Science.gov

Sample records for exposure tracking experiences

  1. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  2. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  3. The Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissel, S. A.; Byrum, K.; Cunningham, J. D.; Drake, G.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Kieda, D.; Kovacs, E.; Macgill, S.; Nodulman, L.; Swordy, S. P.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a dedicated cosmic-ray telescope that explores a new method for detecting Cerenkov radiation from high-energy primary cosmic rays and the large particle air shower they induce upon entering the atmosphere. Using a camera comprising 16 multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for a total of 256 pixels, the Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment (TrICE) resolves substructures in particle air showers with 0.086deg resolution. Cerenkov radiation is imaged using a novel two-part optical system in which a Fresnel lens provides a wide-field optical trigger and a mirror system collects delayed light with four times the magnification. TrICE records well-resolved cosmic-ray air showers at rates ranging between 0.01-0.1 Hz.

  4. The Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissel, S. A.; Byrum, K.; Cunningham, J. D.; Drake, G.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Kieda, D.; Kovacs, E.; Magill, S.; Nodulman, L.; Swordy, S. P.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a. dedicated cosmic-ray telescope that explores a new method for detecting Cerenkov radiation from high-energy primary cosmic rays and the large particle air shower they induce upon entering the atmosphere. Using a camera comprising 16 multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for a total of 256 pixels, the Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment (TrICE) resolves substructures in particle air showers with 0,086 deg resolution. Cerenkov radiation is imaged using a novel two-part optical system in which a Fresnel lens provides a wide-field optical trigger and a mirror system collects delayed light with four times the magnification. TrICE records well-resolved cosmic-ray air showers at rates ranging between 0.01-0.1 Hz.

  5. A Photogate Design for Air Track Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces a photogate arrangement using a photo-reflective sensor for air track experiments. Reports that the sensitivity to sunlight can be eliminated and a mechanically more convenient package produced. Shows the mounting, circuit, and usage of the photogate. (YP)

  6. Playback Experiments for Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Holles, Sophie; Simpson, Stephen D; Lecchini, David; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Playbacks are a useful tool for conducting well-controlled and replicated experiments on the effects of anthropogenic noise, particularly for repeated exposures. However, playbacks are unlikely to fully reproduce original sources of anthropogenic noise. Here we examined the sound pressure and particle acceleration of boat noise playbacks in a field experiment and reveal that although there remain recognized limitations, the signal-to-noise ratios of boat playbacks to ambient noise do not exceed those of a real boat. The experimental setup tested is therefore of value for use in experiments on the effects of repeated exposure of aquatic animals to boat noise. PMID:26610992

  7. Patient exposure tracking: the IAEA smart card project.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M; Frush, Donald P

    2011-09-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents. PMID:21778155

  8. Neutron Tracking Simulations for the UCNτ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, Evan

    2012-10-01

    The UCNτ experiment aims to measure the neutron beta-decay lifetime to 1 s total uncertainty and beyond by trapping ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a gravito-magnetic trap, in which UCN will undergo no material wall interactions. To study the feasibility in this experimental technique, we have built Monte-Carlo simulations of the full-scale UCNτ experiment. The simulation program consists of two major components: one focuses on simulation of the UCN flux in the guide tubes, and the other on UCN tracking inside the trap. The first simulation studies optimized delivery of UCN into the trap and evaluates the effectiveness of relative flux monitoring to infer the number of trappable UCN for each fill. The second simulation tracks UCN, originating from the trap door, over the entire accessible region. Symplectic integrators are used to integrate the equations of motion of UCN using the full potential. Focus is given to studying the phase-space evolution of marginally trapped UCN. These neutrons have a large tangential velocity component and could be leaking out of the trap slowly (due to non-harmonic components in the trapping potential) and thus skewing the accuracy of the neutron beta-decay lifetime. In this talk, we will discuss many of these subtle effects.

  9. Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Tabata, Makoto; Yabuta, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude (1). Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments (1). It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. Tanpopo, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) (2). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. In this presentation, we will present the recent results related to the microbiological analyses. The results suggested that the bleaching speeds and the spectra of fluorescence are different between different origins of the fluorescence: whether it is emitted from microbe or not. It is also shown that PCR analysis of the microbe can be used to determine the species. References 1)Yang, Y., Yokobori, S. and Yamagishi, A.: Assessing panspermia hypothesis by microorganisms collected from the high altitude atmosphere. Biol. Sci. Space, 23 (2009), pp. 151-163. 2) Yamagishi, A., H. Yano, K. Kobayashi, K. Kobayashi, S. Yokobori, M. Tabata, H. Kawai, M. Yamashita, H. Hashimoto, H. Naraoka, & H. Mita (2008) TANPOPO: astrobiology exposure and micrometeoroid capture

  10. Tanpopo: Astrobiology exposure and micrometeoroid capture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Okudaira, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yabuta, Hikaru

    There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude (1). Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments (1). It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. Tanpopo, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) (2). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. In this presentation, we will present the recent results related to the microbiological analyses. The results suggested that the bleaching speeds and the spectra of fluorescence are different between different origins of the fluorescence: whether it is emitted from microbe or not. It is also shown that PCR analysis of the microbe can be used to determine the species. References 1)Yang, Y., Yokobori, S. and Yamagishi, A.: Assessing panspermia hypothesis by microorganisms collected from the high altitude atmosphere. Biol. Sci. Space, 23 (2009), pp. 151-163. 2) Yamagishi, A., H. Yano, K. Kobayashi, K. Kobayashi, S. Yokobori, M. Tabata, H. Kawai, M. Yamashita, H. Hashimoto, H. Naraoka, H. Mita (2008) TANPOPO: astrobi-ology exposure and micrometeoroid capture

  11. Tracking experience with PATRIS at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Milutinovic, J.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    We present some of the results of our tracking investigations using PATRIS. Both short-term and long-term tracking, using large numbers of particles, were performed and analyzed. When switching from short-term (1000 turns) to long-term (the maximum achieved was 10 million turns) tracking mode, we observed a small (about 14%) reduction of the dynamic aperture. We also empirically confirmed that the distinction between short-term and long-term tracking becomes meaningful for a number of turns of the order of 100,000 rather than 10,000, i.e, that 10{sup 5} is the threshold which must be crossed to get any appreciable difference between a 1000-turn run and a longer one. We have also found that a high density of initial conditions employed in tracking is somewhat more important for accurate determination of the dynamic aperture than a large number of turns.

  12. Shape memory polymer sensors for tracking cumulative environmental exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Ryan; Rauscher, Michael; Vining, Ben; Havens, Ernie; Havens, Teresa; McFerran, Jace

    2010-04-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymers (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, foods and beverages, or medicines, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, the SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastomeric state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring of thermal and moisture exposure over time. This technology was developed through Phase I and Phase II SBIR efforts with the Navy. The emphasis of current research centers on transitioning SMP materials from the lab bench to a production environment. Here, CRG presents the commercialization progress of thermally-activated EET sensors, focusing on fabrication scale-up, process refinements, and quality control. In addition, progress on the development of vapor pressure-responsive SMP (VPR-SMP) will be discussed.

  13. MISSE 5 Thin Films Space Exposure Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Jones, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a set of space exposure experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as the flight platform. MISSE 5 is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, United Stated Naval Academy, Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST), NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, Boeing, AZ Technology, MURE, and Team Cooperative. The primary experiment is performance measurement and monitoring of high performance solar cells for U.S. Navy research and development. A secondary experiment is the telemetry of this data to ground stations. A third experiment is the measurement of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) low-Sun-exposure space effects on thin film materials. Thin films can provide extremely efficacious thermal control, designation, and propulsion functions in space to name a few applications. Solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen are major degradation mechanisms in LEO. This paper is an engineering report of the MISSE 5 thm films 13 months space exposure experiment.

  14. Enhancement of Particle Track Etch Rate in CR-39 by UV Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Micah; Ume, Rubab; McLean, James; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2015-11-01

    The use of CR-39 plastic as a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector is effective for obtaining data in high-energy particle experiments including inertial confinement fusion. To reveal particle tracks after irradiation, CR-39 is chemically etched at elevated temperatures with NaOH, producing signal pits at the nuclear track sites that are measurable by an optical microscope. CR-39 pieces sometimes also exhibit etch-induced noise, either surface features not caused by nuclear particles. When CR-39 is exposed to high intensity UV light after nuclear irradiation with 5.4 MeV alpha particles and before etching, an increase in etch rates and pit diameters is observed, though UV exposure can also increase noise. We have determined that light from a low pressure mercury vapor lamp (predominantly wavelength 253.7 nm) increases etch rates and pit diameters while causing minimal background noise. Heating CR-39 to elevated temperatures (~80 °C) during UV exposure also improves the signal-to-noise ratio for this process. Surprisingly, initial data from CR-39 irradiated with 3.4 MeV protons and exposed to UV show reduced pit diameters. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. Solar exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation is one of the primary causes of degradation of materials on spacecraft. Accurate knowledge of solar exposure is needed to evaluate the performance of materials carried on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) during its nearly 6 year orbital flight. Presented here are tables and figures of calculated solar exposure for the experiment rows, longerons, and end bays of the spacecraft as functions of time in orbit. The data covers both direct solar and earth reflected radiation. Results are expressed in cumulative equivalent sun hours (CESH) or the hours of direct, zero incidence solar radiation that would cause the same irradiance of a surface. Space end bays received the most solar radiation, 14,000 CESH; earth end bays received the least, 4,500 CESH. Row locations received between 6,400 CESH and 11,200 CESH with rows facing either eastward or westward receiving the most radiation and rows facing northward or southward receiving the least.

  16. Overview of the Silicon Tracking System for the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, Pavel; CBM Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net baryonic densities and moderate temperatures. CBM will start it's physics program at the SIS-100 and later at the SIS-300 synchrothrons which will deliver beams for heavy ion collisions at energies up to 45 AGeV with hit rates up to 10 MHz.The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the core tracking detector of the experiment. It will be used for the reconstruction of the tracks of charged particles and determination of their momenta. For this task eight tracking stations constructed with double-sided sililconmicro-strip sensors will be accomodated downstream the target inside the superconducting magnet. The required momentum resolution for particles with momenta above 1 GeV/c is of the order of Δp/p = 1%. To aim this, the material budget should be reduced to the level of 1% X0. The STS will provide track reconstruction efficiency for fast primary tracks on the level of 95%and higher. In this paper, the detector concept is summarized along with the detector components and simulation of the system's performance. Also, the quality assurance tests of the silicon sensors in which the author is involved in, are presented.

  17. A preliminary experiment definition for video landmark acquisition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Tietz, J. C.; Hulstrom, R. L.; Cunningham, R. A.; Reel, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Six scientific objectives/experiments were derived which consisted of agriculture/forestry/range resources, land use, geology/mineral resources, water resources, marine resources and environmental surveys. Computer calculations were then made of the spectral radiance signature of each of 25 candidate targets as seen by a satellite sensor system. An imaging system capable of recognizing, acquiring and tracking specific generic type surface features was defined. A preliminary experiment definition and design of a video Landmark Acquisition and Tracking system is given. This device will search a 10-mile swath while orbiting the earth, looking for land/water interfaces such as coastlines and rivers.

  18. The Silicon Tracking System of the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuser, Johann M.

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will conduct a systematic research program to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at highest net baryon densities and moderate temperatures. These conditions are to be created in collisions of heavy-ion beams with nuclear targets in the projectile beam energy range of 2 to 45 GeV/nucleon, initially coming from the SIS 100 synchrotron (up to 14 GeV/nucleon) and in a next step from SIS 300 enabling studies at the highest net baryon densities. Collision rates up to 107 per second are required to produce very rare probes with unprecedented statistics in this energy range. Their signatures are complex. These conditions call for detector systems designed to meet the extreme requirements in terms of rate capability, momentum and spatial resolution, and a novel data acquisition and trigger concept which is not limited by latency but by throughput. In the paper we describe the concept and development status of CBM's central detector, the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The detector realizes a large, highly granular and redundant detector system with fast read-out, and lays specific emphasis on low material budget in its physics aperture to achieve for charged particle tracks a momentum resolution of δp/p ≈ 1% at p > 1 GeV/c, at >95% track reconstruction efficiency. The detector employs 1220 highly segmented double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors of 300 µm thickness, mounted into 896 modular structures of various types that are aggregated on 106 low-mass carbon fiber ladders of different sizes that build up the tracking stations. The read-out electronics with its supply and cooling infrastructure is arranged at the periphery of the ladders, and provides a total channel count of 1.8 million. The signal transmission from the silicon sensors to the electronics is realized through ultra-thin multi-line aluminum-polyimide cables of up to half a meter length. The electronics generates a free

  19. Automatic tracking of cells for video microscopy in patch clamp experiments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visualisation of neurons labeled with fluorescent proteins or compounds generally require exposure to intense light for a relatively long period of time, often leading to bleaching of the fluorescent probe and photodamage of the tissue. Here we created a technique to drastically shorten light exposure and improve the targeting of fluorescent labeled cells that is specially useful for patch-clamp recordings. We applied image tracking and mask overlay to reduce the time of fluorescence exposure and minimise mistakes when identifying neurons. Methods Neurons are first identified according to visual criteria (e.g. fluorescence protein expression, shape, viability etc.) and a transmission microscopy image Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) or Dodt contrast containing the cell used as a reference for the tracking algorithm. A fluorescence image can also be acquired later to be used as a mask (that can be overlaid on the target during live transmission video). As patch-clamp experiments require translating the microscope stage, we used pattern matching to track reference neurons in order to move the fluorescence mask to match the new position of the objective in relation to the sample. For the image processing we used the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) library, including the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) for tracking cells. The dataset of images (n = 720) was analyzed under normal conditions of acquisition and with influence of noise (defocusing and brightness). Results We validated the method in dissociated neuronal cultures and fresh brain slices expressing Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (eYFP) or Tandem Dimer Tomato (tdTomato) proteins, which considerably decreased the exposure to fluorescence excitation, thereby minimising photodamage. We also show that the neuron tracking can be used in differential interference contrast or Dodt contrast microscopy. Conclusion The techniques of digital image processing used in this work are an

  20. Tracking Detectors in the STAR Experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is designed to measure and identify the thousands of particles produced in 200 Gev/nucleon Au on Au collisions. This talk will focus on the design and construction of two of the main tracking detectors in the experiment, the TPC and the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) pixel detector. The TPC is a solenoidal gas filled detector 4 meters in diameter and 4.2 meters long. It provides precise, continuous tracking and rate of energy loss in the gas (dE/dx) for particles at + - 1 units of pseudo rapidity. The tracking in a half Tesla magnetic field measures momentum and dE/dX provides particle ID. To detect short lived particles tracking close to the point of interaction is required. The HFT pixel detector is a two-layered, high resolution vertex detector located at a few centimeters radius from the collision point. It determines origins of the tracks to a few tens of microns for the purpose of extracting displaced vertices, allowing the identification of D mesons and other short-lived particles. The HFT pixel detector uses detector chips developed by the IPHC group at Strasbourg that are based on standard IC Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This is the first time that CMOS pixel chips have been incorporated in a collider application.

  1. Ocular dynamics and visual tracking performance after Q-switched laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Lund, David J.; Nawim, Maqsood

    2001-05-01

    In previous investigations of q-switched laser retinal exposure in awake task oriented non-human primates (NHPs), the threshold for retinal damage occurred well below that of the threshold for permanent visual function loss. Visual function measures used in these studies involved measures of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. In the present study, we examine the same relationship for q-switched laser exposure using a visual performance task, where task dependency involves more parafoveal than foveal retina. NHPs were trained on a visual pursuit motor tracking performance task that required maintaining a small HeNe laser spot (0.3 degrees) centered in a slowly moving (0.5deg/sec) annulus. When NHPs reliably produced visual target tracking efficiencies > 80%, single q-switched laser exposures (7 nsec) were made coaxially with the line of sight of the moving target. An infrared camera imaged the pupil during exposure to obtain the pupillary response to the laser flash. Retinal images were obtained with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope 3 days post exposure under ketamine and nembutol anesthesia. Q-switched visible laser exposures at twice the damage threshold produced small (about 50mm) retinal lesions temporal to the fovea; deficits in NHP visual pursuit tracking were transient, demonstrating full recovery to baseline within a single tracking session. Post exposure analysis of the pupillary response demonstrated that the exposure flash entered the pupil, followed by 90 msec refractory period and than a 12 % pupillary contraction within 1.5 sec from the onset of laser exposure. At 6 times the morphological threshold damage level for 532 nm q-switched exposure, longer term losses in NHP pursuit tracking performance were observed. In summary, q-switched laser exposure appears to have a higher threshold for permanent visual performance loss than the corresponding threshold to produce retinal threshold injury. Mechanisms of neural plasticity within the retina and at

  2. MCNP simulations of material exposure experiments (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Brian A

    2010-12-08

    Simulations of proposed material exposure experiments were performed using MCNP6. The experiments will expose ampules containing different materials of interest with radiation to observe the chemical breakdown of the materials. Simulations were performed to map out dose in materials as a function of distance from the source, dose variation between materials, dose variation due to ampule orientation, and dose variation due to different source energy. This write up is an overview of the simulations and will provide guidance on how to use the data in the spreadsheet.

  3. Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking: Worldwide Programs and Needs—Results from the First IAEA Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rehani, Madan M.; Frush, Donald P.; Berris, Theocharis; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of patient radiation exposure tracking internationally, gauge interest and develop recommendations for implementation. A survey questionnaire was distributed to representatives of countries to obtain information, including the existence of a patient exposure tracking program currently available in the country, plans for future programs, perceived needs and goals of future programs, which examinations will be tracked, whether procedure tracking alone or dose tracking is planned, and which dose quantities will be tracked. Responses from 76 countries, including all of the six most populous countries and 16 of the 20 most populous, showed that although no country has yet implemented a patient exposure tracking program at a national level, there is increased interest in this issue. Eight countries (11%) indicated that such a program is actively being planned and 3 (4%) stated that they have a program for tracking procedures only, but not for dose. Twenty-two (29%) feel that such a program will be “extremely useful”, 46 (60%) “very useful” and 8 (11%) “moderately useful”, with no respondents stating “Mildly useful” or “Not useful”. Ninety-nine percent of countries indicated an interest in developing and promoting such a program. In a first global survey covering 76 countries, it is clear that no country has yet achieved exposure tracking at a national level, although there are successful examples at sub-national level. Almost all have indicated interest and some have plans to achieve dose tracking in the near future. PMID:22840382

  4. Advanced tracking and data relay experiment study: Multimode transponder experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A series of experiments utilizing a multimode transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station is studied. The purpose of the experiments is to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI and multipath propagation and to determine the characteristics of VHF and UHF RFI in discreet bands. The experiments would also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques.

