabilistic model that preserves the calculated image luminance levels and suppresses reversals in the image luminance gradients. The synthesized SDR image contains much more scene details than any of the captured SDR image. Moreover, the proposed scheme also functions as the tone mapping of an HDR image to the SDR image, and it is superior to both global and local tone mapping operators. This is because global operators fail to preserve visual details when the contrast ratio of a scene is large, whereas local operators often produce halos in the synthesized SDR image. The proposed scheme does not require any human interaction or parameter tuning for different scenes. Subjective evaluations have shown that it is preferred over a number of existing approaches. PMID:21609883

  10. Asymmetric otolith function and increased susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to variations in gravitoinertial acceleration level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton; Johnson, Walter H.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Von Baumgarten and coworkers (1979, 1981) have suggested that asymmetries in otolith function between the left and right labyrinths may result from differences in otoconial mass and could play a role in space motion sickness. Such asymmetries would be centrally compensated for under terrestrial conditions, but on exposure to weightlessness the persisting central compensation would produce a central imbalance that could lead to motion sickness. In this work ocular counterrolling was used as a way of measuring the relative 'efficiency' of the left and right otoliths; the ocular counterrolling scores of individuals were compared with their susceptibility to motion sickness during passive exposure to variations in Gz in parabolic flight maneuvers. The experimental findings indicate that large asymmetries in counterrolling for leftward and rightward body tilts are associated with greater susceptibility to motion sickness in parabolic flight.

  11. Book Review: John von Neumann and the foundations of quantum physics. (Vienna Circle Institute yearbook (2000), 8) Miklos Redei and Michael Stoltzner (Eds.); Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001, pp., US 125, ISBN 0792368126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupher, Tracy

    Some people may be surprised to learn that John von Neumann's work on the foundations of quantum physics went far beyond what is contained within the pages of his Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (MFQM) (von Neumann, 1955). However, this narrow focus often ignores von Neumann's later work on quantum logic and what are now called in his honor, von Neumann algebras. This volume honoring von Neumann's contributions to physics is unique in that, while it contains 12 papers that examine various aspects of von Neumann's work, it also contains two of his previously unpublished papers and some of his previously unpublished correspondence.

  12. An Alternative to Von Glasersfeld's Subjectivism in Science Education: Deweyan Social Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Jim

    An influential view of constructivism in science and mathematics educational research and practice is that of Ernst von Glasersfeld. It is a peculiarly subjectivist form of constructivism that should not be attractive to science and mathematics educators concerned with retaining some sort of realism that leaves room for objectivity. The subjectivist constructivism of von Glasersfeld also becomes entangled in untenable mind/body and subject/object dualisms. Finally, these dualisms are unnecessary for social constructivism. I will provide one example of a social constructivist alternative to social constructivism, that of the pragmatic philosopher JohnDewey. In presenting Deweys position I will appeal to Ockhams razor, that is, the admonition not to multiply entities beyond necessity, to shave off the needless mentalistic and psychic entities that lead von Glasersfeld into his subjectivism and dualism.In outward forms, experimental science is infinitely varied. In principle, it is simple. We know an object when we knowhow it is made, and we know how it is made in the degree in which we ourselves make it.

  13. Linkage disequilibrium patterns vary with chromosomal location: A case study from the von Willebrand factor region

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W.S.; Zenger, R.; O'Brien, E.; Jorde, L.B. ); Nyman, D. ); Eriksson, A.W. ); Renlund, M.