  5. Tracking Patient Encounters and Clinical Skills to Determine Competency in Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Chrystian R.; Harris, Ila M.; Moon, Jean Y.; Westberg, Sarah M.; Kolar, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the amount of exposure to patient encounters and clinical skills correlates to student clinical competency on ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. Students in ambulatory care APPEs tracked the number of patients encountered by medical condition and the number of patient care skills performed. At the end of the APPE, preceptors evaluated students’ competency for each medical condition and skill, referencing the Dreyfus model for skill acquisition. Assessment. Data was collected from September 2012 through August 2014. Forty-six responses from a student tracking tool were matched to preceptor ratings. Students rated as competent saw more patients and performed more skills overall. Preceptors noted minimal impact on workload. Conclusions. Increased exposure to patient encounters and skills performed had a positive association with higher Dreyfus stage, which may represent a starting point in the conversation for more thoughtful design of ambulatory care APPEs. PMID:26941440

  6. Solar Flare Track Exposure Ages in Regolith Particles: A Calibration for Transmission Electron Microscope Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2015-01-01

    Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Space weathering effects result from multiple processes including: exposure to the solar wind, which results in ion damage and implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm); cosmic ray and solar flare activity, which result in track formation; and impact processes that result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. Determining the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space exposure is critical to studies of the surface evolution of airless bodies. Solar flare energetic particles (mainly Fe-group nuclei) have a penetration depth of a few millimeters and leave a trail of ionization damage in insulating materials that is readily observable by transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging. The density of solar flare particle tracks is used to infer the length of time an object was at or near the regolith surface (i.e., its exposure age). Track measurements by TEM methods are routine, yet track production rate calibrations have only been determined using chemical etching techniques [e.g., 1, and references therein]. We used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) sample preparation techniques combined with TEM imaging to determine the track density/exposure age relations for lunar rock 64455. The 64455 sample was used earlier by [2] to determine a track production rate by chemical etching of tracks in anorthite. Here, we show that combined FIB/TEM techniques provide a more accurate determination of a track production rate and also allow us to extend the calibration to solar flare tracks in olivine.

  7. Element Material Exposure Experiment by EFFU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Ito, Masaaki; Ishii, Masahiro

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is planning to perform an 'Element Material Exposure Experiment' using the Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU). This paper presents an initial design of experiments proposed for this project by our company. The EFFU is installed on the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) as a partial model of the Space Station JEM exposed facility. The SFU is scheduled to be launched by H-2 rocket in January or February of 1994, then various tests will be performed for three months, on orbit of 500 km altitude, and it will be retrieved by the U.S. Space Shuttle and returned to the ground. The mission sequence is shown.

  8. Comparing children's GPS tracks with geospatial proxies for exposure to junk food.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    Various geospatial techniques have been employed to estimate children's exposure to environmental cardiometabolic risk factors, including junk food. But many studies uncritically rely on exposure proxies which differ greatly from actual exposure. Misrepresentation of exposure by researchers could lead to poor decisions and ineffective policymaking. This study conducts a GIS-based analysis of GPS tracks--'activity spaces'--and 21 proxies for activity spaces (e.g. buffers, container approaches) for a sample of 526 children (ages 9-14) in London, Ontario, Canada. These measures are combined with a validated food environment database (including fast food and convenience stores) to create a series of junk food exposure estimates and quantify the errors resulting from use of different proxy methods. Results indicate that exposure proxies consistently underestimate exposure to junk foods by as much as 68%. This underestimation is important to policy development because children are exposed to more junk food than estimated using typical methods. PMID:26530823

  9. Apollo-Soyuz Doppler-tracking experiment MA-089

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiffenbach, G. C.; Grossi, M. D.; Shores, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Doppler tracking experiment was designed to test the feasibility of improved mapping of the earth's gravity field by the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking method and to observe variations in the electron density of the ionosphere between the two spacecraft. Data were taken between 1:01 and 14:37 GMT on July 24, 1975. Baseline data taken earlier, while the docking module was still attached to the command and service module, indicated that the equipment operated satisfactorily. The ionospheric data contained in the difference between the Doppler signals at the two frequencies are of excellent quality, resulting in valuable satellite-to-satellite observations, never made before, of wave phenomena in the ionosphere. The gravity data were corrupted by an unexpectedly high noise level of as-yet-undetermined origin, with periods greater than 150 seconds, that prevented unambiguous identification of gravity-anomaly signatures.

  10. Early experience of the SAO Satellite-Tracking Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, M. R.

    When Fred L. Whipple of Harvard University assumed the directorship of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in mid-1955, he proposed to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation that the observatory be given responsibility for optical tracking of satellites during the IGY of 1957-1958. Several countries had expressed their intentions to launch satellites during the 18-month period to support research in ionospheric and upper atmospheric physics, including the effects of solar flares and solar radiation, and in geodesy and geophysics. On the basis of his experience at the Harvard College observatory with the Super-Schmidt cameras for meteor photography, Whipple was confident that optical tracking could provide a powerful means of monitoring satellite positions. The proposal was accepted in late 1955, and it was assumed that the total observing program would last only 18 months and would involve only a few satellites.

  11. Inference in particle tracking experiments by passing messages between images.

    PubMed

    Chertkov, M; Kroc, L; Krzakala, F; Vergassola, M; Zdeborová, L

    2010-04-27

    Methods to extract information from the tracking of mobile objects/particles have broad interest in biological and physical sciences. Techniques based on simple criteria of proximity in time-consecutive snapshots are useful to identify the trajectories of the particles. However, they become problematic as the motility and/or the density of the particles increases due to uncertainties on the trajectories that particles followed during the images' acquisition time. Here, we report an efficient method for learning parameters of the dynamics of the particles from their positions in time-consecutive images. Our algorithm belongs to the class of message-passing algorithms, known in computer science, information theory, and statistical physics as belief propagation (BP). The algorithm is distributed, thus allowing parallel implementation suitable for computations on multiple machines without significant intermachine overhead. We test our method on the model example of particle tracking in turbulent flows, which is particularly challenging due to the strong transport that those flows produce. Our numerical experiments show that the BP algorithm compares in quality with exact Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms, yet BP is far superior in speed. We also suggest and analyze a random distance model that provides theoretical justification for BP accuracy. Methods developed here systematically formulate the problem of particle tracking and provide fast and reliable tools for the model's extensive range of applications. PMID:20368454

  12. Optimization of Track Etched Makrofol Etching Conditions for Short-term Exposure Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, V.; Font, Ll.

    Exposure time of nuclear track detectors at humid environments is normally limited to a few weeks because filter used to avoid humidity is not completely waterproof and, after several months, some parts of detector start to degrade. In other really extreme measurement conditions, like high aerosol content, high or low temperatures, etc., the exposure time also requires a reduction. Then detector detection limit becomes a problem, unless radon concentrations were high. In those cases where radon levels are not high enough a better detection efficiency is required. In our laboratory we use passive detectors based on the track etched Makrofol DE foil covered with aluminized Mylar and they are analyzed by means of an electrochemical etching. Our standard etching conditions allow analyzing detectors generally exposed for periods between three and six months. We have optimized our etching conditions to reduce the exposure time down to a month for common radon concentration values.

  13. Teachers' experiences supporting children after traumatic exposure.

    PubMed

    Alisic, Eva; Bus, Marissa; Dulack, Wendel; Pennings, Lenneke; Splinter, Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Teachers can be instrumental in supporting children's recovery after trauma, but some work suggests that elementary school teachers are uncertain about their role and about what to do to assist children effectively after their students have been exposed to traumatic stressors. This study examined the extent to which teachers working with children from ages 8 to 12 years report similar concerns. A random sample of teachers in the Netherlands (N = 765) completed a questionnaire that included 9 items measuring difficulties on a 6-point Likert scale (potential range of total scores: 9-54). The mean total difficulty score was 29.8 (ranging from 10 to 50; SD = 7.37). On individual items, the fraction of teachers scoring 4 or more varied between 25 and 63%. A multiple regression analysis showed that teachers' total scores depended on amount of teaching experience, attendance at trauma-focused training, and the number of traumatized children they had worked with. The model explained 4% of the variance, a small effect. Because traumatic exposure in children is rather common, the findings point to a need to better understand what influences teachers' difficulties and develop trauma-informed practice in elementary schools. PMID:22354512

  14. In search of the dead zone: Use of otoliths for tracking fish exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limburg, Karin E.; Walther, Benjamin D.; Lu, Zunli; Jackman, George; Mohan, John; Walther, Yvonne; Nissling, Anders; Weber, Peter K.; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2015-01-01

    Otolith chemistry is often useful for tracking provenance of fishes, as well as examining migration histories. Whereas elements such as strontium and barium correlate well with salinity and temperature, experiments that examine manganese uptake as a function of these parameters have found no such correlation. Instead, dissolved manganese is available as a redox product, and as such, is indicative of low-oxygen conditions. Here we present evidence for that mechanism in a range of habitats from marine to freshwater, across species, and also present ancillary proxies that support the mechanism as well. For example, iodine is redox-sensitive and varies inversely with Mn; and sulfur stable isotope ratios provide evidence of anoxic sulfate reduction in some circumstances. Further, S may be incorporated trophically whereas other elements appear to be taken up directly from water. This research suggests a potential means to identify individual fish exposure to hypoxia, over entire lifetimes. With further testing and understanding, in the future fish may be able to be used as "mobile monitors" of hypoxic conditions.

  15. Vestibulo-Cervico-Ocular Responses and Tracking Eye Movements after Prolonged Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Azarov, K. A.; Sagalovitch, S. V.; Reschke, Millard F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function and tracking eye movements were investigated in 12 Russian crew members of ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5-6), and 8(9-10) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The spontaneous oculomotor activity, static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex, dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, tracking eye movements, and gaze-holding were studied using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for parallel eye movement recording. On post-flight days 1-2 (R+1-2) some cosmonauts demonstrated: - an increased spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, spontaneous nystagmus of the typical and atypical form, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position; - suppressed otolith function (absent or reduced by one half amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling) with the head inclined statically right- or leftward by 300; - increased vestibular reactivity (lowered threshold and increased intensity of the vestibular nystagmus) during head turns around the longitudinal body axis at 0.125 Hz; - a significant change in the accuracy, velocity, and temporal characteristics of the eye tracking. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function and tracking eye movements recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, there were also regular responses during readaptation to the normal gravity: - suppression of the otolith function was typically accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity; - the structure of visual tracking (the accuracy of fixational eye rotations, smooth tracking, and gaze-holding) was disturbed (the appearance of correcting saccades, the transition of smooth tracking to saccadic tracking) only in those cosmonauts who, in parallel to an increased reactivity of the vestibular input, also had central changes in the oculomotor system (spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus).

  16. The human operator in manual preview tracking /an experiment and its modeling via optimal control/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomizuka, M.; Whitney, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    A manual preview tracking experiment and its results are presented. The preview drastically improves the tracking performance compared to zero-preview tracking. Optimal discrete finite preview control is applied to determine the structure of a mathematical model of the manual preview tracking experiment. Variable parameters in the model are adjusted to values which are consistent to the published data in manual control. The model with the adjusted parameters is found to be well correlated to the experimental results.

  17. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Mission 1 Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. G. (Editor); Kinard, W. H. (Editor); Carter, D. L., Jr. (Editor); Jones, J. L., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Spaceborne experiments using the space shuttle payload known as the Long Duration Exposure Facility are described. Experiments in the fields of materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, electronic, and optics are discussed.

  18. The Effect of Tracking Students by Ability into Different Schools: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyon, Nina; Maurin, Eric; McNally, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The tracking of pupils by ability into elite and nonelite schools represents a controversial policy in many countries. There is no consensus on how large the elite track should be and little agreement on the effects of any further increase in its size. This paper presents a natural experiment where the increase in the size of the elite track was…

  19. Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

  20. Planning of an Experiment for VLBI Tracking of GNSS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza; Hass, Ruediger; Molera, Guifre; Pogrebenko, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    As a preparation for future possible orbit determination of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) satellites by VLBI observations an initial three-station experiment was planned and performed in January 2009. The goal was to get first experience and to verify the feasibility of using the method for accurate satellite tracking. GNSS orbits related to a satellite constellation can be expressed in the Terrestrial Reference Frame. A comparison with orbit results that might be obtained by VLBI can give valuable information on how the GNSS reference frame and the VLBI reference frame are linked. We present GNSS transmitter specifications and experimental results of the observations of some GLONASS satellites together with evaluations for the expected signal strengths at telescopes. The satellite flux densities detected on the Earth s surface are very high. The narrow bandwidth of the GNSS signal partly compensates for potential problems at the receiving stations, and signal attenuation is necessary. Attempts to correlate recorded data have been performed with different software.

  1. Exposure to Kynurenic Acid during Adolescence Increases Sign-Tracking and Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    DeAngeli, Nicole E.; Todd, Travis P.; Chang, Stephen E.; Yeh, Hermes H.; Yeh, Pamela W.; Bucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in brain reward systems are thought to contribute significantly to the cognitive and behavioral impairments of schizophrenia, as well as the propensity to develop co-occurring substance abuse disorders. Presently, there are few treatments for persons with a dual diagnosis and little is known about the neural substrates that underlie co-occurring schizophrenia and substance abuse. One goal of the present study was to determine if a change in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite that is increased in the brains of people with schizophrenia, affects reward-related behavior. KYNA is an endogenous antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, both of which are critically involved in neurodevelopment, plasticity, and behavior. In Experiment 1, rats were treated throughout adolescence with L-kynurenine (L-KYN), the precursor of KYNA. As adults, the rats were tested drug-free in an autoshaping procedure in which a lever was paired with food. Rats treated with L-KYN during adolescence exhibited increased sign-tracking behavior (lever pressing) when they were tested as adults. Sign-tracking is thought to reflect the lever acquiring incentive salience (motivational value) as a result of its pairing with reward. Thus, KYNA exposure may increase the incentive salience of cues associated with reward, perhaps contributing to an increase in sensitivity to drug-related cues in persons with schizophrenia. In Experiment 2, we tested the effects of exposure to KYNA during adolescence on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Rats treated with L-KYN exhibited no LTP after a burst of high-frequency stimulation that was sufficient to produce robust LTP in vehicle-treated rats. This finding represents the first demonstrated consequence of elevated KYNA concentration during development and provides insight into the basis for cognitive and behavioral deficits that result from exposure to KYNA during adolescence

  2. Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis

    PubMed Central

    SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

    2008-01-01

    Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal exposure=urban background+work site background+personal activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

  3. Fast Track Teaching: Beginning the Experiment in Accelerated Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churches, Richard; Hutchinson, Geraldine; Jones, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the development of the Fast Track teaching programme and personalised nature of the training and support that has been delivered. Fast Track teacher promotion rates are compared to national statistics demonstrating significant progression for certain groups, particularly women. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  4. A Laminated Track for the Inductrack System: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F; Hoburg, J F

    2004-01-12

    A laminated structure, composed of stacks of thin conducting sheets, has several advantages over a litz-wire ladder as the ''track'' wherein levitating currents are induced by a permanent magnet array on a moving vehicle. Modeling and experimental results for the laminated track are described and evaluated in this paper.

  5. Defectivity reduction by optimization of 193-nm immersion lithography using an interfaced exposure-track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcasi, Michael; Hatakeyama, Shinichi; Nafus, Kathleen; Moerman, Richard; van Dommelen, Youri; Huisman, Peter; Hooge, Joshua; Scheer, Steven; Foubert, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    As the integration of semiconductor devices continues, pattern sizes required in lithography get smaller and smaller. To achieve even more scaling down of these patterns without changing the basic infrastructure technology of current cutting-edge 193-nm lithography, 193-nm immersion lithography is being viewed as a powerful technique that can accommodate next-generation mass productions needs. Therefore this technology has been seriously considered and after proof of concept it is currently entering the stage of practical application. In the case of 193-nm immersion lithography, however, because liquid fills the area between the projection optics and the silicon wafer, several causes of concern have been raised - namely, diffusion of moisture into the resist film due to direct resist-water interaction during exposure, dissolution of internal components of the resist into the de-ionized water, and the influence of residual moisture generated during exposure on post-exposure processing. To prevent these unwanted effects, optimization of the three main components of the lithography system: materials, track and scanner, is required. For the materials, 193nm resist formulation improvements specifically for immersion processing have reduced the leaching and the sensitivity to water related defects, further benefits can be seen by the application of protective top coat materials. For the track component, optimization of the processing conditions and immersion specific modules are proven to advance the progress made by the material suppliers. Finally, by optimizing conditions on the 3 rd generation immersion scanner with the latest hardware configuration, defectivity levels comparable to dry processing can be achieved. In this evaluation, we detail the improvements that can be realized with new immersion specific track rinse modules and formulate a hypothesis for the improvements seen with the rinsing process. Additionally, we show the current status of water induced

  6. Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

  7. The NREL outdoor accelerated-weathering tracking system and photovoltaic module exposure results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Thomas S.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52×1.83 m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was ±15% for a clear-sky summer day with ± 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m2 of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40° up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13% TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95% compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OATS tracking

  8. Three-dimensional triplet tracking for LHC and future high rate experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöning, A.

    2014-10-01

    The hit combinatorial problem is a main challenge for track reconstruction and triggering at high rate experiments. At hadron colliders the dominant fraction of hits is due to low momentum tracks for which multiple scattering (MS) effects dominate the hit resolution. MS is also the dominating source for hit confusion and track uncertainties in low energy precision experiments. In all such environments, where MS dominates, track reconstruction and fitting can be largely simplified by using three-dimensional (3D) hit-triplets as provided by pixel detectors. This simplification is possible since track uncertainties are solely determined by MS if high precision spatial information is provided. Fitting of hit-triplets is especially simple for tracking detectors in solenoidal magnetic fields. The over-constrained 3D-triplet method provides a complete set of track parameters and is robust against fake hit combinations. Full tracks can be reconstructed step-wise by connecting hit triplet combinations from different layers, thus heavily reducing the combinatorial problem and accelerating track linking. The triplet method is ideally suited for pixel detectors where hits can be treated as 3D-space points. With the advent of relatively cheap and industrially available CMOS-sensors the construction of highly granular full scale pixel tracking detectors seems to be possible also for experiments at LHC or future high energy (hadron) colliders. In this paper tracking performance studies for full-scale pixel detectors, including their optimisation for 3D-triplet tracking, are presented. The results obtained for different types of tracker geometries and different reconstruction methods are compared. The potential of reducing the number of tracking layers and - along with that - the material budget using this new tracking concept is discussed. The possibility of using 3D-triplet tracking for triggering and fast online reconstruction is highlighted.

  9. Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Smith, Thomas J; Blicharz, Andrew P; Deminter, Jeffrey T

    2009-02-01

    Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

  10. Experiments with conjugate gradient algorithms for homotopy curve tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irani, Kashmira M.; Ribbens, Calvin J.; Watson, Layne T.; Kamat, Manohar P.; Walker, Homer F.

    1991-01-01

    There are algorithms for finding zeros or fixed points of nonlinear systems of equations that are globally convergent for almost all starting points, i.e., with probability one. The essence of all such algorithms is the construction of an appropriate homotopy map and then tracking some smooth curve in the zero set of this homotopy map. HOMPACK is a mathematical software package implementing globally convergent homotopy algorithms with three different techniques for tracking a homotopy zero curve, and has separate routines for dense and sparse Jacobian matrices. The HOMPACK algorithms for sparse Jacobian matrices use a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm for the computation of the kernel of the homotopy Jacobian matrix, a required linear algebra step for homotopy curve tracking. Here, variants of the conjugate gradient algorithm are implemented in the context of homotopy curve tracking and compared with Craig's preconditioned conjugate gradient method used in HOMPACK. The test problems used include actual large scale, sparse structural mechanics problems.

  11. Sorbent track: Quantitative monitoring of adsorbed VOCs under in-situ plasma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zixian; Rousseau, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Sorbent-TRACK is a new device developed to monitor adsorption and surface oxidation of pollutants under direct plasma exposure. It is based on direct transmitted Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A pyrex reactor under controlled gas pressure and composition is inserted on the infrared beam of a commercially available Nicolet 5700 FTIR spectrometer. A substrate holder is located on the optical path of the infrared beam. A thin pellet of a dedicated catalyst (CeO2 in the present work) is inserted in a substrate holder and can be exposed to direct plasma treatment using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The time resolution of Sorbent-TRACK is limited by the time resolution of the Nicolet 5700 FTIR spectrometer and close to 30 s. The dynamic of the adsorption and plasma oxidation of acetone and isopropanol on CeO2 are studied and intermediates are monitored. Performances and sensitivity of Sorbent-TRACK are reported Adsorption and oxidation of acetone leads to production of adsorbed isobutene and acetic acid, where oxidation of isopropanol gives mainly to adsorbed acetone, mesityl oxide and acetate. An increase of the plasma power leads to an increase of the isopropanol and acetone oxidation rate and a related increase of the production of adsorbed intermediates. PMID:27555531

  12. Sorbent track: Quantitative monitoring of adsorbed VOCs under in-situ plasma exposure.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zixian; Rousseau, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Sorbent-TRACK is a new device developed to monitor adsorption and surface oxidation of pollutants under direct plasma exposure. It is based on direct transmitted Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A pyrex reactor under controlled gas pressure and composition is inserted on the infrared beam of a commercially available Nicolet 5700 FTIR spectrometer. A substrate holder is located on the optical path of the infrared beam. A thin pellet of a dedicated catalyst (CeO2 in the present work) is inserted in a substrate holder and can be exposed to direct plasma treatment using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The time resolution of Sorbent-TRACK is limited by the time resolution of the Nicolet 5700 FTIR spectrometer and close to 30 s. The dynamic of the adsorption and plasma oxidation of acetone and isopropanol on CeO2 are studied and intermediates are monitored. Performances and sensitivity of Sorbent-TRACK are reported Adsorption and oxidation of acetone leads to production of adsorbed isobutene and acetic acid, where oxidation of isopropanol gives mainly to adsorbed acetone, mesityl oxide and acetate. An increase of the plasma power leads to an increase of the isopropanol and acetone oxidation rate and a related increase of the production of adsorbed intermediates. PMID:27555531

  13. Mark Tracking: Position/orientation measurements using 4-circle mark and its tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanda, Shinji; Okabayashi, Keijyu; Maruyama, Tsugito; Uchiyama, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Future space robots require position and orientation tracking with visual feedback control to track and capture floating objects and satellites. We developed a four-circle mark that is useful for this purpose. With this mark, four geometric center positions as feature points can be extracted from the mark by simple image processing. We also developed a position and orientation measurement method that uses the four feature points in our mark. The mark gave good enough image measurement accuracy to let space robots approach and contact objects. A visual feedback control system using this mark enabled a robot arm to track a target object accurately. The control system was able to tolerate a time delay of 2 seconds.

  14. Data Association and Bullet Tracking Algorithms for the Fight Sight Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Breitfeller, E; Roberts, R

    2005-10-07

    Previous LLNL investigators developed a bullet and projectile tracking system over a decade ago. Renewed interest in the technology has spawned research that culminated in a live-fire experiment, called Fight Sight, in September 2005. The experiment was more complex than previous LLNL bullet tracking experiments in that it included multiple shooters with simultaneous fire, new sensor-shooter geometries, large amounts of optical clutter, and greatly increased sensor-shooter distances. This presentation describes the data association and tracking algorithms for the Fight Sight experiment. Image processing applied to the imagery yields a sequence of bullet features which are input to a data association routine. The data association routine matches features with existing tracks, or initializes new tracks as needed. A Kalman filter is used to smooth and extrapolate existing tracks. The Kalman filter is also used to back-track bullets to their point of origin, thereby revealing the location of the shooter. It also provides an error ellipse for each shooter, quantifying the uncertainty of shooter location. In addition to describing the data association and tracking algorithms, several examples from the Fight Sight experiment are also presented.

  15. A Globally Optimal Particle Tracking Technique for Stereo Imaging Velocimetry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An important phase of any Stereo Imaging Velocimetry experiment is particle tracking. Particle tracking seeks to identify and characterize the motion of individual particles entrained in a fluid or air experiment. We analyze a cylindrical chamber filled with water and seeded with density-matched particles. In every four-frame sequence, we identify a particle track by assigning a unique track label for each camera image. The conventional approach to particle tracking is to use an exhaustive tree-search method utilizing greedy algorithms to reduce search times. However, these types of algorithms are not optimal due to a cascade effect of incorrect decisions upon adjacent tracks. We examine the use of a guided evolutionary neural net with simulated annealing to arrive at a globally optimal assignment of tracks. The net is guided both by the minimization of the search space through the use of prior limiting assumptions about valid tracks and by a strategy which seeks to avoid high-energy intermediate states which can trap the net in a local minimum. A stochastic search algorithm is used in place of back-propagation of error to further reduce the chance of being trapped in an energy well. Global optimization is achieved by minimizing an objective function, which includes both track smoothness and particle-image utilization parameters. In this paper we describe our model and present our experimental results. We compare our results with a nonoptimizing, predictive tracker and obtain an average increase in valid track yield of 27 percent

  16. An experiment in hurricane track prediction using parallel computing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Chang G.; Jwo, Jung-Sing; Lakshmivarahan, S.; Dhall, S. K.; Lewis, John M.; Velden, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    The barotropic model is used to explore the advantages of parallel processing in deterministic forecasting. We apply this model to the track forecasting of hurricane Elena (1985). In this particular application, solutions to systems of elliptic equations are the essence of the computational mechanics. One set of equations is associated with the decomposition of the wind into irrotational and nondivergent components - this determines the initial nondivergent state. Another set is associated with recovery of the streamfunction from the forecasted vorticity. We demonstrate that direct parallel methods based on accelerated block cyclic reduction (BCR) significantly reduce the computational time required to solve the elliptic equations germane to this decomposition and forecast problem. A 72-h track prediction was made using incremental time steps of 16 min on a network of 3000 grid points nominally separated by 100 km. The prediction took 30 sec on the 8-processor Alliant FX/8 computer. This was a speed-up of 3.7 when compared to the one-processor version. The 72-h prediction of Elena's track was made as the storm moved toward Florida's west coast. Approximately 200 km west of Tampa Bay, Elena executed a dramatic recurvature that ultimately changed its course toward the northwest. Although the barotropic track forecast was unable to capture the hurricane's tight cycloidal looping maneuver, the subsequent northwesterly movement was accurately forecasted as was the location and timing of landfall near Mobile Bay.

  17. The effects of delta rays on the number of particle-track traversals per cell in laboratory and space exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Nikjoo, H.; Goodhead, D. T.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is a common practice to estimate the number of particle-track traversals per cell or cell nucleus as the product of the ion's linear energy transfer (LET) and cell area. This practice ignores the effects of track width due to the lateral extension of delta rays. We make estimates of the number of particle-track traversals per cell, which includes the effects of delta rays using radial cutoffs in the ionization density about an ion's track of 1 mGy and 1 cGy. Calculations for laboratory and space radiation exposures are discussed, and show that the LET approximation provides a large underestimate of the actual number of particle-track traversals per cell from high-charge and energy (HZE) ions. In light of the current interest in the mechanisms of radiation action, including signal transduction and cytoplasmic damage, these results should be of interest for radiobiology studies with HZE ions.

  18. Tracking and Vertexing for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Sho; HPS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) requires precision tracking and vertexing of e+e- pairs against a high background in a difficult experimental environment. The silicon vertex tracker (SVT) for HPS uses actively cooled silicon microstrip sensors with fast readout electronics. To maximize acceptance and vertex resolution with a relatively small detector, the SVT operates directly downstream of the target, close to the beam line, and inside of a dipole magnet. This talk presents the design and performance of the HPS SVT.

  19. Innovative technology summary report: System for Tracking Remediation, Exposure, Activities and Materials

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The System for Tracking Remediation, Exposure, Activities, and Materials (STREAM) technology is a multi-media database that consolidates project information into a single, easily-accessible place for day-to-day work performance and management tracking. Information inputs can range from procedures, reports, and references to waste generation logs and manifests to photographs and contaminant survey maps. Key features of the system are quick and easy information organization and retrieval, versatile information display options, and a variety of visual imaging methods. These elements enhance productivity and compliance and facilitate communications with project staff, clients, and regulators. Use of STREAM also gives visual access to contaminated areas, reducing the number of physical entries and promoting safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles. The STREAM system can be customized to focus on the information needs of a specific project, and provides a capability and work process improvement well beyond the usual collection of paperwork and independent databases. Especially when incorporated early in project planning and implemented to the fullest extent, it is a systematic and cost-effective tool for controlling and using project information. The STREAM system can support up to 50 different work stations. This report covers the period February through October 1997, when the STREAM software program, owned by Delphinus Engineering, was demonstrated at the Hanford Site`s Reactor Interim Safe Storage (ISS) Project.

  20. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (< 20 µg/m³). Health effects were evaluated in relation to rated changes in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for "environmental perception" (p = 0.0007), "irritative body perceptions" (p = 0.0127), "psychological/neurological effects" (p = 0.0075) and "weak inflammatory responses" (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating and caused irritated mucosas in humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure. PMID:21506878

  1. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory). PMID:27166510

  2. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M; Einstein, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray-based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the US, currently lags behind x-ray-based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This article discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray-based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying, monitoring, and reporting strategies used in x-ray-based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists, and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  3. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Mission 1 Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lenwood G., Ed.; And Others

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has been designed to take advantage of the two-way transportation capability of the space shuttle by providing a large number of economical opportunities for science and technology experiments that require modest electrical power and data processing while in space and which benefit from postflight…

  4. Exposure to Sexual Lyrics and Sexual Experience Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Fine, Michael J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Two thirds of all sexual references in music are degrading in nature, yet it remains uncertain whether these references promote earlier sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music is independently associated with sexual behavior in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods All ninth-grade health students at three large urban high schools completed in-school surveys in 2006 and 2007. Participants’ exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex was computed with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included sexual intercourse and progression along a noncoital sexual continuum. Multivariable regression was used to assess independent associations between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex and outcomes. Results The 711 participants were exposed to 14.7 hours each week of songs with lyrics describing degrading sex (SD=17.0). Almost one third of participants (n=216) had previously been sexually active. Compared to those with the least exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex, those with the most exposure were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.26, 3.41), even after adjusting for all covariates. Similarly, among those who had not had sexual intercourse, those in the highest tertile of exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex were nearly twice as likely to have progressed along a noncoital sexual continuum (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.23, 2.88) compared to those in the lowest tertile. Finally, the relationships between exposure to lyrics describing nondegrading sex and sexual outcomes were not significant. Conclusions This study supports an association between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music and early sexual experience among adolescents. PMID:19285196

  5. Track and mode controller (TMC): a software executive for a high-altitude pointing and tracking experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michnovicz, Michael R.

    1997-06-01

    A real-time executive has been implemented to control a high altitude pointing and tracking experiment. The track and mode controller (TMC) implements a table driven design, in which the track mode logic for a tracking mission is defined within a state transition diagram (STD). THe STD is implemented as a state transition table in the TMC software. Status Events trigger the state transitions in the STD. Each state, as it is entered, causes a number of processes to be activated within the system. As these processes propagate through the system, the status of key processes are monitored by the TMC, allowing further transitions within the STD. This architecture is implemented in real-time, using the vxWorks operating system. VxWorks message queues allow communication of status events from the Event Monitor task to the STD task. Process commands are propagated to the rest of the system processors by means of the SCRAMNet shared memory network. The system mode logic contained in the STD will autonomously sequence in acquisition, tracking and pointing system through an entire engagement sequence, starting with target detection and ending with aimpoint maintenance. Simulation results and lab test results will be presented to verify the mode controller. In addition to implementing the system mode logic with the STD, the TMC can process prerecorded time sequences of commands required during startup operations. It can also process single commands from the system operator. In this paper, the author presents (1) an overview, in which he describes the TMC architecture, the relationship of an end-to-end simulation to the flight software and the laboratory testing environment, (2) implementation details, including information on the vxWorks message queues and the SCRAMNet shared memory network, (3) simulation results and lab test results which verify the mode controller, and (4) plans for the future, specifically as to how this executive will expedite transition to a fully

  6. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  7. GPS tracking in neighborhood and health studies: a step forward for environmental exposure assessment, a step backward for causal inference?

    PubMed

    Chaix, Basile; Méline, Julie; Duncan, Scott; Merrien, Claire; Karusisi, Noëlla; Perchoux, Camille; Lewin, Antoine; Labadi, Karima; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have relied on GPS tracking to assess exposure to environmental characteristics over daily life schedules. Combining GPS and GIS allows for advances in environmental exposure assessment. However, biases related to selective daily mobility preclude assessment of environmental effects, to the extent that these studies may represent a step backward in terms of assessment of causal effects. A solution may be to integrate the Public health / Nutrition approach and the Transportation approach to GPS studies, so as to combine a GPS and accelerometer data collection with an electronic mobility survey. Correcting exposure measures and improving study designs with this approach may permit mitigating biases related to selective daily mobility. PMID:23425661

  8. The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of acquisition, tracking, and pointing technologies (HABE-ATP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimiduk, D.; Caylor, M.; Williamson, D.; Larson, L.

    1995-01-01

    The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing (HABE-ATP) is a system built around balloon-borne payload which is carried to a nominal 26-km altitude. The goal is laser tracking thrusting theater and strategic missiles, and then pointing a surrogate laser weapon beam, with performance levels end a timeline traceable to operational laser weapon system requirements. This goal leads to an experiment system design which combines hardware from many technology areas: an optical telescope and IR sensors; an advanced angular inertial reference; a flexible multi-level of actuation digital control system; digital tracking processors which incorporate real-time image analysis and a pulsed, diode-pumped solid state tracking laser. The system components have been selected to meet the overall experiment goals of tracking unmodified boosters at 50- 200 km range. The ATP system on HABE must stabilize and control a relative line of sight between the platform and the unmodified target booster to a 1 microrad accuracy. The angular pointing reference system supports both open loop and closed loop track modes; GPS provides absolute position reference. The control system which positions the line of sight for the ATP system must sequence through accepting a state vector handoff, closed-loop passive IR acquisition, passive IR intermediate fine track, active fine track, and then finally aimpoint determination and maintenance modes. Line of sight stabilization to fine accuracy levels is accomplished by actuating wide bandwidth fast steering mirrors (FSM's). These control loops off-load large-amplitude errors to the outer gimbal in order to remain within the limited angular throw of the FSM's. The SWIR acquisition and MWIR intermediate fine track sensors (both PtSi focal planes) image the signature of the rocket plume. After Hard Body Handover (HBHO), active fine tracking is conducted with a visible focal plane viewing the laser-illuminated target

  9. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-Back of Environmental Exposure Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants' responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. The authors study how the "exposure experience"--the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants--is shaped by community context and…

  10. Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments: Proposed Experiments at the Exposure Facility of ISS-JEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Tabata, Makoto; Yabuta, Hikaru; Higashide, Masumi; Imai, Eiichi

    Tanpopo, a dandelion in Japanese, is a plant species whose seeds with floss are spread by wind. We propose this mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes, and organic compounds at the Exposure Facility of Japan Experimental Module (JEM: KIBO) of the International Space Station (ISS). The Tanpopo mission consists of six subthemes: Capture of microbes in space (Subtheme 1), exposure of microbes in space (Subtheme 2), analysis of organic compounds in interplanetary dust (Subtheme 3), exposure of organic compounds in space (Subtheme 4), measurement of space debris at the ISS orbit (Subtheme 5), and evaluation of ultra low-density aerogel developed for the Tanpopo mission (Subtheme 6). Exposure Panles for exposure of microbes and organic materials and Capture Panels for aerogel will be launched. The trays and panels will be placed on the Exposed Experiment Handrail Attachment Mechanism (ExHAM) in the ISS. The ExHAM with Panels will be placed on the Exposure Facility of KIBO (JEM) with the Japanese robotic arms through the airlock of KIBO. The trays and panels will be exposed for more than one year and will be retrieved and returned to the ground for the analyses.

  11. In search of the dead zone: Use of otoliths for tracking fish exposure to hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Limburg, Karin E.; Walther, Benjamin D.; Lu, Zunli; Jackman, George; Mohan, John; Walther, Yvonne; Nissling, Anders; Weber, Peter K.; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2015-01-01

    Otolith chemistry is often useful for tracking provenance of fishes, as well as examining migration histories. Whereas elements such as strontium and barium correlate well with salinity and temperature, experiments that examine manganese uptake as a function of these parameters have found no such correlation. Instead, dissolved manganese is available as a redox product, and as such, is indicative of low-oxygen conditions. Here we present evidence for that mechanism in a range of habitats from marine to freshwater, across species, and also present ancillary proxies that support the mechanism as well. For example, iodine is redox-sensitive and varies inversely with Mn; and sulfur stable isotope ratios provide evidence of anoxic sulfate reduction in some circumstances.

  12. In search of the dead zone: Use of otoliths for tracking fish exposure to hypoxia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Limburg, Karin E.; Walther, Benjamin D.; Lu, Zunli; Jackman, George; Mohan, John; Walther, Yvonne; Nissling, Anders; Weber, Peter K.; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2015-01-01

    Otolith chemistry is often useful for tracking provenance of fishes, as well as examining migration histories. Whereas elements such as strontium and barium correlate well with salinity and temperature, experiments that examine manganese uptake as a function of these parameters have found no such correlation. Instead, dissolved manganese is available as a redox product, and as such, is indicative of low-oxygen conditions. Here we present evidence for that mechanism in a range of habitats from marine to freshwater, across species, and also present ancillary proxies that support the mechanism as well. For example, iodine is redox-sensitive and varies inversely withmore » Mn; and sulfur stable isotope ratios provide evidence of anoxic sulfate reduction in some circumstances.« less

  13. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  14. Video tracking algorithm of long-term experiment using stand-alone recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Li, Yan-Chay; Huang, Ke-Nung; Jen, Sun-Lon; Young, Ming-Shing

    2008-08-01

    Many medical and behavioral applications require the ability to monitor and quantify the behavior of small animals. In general these animals are confined in small cages. Often these situations involve very large numbers of cages. Modern research facilities commonly monitor simultaneously thousands of animals over long periods of time. However, conventional systems require one personal computer per monitoring platform, which is too complex, expensive, and increases power consumption for large laboratory applications. This paper presents a simplified video tracking algorithm for long-term recording using a stand-alone system. The feature of the presented tracking algorithm revealed that computation speed is very fast data storage requirements are small, and hardware requirements are minimal. The stand-alone system automatically performs tracking and saving acquired data to a secure digital card. The proposed system is designed for video collected at a 640×480 pixel with 16 bit color resolution. The tracking result is updated every 30 frames/s. Only the locomotive data are stored. Therefore, the data storage requirements could be minimized. In addition, detection via the designed algorithm uses the Cb and Cr values of a colored marker affixed to the target to define the tracked position and allows multiobject tracking against complex backgrounds. Preliminary experiment showed that such tracking information stored by the portable and stand-alone system could provide comprehensive information on the animal's activity.