    1994-08-01

    Linkage disequilibrium analysis has been used as a tool for analyzing marker order and locating disease genes. Under appropriate circumstances, disequilibrium patterns reflect recombination events that have occurred throughput a population's history. As a result, disequilibrium mapping may be useful in genomic regions of <1 cM where the number of informative meioses needed to detect recombinant individuals within pedigrees is exceptionally high. Its utility for refining target areas for candidate disease genes before initiating chromosomal walks and cloning experiments will be enhanced as the relationship between linkage disequilibrium and physical distance is better understood. To address this issue, the authors have characterized linkage disequilibrium in a 144-kb region of the von Willebrand factor gene on chromosome 12. Sixty CEPH and 12 von Willebrand disease families were genotypes for five PCR-based markers, which include two microsatellite repeats and three single-base-pair substitutions. Linkage disequilibrium and physical distance between polymorphisms are highly correlated (r[sub m] = -.76; P<.05) within this region. None of the five markers showed significant disequilibrium with the von Willebrand disease phenotype. The linkage disequilibrium/physical distance relationship was also analyzed as a function of chromosomal location for this and eight previously characterized regions. This analysis revealed a general trend in which linkage disequilibrium dissipates more rapidly with physical distance in telomeric regions than in centromeric regions. This trend is consistent with higher recombination rates near telomeres. 52 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Interactions between the surface gravity waves and the Von Karman streets: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnoo, Hans; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Rivier, Aurélie; Abcha, NIzar; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The growth of renewable energy over the past decade is impressive. Offshore wind farms are planned to construct along the site of Courseulles s/mer (Normandy, France) in 2018. The ofelia project leads to study the environmental impacts of the offshore wind farms in the Channel. In parallel with the regional modeling of the changes in hydrodynamic and in sediment transport due to monopiles (Rivier et al., 2014), studies at local scales are also carried out. Laboratory experiments show that the resonance between the surface gravity waves and the Von Karman streets leads to modify the synchronisation of the vortex (Gunnoo et al., 2014). Numerical simulations are performed to reproduce this mechanism. The CFD code, IHFOAM, based on an OpenFoam Kernel, allows to simulate the wave-current interactions at local scales. First, bi-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations without waves are set-up to validate our modeling plateform. The well-known Von Karman streets are obtained. Results are in agreement with the experimental data. Second, waves are included in the simulations. The free-surface is explicitely solved by the Volume Of Fluid method. Regular and irregular wave spectrums are tested. Changes in Von Karman Streets due to waves are observed. In the future, some comparisons with the experimental results will be done.

  15. Examination of the von Neumann paradox for a weak shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Susumu; Adachi, Takashi; Suzuki, Tateyuki

    1995-12-01

    Oblique reflections of a weak shock wave have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A modified three-shock theory is introduced to explain the well-known von Neumann paradox for weak Mach reflection. As a physical reality, the triple point is not a mathematical point and the slipstream has a finite thickness. Consequently, the effect of the slipstream divergence behind the triple point and the minute pressure differences on both sides of the slipstream are taken into account, and both these effects are examined numerically. The angle of divergence is given parametrically in order to calculate some characteristics around the triple point, e.g., the angle of reflection. Numerical results are compared with measurements, and characteristics of solutions are examined. It is found that for weak Mach reflection the modified three-shock theory gives physically realistic solutions, even when von Neumann's three-shock theory has no solution. It is also found that the divergence effect of the slipstream is predominant over the pressure difference. All the experimental data are found to exist in the domain bounded by von Neumann's classical theories and the modified three-shock theory proposed here. The experimental evidence of slipstream divergence is presented.

  16. Hans von Bülow: creativity and neurological disease in a famous pianist and conductor.

    PubMed

    Wöhrle, Johannes C; Haas, Frithjof

    2007-01-01

    Hans von Bülow (1830-1894) was a conductor and pianist of worldwide reputation and founder of many stylistic interpretations of classic and romantic symphonies. The close friendship with Richard Wagner, but not the enthusiastic admiration of his dramatic musical opus, ended abruptly when Hans von Bülow became aware of the betrayal of his wife Cosima and Richard Wagner. Hans von Bülow reported symptoms and signs of neurological disease in many letters that were kept and edited by his second wife Marie. For decades he suffered from chronic neuralgiforme headaches, which were caused by a tumor of the cervical radicular nerves. At the age of 45 years, he suddenly developed a motorsensory deficit in the right arm and hand and a contralateral facial deficit, suggestive of brainstem infarction. He recovered and celebrated even greater successes as a musician, although phases of major depression also interfered with his professional life. In the last, phase of his life, he experienced the consequences of generalized atherosclerosis and cerebral microangiopathy. It was a second cerebrovascular accident of the brainstem that caused his death, only 10 months after his last concert performance. Although his death occurred in Egypt, an autopsy was performed by Professor Ludwig Edinger and the results will be presented. PMID:17495513

  17. From arterial hypertension complications to von Hippel-Lindau syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kozaczuk, Sylwia; Ben-Skowronek, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is a rare, genetically based, autosomal dominant disorder. Its course is accompanied by the development of multiple neoplasms with the following tumours diagnosed most commonly in the central nervous system haemangioblastoma, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, phaeochromocytomas, pancreatic islet tumours, and endolymphatic sac tumours. Additionally, renal and pancreatic cystadenomas and epididymal cystadenomas have been diagnosed in males and cystadenomas of the broad ligament of the uterus have been diagnosed in females.The following paper presents the diagnostic way in a boy with vision disorders as the first symptom. Hypertension retinopathy and extremely elevated blood pressure were observed during ophthalmologic consultation. Complications of arterial hypertension were confirmed by echocardiography, which diagnosed hypertension cardiomyopathy. Hypertension retinopathy was confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Examinations performed in the neurology, cardiology, and finally endocrinology indicated a bilateral phaeochromocytoma as the cause of arterial hypertension. Moreover, some genetic investigations showed a mutation in the VHL ex.1 p.Y112 C gene responsible for the hereditary form of phaeochromocytoma which confirmed von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. After surgical treatment of phaeochromocytoma the patient needed careful management according to the surveillance protocol for von Hippel-Lindau disease. PMID:26268347

  18. Invited commentary: The context and challenge of von Pettenkofer's contributions to epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Gerald M; Susser, Ezra

    2007-12-01

    Max von Pettenkofer is largely remembered for swallowing cholera vibrio, trying thereby to falsify the claim of his rival, the contagionist Robert Koch, that the bacillus he had isolated was cholera's sufficient cause. In this issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, Alfredo Morabia reminds us that von Pettenkofer was more than this futile gesture. He was a 19th century public health leader whose multifactorial theory of cholera etiology deeply influenced the dominant anticontagionist school of disease transmission. His authority was undercut by the massive 1892 cholera epidemic in Hamburg, Germany. As it took off, the German government sent in Koch, who successfully contained the epidemic through interventions that von Pettenkofer regularly repudiated-quarantine, disinfection, and the boiling of water. The authors situate the antagonism between these two individuals within a broader scientific and political context that includes the evolution of miasma theory and debates over the role of governments confronted by epidemic disease. They also note that Koch's approach, which focused narrowly on the agent and its eradication, was missing key elements required for applying germ theory to public health. As scientists later incorporated biologic, host, and environmental factors into the germ theory paradigm, they reintroduced some of the complexity that had previously characterized the miasma model. PMID:17934199

  19. From Mill via von Kries to Max Weber: Causality, Explanation, and Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidelberger, Michael

    In the second part of his "Critical studies in the logic of the cultural sciences" published in 1906, which carries the title "Objective possibility and adequate causation in historical explanation" (Weber 1906, 164-188/266-290)1 Max Weber (1864-1920) wrote that he feels "almost embarrassed in view of the extent to which here again, as in so much of the preceding argument, I am 'plundering' von Kries' ideas" (Weber 1906, 186/288).2 Weber thus admits a very strong influence on his approach by the physiologist, philosopher, and theoretician of probability, von Kries (1853-1928), who was for sometime his colleague in Freiburg in southwest Germany. Von Kries had suggested a legal criterion for attributing a deed to an agent that exerted a strong influence on German civil law and was also taken up by the legal system of other countries. This earned him the title of an honorary doctor of the law faculty of the University of Erlangen in 1897.