  15. Technical experiences of implementing a wireless tracking and facial biometric verification system for a clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Brent; Lee, Jasper; Documet, Jorge; Guo, Bing; King, Nelson; Huang, H. K.

    2006-03-01

    By implementing a tracking and verification system, clinical facilities can effectively monitor workflow and heighten information security in today's growing demand towards digital imaging informatics. This paper presents the technical design and implementation experiences encountered during the development of a Location Tracking and Verification System (LTVS) for a clinical environment. LTVS integrates facial biometrics with wireless tracking so that administrators can manage and monitor patient and staff through a web-based application. Implementation challenges fall into three main areas: 1) Development and Integration, 2) Calibration and Optimization of Wi-Fi Tracking System, and 3) Clinical Implementation. An initial prototype LTVS has been implemented within USC's Healthcare Consultation Center II Outpatient Facility, which currently has a fully digital imaging department environment with integrated HIS/RIS/PACS/VR (Voice Recognition).

  16. The analysis of frequency domain characteristics of emotional images in eye-tracking experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Boqiang; Ma, Huimin; Wang, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Although recently eye-tracking method has been introduced into behavioral experiments based on dot-probe paradigm, some characteristics in eye-tracking data do not draw as much attention as traditional characteristics like reaction time. It is also necessary to associate eye-tracking data to characteristics of images shown in experiments. In this research, new variables, such as fixation length, times of fixation and times of eye movement, in eye-tracking data were extracted from a behavioral experiment based on dot probe paradigm. They were analyzed and compared to traditional reaction time. After the analysis of positive and negative scenery images, parameters such as hue frequency spectrum PAR (Peak to Average Ratio) were extracted and showed difference between negative and positive images. These parameters of emotional images could discriminate scenery images according to their emotions in an SVM classifier well. Besides, it was found that images' hue frequency spectrum PAR is obviously relevant to eye-tracking statistics. When the dot was on the negative side, negative images' hue frequency spectrum PAR and horizontal eye-jumps confirmed to hyperbolic distribution, while that of positive images was linear with horizontal eye-jumps. The result could help to explain the mechanism of human's attention and boost the study in computer vision.

  17. Tracking Gas Phase Composition in Oil evaporation and Oxidation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Muñoz, O.; Zhang, H.; Misztal, P. K.; Worton, D.; Drozd, G.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Primary Organic Aerosol (POA) is emitted directly by anthropogenic or natural sources, whereas Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) is formed in the atmosphere through chemical reactions that result from conversion of more volatile species into lower volatility oxidized products and their subsequent condensation to the particulate phase. We studied SOA formation from evaporation of Macondo crude oil (MC 252) using a wind tunnel coupled to a flow tube oxidation reactor. Ozone, UV lights, and water vapor were used to make OH radicals. Organic compounds in the gas phase, both those evaporated from the wind tunnel and those formed in the flow tube oxidation experiments, were monitored using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-qMS and PTR-TOF-MS). We observed approximately 400 different species. Compounds with less than C10 were mostly evaporated in the first 5 hours when maximum SOA formation was also obtained. Hydrocarbons with carbon number (11-14) were still present in the oil after 12 h of continuous evaporation at wind speed of 2 m s-1. We will show the implications of these results for the production of SOA related to the range of evaporated chemical size and reactivity.

  18. Online Tracking Algorithms on GPUs for the P̅ANDA Experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, L.; Herten, A.; Ritman, J.; Stockmanns, T.; Adinetz, A.; Kraus, J.; Pleiter, D.

    2015-12-01

    P̅ANDA is a future hadron and nuclear physics experiment at the FAIR facility in construction in Darmstadt, Germany. In contrast to the majority of current experiments, PANDA's strategy for data acquisition is based on event reconstruction from free-streaming data, performed in real time entirely by software algorithms using global detector information. This paper reports the status of the development of algorithms for the reconstruction of charged particle tracks, optimized online data processing applications, using General-Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPU). Two algorithms for trackfinding, the Triplet Finder and the Circle Hough, are described, and details of their GPU implementations are highlighted. Average track reconstruction times of less than 100 ns are obtained running the Triplet Finder on state-of- the-art GPU cards. In addition, a proof-of-concept system for the dispatch of data to tracking algorithms using Message Queues is presented.

  19. The LDEF interplanetary dust experiment. [Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, S. F.; Stanley, J. E.; Kassel, P.

    1985-01-01

    Explorer 46 data and the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) interplanetary dust experiment are examined. Analysis of the Explorer 46 data reveals the existence of particles of 0.1 micron and a mass of 1 x 10 to the -16th gm, the injection of the submicron particles directly by a comet (injection mass of about 5000 tons), and a submicron particle lifetime of about three years. The applications of LDEF data to particles in hyperbolic orbits, particle swarms, morning-to-evening asymmetry, the effects of the earth's orbit eccentricity, and the presence of interstellar dust are discussed. The effects of space debris on data collection are considered.

  20. Tracking performance of the scintillating fiber detector in the K2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. J.; Iwashita, T.; Ishida, T.; Jeon, E. J.; Yokoyama, H.; Aoki, S.; Berns, H. G.; Bhang, H. C.; Boyd, S.; Fujii, K.; Hara, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hill, J.; Ishii, T.; Ishino, H.; Jung, C. K.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H. I.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. B.; Kobayashi, T.; Kume, G.; Matsuno, S.; Mine, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Onchi, M.; Otaki, T.; Oyama, Y.; Park, H.; Sakuda, M.; Sato, K.; Scholberg, K.; Sharkey, E.; Stone, J. L.; Suzuki, A.; Takenaka, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Takatsuki, M.; Walter, C. W.; Wilkes, J.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, M.

    2003-02-01

    The K2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment uses a Scintillating Fiber Detector (SciFi) to reconstruct charged particles produced in neutrino interactions in the near detector. We describe the track reconstruction algorithm and the performance of the SciFi after 3 years of operation.

  1. Making Meaning of Experience: Navigating the Transformation from Graduate Student to Tenure-Track Professor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Pamela K.; Benson, Sheila; Hayes, Monie

    2015-01-01

    This article is about three adult authors who are making meaning of their experiences as early career, tenure-track professors. All former secondary English language arts instructors who are responsible for preparing future secondary English teachers, the authors use Mezirow's transformative learning theory lens to examine their trajectories from…

  2. TRACKING CHANGES IN WETLANDS WITH URBANIZATION: SIXTEEN YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN PORTLAND, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban wetlands can provide valuable ecological and societal services. They also can experience rapid change with development. Data from National Wetland Inventory Maps (NWI) and a series of field studies conducted between 1987 and 1998 were used to track changes over 16 years i...

  3. The effect of tracking network configuration on GPS baseline estimates for the CASA Uno experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. Kornreich; Dixon, T. H.; Freymueller, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the tracking network on long (greater than 100 km) GPS baseline estimates was estimated using various subsets of the global tracking network initiated by the first Central and South America (CASA Uno) experiment. It was found that best results could be obtained with a global tacking network consisting of three U.S. stations, two sites in the southwestern Pacific, and two sites in Europe. In comparison with smaller subsets, this global network improved the baseline repeatability, the resolution of carrier phase cycle ambiguities, and formal errors of the orbit estimates.

  4. Assessing the capability of high resolution climatic model experiments to simulate Mediterranean cyclonic tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Kostopoulou, E.; Kouroutzoglou, I.; Keay, K.; Simmonds, I.

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a comparison of a reanalysis driven simulation to a GCM driven simulation of a regional climate model is performed in order to assess the model's ability to capture the climatic characteristics of cyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean in the present climate. The ultimate scope of the study will be to perform a future climate projection related to cyclonic tracks in order to better understand and assess climate change in the Mediterranean. The climatology of the cyclonic tracks includes inter-monthly variations, classification of tracks according to their origin domain, dynamic and kinematic characteristics, as well as trend analysis. For this purpose, the ENEA model is employed based on PROTHEUS system composed of the RegCM atmospheric regional model and the MITgcm ocean model, coupled through the OASIS3 flux coupler. These model data became available through the EU Project CIRCE which aims to perform, for the first time, climate change projections with a realistic representation of the Mediterranean Sea. Two experiments are employed; a) the ERA402 with lateral Boundary conditions from ERA40 for the 43-year period 1958-2000, and b) the EH5OM_20C3M where the lateral boundary conditions for the atmosphere (1951-2000) are taken from the ECHAM5-MPIOM 20c3m global simulation (run3) included in the IPCC-AR4. The identification and tracking of cyclones is performed with the aid of the Melbourne University algorithm (MS algorithm), according to the Lagrangian perspective. MS algorithm characterizes a cyclone only if a vorticity maximum could be connected with a local pressure minimum. This approach is considered to be crucial, since open lows are also incorporated into the storm life-cycle, preventing possible inappropriate time series breaks, if a temporary weakening to an open-low state occurs. The model experiments verify that considerable inter-monthly variations of track density occur in the Mediterranean region, consistent with previous studies. The

  5. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience. PMID:26347678

  6. Fast parallel tracking algorithm for the muon detector of the CBM experiment at fair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A.; Höhne, C.; Kisel, I.; Ososkov, G.

    2010-07-01

    Particle trajectory recognition is an important and challenging task in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR accelerator at Darmstadt. The tracking algorithms have to process terabytes of input data produced in particle collisions. Therefore, the speed of the tracking software is extremely important for data analysis. In this contribution, a fast parallel track reconstruction algorithm which uses available features of modern processors is presented. These features comprise a SIMD instruction set (SSE) and multithreading. The first allows one to pack several data items into one register and to operate on all of them in parallel thus achieving more operations per cycle. The second feature enables the routines to exploit all available CPU cores and hardware threads. This parallel version of the tracking algorithm has been compared to the initial serial scalar version which uses a similar approach for tracking. A speed-up factor of 487 was achieved (from 730 to 1.5 ms/event) for a computer with 2 × Intel Core i7 processors at 2.66 GHz.

  7. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-back of Environmental Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants’ responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. We study how the “exposure experience” —the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants— is shaped by community context and the report-back process itself. In addition, we investigate an activist, collective form of exposure experience. We analyze themes of expectations and learning, trust, and action. The findings reveal that while participants interpret scientific results to affirm lay knowledge of urban industrial toxics, they also absorb new information regarding other pollutant sources. By linking the public understanding of science literature to the illness and exposure experience concepts, this study unravels the complex relationship between lay experience and lay understanding of science. It also shows that to support policy development and/or social change, community-based participatory research efforts must attend to participants’ understanding of science. PMID:21673146

  8. Radiopurity assessment of the tracking readout for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, S.; Pérez, J.; Bandac, I.; Labarga, L.; Álvarez, V.; Barrado, A. I.; Bettini, A.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Conde, E.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Fernández, M.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-05-01

    The ``Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon Time-Projection Chamber'' (NEXT) is intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe, which requires a severe suppression of potential backgrounds; therefore, an extensive screening and selection process is underway to control the radiopurity levels of the materials to be used in the experimental set-up of NEXT. The detector design combines the measurement of the topological signature of the event for background discrimination with the energy resolution optimization. Separate energy and tracking readout planes are based on different sensors: photomultiplier tubes for calorimetry and silicon multi-pixel photon counters for tracking. The design of a radiopure tracking plane, in direct contact with the gas detector medium, was specially challenging since the needed components like printed circuit boards, connectors, sensors or capacitors have typically, according to available information in databases and in the literature, activities too large for experiments requiring ultra-low background conditions. Here, the radiopurity assessment of tracking readout components based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterr&aposaneo de Canfranc (Spain) is described. According to the obtained results, radiopure enough printed circuit boards made of kapton and copper, silicon photomultipliers and other required components, fulfilling the requirement of an overall background level in the region of interest of at most 8×10-4 counts keV-1 kg-1 y-1, have been identified.

  9. Preliminary results from an airborne experiment using along-track interferometry for ground moving target indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Chen, Curtis W.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along track interferometry (ATI) has been used extensively to measure ocean surface currents. Given its ability to measure small velocities of relatively radar-dark water surfaces, there is great potential that this technique can be adapted for ground moving target indication (GMTI) applications, particularly as a method for detecting very slwo targets with small radar cross sections. In this paper we describe preliminary results from an ATI GMTI experiment.

  10. Track measurement in the high multiplicity environment at the CBM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pradeep; Cbm Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    In the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) Experiment at FAIR, the Silicon Tracking System (STS) will perform track reconstruction and momentum determination of the charged particles created in interactions of heavy-ion beams with nuclear targets. The STS will consist of 8 tracking layers located at distances between 30 cm and 100 cm downstream of the target inside the 1 Tm magnetic dipole field. An ultra-low material budget is required to achieve momentum resolution of the order of Δp/p = 1%. Therefore, the front-end electronics is placed outside the physics aperture. The active volume of the STS is built from 300 μm thick double-sided silicon microstrip sensors mounted onto lightweight carbon fiber support ladders. The sensors will be read out through ultra-thin micro-cables with fast self-triggering electronics at the periphery of the stations where also other infrastructure such as cooling can be placed. In this paper, the development status of the detector system, highlighting the overview of the STS layout, tracking algorithm and performance simulations are presented.

  11. Time-based Cellular Automaton track finder for the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishina, Valentina; Kisel, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The future heavy-ion experiment CBM (FAIR/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10 MHz with data flow of up to 1 TB/s. The beam will provide free stream of particles without bunch structure. That requires full online event reconstruction and selection not only in space, but also in time, so- called 4D event building and selection. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES) package. The FLES reconstruction and selection package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and event selection. The input data are distributed within the FLES farm in a form of so-called time-slices, in which time length is proportional to a compute power of a processing node. A time-slice is reconstructed in parallel between cores within a CPU, thus minimising communication between CPUs. After all tracks of the whole time-slice are found and fitted, they are collected into clusters of tracks originated from common primary vertices. After that short-lived particles are found and the full event building process is finished.

  12. A landmark recognition and tracking experiment for flight on the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an experiment for landmark recognition and tracking from the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory is described. It makes use of parallel coherent optical processing to perform correlation tests between landmarks observed passively with a telescope and previously made holographic matched filters. The experimental equipment including the optics, the low power laser, the random access file of matched filters and the electro-optical readout device are described. A real time optically excited liquid crystal device is recommended for performing the input non-coherent optical to coherent optical interface function. A development program leading to a flight experiment in 1981 is outlined.

  13. The Exposure Experience: Ohio River Valley Residents Respond to Local Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Contamination.

    PubMed

    Judge, J Matthew; Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia Green; Ryan, Serena

    2016-09-01

    This article explores the "exposure experience" of participants who received their personal results in a biomonitoring study for perfluorooctanoic acid. Exposure experience is the process of identifying, understanding, and responding to chemical contamination. When biomonitoring studies report results to participants, those participants generate an exposure experience that identifies hidden contaminants and helps level informational imbalances between polluters and affected communities. Participants welcomed the opportunity to learn their exposure results, reporting no psychological harm following report-back. They wove health, economic, and political considerations into their interpretation of results and their present views of past impact. Participants framed their experiences by a half-century of dependence on the chemical industry's economic benefits, leading them to considerable acceptance of chemical exposure as a tradeoff for jobs and the local economy. Our findings show that the exposure experience is an ongoing process that influences social action, with new activism being generated by exposure and health studies. PMID:27601409

  14. Advanced tracking and data relay experiments study: Multimode transponder experiment equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Plans and implementation concepts were developed for a series of experiments utilizing a Multimode Transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station which would simulate a TDRSS user working through the TDRSS. The purpose of the experiments is to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI in discreet bands. The experiments also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques. An analysis of the Multimode Transponder and ground support equipment is presented, and the additional equipment required to perform the experiments described above is determined.

  15. Design, construction, and operation of SciFi tracking detector for K2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Park, H.; Aoki, S.; Echigo, S.; Fujii, K.; Hara, T.; Iwashita, T.; Kitamura, M.; Kohama, M.; Kume, G.; Onchi, M.; Otaki, T.; Sato, K.; Takatsuki, M.; Takenaka, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tashiro, K.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Mukai, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Sasao, N.; Shima, A.; Yokoyama, H.; Chikamatsu, T.; Hayato, Y.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ishino, H.; Jeon, E. J.; Kobayashi, T.; Lee, S. B.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Tumakov, V.; Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Ishizuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Toshito, T.; Yamada, S.; Miyano, K.; Nakamura, M.; Tamura, N.; Nakano, I.; Yoshida, M.; Kadowaki, T.; Kishi, S.; Yokoyama, H.; Maruyama, T.; Etoh, M.; Nishijima, K.; Bhang, H. C.; Khang, B. H.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, H. I.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; So, H.; Yoo, J. H.; Choi, J. H.; Jang, H. I.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Pac, M. Y.; Kearns, E.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Walter, C. W.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W.; Mine, S.; Sobel, H.; Vagins, M.; Matsuno, S.; Hill, J.; Jung, C. K.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Yanagisawa, C.; Berns, H.; Boyd, S.; Wilkes, J.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.; K2K Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scintillating fiber detector used in the near detector for the K2K (KEK to Kamioka, KEK E362) long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The detector uses 3.7 m long and 0.692 mm diameter scintillating fiber coupled to image-intensifier tubes (IIT), and a CCD camera readout system. Fiber sheet production and detector construction began in 1997, and the detector was commissioned in March 1999. Results from the first K2K runs confirm good initial performance: position resolution is estimated to be about 0.8 mm, and track finding efficiency is 98±2% for long tracks (i.e., those which intersect more than 5 fiber planes). The hit efficiency was estimated to be 92±2% using cosmic-ray muons, after noise reduction at the offline stage. The possibility of using the detector for particle identification is also discussed.

  16. Tracking tracer motion in a 4-D electrical resistivity tomography experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, W. O. C.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J. E.; Nilsson, H.; Kuras, O.; Bai, L.

    2016-05-01

    A new framework for automatically tracking subsurface tracers in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring images is presented. Using computer vision and Bayesian inference techniques, in the form of a Kalman filter, the trajectory of a subsurface tracer is monitored by predicting and updating a state model representing its movements. Observations for the Kalman filter are gathered using the maximally stable volumes algorithm, which is used to dynamically threshold local regions of an ERT image sequence to detect the tracer at each time step. The application of the framework to the results of 2-D and 3-D tracer monitoring experiments show that the proposed method is effective for detecting and tracking tracer plumes in ERT images in the presence of noise, without intermediate manual intervention.

  17. Real-time tracking of objects for a KC-135 microgravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a visual tracking system for use on the Extra-Vehicular Activity Helper/Retriever (EVAHR) is discussed. EVAHR is an autonomous robot designed to perform numerous tasks in an orbital microgravity environment. Since the ability to grasp a freely translating and rotating object is vital to the robot's mission, the EVAHR must analyze range image generated by the primary sensor. This allows EVAHR to locate and focus its sensors so that an accurate set of object poses can be determined and a grasp strategy planned. To test the visual tracking system being developed, a mathematical simulation was used to model the space station environment and maintain dynamics on the EVAHR and any other free floating objects. A second phase of the investigation consists of a series of experiments carried out aboard a KC-135 aircraft flying a parabolic trajectory to simulate microgravity.