  20. Optimal spinneret layout in Von Koch curves of fractal theory based needleless electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Liu, Yanbo; Zhang, Ligai; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yang; Yao, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Needleless electrospinning technology is considered as a better avenue to produce nanofibrous materials at large scale, and electric field intensity and its distribution play an important role in controlling nanofiber diameter and quality of the nanofibrous web during electrospinning. In the current study, a novel needleless electrospinning method was proposed based on Von Koch curves of Fractal configuration, simulation and analysis on electric field intensity and distribution in the new electrospinning process were performed with Finite element analysis software, Comsol Multiphysics 4.4, based on linear and nonlinear Von Koch fractal curves (hereafter called fractal models). The result of simulation and analysis indicated that Second level fractal structure is the optimal linear electrospinning spinneret in terms of field intensity and uniformity. Further simulation and analysis showed that the circular type of Fractal spinneret has better field intensity and distribution compared to spiral type of Fractal spinneret in the nonlinear Fractal electrospinning technology. The electrospinning apparatus with the optimal Von Koch fractal spinneret was set up to verify the theoretical analysis results from Comsol simulation, achieving more uniform electric field distribution and lower energy cost, compared to the current needle and needleless electrospinning technologies.

  1. von Willebrand disease, pregnancy and neuraxial anesthesia: a multi-disciplinary approach for successful regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kailash, F; Wilkerson, D

    2009-05-01

    Fearing the devastating neurological complications in a parturient with the von Willebrand disease secondary to paucity of studies defining the guidelines to assess the risk of bleeding complications, anesthesiologists are often reluctant to administer neuroaxial anesthesia. We present a case report of a parturient with type I von Willebrand disease who presented for induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation. After consultation with the hematologist well ahead of the conception, appropriate laboratory workup including clotting factor levels including FVIII, vWF:RcoF, vWF:Ag on different occasions peripartum, and provision of adequate prophylactic medical treatment, she underwent Cesarean section under epidural anesthesia without neurological or bleeding complications. von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited bleeding disorder that may result in various bleeding complications in a parturient as a result of hemostatic challenges during pregnancy. Yet the recommendations are based on anecdotal observations of the authors of small case series and surveys. Our case report emphasizes the importance of advanced planning, careful patient assessment, and multi-disciplinary team approach for the successful regional anesthesia as suggested by the guidelines based on clinical experiences. PMID:19475813

  2. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome associated with hypothyroidism: a mild bleeding disorder to be further investigated.

    PubMed

    Federici, Augusto B

    2011-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those for congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD). Unlike VWD, AVWS usually occurs in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. The prevalence of AVWS in the general population is unknown because data from large prospective studies of this syndrome are not available. Although AVWS is more frequently associated with lympho-myeloproliferative and cardiovascular disorders, it can also occur in solid tumors and in immunological and other miscellaneous conditions. Among these miscellaneous conditions, hypothyroidism has been associated with AVWS type 1 with a frequency of ~2 to 5%. In the 47 cases reported in the literature, the low VWF is apparently due to a reduction in its synthesis and/or secretion. Diagnosis of AVWS is based on assays measuring the level and activity of von Willebrand factor (VWF). These tend to be low, whereas factor VIII (FVIII) coagulant activity can be normal. In patients with AVWS associated with hypothyroidism, mucocutaneous bleeding episodes are the most frequent and can be managed with local therapy and/or systemic administrations of antifibrinolytic agents and desmopressin. VWF/FVIII concentrates have been used in only a few patients. The use of thyroid hormones can reverse this abnormality. PMID:21305800

  3. Characterization of the von Willebrand factor gene (VWF) in von Willebrand disease type III patients from 24 families of Swedish and Finnish origin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.P.; Blomback, M.; Egberg, N.; Falk, G.; Anvret, M. )

    1994-05-01

    Twenty-four patients with von Willebrand disease type III were screened for mutations in the von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene using the PCR technique, followed by direct sequencing. More than 250 kb of genomic DNA were sequenced, including the promoter and coding regions (52 exons) of the VWF gene from 24 patients. In addition to the previously reported mutations of a single cytosine deletion in exon 18 and the nonsense mutations in exons 28, 32, and 45, nine new mutations were detected: two nonsense mutations in exons 15 and 16, one allele with a thymidine insertion in exon 14, one allele with a cytosine insertion in exon 28, one 20-bp deletion in exon 15, one mutation in the donor splice site of exon 43, and three missense mutations in exons 28, 49, and 51. Forty-two mutant chromosomes were identified (42/48); 11 probands are homozygous for the mutations, and 8 are compound heterozygous. In addition, a new subfamily of the Alu sequence in the promoter region and 10 new polymorphisms were identified. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Identification of a point mutation in type IIB von Willebrand disease illustrating the regulation of von Willebrand factor affinity for the platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib-IX receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.; Dent, J.A.; Azuma, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiko; Kyrle, P.A.; Yoshioka, Akira; Ruggeri, Z.M. )

    1991-04-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) supports platelet adhesion on thrombogenic surfaces by binding to platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib in the GP Ib-IX receptor complex. This interaction is physiologically regulated so that it does not occur between circulating vWF and platelets but, rather, only at a site of vascular injury. The abnormal vWF found in type IIB von Willebrand disease, however, has a characteristically increased affinity for GP Ib and binds to circulating platelets. The authors have analyzed the molecular basis of this abnormality by sequence analysis of a type IIB vWF cDNA and have identified a single amino acid change, Trp{sup 550} to Cys{sup 550}, located in the GP IB-binding domain of the molecule comprising residues 449-728. Bacterial expression of recombinant fragments corresponding to this vWF domain yielded molecules that, whether containing a normal Trp{sup 550} or a mutant Cys{sup 550} residue, bound directly to GP Ib in the absence of modulators and with similar affinity. These results identify a region of vWF that, although not thought to be directly involved in binding to GP Ib, may modulate the interaction through conformational changes.

  5. A novel nanobody that detects the gain-of-function phenotype of von Willebrand factor in ADAMTS13 deficiency and von Willebrand disease type 2B.

    PubMed

    Hulstein, Janine J J; de Groot, Philip G; Silence, Karen; Veyradier, Agnès; Fijnheer, Rob; Lenting, Peter J

    2005-11-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is unable to interact spontaneously with platelets because this interaction requires a conversion of the VWF A1 domain into a glycoprotein Ibalpha (GpIbalpha) binding conformation. Here, we discuss a llama-derived antibody fragment (AU/VWFa-11) that specifically recognizes the GpIbalpha-binding conformation. AU/VWFa-11 is unable to bind VWF in solution, but efficiently interacts with ristocetin- or botrocetin-activated VWF, VWF comprising type 2B mutation R1306Q, or immobilized VWF. These unique properties allowed us to use AU/VWFa-11 for the detection of activated VWF in plasma of patients characterized by spontaneous VWF-platelet interactions: von Willebrand disease (VWD) type 2B and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). For VWD type 2B, levels of activated VWF were increased 12-fold (P < .001) compared to levels in healthy volunteers. An inverse correlation between activated VWF levels and platelet count was observed (R2 = 0.74; P < .003). With regard to TTP, a 2-fold (P < .001) increase in activated VWF levels was found in plasma of patients with acquired TTP, whereas an 8-fold increase (P < .003) was found in congenital TTP. No overlap in levels of activated VWF could be detected between acquired and congenital TTP, suggesting that AU/VWFa-11 could be used to distinguish between both disorders. Furthermore, it could provide a tool to investigate the role of VWF in the development of thrombocytopenia in various diseases. PMID:16014562

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  8. Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials were useful for testing technical concepts that needed to be validated for the Cosmic Dust Collector Facility (CDCF) - a large instrument that was under study for inclusion on the upcoming Space Station. As it turned out, CDCF, which was approved at one point as an external payload, was ultimately canceled due to the scaling back of the Space Station capabilities. However, the study of cosmic dust is still a field of great interest for NASA, being the crucial part of at least one experiment that is still being considered for a Discovery mission. The optimum analysis of hypervelocity impacts is thus a continuing NASA concern. Two experiments, AO187-1 and AO187-2 were explicitly designed to measure the flux and composition of dust particles impacting LDEF. The former consisted of flat targets of Au and Al while the second comprised a set of 237 "capture cells" using Ge target plates covered by thin (2.5 microns) metallized plastic foils. The spacecraft maintained a constant orientation with respect to its velocity vector thereby defining leading and trailing edges that faced respectively into and away from the direction of motion. Both AO187-1 and AO187-2 had detectors on both the leading and trailing edges of LDEF. It was expected that interplanetary dust particles would dominate impacts on the trailing edge while the leading edge would be exposed to both cosmic dust and particles of orbital manmade debris. In AO187-1, the compositions of the impactors was determined by SEM-EDS techniques; in AO187-2 a sensitive surface analysis technique - SIMS - was used to determine both elemental and (some) isotopic compositions. In the initial analysis of AO187-2, it was found that SIMS was more sensitive for the analysis of thin impact debris layers than SEM-EDS. The present grant was made to determine if SIMS analysis could also be applied to impacts recorded in the Au surfaces of AO187-1. Success would extend the analysis