  18. The GBT-based readout concept for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the readout concept for the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR, which is designed to handle interaction rates up to 10 MHz with hundreds of tracks in fixed target heavy ion collisions of up to 35 AGeV. For data readout from the frontend electronics located close to the silicon strip sensors, the radiation tolerant Gigabit Transceiver ASICs (GBTx) and Versatile Link optical modules developed at CERN are used. The usage of these devices in the STS readout and the readout concept from the frontend electronics to the GBT based STS readout board (ROB) are detailed. Special emphasis is put on the implementation of the interface between the frontend boards (FEBs) and the ROB layer.

  19. Results from the Final Exposure of the CDMS II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Z.; Akerib, D.S.; Arrenberg, S.; Bailey, C.N.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, D.A.; Brink, P.L.; Bruch, T.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara

    2009-12-01

    We report results from a blind analysis of the final data taken with the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment (CDMS II) at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, Minnesota, USA. A total raw exposure of 612 kg-days was analyzed for this work. We observed two events in the signal region; based on our background estimate, the probability of observing two or more background events is 23%. These data set an upper limit on the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP)-nucleon elastic-scattering spin-independent cross-section of 7.0 x 10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for a WIMP of mass 70 GeV/c{sup 2} at the 90% confidence level. Combining this result with all previous CDMS II data gives an upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross-section of 3.8 x 10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for a WIMP of mass 70 GeV/c{sup 2}. We also exclude new parameter space in recently proposed inelastic dark matter models.

  20. The Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Canik, J.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Duckworth, R. C.; Goulding, R. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Lore, J. D.; Lumsdaine, A.; McGinnis, W. D.; Meitner, S. J.; Owen, L. W.; Shaw, G. C.; Luo, G.-N.

    2014-10-01

    Next generation plasma generators have to be able to access the plasma conditions expected on the divertor targets in ITER and future devices. The Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) will address this regime with electron temperatures of 1--10 eV and electron densities of 1021--1020 m-3. The resulting heat fluxes are about 10 MW/m2. MPEX is designed to deliver those plasma conditions with a novel Radio Frequency plasma source able to produce high density plasmas and heat electron and ions separately with Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) heating and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). Preliminary modeling has been used for pre-design studies of MPEX. MPEX will be capable to expose neutron irradiated samples. In this concept targets will be irradiated in ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) or possibly at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and then subsequently (after a sufficient long cool-down period) exposed to fusion reactor relevant plasmas in MPEX. The current state of the pre-design of MPEX including the concept of handling irradiated samples will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  1. Changes in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure: The Beaver Dam Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Margarete A; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nondahl, David M; Chappell, Richard; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Fischer, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Our goal was to determine if ETS exposure changed between 1998–2000 and 2003–2005 among participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. Methods ETS exposure was ascertained using a cotinine-validated questionnaire at the 5-year (1998–2000) and 10-year follow-up examinations (2003–2005). Non-smoking participants with data from both visits were included (n=1898; ages 53–96 years at 5-yr follow-up). McNemar’s test was used to test differences in ETS exposure overall and in three settings: home, work, and social settings. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used for multivariate logistic regression models of exposure. Results The proportion of nonsmokers with no or little ETS exposure increased from 80% to 88% (p<0.0001). The percent living in a home with no indoor smokers increased from 94% to 97% (p<0.0001). The percent reporting no exposure at work increased from 91% to 95% (p<0.0001). The percent reporting the lowest frequency of social exposure increased from 65% to 77% (p<0.0001). In the GEE model, age was inversely associated with exposure (Odds Ratio (OR) per 5 yr=0.80, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI)=0.76, 0.86), as was education (OR for college vs exposure in older adults decreased. Decreasing exposures suggest there may be future declines in ETS-related adverse health outcomes. PMID:23758015

  2. Many-core applications to online track reconstruction in HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerio, S.; Bastieri, D.; Corvo, M.; Gianelle, A.; Ketchum, W.; Liu, T.; Lonardo, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Poprocki, S.; Rivera, R.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.; Wittich, P.

    2014-06-01

    Interest in parallel architectures applied to real time selections is growing in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. In this paper we describe performance measurements of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) and Intel Many Integrated Core architecture (MIC) when applied to a typical HEP online task: the selection of events based on the trajectories of charged particles. We use as benchmark a scaled-up version of the algorithm used at CDF experiment at Tevatron for online track reconstruction - the SVT algorithm - as a realistic test-case for low-latency trigger systems using new computing architectures for LHC experiment. We examine the complexity/performance trade-off in porting existing serial algorithms to many-core devices. Measurements of both data processing and data transfer latency are shown, considering different I/O strategies to/from the parallel devices.

  3. MIKE's PET: A participant-based experiment tracking tool for HCI practitioners using mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamedally, Dean; Edlich, Stefan; Klaus, Enrico; Zaphiris, Panayiotis

    2006-02-01

    Knowledge Elicitation (KE) methods are an integral part of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) practices. They are a key aspect to the synthesis of psychology empirical methods with requirements engineering, User Centred Design (UCD) and user evaluations. Examples of these methods include prototyping, focus groups, interviews, surveys and direct video observation. The MIKE project (Mobile Interactive Knowledge Elicitation) at the Centre for HCI Design, City University London, UK provides mobile cyberscience capabilities for HCI practitioners conducting such research while at stakeholder locations. This paper reports on the design and development of a new MIKE based tool, named PET, a Participant-based Experiment Tracking tool for HCI practitioners using Java-based (J2ME) mobile devices. PET integrates its user tracking techniques with the development of the second generation implementation of the CONKER (COllaborative Non-linear Knowledge Elicitation Repository) Web Service. We thus report further on CONKER v2.0's new capabilities developed to enable tighter collaboration and empirical data management between HCI practitioners, considering their UCD needs. The visualisation, tracking and recording of HCI participant-based datasets via PET is explored with close connectivity with the CONKER v2.0 Web Service, in order to provide mobile-web cyberscience for remote and local HCI practitioners.

  4. National hiring experiments reveal 2:1 faculty preference for women on STEM tenure track

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Wendy M.; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    National randomized experiments and validation studies were conducted on 873 tenure-track faculty (439 male, 434 female) from biology, engineering, economics, and psychology at 371 universities/colleges from 50 US states and the District of Columbia. In the main experiment, 363 faculty members evaluated narrative summaries describing hypothetical female and male applicants for tenure-track assistant professorships who shared the same lifestyle (e.g., single without children, married with children). Applicants' profiles were systematically varied to disguise identically rated scholarship; profiles were counterbalanced by gender across faculty to enable between-faculty comparisons of hiring preferences for identically qualified women versus men. Results revealed a 2:1 preference for women by faculty of both genders across both math-intensive and non–math-intensive fields, with the single exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Results were replicated using weighted analyses to control for national sample characteristics. In follow-up experiments, 144 faculty evaluated competing applicants with differing lifestyles (e.g., divorced mother vs. married father), and 204 faculty compared same-gender candidates with children, but differing in whether they took 1-y-parental leaves in graduate school. Women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers; men preferred mothers who took leaves to mothers who did not. In two validation studies, 35 engineering faculty provided rankings using full curricula vitae instead of narratives, and 127 faculty rated one applicant rather than choosing from a mixed-gender group; the same preference for women was shown by faculty of both genders. These results suggest it is a propitious time for women launching careers in academic science. Messages to the contrary may discourage women from applying for STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) tenure-track assistant professorships. PMID:25870272

  5. National hiring experiments reveal 2:1 faculty preference for women on STEM tenure track.

    PubMed

    Williams, Wendy M; Ceci, Stephen J

    2015-04-28

    National randomized experiments and validation studies were conducted on 873 tenure-track faculty (439 male, 434 female) from biology, engineering, economics, and psychology at 371 universities/colleges from 50 US states and the District of Columbia. In the main experiment, 363 faculty members evaluated narrative summaries describing hypothetical female and male applicants for tenure-track assistant professorships who shared the same lifestyle (e.g., single without children, married with children). Applicants' profiles were systematically varied to disguise identically rated scholarship; profiles were counterbalanced by gender across faculty to enable between-faculty comparisons of hiring preferences for identically qualified women versus men. Results revealed a 2:1 preference for women by faculty of both genders across both math-intensive and non-math-intensive fields, with the single exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Results were replicated using weighted analyses to control for national sample characteristics. In follow-up experiments, 144 faculty evaluated competing applicants with differing lifestyles (e.g., divorced mother vs. married father), and 204 faculty compared same-gender candidates with children, but differing in whether they took 1-y-parental leaves in graduate school. Women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers; men preferred mothers who took leaves to mothers who did not. In two validation studies, 35 engineering faculty provided rankings using full curricula vitae instead of narratives, and 127 faculty rated one applicant rather than choosing from a mixed-gender group; the same preference for women was shown by faculty of both genders. These results suggest it is a propitious time for women launching careers in academic science. Messages to the contrary may discourage women from applying for STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) tenure-track assistant professorships. PMID:25870272

  6. Particle image velocimetry for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment using a particle displacement tracking technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Pline, Alexander D.

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electronic, two-dimensional particle image velocimetry technique called particle displacement tracking (PDT) which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. The PDT system is successful in producing velocity vector fields from the raw video data. Application of the PDT technique to a sample data set yielded 1606 vectors in 30 seconds of processing time. A bottom viewing optical arrangement is used to image the illuminated plane, which causes keystone distortion in the final recorded image. A coordinate transformation was incorporated into the system software to correct this viewing angle distortion. PDT processing produced 1.8 percent false identifications, due to random particle locations. A highly successful routine for removing the false identifications was also incorporated, reducing the number of false identifications to 0.2 percent.

  7. Particle image velocimetry for the surface tension driven convection experiment using a particle displacement tracking technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Pline, Alexander D.

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electronic, two-dimensional particle image velocimetry technique called particle displacement tracking (PDT) which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. The PDT system is successful in producing velocity vector fields from the raw video data. Application of the PDT technique to a sample data set yielded 1606 vectors in 30 seconds of processing time. A bottom viewing optical arrangement is used to image the illuminated plane, which causes keystone distortion in the final recorded image. A coordinate transformation was incorporated into the system software to correct this viewing angle distortion. PDT processing produced 1.8 percent false identifications, due to random particle locations. A highly successful routine for removing the false identifications was also incorporated, reducing the number of false identifications to 0.2 percent.

  8. Application of fuzzy logic to optimize placement of an acquisition, tracking, and pointing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukley, Jerry

    The experiment is comprised of a 115,000 cubic meter helium balloon which lifts a 2,900 kg Acquisition, Tracking and Pointing (ATP) experiment package to an altitude of 26 km. The Phillips Laboratory High Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE) has been developed as a cost-effective means of testing satellite ATP technologies in an environment similar to space. A major advantage of the concept is the flexibility in placement and timing afforded a balloon over a satellite. This flexibility allows HABE to engage targets-of-opportunity launched from the domestic ranges without requiring a dedicated or closely coordinated launch time. The placement of HABE is optimized to maximize active track time. A routine was developed to raster scan the mathematical model of a flight corridor while accumulating the intervals of continuous engagement that satisfy a list of ten rules. Although successful, this method is unable to place priorities or make trades based on the relative importance of the rules. The use of fuzzy logic in the form of approximate reasoning to evaluate the rules, while also considering goals, enables key qualitative considerations to be factored into the overall evaluation. This paper describes the application of fuzzy logic to data analysis and compares the results to conventional Boolean techniques.

  9. Joint UK-Australian Space Surveillance Target Tracking, Cueing and Sensor Data Fusion Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, P.; Harwood, N.; Ash, A.; Eastment, J.; Ladd, D.; Walden, C.; Bennett, J.; Smith, C.; Ritchie, I.; Rutten, M.; Gordon, N.

    2014-09-01

    In February 2014 the UK and Australia carried out a joint space surveillance target tracking, cueing, and sensor data fusion experiment. Four organisations were involved, these being the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) with the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) and Electro Optic Systems (EOS) of Australia. The experiment utilised the UK STFC CAMRa radar located at Chilbolton in southern England and an Australian optical camera and laser system owned and operated by EOS and located at Mount Stromlo near Canberra, Australia. An additional experimental camera owned and operated by DSTO and located at Adelaide, Australia also contributed. Three initial objectives of the experiment were all achieved, these being: 1) Use multiple CAMRa orbit passes to cue EOS optical sensor; 2) Use single CAMRa passes constrained by TLEs to cue EOS optical sensor; 3) Use EOS laser returns to provide an updated "reverse" cue for CAMRa radar. Due to the success of these three objectives, two additional objectives were also set during the trials, these being: 4) Use CAMRa orbits to cue DSTO experimental optical sensor; 5) Use CAMRa orbits to provide CAMRa self-cue. These objectives were also achieved. The experiments were performed over two one week periods with a one week separation between tracking campaigns. This paper describes the experimental programme from a top-level perspective and outlines the planning and execution of the experiment together with some initial analysis results. The main achievements and implications for use of dissimilar and geographically separated sensors for space situational awareness are highlighted. Two companion papers describe the sensor aspects of the experiment (Eastment et al.) and the data fusion aspects (Rutten et al.) respectively.

  10. Experiment Definition Using the Space Laboratory, Long Duration Exposure Facility, and Space Transportation System Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Albert P.; Wood, Joan M.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate experiments designed for the space shuttle transportation system and the long duration exposure facility are summarized. The data format covers: experiment title, Experimenter, technical abstract, benefits/justification, technical discussion of experiment approach and objectives, related work and experience, experiment facts space properties used, environmental constraints, shielding requirements, if any, physical description, and sketch of major elements. Information was also included on experiment hardware, research required to develop experiment, special requirements, cost estimate, safety considerations, and interactions with spacecraft and other experiments.

  11. Advanced tracking and data relay experiments study: Multimode transponder experiment analysis procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.; Moses, J.

    1973-01-01

    Plans and implementation concepts were developed for utilizing a multimode transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station. The purpose would be to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI and multipath propagation and to determine the characteristics of VHF and UHF RFI in discreet bands. The experiments would also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques.

  12. A smart homecage system with 3D tracking for long-term behavioral experiments.

    PubMed

    Byunghun Lee; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    A wirelessly-powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface (GUI) is presented for long-term electrophysiology experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils (WWCs) with optimal geometries to form 3-and 4-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multi-coil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared to conventional 2-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers (PAs) to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and dissipated heat. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6 cm accuracy. An in vivo experiment was conducted on a freely behaving rat by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for > 7 hours inside a standard homecage. PMID:25570379

  13. A Smart Homecage System with 3D Tracking for Long-Term Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    A wirelessly-powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface (GUI) is presented for long-term electrophysiology experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils (WWCs) with optimal geometries to form 3- and 4-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multi-coil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared to conventional 2-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers (PAs) to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and dissipated heat. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6 cm accuracy. An in vivo experiment was conducted on a freely behaving rat by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for > 7 hours inside a standard homecage. PMID:25570379

  14. Longitudinal tracking of cytokines after acute exposure to tuberculosis: association of distinct cytokine patterns with protection and disease development.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rabia; Talat, Najeeha; Shahid, Firdaus; Dawood, Ghaffar

    2007-12-01

    Household contacts (HCs) of patients with tuberculosis (TB) are at higher risk of infection as well as the development of active disease. Longitudinal tracking of antigen-specific cytokines after acute exposure may significantly advance our understanding of the dynamic changes in cytokine patterns associated with disease establishment. To achieve this objective, we carried out a prospective cohort study with healthy HCs after exposure to TB. The patterns of cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-gamma] and interleukin 10 [IL-10]) in response to mycobacterial antigens (culture filtrate [CF] proteins) and nonspecific mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA] and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months after exposure. Seven of 109 (6.4%) HCs developed active disease. Six of the seven individuals were females, and active disease developed between 12 and 15 months after exposure in 5/20 families. The most significant findings were the exponential increases ( approximately 1,000-fold) in both the CF protein- and the PHA- or LPS-induced IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio in healthy HCs (n = 26), which peaked at 12 months, compared to the levels in HCs who developed disease (n = 7), in whom relatively flat responses were observed during the 24-month period. Linear trends for 0 to 12 and 0 to 24 months for the CF protein-induced IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio showed significant differences between the two groups, as determined by the use of the Mantel extension test for chi(2) analysis (odds ratio = 0.45; 95% confidence interval = 0.295 to 0.685; P = 0.0002). Our results strongly suggest that the magnitude of the IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio at 12 months after exposure may be a critical determinant in the resolution of infection. These studies provide new insights into the cytokine responses associated with disease establishment or the resolution of infection after natural exposure to TB and have implications for TB control programs as well vaccine efficacy studies. PMID:17928427

  15. Longitudinal Tracking of Cytokines after Acute Exposure to Tuberculosis: Association of Distinct Cytokine Patterns with Protection and Disease Development▿

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rabia; Talat, Najeeha; Shahid, Firdaus; Dawood, Ghaffar

    2007-01-01

    Household contacts (HCs) of patients with tuberculosis (TB) are at higher risk of infection as well as the development of active disease. Longitudinal tracking of antigen-specific cytokines after acute exposure may significantly advance our understanding of the dynamic changes in cytokine patterns associated with disease establishment. To achieve this objective, we carried out a prospective cohort study with healthy HCs after exposure to TB. The patterns of cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and interleukin 10 [IL-10]) in response to mycobacterial antigens (culture filtrate [CF] proteins) and nonspecific mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA] and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months after exposure. Seven of 109 (6.4%) HCs developed active disease. Six of the seven individuals were females, and active disease developed between 12 and 15 months after exposure in 5/20 families. The most significant findings were the exponential increases (∼1,000-fold) in both the CF protein- and the PHA- or LPS-induced IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio in healthy HCs (n = 26), which peaked at 12 months, compared to the levels in HCs who developed disease (n = 7), in whom relatively flat responses were observed during the 24-month period. Linear trends for 0 to 12 and 0 to 24 months for the CF protein-induced IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio showed significant differences between the two groups, as determined by the use of the Mantel extension test for χ2 analysis (odds ratio = 0.45; 95% confidence interval = 0.295 to 0.685; P = 0.0002). Our results strongly suggest that the magnitude of the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio at 12 months after exposure may be a critical determinant in the resolution of infection. These studies provide new insights into the cytokine responses associated with disease establishment or the resolution of infection after natural exposure to TB and have implications for TB control programs as well vaccine efficacy studies. PMID:17928427

  16. Design of Quantum Dot-Conjugated Lipids for Long-Term, High-Speed Tracking Experiments on Cell Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Michael J.; Minner, Daniel. E.; Mustata, Gina-Mirela; Ritchie, Kenneth; Naumann, Christoph A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study reports the facile design of quantum dot (QD)-conjugated lipids and their application to high-speed tracking experiments on cell surfaces. CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with two types of hydrophilic coatings, 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol (AEE-coating) and a 60:40 molar mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol-2000] (LIPO-coating), are conjugated to sulfhydryl lipids via maleimide reactive groups on the QD surface. Prior to lipid conjugation, the colloidal stability of both types of coated QDs in aqueous solution is confirmed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. A sensitive assay based on single lipid tracking experiments on a planar solid-supported phospholipid bilayer is presented that establishes conditions of monovalent conjugation of QDs to lipids. The QD lipids are then employed as single molecule tracking probes in plasma membranes of several cell types. Initial tracking experiments at a frame rate of 30 fps corroborate that QD-lipids diffuse like dye-labeled lipids in the plasma membrane of COS-7, HEK-293, 3T3, and NRK cells, thus confirming monovalent labeling. Finally, QD-lipids are applied for the first time to high-speed single molecule imaging by tracking their lateral mobility in the plasma membrane of NRK fibroblasts with up to 1000 fps. Our high-speed tracking data, which are in excellent agreement to previous tracking experiments with larger 40nm Au labels, not only push the time resolution in long-time, continuous fluorescence-based single molecule tracking, but also show that highly photostable, photoluminescent nanoprobes of 10nm size can be employed (AEE-coated QDs). These probes are also attractive because, unlike Au nanoparticles, they facilitate complex multicolor experiments. PMID:18937457

  17. Exposures from indoor powder releases: models and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.W.; Horowitz, M.

    1986-04-01

    Two models of the dispersion of a solid contaminant in a room were compared. The first model was the perfect mixing model. widely used in room air modeling to predict concentration, thus exposure (the integral of concentration over time). The second model was the turbulent puff diffusion model, sometimes used in atmospheric dispersion modeling. The models predicted different consequences from a solid contaminant release in a room, such as from a bulk-loading operation or a spill. The predicted exposures from a release were evaluated for both models. The models also were compared against data from an illustrative set of experimental measurements with the use of powder spill as a source. In the room, the exposures decreased almost inversely with distance, behavior more in accord with the turbulent puff model than with the perfect mixing model.

  18. Experience and Distribution of Attention: Pet Exposure and Infants' Scanning of Animal Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Karinna B.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Although infants' cognitions about the world must be influenced by experience, little research has directly assessed the relation between everyday experience and infants' visual cognition in the laboratory. Eye-tracking procedures were used to measure 4-month-old infants' eye movements as they visually investigated a series of…

  19. Desktop exposure system and dosimetry for small scale in vivo radiofrequency exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yijian; Capstick, Myles; Tillmann, Thomas; Dasenbrock, Clemens; Samaras, Theodoros; Kuster, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the risk assessment of exposure from wireless network devices, including an exposure setup and dosimetric assessment for in vivo studies. A novel desktop reverberation chamber has been developed for well-controlled exposure of mice for up to 24 h per day to address the biological impact of human exposure scenarios by wireless networks. The carrier frequency of 2.45 GHz corresponds to one of the major bands used in data communication networks and is modulated by various modulation schemes, including Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and wireless local area network, etc. The system has been designed to enable exposures of whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of up to 15 W/kg for six mice of an average weight of 25 g or of up to 320 V/m incident time-averaged fields under loaded conditions without distortion of the signal. The dosimetry for whole-body SAR and organ-averaged SAR of the exposed mice, with analysis of uncertainty and variation analysis, is assessed. The experimental dosimetry based on temperature measurement agrees well with the numerical dosimetry, with a very good SAR uniformity of 0.4 dB in the chamber. Furthermore, a thermal analysis and measurements were performed to provide better understanding of the temperature load and distribution in the mice during exposure. PMID:26769169

  20. Exposure, experience, and intention recognition: take it from the bottom.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Mark

    2013-04-01

    The psycho-historical account implies two ways of construing the relation of basic exposure to the artistic design stance and artistic understanding. One is empirically dubious and the other does not fit well with the account. The assumption that combining psychology with history requires identifying actual intentions is undermined by the artistic design stance. PMID:23507110

  1. Dynamic field-frequency lock for tracking magnetic field fluctuations in electron spin resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Abraham; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    Global magnetic field fluctuations present significant challenges to pulsed electron spin resonance experiments on systems with long spin coherence times. We will discuss results from experiments in which we follow instantaneous changes in magnetic field by locking to the free induction decay of a proton NMR signal using a phase-locked loop. We extend conventional field-frequency locking techniques used in NMR to follow slow magnetic field drifts by using a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence in which the phase of the pi-pulses follows the phase of the proton spins at all times. Hence, we retain the ability of the CPMG pulse sequence to refocus local magnetic field inhomogeneities without refocusing global magnetic field fluctuations. In contrast with conventional field-frequency locking techniques, our experiments demonstrate the potential of this method to dynamically track global magnetic field fluctuations on timescales of about 2 seconds and with rates faster than a kHz. This frequency range covers the dominant noise frequencies in our electron spin resonance experiments as previously reported.

  2. Seeds in space experiment. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1992-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed in one sealed canister and in two small vented canisters. After being returned to earth, the seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants were compared to the performance of the control seeds that stayed in the Park Seed's seed storage facility. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than at the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  3. Development of a scintillating fiber tracking detector for the K2K neutrino oscillation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsumu

    1998-11-09

    We are preparing a scintillating fiber tracking detector as a part of the near fine-grained detector in the K2K long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment between KEK and Super-Kamiokande. We use Kuraray SCSF-78, 0.7 mm diameter fiber with Hamamatsu IIT-CCD camera read out system. The choice of the fiber is based on a series of measurements of the light yield and aging of the candidate fibers under various conditions. It was found that SCSF-78 has enough light yield and lifetime for our purposes. We have also checked the performance of the SCIFI sheet-IIT-CCD system by source ({sup 90}Sr) and cosmic rays. The detection efficiency was found to be more than 99%. The full SCIFI detector construction is current under way.

  4. Development of a scintillating fiber tracking detector for the K2K neutrino oscillation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsumu

    1998-11-01

    We are preparing a scintillating fiber tracking detector as a part of the near fine-grained detector in the K2K long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment between KEK and Super-Kamiokande. We use Kuraray SCSF-78, 0.7 mm diameter fiber with Hamamatsu IIT-CCD camera read out system. The choice of the fiber is based on a series of measurements of the light yield and aging of the candidate fibers under various conditions. It was found that SCSF-78 has enough light yield and lifetime for our purposes. We have also checked the performance of the SCIFI sheet-IIT-CCD system by source (90Sr) and cosmic rays. The detection efficiency was found to be more than 99%. The full SCIFI detector construction is current under way.

  5. Application of a silicon photodiode array for solar edge tracking in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. S.; Mayo, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) elevation sunsensor is described. This system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned, monolithic charge coupled device. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the HALOE science instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration, and then maintain the science IFOV four arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 0.7 micrometer operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability. The HALOE instrument is a gas correlation radiometer that is now being developed by NASA Langley Research Center for the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite.

  6. Jet-Track Correlation Analysis of Monte Carlo Simulated Data for the CMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabb, William; Evdokimov, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Collisions of ultra-relativistic heavy ion beams delivered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are used to study the properties of a special form of nuclear matter, termed Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Among the experimental tools actively employed to explore the QGP properties, are jets - collimated streams of particles produced from hard-scattered partons in the initial state of the collision. The hot and dense medium produced in heavy ion collisions interacts strongly with the partons traversing it, resulting in energy loss and modifications to the momentum distributions of the forming jets. A development of the jet-track correlation analysis was performed and tested with Monte Carlo (MC) data samples simulating jet data for the CMS experiment at LHC, allowing study of several jet-related properties in order to better understand the medium effects on penetrating probes.

  7. Photodocumentation of long-term lunar surface exposure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight photographs of selected Apollo 17 equipment taken for use in determining the effects on various surfaces of long-term exposure to the lunar environment are presented. Photographs of the articles deployed on the lunar surface also are included. The photographic procedure and the coding system used for the photodocumentation are explained. Other documentation measures planned to obtain items for use as controls in projected analyses are discussed.

  8. Older Adults’ Experiences Using a Commercially Available Monitor to Self-Track Their Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity contributes to older adults’ autonomy, mobility, and quality of life as they age, yet fewer than 1 in 5 engage in activities as recommended. Many older adults track their exercise using pencil and paper, or their memory. Commercially available physical activity monitors (PAM) have the potential to facilitate these tracking practices and, in turn, physical activity. An assessment of older adults’ long-term experiences with PAM is needed to understand this potential. Objective To assess short and long-term experiences of adults >70 years old using a PAM (Fitbit One) in terms of acceptance, ease-of-use, and usefulness: domains in the technology acceptance model. Methods This prospective study included 95 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom received a PAM as part of randomized controlled trial piloting a fall-reducing physical activity promotion intervention. Ten-item surveys were administered 10 weeks and 8 months after the study started. Survey ratings are described and analyzed over time, and compared by sex, education, and age. Results Participants were mostly women (71/95, 75%), 70 to 96 years old, and had some college education (68/95, 72%). Most participants (86/95, 91%) agreed or strongly agreed that the PAM was easy to use, useful, and acceptable both 10 weeks and 8 months after enrolling in the study. Ratings dropped between these time points in all survey domains: ease-of-use (median difference 0.66 points, P=.001); usefulness (median difference 0.16 points, P=.193); and acceptance (median difference 0.17 points, P=.032). Differences in ratings by sex or educational attainment were not statistically significant at either time point. Most participants 80+ years of age (28/37, 76%) agreed or strongly agreed with survey items at long-term follow-up, however their ratings were significantly lower than participants in younger age groups at both time points. Conclusions Study results indicate it is feasible for older

  9. A Mobile Service Oriented Multiple Object Tracking Augmented Reality Architecture for Education and Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattanarungrot, Sasithorn; White, Martin; Newbury, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of our service-oriented architecture to support mobile multiple object tracking augmented reality applications applied to education and learning scenarios. The architecture is composed of a mobile multiple object tracking augmented reality client, a web service framework, and dynamic content providers. Tracking of…

  10. Long-Duration Orbit Exposure Experiment with Sub-Surface Microorganism from a Mars Terrestrial Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, A. F.; Lim, D.; Fairen, A. G.; Uceda, E. R.; Zavaleta, J.; McKay, C.

    2007-07-01

    Orbit Exposure Experiments (OEE) allow us to test the possibility of life transfer between planets and moons. Deep sub-surface microorganisms may be the best candidates to survive long-term exposure to space conditions. A long duration OEE is proposed to test our hypothesis.

  11. The Effects of Mass Media Exposure on Acceptance of Violence against Women: A Field Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamuth, Neil M.; Check, James V. P.

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=271) were subjects in an experiment on the effects of exposure to films that portray sexual violence as having positive consequences. Results indicated that exposure to the films portraying violent sexuality increased male subjects' acceptance of interpersonal violence against women. Females exhibited tendencies in the opposite…

  12. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, S.

    2016-07-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will be carried out. Due to increased luminosity, a severe radiation dose and high particle rates will occur for the experiments. In consequence, several detector components will have to be upgraded. In the ATLAS experiment, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracking detector with the goal of at least delivering the present detector performance also in the harsh Phase-II LHC conditions. This report presents the current planning and results from first prototype measurements of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector.

  13. Evaluating Experience-Based Geologic Field Instruction: Lessons Learned from A Large-Scale Eye-Tracking Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Walders, K.; Bono, R. K.; Pelz, J.; Jacobs, R.

    2015-12-01

    A course centered on experience-based learning in field geology has been offered ten times at the University of Rochester. The centerpiece of the course is a 10-day field excursion to California featuring a broad cross-section of the geology of the state, from the San Andreas Fault to Death Valley. Here we describe results from a large-scale eye-tracking experiment aimed at understanding how experts and novices acquire visual geologic information. One ultimate goal of the project is to determine whether expert gaze patterns can be quantified to improve the instruction of beginning geology students. Another goal is to determine if aspects of the field experience can be transferred to the classroom/laboratory. Accordingly, ultra-high resolution segmented panoramic images have been collected at key sites visited during the field excursion. We have found that strict controls are needed in the field to obtain meaningful data; this often involves behavior atypical of geologists (e.g. limiting the field of view prior to data collection and placing time limits on scene viewing). Nevertheless some general conclusions can be made from a select data set. After an initial quick search, experts tend to exhibit scanning behavior that appears to support hypothesis testing. Novice fixations appear to define a scattered search pattern and/or one distracted by geologic noise in a scene. Noise sources include modern erosion features and vegetation. One way to quantify noise is through the use of saliency maps. With the caveat that our expert data set is small, our preliminary analysis suggests that experts tend to exhibit top-down behavior (indicating hypothesis driven responses) whereas novices show bottom-up gaze patterns, influenced by more salient features in a scene. We will present examples and discuss how these observations might be used to improve instruction.

  14. Tracking human activity and well-being in natural environments using wearable sensors and experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Sean T; Lemieux, Christopher J; Canally, Culum

    2014-04-01

    A growing range of studies have begun to document the health and well-being benefits associated with contact with nature. Most studies rely on generalized self-reports following engagement in the natural environment. The actual in-situ experience during contact with nature, and the environmental features and factors that evoke health benefits have remained relatively unexplored. Smartphones offer a new opportunity to monitor and interact with human subjects during everyday life using techniques such as Experience Sampling Methods (ESM) that involve repeated self-reports of experiences as they occur in-situ. Additionally, embedded sensors in smartphones such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometers can accurately trace human activities. This paper explores how these techniques can be combined to comprehensively explore the perceived health and well-being impacts of contact with nature. Custom software was developed to passively track GPS and accelerometer data, and actively prompt subjects to complete an ESM survey at regular intervals throughout their visit to a provincial park in Ontario, Canada. The ESM survey includes nine scale questions concerning moods and emotions, followed by a series of open-ended experiential questions that subjects provide recorded audio responses to. Pilot test results are used to illustrate the nature, quantity and quality of data obtained. Participant activities were clearly evident from GPS maps, including especially walking, cycling and sedate activities. From the ESM surveys, participants reported an average of 25 words per question, taking an average of 15 s to record them. Further qualitative analysis revealed that participants were willing to provide considerable insights into their experiences and perceived health impacts. The combination of passive and interactive techniques is sure to make larger studies of this type more affordable and less burdensome in the future, further enhancing the ability to understand

  15. Natural Experiment in Deviant Peer Exposure and Youth Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Cheri J.; Smith, Bradley H.; Malone, Patrick S.; Collaro, Alyssa L.

    2010-01-01

    Little empirical data exist addressing potential iatrogenic effects of placing youth in juvenile justice settings. We took advantage of a natural experiment in one state where juvenile offenders are evaluated in either residential settings characterized by high-density contact with delinquent youth or community settings with naturally varying…

  16. Particle tracking at cryogenic temperatures: the Fast Annihilation Cryogenic Tracking (FACT) detector for the AEgIS antimatter gravity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J.; Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A.; Bonomi, G.; Braunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R.; Cabaret, L.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Chlouba, K.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, H.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S.; Haider, S.; Hogan, S.; Holmestad, H.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E. J.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Krasnicky, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lehner, S.; Magnani, A.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O. M.; Rosenberger, S.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Simon, M.; Spacek, M.; Strojek, I. M.; Subieta, M.; Testera, G.; Vaccarone, R.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.

    2015-02-01

    The AEgIS experiment is an interdisciplinary collaboration between atomic, plasma and particle physicists, with the scientific goal of performing the first precision measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter. The principle of the experiment is as follows: cold antihydrogen atoms are synthesized in a Penning-Malmberg trap and are Stark accelerated towards a moiré deflectometer, the classical counterpart of an atom interferometer, and annihilate on a position sensitive detector. Crucial to the success of the experiment is an antihydrogen detector that will be used to demonstrate the production of antihydrogen and also to measure the temperature of the anti-atoms and the creation of a beam. The operating requirements for the detector are very challenging: it must operate at close to 4 K inside a 1 T solenoid magnetic field and identify the annihilation of the antihydrogen atoms that are produced during the 1 μs period of antihydrogen production. Our solution—called the FACT detector—is based on a novel multi-layer scintillating fiber tracker with SiPM readout and off the shelf FPGA based readout system. This talk will present the design of the FACT detector and detail the operation of the detector in the context of the AEgIS experiment.

  17. Numerical experiments of the storm track sensitivity to oceanic frontal strength within the Kuroshio/Oyashio Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Zhong, Zhong; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2016-03-01

    The sensitivity of the North Pacific storm track to midlatitude oceanic frontal strength within the Kuroshio/Oyashio Extensions is investigated by applying artificially changed meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the Weather Research Forecasting model version 3.4. The result of sensitivity experiments further confirms the close relationship between the storm track activity and meridional SST gradient; i.e., the storm track activity can be intensified as a response to increases in the oceanic frontal strength. In order to better understand the mechanism for the storm track intensification due to increased SST gradient, velocity-temperature correlation and local energetics are analyzed. The result indicates that the enhancement of the meridional SST gradient leads to amplitude magnification of eddy meridional velocity and temperature and their phase consistency, suggesting that synoptic-scale eddies tend to approach the optimum structure for the baroclinic energy conversion, which is mainly responsible for the SST front-induced enhancement of storm track activity. In order to estimate the impact of the oceanic front on the maintenance of the near-surface baroclinicity, further investigation is made by the composite analysis. With the increase in oceanic frontal strength, the near-surface baroclinicity experiences a slow but strong restoration. The increase in the meridional SST gradient results in the intensification in the cross-frontal differential sensible heat flux, which can more effectively offset the relaxing effect of the transient eddy poleward heat transport.

  18. Tracking Simulation of Third-Integer Resonant Extraction for Fermilab's Mu2e Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chong Shik; Amundson, James; Michelotti, Leo

    2015-02-13

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab requires acceleration and transport of intense proton beams in order to deliver stable, uniform particle spills to the production target. To meet the experimental requirement, particles will be extracted slowly from the Delivery Ring to the external beamline. Using Synergia2, we have performed multi-particle tracking simulations of third-integer resonant extraction in the Delivery Ring, including space charge effects, physical beamline elements, and apertures. A piecewise linear ramp profile of tune quadrupoles was used to maintain a constant averaged spill rate throughout extraction. To study and minimize beam losses, we implemented and introduced a number of features, beamline element apertures, and septum plane alignments. Additionally, the RF Knockout (RFKO) technique, which excites particles transversely, is employed for spill regulation. Combined with a feedback system, it assists in fine-tuning spill uniformity. Simulation studies were carried out to optimize the RFKO feedback scheme, which will be helpful in designing the final spill regulation system.

  19. Improved estimation of anomalous diffusion exponents in single-particle tracking experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepten, Eldad; Bronshtein, Irena; Garini, Yuval

    2013-05-01

    The mean square displacement is a central tool in the analysis of single-particle tracking experiments, shedding light on various biophysical phenomena. Frequently, parameters are extracted by performing time averages on single-particle trajectories followed by ensemble averaging. This procedure, however, suffers from two systematic errors when applied to particles that perform anomalous diffusion. The first is significant at short-time lags and is induced by measurement errors. The second arises from the natural heterogeneity in biophysical systems. We show how to estimate and correct these two errors and improve the estimation of the anomalous parameters for the whole particle distribution. As a consequence, we manage to characterize ensembles of heterogeneous particles even for rather short and noisy measurements where regular time-averaged mean square displacement analysis fails. We apply this method to both simulations and in vivo measurements of telomere diffusion in 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The motion of telomeres is found to be subdiffusive with an average exponent constant in time. Individual telomere exponents are normally distributed around the average exponent. The proposed methodology has the potential to improve experimental accuracy while maintaining lower experimental costs and complexity.