  9. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  10. Environmental epigenetics in metal exposure

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Zamudio, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to arsenite, nickel, chromium and cadmium increases cancer incidence in individuals, the molecular mechanisms underlying their ability to transform cells remain largely unknown. Carcinogenic metals are typically weak mutagens, suggesting that genetic-based mechanisms may not be primarily responsible for metal-induced carcinogenesis. Growing evidence shows that environmental metal exposure involves changes in epigenetic marks, which may lead to a possible link between heritable changes in gene expression and disease susceptibility and development. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of metal exposure affecting epigenetic marks and discuss establishment of heritable gene expression in metal-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:21610324

  11. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. The astronomer of the duchess -- Life and work of Franz Xaver von Zach 1754-1832. (German Title: Der Astronom der Herzogin -- Leben und Werk von Franz Xaver von Zach 1754-1832)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosche, Peter

    The astronomer, geodesist, geographer and historian of science Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) lived and worked in several European countries. Duke Ernst II of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg appointed him as the founding scientist of his Seeberg Observatory. This was the place of his strongest activity. Why should we have an interest in him today? There is a rational and an emotional answer. First, he has rendered organisational services to his sciences which are equivalent to a great scientific achievement. Second, Zach was a very colourful character, travelled across many states in a time of radical changes and had connections with many colleagues and public figures. Images from his life therefore provide outlooks, insights and relations.

  13. PREFACE: EmerQuM 11: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2011 (Heinz von Foerster Congress)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grössing, Gerhard

    2012-05-01

    These proceedings comprise the plenary lectures and poster contributions of the 'Heinz von Foerster Conference 2011' on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmerQuM11), which was held at the University of Vienna, 11-13 November 2011. With the 5th International Heinz von Foerster Conference convened at the occasion of von Foerster's 100th birthday, the organizers opted for a twin conference to take place at the Large and Small Ceremonial Halls of the University's main building, respectively. The overall topic was chosen as 'Self-Organization and Emergence', a topic to which von Foerster was an early contributor. While the first conference ('Self-Organization and Emergence in Nature and Society') addressed a more general audience, the second one ('Emergent Quantum Mechanics') was intended as a specialist meeting with a contemporary topic that could both serve as an illustration of von Foerster's intellectual heritage and, more generally, point towards future directions in physics. We thus intended to bring together many of those physicists who are interested in or are working on attempts to understand quantum mechanics as emerging from a suitable classical (or, more generally, deeper level) physics. EmerQuM11 was organized by the Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), with essential support from the Wiener Institute for Social Science Documentation and Methodology (WISDOM), the Department of Contemporary History at the University of Vienna, and the Heinz von Foerster-Gesellschaft. There were a number of individuals who contributed to the smooth course of our meeting and whom I would like to sincerely thank: Christian Bischof, Thomas Elze, Marianne Ertl, Gertrud Hafner, Werner Korn, Angelika Krawanja, Florian Krug and his team, Sonja Lang, Albert Müller, Ilse Müller, Irene Müller, Karl Müller, Armin Reautschnig, Marion Schirrmacher, Anton Staudinger, Roman Zlabinger, and, last but not least, my AINS colleagues Siegfried Fussy, Herbert Schwabl and Johannes Mesa

  14. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  15. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Miller, G

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields. PMID:3434538

  16. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  17. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  18. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  19. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  20. Contaminant Exposure in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manuscript is a critical review of the state of the science for quantifying exposures of terrestrial wildlife species to chemical contamination. It describes the unique aspects of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and threatened and endangered species. Fate and transport of ...