  20. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Lloréns, Roberto; Noé, Enrique; Naranjo, Valery; Borrego, Adrián; Latorre, Jorge; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking) in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm) while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm). However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm), in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm). Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order). Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system. PMID:25808765

  1. Combining computer game-based behavioural experiments with high-density EEG and infrared gaze tracking.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Keith J; Belmonte, Matthew K

    2010-01-01

    Experimental paradigms are valuable insofar as the timing and other parameters of their stimuli are well specified and controlled, and insofar as they yield data relevant to the cognitive processing that occurs under ecologically valid conditions. These two goals often are at odds, since well controlled stimuli often are too repetitive to sustain subjects' motivation. Studies employing electroencephalography (EEG) are often especially sensitive to this dilemma between ecological validity and experimental control: attaining sufficient signal-to-noise in physiological averages demands large numbers of repeated trials within lengthy recording sessions, limiting the subject pool to individuals with the ability and patience to perform a set task over and over again. This constraint severely limits researchers' ability to investigate younger populations as well as clinical populations associated with heightened anxiety or attentional abnormalities. Even adult, non-clinical subjects may not be able to achieve their typical levels of performance or cognitive engagement: an unmotivated subject for whom an experimental task is little more than a chore is not the same, behaviourally, cognitively, or neurally, as a subject who is intrinsically motivated and engaged with the task. A growing body of literature demonstrates that embedding experiments within video games may provide a way between the horns of this dilemma between experimental control and ecological validity. The narrative of a game provides a more realistic context in which tasks occur, enhancing their ecological validity (Chaytor & Schmitter-Edgecombe, 2003). Moreover, this context provides motivation to complete tasks. In our game, subjects perform various missions to collect resources, fend off pirates, intercept communications or facilitate diplomatic relations. In so doing, they also perform an array of cognitive tasks, including a Posner attention-shifting paradigm (Posner, 1980), a go/no-go test of motor

  2. Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Keith J.; Belmonte, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental paradigms are valuable insofar as the timing and other parameters of their stimuli are well specified and controlled, and insofar as they yield data relevant to the cognitive processing that occurs under ecologically valid conditions. These two goals often are at odds, since well controlled stimuli often are too repetitive to sustain subjects' motivation. Studies employing electroencephalography (EEG) are often especially sensitive to this dilemma between ecological validity and experimental control: attaining sufficient signal-to-noise in physiological averages demands large numbers of repeated trials within lengthy recording sessions, limiting the subject pool to individuals with the ability and patience to perform a set task over and over again. This constraint severely limits researchers' ability to investigate younger populations as well as clinical populations associated with heightened anxiety or attentional abnormalities. Even adult, non-clinical subjects may not be able to achieve their typical levels of performance or cognitive engagement: an unmotivated subject for whom an experimental task is little more than a chore is not the same, behaviourally, cognitively, or neurally, as a subject who is intrinsically motivated and engaged with the task. A growing body of literature demonstrates that embedding experiments within video games may provide a way between the horns of this dilemma between experimental control and ecological validity. The narrative of a game provides a more realistic context in which tasks occur, enhancing their ecological validity (Chaytor & Schmitter-Edgecombe, 2003). Moreover, this context provides motivation to complete tasks. In our game, subjects perform various missions to collect resources, fend off pirates, intercept communications or facilitate diplomatic relations. In so doing, they also perform an array of cognitive tasks, including a Posner attention-shifting paradigm (Posner, 1980), a go/no-go test of motor

  3. Prototype studies on the forward MWDC tracking array of the external target experiment at HIRFL-CSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Han; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Zhi-Gang; Cheng, Wen-Jing; Lü, Li-Ming; Yan, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ren-Sheng; Li, Hong-Jie; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Duan, Li-Min; Hu, Rong-Jiang; Lu, Chen-Gui; Yang, He-Run; Ma, Peng

    2014-12-01

    A prototype of the forward tracking array consisting of three multiwire drift chambers (MWDC) for the external target experiment (CEE) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility at the Lanzhou -Cooling Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR) has been assembled and tested using cosmic rays. The signals from the anode wires are amplified and fed to a Flash-ADC to deliver the drift time and charge integration. The performances of the array prototype are investigated under various high voltages. For the tracking performances, after the space-time relation (STR) calibration and the detector displacement correction, the standard deviation of 223 μm of the residue is obtained. The performances of the forward MWDCs tracking array meets the requirements of CEE in design.

  4. Monitoring of firefighters exposure to smoke during fire experiments in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana Isabel; Martins, Vera; Cascão, Pedro; Amorim, Jorge Humberto; Valente, Joana; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos; Tchepel, Oxana; Ferreira, António Jorge; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo; Viegas, Domingos Xavier; Ribeiro, Luís Mário; Pita, Luís Paulo

    2010-10-01

    Forest fires represent a serious threat to public security in Europe due to the large burned area. Moreover, smoke pollution due to forest fire events is an important public health issue for the communities directly affected, and particularly for the personnel involved in firefighting operations. Aiming to contribute to the scientific knowledge concerning firefighters exposure to forest fires smoke, data of individual exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were obtained during experimental field fires for a group of 10 firefighters equipped with portable "in continuum" measuring devices. Measured values are very high exceeding the Occupational Exposure Standard limits, in particular for peak limit thresholds. These are the first measurements and analysis of firefighter's individual exposure to toxic gases and particles in fire smoke experiments in Europe. However, they already indicate that urgent measures to avoid these levels of exposure are needed. PMID:20579737

  5. Tracking at CDF: algorithms and experience from Run I and Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe the tracking algorithms used during Run I and Run II by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, covering the time from about 1992 through the present, and discuss the performance of the algorithms at high luminosity. By tracing the evolution of the detectors and algorithms, they reveal some of the successful strategies used by CDF to address the problems of tracking at high luminosities.

  6. Satellite-to-satellite tracking experiment for global gravity field mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Jekeli, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    The satellite-to-satellite (STS) tracking concept for estimating gravitational parameters offers an attractive means to improve on regional and global gravity models in areas where data availability is limited. The extent to which the STS tracking measurements can be effectively utilized in global field models depends primarily on the satellite's altitude, number of satellites, and their orbit constellation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity field recovery also depends on the measurement accuracy of the sensors employed in the STS tracking concept. A comparison of the obtainable accuracies in the gravity field recovery using various STS tracking concepts was presented by Jekeli. The results of a feasibility study for a specific realization of the STS high-low tracking concept are summarized. In this realization, the high altitude satellites are the GPS satellites, and the low orbit satellite is the space shuttle. The GPS satellite constellation consists of 18 satellites in 6 orbital planes inclined at 55 deg. The shuttle orbit is at approximately 300 km, with an inclination of 30 deg. This specific configuration of high-low satellites for measuring perturbation in the gravity field is named the Air Foce STAGE (Shuttle GPS Tracking for Anomalous Gravitation Estimation) mission. The STAGE mission objective is to estimate the perturbations in gravity vector at the shuttle altitude to an accuracy of 1 mgal or better. Recent simulation studies have confirmed that the 1 mgal accuracy objective is near optimum for the STAGE mission.

  7. An evaluation of atmospheric path delay correction in differential VLBI experiments for spacecraft tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, R.; Sekido, M.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2005-12-01

    We performed differential VLBI (Δ VLBI) experiments for tracking of the interplanetary spacecraft. Our main goal is to obtain the precise and quasi-realtime navigation technique of the spacecraft using Δ VLBI technique. With VLBI time delay measurements, differenced between the spacecraft and angularly nearby quasars to cancel common measurement errors such as the propagation delays due to the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere. However, we can't always observe desirable quasars. Unfortunately, sometimes we have no choice but to use quasars which are angularly far from the spacecraft. Then, we tried to evaluate the reduction effect by subtracting the group delays of the reference radio source from those of the spacecraft. Two HAYABUSA Δ VLBI experiments were carried out in order to evaluate reducing propagation delays on October, 2004. The spacecraft HAYABUSA has been flying steadily towards an asteroid named ``Itokawa'' and it will orbit the asteroid as of September 2005, land on it, and bring back a sample from its surface. The HAYABUSA spacecraft and an angularly nearby quasar ``2126-158'' were observed sequentially, not simultaneously, during each period with various time intervals of data acquisition. The maximum angular separations of the spacecraft from the quasar are less than 3 degrees. We estimated the zenith path delay due to the water vapor (ZWD: Zenith Wet Delay) using the data sets of the GPS stations which are adjacent to each VLBI antenna. A principle observable feature of VLBI is the difference in arrival times of radio signals between two stations. Then, we calculated difference between the slant path delays which are values as a ZWDs at each station multiplied by a mapping function. We defined this ``differential wet delay''. If the angular separation is sufficiently small, the differential wet delays for both radio sources are almost equal. Then, these are canceled out by the difference procedure. However, if these are different, the

  8. Exposure to smoking imagery in the movies and experimenting with cigarettes among Mexican heritage youth.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Spitz, Margaret R; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Bondy, Melissa L; Shete, Sanjay; Sargent, James D

    2009-12-01

    There is growing evidence that an adolescent's decision to try cigarettes is influenced by level of exposure to movies in which smoking is portrayed. Less is known about how ethnicity affects this process. We examined whether acculturation and/or country of birth influence the relationship between exposure to smoking imagery in the movies and experimenting with cigarettes among Mexican origin youth. We prospectively followed 1,328 Mexican origin adolescents ages 11 to 13 years at baseline. We assessed which of 50 movies (randomly selected from a pool of 250 popular contemporary movies released from 1999 to 2004 and content analyzed for smoking) adolescents had seen. Smoking behavior was assessed at baseline and at 6-month intervals over 24 months. Ten percent of the adolescents had experimented at baseline; 17% tried subsequently. Multivariate analyses revealed, as exposure to smoking imagery in the movies increased, the chances of having ever experimented [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.48] and of being a new experimenter (AOR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.40) increased, equivalent to a 4.2% increased risk of ever and a 3.0% increased risk of new experimenting for each additional quartile of movie exposure. This effect was moderated by country of birth. For Mexican-born youth, exposure to smoking imagery in the movies was the strongest independent predictor of new experimentation (AOR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.14-2.05). For U.S.-born youth, we observed a ceiling effect: the percent of experimenters increased with increasing exposure, and then flattened. Among Mexican-born youth, exposure to smoking imagery in the movies may be an important part of the acculturation process associated with smoking initiation. PMID:19959693

  9. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in the Movies and Experimenting with Cigarettes among Mexican Heritage Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Spitz, Margaret R.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Shete, Sanjay; Sargent, James D

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that an adolescent’s decision to try cigarettes is influenced by level of exposure to movies in which smoking is portrayed. Less is known about how ethnicity affects this process. We examined whether acculturation and/or country of birth influence the relationship between exposure to smoking imagery in the movies and experimenting with cigarettes among Mexican origin youth. We prospectively followed 1,328 Mexican origin adolescents aged 11–13 at baseline. We assessed which of 50 movies (randomly selected from a pool of 250 popular contemporary movies released from 1999–2004 and content analyzed for smoking) adolescents had seen. Smoking behavior was assessed at baseline and at 6-month intervals over 24 months. 10% of the adolescents had experimented at baseline; 17% tried subsequently. Multivariate analyses revealed, as exposure to smoking imagery in the movies increased, the chances of having ever experimented (AOR=1.27; 95% CI: 1.10–1.48) and of being a new experimenter (AOR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.01–1.40) increased, equivalent to a 4.2% increased risk of ever and a 3.0% increased risk of new experimenting for each additional quartile of movie exposure. This effect was moderated by country of birth. For Mexican-born youth, exposure to smoking imagery in the movies was the strongest independent predictor of new experimentation (AOR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.14–2.05). For US-born youth, we observed a ceiling effect: the percent of experimenters increased with increasing exposure, and then flattened. Among Mexican-born youth exposure to smoking imagery in the movies may be an important part of the acculturation process associated with smoking initiation. PMID:19959693

  10. The Subjective Evaluation Experiments on an Automatic Video Editing System Using Vision-based Head Tracking for Multiparty Conversations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemae, Yoshinao; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Junji; Ozawa, Shinji

    This paper presents experiments conducted to evaluate an automatic video editing system, founded on vision-based head tracking, that clearly conveys face-to-face multiparty conversations, such as meetings, to viewers. Systems that archive meetings and teleconferences to effectively facilitate human communication are attracting considerable interest. Conventional systems use a fixed-viewpoint camera and simple camera selection based on participants' utterances. Unfortunately, they fail to adequately convey who is talking to whom and nonverbal information about participants etc., to viewers. To solve this problem, we previously proposed an automatic video editing system using vision-based head tracking. This paper describes subjective evaluation experiments in which videos of entire conversations with 3 participants were presented to viewers; the results confirm the effectiveness of our system.

  11. Tracking and imaging gamma-ray experiment (TIGRE) for 300-keV to 100-MeV gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Bhattacharya, Dipen; Blair, Scott C.; Case, Gary; Dixon, David D.; Liu, Chia-Ling; O'Neill, Terrence J.; White, R. Stephen; Zych, Allen D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment (TIGRE) uses multilayers of silicon strip detectors both as a gamma-ray converter and to track Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. The silicon strip detectors also measure the energy losses of these particles. For Compton events, the direction and energy of the Compton scattered gamma ray are measured with arrays of small CsI(TI)-photodiode detectors so that an unique direction and energy can be found for each incident gamma ray. The incident photon direction for pair events is found from the initial pair particle directions. TIGRE is the first Compton telescope with a direct imaging capability. With a large (pi) -steradian field-of-view, it is sensitive to gamma rays from 0.3 to 100 MeV with a typical energy resolution of 3% (FWHM) and a 1-(sigma) angular resolution of 40 arc-minutes at 2 MeV. A small balloon prototype instrument is being constructed that has a high absolute detection efficiency of 8% over the full energy range and a sensitivity of 10 milliCrabs for an exposure of 500,000 s. TIGRE's innovative design also uses the polarization dependence of the Klein-Nishina formula for gamma-ray source polarization measurements. The telescope will be described in detail and new results from measurements at 0.5 MeV and Monte Carlo calculations from 1 to 100 MeV will be presented.

  12. Implementation of the fast track surgery in patients undergoing the colonic resection: own experience.

    PubMed

    Morończyk, Daniel Antoni F; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    A perioperative care in the colorectal surgery has been considerably changed recently. The fast track surgery decreases complications rate, shortens length of stay, improves quality of life and leads to cost reduction. It is achieved by: resignation of a mechanical bowel preparation before and a nasogastric tube insertion after operation, optimal pain and intravenous fluid management, an early rehabilitation, enteral nutrition and removal of a vesical catheter and abdominal drain if used.The aim of the study was to compare the results of an implementation the fast track surgery protocol with results achieving in the conventional care regimen.Material and methods. Two groups of patients undergoing colonic resection have been compared. The study group was formed by patients treated with fast track concept, the control group - by patients who were dealt with hitherto regimen. Procedures needed stoma performing, rectal and laparoscopic surgery were excluded. The perioperative period was investigated by telephone call to patient or his family.Results. Statistical significant reduction was reached in a favour of the fast track group in the following parameters: the length of hospital stay (2.5 days shorter), duration of an abdominal cavity and vesicle drainage (3 and 2 days shorter respectively), postoperative day on which oral diet was implemented (2,5 days faster) and finally extended (1.5 days faster). There were no statistical difference in mortality, morbidity neither reoperation rate between two groups.Conclusion. The fast track surgery is a safe strategy and may improve a perioperative care. PMID:22166736

  13. Development of exposure to combat severity scale of the combat experiences questionnaire (CEQ).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cunha, Marina; da Motta, Carolina

    2014-12-01

    Combat exposure is detrimental to physical and mental health, and is an important risk factor for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The current study aimed to develop the first section of a self-report measure (Combat Experiences Questionnaire - CEQ), and to explore its psychometric properties on Portuguese Overseas War Veterans. The Exposure to Combat Severity Scale (CEQ A), assesses the exposure severity to objective scenarios related to military combat, common to contemporary and older theaters of operations. Studies included structural analysis through Rash Model, internal consistency, convergent validity (n=708), temporal reliability (n=112) and sensibility to differentiate war Veterans with and without war-related PTSD (N=40 and N=47, respectively). The scale's structure presented adequate fit to the data, adequate psychometric properties, and discriminant validity. Thus, the CEQ A is a valid and reliable tool presenting diverse combat scenarios to assess severity of combat exposure in war Veterans. PMID:25445084

  14. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abgrall, N.

    2015-01-16

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation.more » In summary, a web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.« less

  15. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.

    2015-01-16

    The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. In summary, a web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  16. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J. Diaz; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O`Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provide a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  17. Distributed, collaborative human-robotic networks for outdoor experiments in search, identify and track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daniel; McClelland, Mark; Schneider, Joseph; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Gallagher, Dan; Wang, John; Shah, Danelle; Ahmed, Nisar; Moran, Pete; Jones, Brandon; Leung, Tung-Sing; Nathan, Aaron; Kress-Gazit, Hadas; Campbell, Mark

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of a human-robotic system under development at Cornell which is capable of mapping an unknown environment, as well as discovering, tracking, and neutralizing several static and dynamic objects of interest. In addition, the robots can coordinate their individual tasks with one another without overly burdening a human operator. The testbed utilizes the Segway RMP platform, with lidar, vision, IMU and GPS sensors. The software draws from autonomous systems research, specifically in the areas of pose estimation, target detection and tracking, motion and behavioral planning, and human robot interaction. This paper also details experimental scenarios of mapping, tracking, and neutralization presented by way of pictures, data, and movies.

  18. Development and tests of an anode readout TPC with high track separability for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Foley, K.J.; Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Chan, C.; Kramer, M.A.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.

    1988-07-18

    We have developed, constructed and tested an anode readout TPC with high track separability which is suitable for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments. The readout via rows of short anode wires parallel to the beam has been found in tests to allow two-track separability of approx.2-3 mm. The efficiency of track reconstruction for events from a target, detected inside the MPS 5 KG magnet, is estimated to be >90% for events made by incident protons and pions. 15 GeV/c x A Si ion beams at a rate of approx.25 K per AGS pulse were permitted to course through the chamber and did not lead to any problems. When the gain was reduced to simulate the total output of a minimum ionizing particle, many Si ion tracks were also detected simultaneously with high efficiency. The resolution along the drift direction (parallel to the MPS magnetic field and perpendicular to the beam direction) was <1 mm and the resolution along the other direction /perpendicular/ to the beam direction was <1 mm also. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. BRANCH CHAMBER SYSTEM AND TECHNIQUES FOR SIMULTANEOUS POLLUTANT EXPOSURE EXPERIMENTS AND GASEOUS FLUX DETERMINATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe an experimental system and techniques for use in simultaneous pollutant exposure experiments and gaseous flux determinations. he system uses flexible Teflon bag-like chambers to enclose entire individual branches of young trees. ive gaseous fluxes (CO2, H2O, SO2, O3, ...

  20. Development of workflow planning software and a tracking study of the decay B+- --> J / Psi at the D0 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, David Edward

    2003-09-01

    A description of the development of the mc{_}runjob software package used to manage large scale computing tasks for the D0 Experiment at Fermilab is presented, along with a review of the Digital Front End Trigger electronics and the software used to control them. A tracking study is performed on detector data to determine that the D0 Experiment can detect charged B mesons, and that these results are in accordance with current results. B mesons are found by searching for the decay channel B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}.

  1. Multiple lesion track structure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1992-01-01

    A multilesion cell kinetic model is derived, and radiation kinetic coefficients are related to the Katz track structure model. The repair-related coefficients are determined from the delayed plating experiments of Yang et al. for the C3H10T1/2 cell system. The model agrees well with the x ray and heavy ion experiments of Yang et al. for the immediate plating, delaying plating, and fractionated exposure protocols employed by Yang. A study is made of the effects of target fragments in energetic proton exposures and of the repair-deficient target-fragment-induced lesions.

  2. Designing Tracking Software for Image-Guided Surgery Applications: IGSTK Experience

    PubMed Central

    Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gobbi, David; Turek, Matt; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Lindseth, Frank; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many image-guided surgery applications require tracking devices as part of their core functionality. The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) was designed and developed to interface tracking devices with software applications incorporating medical images. Methods IGSTK was designed as an open source C++ library that provides the basic components needed for fast prototyping and development of image-guided surgery applications. This library follows a component-based architecture with several components designed for specific sets of image-guided surgery functions. At the core of the toolkit is the tracker component that handles communication between a control computer and navigation device to gather pose measurements of surgical instruments present in the surgical scene. The representations of the tracked instruments are superimposed on anatomical images to provide visual feedback to the clinician during surgical procedures. Results The initial version of the IGSTK toolkit has been released in the public domain and several trackers are supported. The toolkit and related information are available at www.igstk.org. Conclusion With the increased popularity of minimally invasive procedures in health care, several tracking devices have been developed for medical applications. Designing and implementing high-quality and safe software to handle these different types of trackers in a common framework is a challenging task. It requires establishing key software design principles that emphasize abstraction, extensibility, reusability, fault-tolerance, and portability. IGSTK is an open source library that satisfies these needs for the image-guided surgery community. PMID:20037671

  3. TRACKING CHANGES IN WETLANDS WITH URBANIZATION: SIXTEEN YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN PORTLAND, OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term studies of the wetland resource in urbanizing areas are essential to understanding the effects of urbanization on wetlands and the effectiveness of management actions. Using data from the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) in combination with field surveys, we tracked ch...

  4. Comparison of Properties of Solid Lubricant Between Two Exposure Experiments Aboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Suzuki, Mineo; Kimoto, Yugo

    To evaluate the degradation of materials in low Earth orbit space environment, the Space Environment Exposure Device (SEED) experiments were carried out on the International Space Station. As part of these experiments, changes in the tribological properties of a molybdenum disulfide bonded film that is used as a solid lubricant, were evaluated. The results of friction tests in a vacuum and surface analysis by XPS were compared between two exposure experiments aboard the Service Module (SM) and the Japan Experimental Module (JEM). The investigations revealed silicon and fluorine contaminations in the JEM/SEED flight sample, but with a lower amount of silicon contamination than the SM/SEED flight sample. The JEM/SEED flight sample and ground-based tested samples showed lower friction coefficients than a reference sample at the beginning of the tests. The friction behavior of the JEM/SEED flight sample was similar to those of SM/SEED flight samples.

  5. A generalized approach to the thermal analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility's flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampair, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    The generalized method employed in the thermal analysis of a Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight experiment is presented. The method consists of thermal math model development, defining the orbital heating rates, and applying the appropriate temperature boundary conditions. This approach has proven to be an accurate method for predicting experiment component temperatures for the worst case orbital environments and calculating daily average component temperatures for any part or all time portions of the 5.8 year mission. The application of this method to the thermal analysis of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei experiment (UHCRE) is presented as an example of this approach.

  6. The Use of GIS and Remotely Sensed Data in Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT): The HELIX-Atlanta Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Watts, Carol; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Qualters, Judith R.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project in collaboration with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of metropolitan Atlanta, GA. Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects are being conducted to develop methods to characterize exposure; link health and environmental data; analyze the relationship between health and environmental factors; and communicate findings. There is evidence in the research literature that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to environmental factors, including PM(sub 2.5). Thus, HELIX-Atlanta is focusing on methods for characterizing population exposure to PM(sub 2.5) for the Atlanta metropolitan area that could be used in ongoing surveillance. NASA/MSFC is working with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5)) concentrations in a Geographic Information System (GIS) that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma on the aggregated grid level as well as the individual level at the geographic locations of the patients' residences.

  7. Application of multiple exposure digital in-line holography to particle tracking in a Bénard von Kármán vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, N.; Godard, G.; Lebrun, D.; Paranthoën, P.; Allano, D.; Coëtmellec, S.

    2008-07-01

    Digital in-line holography is applied to studying the trajectories of individual water droplets in airflow. In order to track the particles, multiple exposure holography is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 635 nm and a lens-less CCD camera. This method leads to an accuracy better than 100 µm on the axial location. A study of the signal-to-noise ratio of such holograms shows that the number of exposures must be limited. Preliminary tests of this method are carried out in a Bénard-von Kármán street first characterized by laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. An example of a trajectory of a water droplet obtained in this flow at Reynolds number Re = 63 and Strouhal number St = 0.13 shows that digital holography is a promising method to extract the trajectories of droplets in laminar or turbulent flows.

  8. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia; Schipperijn, Jasper; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of ∼48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions of the day the subjects spent in each microenvironment. The home environment accounted for 50% of the daily personal exposure. Indoor environments other than home or vehicles contributed with ∼40%. The highest median UFP concentration was obtained during passive transport (vehicles). However, being in transit or outdoors contributed 5% or less to the daily exposure. Additionally, the subjects recorded in a diary the periods when they were at home. With this approach, 66% of the total daily exposure was attributable to the home environment. The subjects spent 28% more time at home according to the diary, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data.

  9. Large eddy simulation of ship tracks in the collapsed marine boundary layer: a case study from the Monterey area ship track experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A. H.; Bretherton, C. S.; Wood, R.

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, a large eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a bulk aerosol scheme is used to simulate an aircraft-sampled ship track. The track was formed by the M/V Sanko Peace on 13 June 1994 in a shallow drizzling boundary layer with high winds but very low background aerosol concentrations (10 cm-3). A Lagrangian framework is used to simulate the evolution of a short segment of track as it is advected away from the ship for 8 h (a downwind distance exceeding 570 km). Using aircraft observations for initialization, good agreement is obtained between the simulated and observed features of the ambient boundary layer outside the track, including the organization of the cloud into mesoscale rolls. After 8 h, a line of aerosol is injected to start the ship track. The simulation successfully reproduces the significant albedo enhancement and suppression of drizzle observed within the track. The aerosol concentration within the track dilutes as it broadens due to turbulent mixing. A sensitivity study shows the broadening rate strongly depends on the alignment between the track and the wind-aligned boundary layer rolls, as satellite images of ship tracks suggest. Entrainment is enhanced within the simulated track, but the observed 100 m elevation of the ship track above the surrounding layer is not simulated, possibly because the LES quickly sharpens the rather weak observed inversion. Liquid water path within the simulated track increases with time even as the ambient liquid water path is decreasing. The albedo increase in the track from liquid water and cloud fraction enhancement (second indirect effect) eventually exceeds that from cloud droplet number increases (first indirect or Twomey effect). In a sensitivity study with a higher initial ambient aerosol concentration, stronger ship track aerosol source, and much weaker drizzle, there is less liquid water inside the track than outside for several hours downwind, consistent with satellite estimates for such

  10. Large-eddy simulation of ship tracks in the collapsed marine boundary layer: a case study from the Monterey Area Ship Track experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A. H.; Bretherton, C. S.; Wood, R.

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, a large-eddy simulation (LES) coupled to a bulk aerosol scheme is used to simulate an aircraft-sampled ship track. The track was formed by the M/V Sanko Peace on 13 June 1994 in a shallow drizzling boundary layer with high winds but very low background aerosol concentrations (10 cm-3). A Lagrangian framework is used to simulate the evolution of a short segment of track as it is advected away from the ship for eight hours (a downwind distance exceeding 570 km). Using aircraft observations for initialization, good agreement is obtained between the simulated and observed features of the ambient boundary layer outside the track, including the organization of cloud into mesoscale rolls. After eight hours, a line of aerosol is injected to start the ship track. The simulation successfully reproduces the significant albedo enhancement and suppression of drizzle observed within the track. The aerosol concentration within the track dilutes as it broadens due to turbulent mixing. A sensitivity study shows the broadening rate strongly depends on the alignment between the track and the wind-aligned boundary layer rolls, as satellite images of ship tracks suggest. Entrainment is enhanced within the simulated track, but the observed 100 m elevation of the ship track above the surrounding layer is not simulated, possibly because the LES quickly sharpens the rather weak observed inversion. Liquid water path within the simulated track increases with time even as the ambient liquid water path is decreasing. The albedo increase in the track from liquid water and cloud fraction enhancement (second indirect effect) eventually exceeds that from cloud droplet number increases (first indirect or Twomey effect). In a sensitivity study with a higher initial ambient aerosol concentration, stronger ship track aerosol source, and much weaker drizzle, there is less liquid water inside the track than outside for several hours downwind, consistent with satellite estimates for

  11. Early experience with a highly mobile Lageos ranging system. [satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.; Dittmar, D.; Eanes, R.; Ricklefs, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Two portions of the University of Texas Transportable Laser Ranging System (TLRS) are presented: the beam director and the burst mode single photon laser ranging system. The system, optimized for the Lageos target, has satellite track rates varying from approximately 1800 arcsec per sec on low targets to a few arcsec per sec on the highest. Using full aperture, approximately 3 millijoules of laser power per shot can be transmitted without exceeding the eye damage threshold, and a beam divergence of less than 30 arcsec is dictated by these parameters. Position loop response is optimized, and the instrument is capable of tracking the satellite from nearly any firm, flat position. The laser ranging system uses a multiple pulse laser, and power restrictions result in an average return of less than one photoelectron per shot. The use of a simple laser for ranging has virtually eliminated the high percentage of down time.

  12. The Vega balloon experiment - Initial results from the global radio tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Finley, S. G.; Stelzried, C. T.; Ellis, J.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Matveenko, L. I.; Linkin, V. M.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    A unique global array of 20 radio telescopes provided 24-h telemetry acquisition of meteorological data from the Vega balloons and differential VLBI measurements of their trajectories. Initial Doppler-tracking analysis indicates mean zonal wind velocities of 69 + or - 1 and 66 + or - 1 m/sec at the Vega 1 and Vega 2 float heights, and discloses an anomaly in the Vega 2 trajectory above the mountains in Aphrodite Terra.

  13. Controlled Sonar Exposure Experiments on Cetaceans in Norwegian Waters: Overview of the 3S-Project.

    PubMed

    Lam, Frans-Peter A; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A; Curé, Charlotte; Kleivane, Lars; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; van Ijsselmuide, Sander P; Visser, Fleur; von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Dekeling, René P A

    2016-01-01

    In mitigating the risk of sonar operations, the behavioral response of cetaceans is one of the major knowledge gaps that needs to be addressed. The 3S-Project has conducted a number of controlled exposure experiments with a realistic sonar source in Norwegian waters from 2006 to 2013. In total, the following six target species have been studied: killer, long-finned pilot, sperm, humpback, minke, and northern bottlenose whales. A total of 38 controlled sonar exposures have been conducted on these species. Responses from controlled and repeated exposure runs have been recorded using acoustic and visual observations as well as with electronic tags on the target animal. So far, the first dose-response curves as well as an overview of the scored severity of responses have been revealed. In this paper, an overview is presented of the approach for the study, including the results so far as well as the current status of the ongoing analysis. PMID:26611008

  14. Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Experience Reduced Control of Isotonic Force

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tanya T.; Levy, Susan S.; Riley, Edward P.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Simmons, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can result in diverse and extensive damage to the central nervous system, including the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. Given that these brain regions are involved in the generation and maintenance of motor force, we predicted that prenatal alcohol exposure would adversely affect this parameter of motor control. We previously reported that children with gestational alcohol exposure experience significant deficits in regulating isometric (i.e., constant) force. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these children exhibit similar deficits when producing isotonic (i.e., graded) force. Methods Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and typically developing children completed a series of isotonic force contractions by exerting force on a load cell to match a criterion target force displayed on a computer monitor. Two levels of target force (5% or 20% of maximum voluntary force) were investigated in combination with varying levels of visual feedback. Results Compared to controls, children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure generated isotonic force signals that were less accurate, more variable, and less complex in the time domain compared to control children. Specifically, interactions were found between group and visual feedback for response accuracy and signal complexity, suggesting that these children have greater difficulty altering their motor output when visual feedback is low. Conclusions These data suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure produces deficits in regulating isotonic force, which presumably result from alcohol-related damage to developing brain regions involved in motor control. These children will most likely experience difficulty performing basic motor skills and daily functional skills that require coordination of finely graded force. Therapeutic strategies designed to increase feedback and, consequently, facilitate visual-motor integration could improve isotonic force

  15. The Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Particles for the Induction of Chromosome Damage: Track Structure Effects and Cytogenetic Signatures of High-LET Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Hada, M.; Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Track structure models predict that at a fixed value of LET, particles with lower charge number, Z will have a higher biological effectiveness compared to particles with a higher Z. In this report we investigated how track structure effects induction of chromosomal aberration in human cells. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with various energies of accelerated iron, silicon, neon, or titanium ions and chromosome damage was assessed in using three color FISH chromosome painting in chemically induced PCC samples collected a first cell division post irradiation. The LET values for these ions ranged from 30 to 195 keV/micrometers. Of the particles studied, Neon ions have the highest biological effectiveness for induction of total chromosome damage, which is consistent with track structure model predictions. For complex-type exchanges 64 MeV/ u Neon and 450 MeV/u Iron were equally effective and induced the most complex damage. In addition we present data on chromosomes exchanges induced by six different energies of protons (5 MeV/u to 2.5 GeV/u). The linear dose response term was similar for all energies of protons suggesting that the effect of the higher LET at low proton energies is balanced by the production of nuclear secondaries from the high energy protons. All energies of protons have a much higher percentage of complex-type chromosome exchanges than gamma rays, signifying a cytogenetic signature for proton exposures.

  16. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Skjetne, Erik; Kobernus, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  17. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  18. A proposed Drift Tubes-seeded muon track trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, N.; Lazzizzera, I.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.

    2016-07-01

    The LHC program at 13 and 14 TeV, after the observation of the candidate SM Higgs boson, will help clarify future subjects of study and shape the needed tools. Any upgrade of the LHC experiments for unprecedented luminosities, such as the High Luminosity-LHC ones, must then maintain the acceptance on electroweak processes that can lead to a detailed study of the properties of the candidate Higgs boson. The acceptance of the key lepton, photon and hadron triggers should be kept such that the overall physics acceptance, in particular for low-mass scale processes, can be the same as the one the experiments featured in 2012. In such a scenario, a new approach to early trigger implementation is needed. One of the major steps will be the inclusion of high-granularity tracking sub-detectors, such as the CMS Silicon Tracker, in taking the early trigger decision. This contribution can be crucial in several tasks, including the confirmation of triggers in other subsystems, and the improvement of the on-line momentum measurement resolution. A muon track-trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC is presented. A back-extrapolation of Drift Tubes trigger primitives is proposed to match tracks found at Level 1 with muon candidates. The main figures-of-merit are presented, featuring sharp thresholds and less contamination from lower momentum muons, and an expected rate reduction of a factor of 5-10 at typical thresholds with respect to the muon trigger configuration used in 2012.

  19. Radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and other mining experience in the beaverlodge uranium miners cohort

    SciTech Connect

    L'Abbe, K.A.; Howe, G.R.; Burch, J.D.; Miller, A.B.; Abbatt, J.; Band, P.; Choi, W.; Du, J.; Feather, J.; Gallagher, R. )

    1991-04-01

    A nested case-control study within the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort was undertaken to assess any possible contribution of confounding by smoking and other mining experience to the risk estimate derived from the original cohort study. Next of kin have been interviewed for 46 lung cancer cases and 95 controls enrolled in the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort Study who died between 1950 and 1980. Confounding by cigarette smoking and other mining experience appears unlikely to have contributed to the relative risk coefficient for exposure to Rn decay products derived in the parent study. Data for smoking and exposure to Rn decay products are consistent with a multiplicative model, although considerable caution must be applied to this interpretation.

  20. MISTRAL & ASTRAL: two CMOS Pixel Sensor architectures suited to the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Bertolone, G.; Claus, G.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Dozière, G.; Dulinski, W.; Fang, X.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Senyukov, S.; Specht, M.; Szelezniak, M.; Pham, H.; Valin, I.; Wang, T.; Winter, M.

    2014-01-01

    A detector, equipped with 50 μm thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS), is being designed for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment at LHC. Two CPS flavours, MISTRAL and ASTRAL, are being developed at IPHC aiming to meet the requirements of the ITS upgrade. The first is derived from the MIMOSA28 sensor designed for the STAR-PXL detector. The second integrates a discriminator in each pixel to improve the readout speed and power consumption. This paper will describe in details the sensor development and show some preliminary test results.

  1. The survival of micro-organisms in space. Further rocket and balloon-borne exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Markusen, A; Hemenway, C

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the results of survival studies of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed directly to the space environment on two balloons and in two rocket flights. The work is part of a program to develop techniques for the collection of micro-organisms in the size range of micrometeorite particles in space or non-terrestrial atmospheres, and their return to earth in a viable state for further study. Previous survival studies were reported (J. Hotchin, P. Lorenz and C. Hemenway, Nature 206 (1965) 442) in which a few relatively large area samples of micro-organisms were exposed on millipore filter cemented to aluminum plates. In the present series of experiments, newly developed techniques have resulted in a 25-fold miniaturization resulting in a corresponding increase in the number of experiments performed. This has enabled a statistical evaluation of the results to be made. A total of 756 separate exposure units (each approximately 5 x 5 mm in size) were flown in four experiments, and organisms used were coliphage T1, penicillium roqueforti (THOM) mold spores, poliovirus type I (Pfizer attenuated Sabin vaccine strain), and bacillus subtilis spores. The organisms were deposited either by spraying directly upon the vinyl-coated metal units, or by droplet seeding into shallow depressions in the millipore filter membrane-coated units. Groups of units were prepared comprising fully exposed, inverted (screened by 2 mm of Al), and filter-protected organisms. All of these were included in the flight set, the back up set, and a laboratory control set. The altitude of the exposures varied from 35 km in the balloon experiments to 150 km in the rocket experiments. Times of exposures at altitude were approximately 6 hours for the balloon flights and about 3 minutes for the rocket experiments. PMID:11973839

  2. Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5). [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnemason, Francis

    1992-01-01

    The AO 138-5 experiment has been designed, via the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar radiation. Samples were rules and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and has been protected against atomic oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling has been evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The analysis has been focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure has damaged the coating reflectivity in the ultraviolet region, the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

  3. Exposure of Polymer Film Thermal Control Materials on the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Miller, Sharon; Messer, Russell; Sechkar, Edward; Tollis, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Seventy-nine samples of polymer film thermal control (PFTC) materials have been provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) for exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). MISSE is a materials flight experiment sponsored by the Air Force Research Lab/Materials Lab and NASA. This paper will describe background, objectives, and configurations for the GRC PFTC samples for MISSE. These samples include polyimides, fluorinated polyimides, and Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) with and without second-surface metallizing layers and/or surface coatings. Also included are polyphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO) and a polyarylene ether benzimidazole (TOR-LM). On August 16, 2001, astronauts installed passive experiment carriers (PECs) on the exterior of the ISS in which were located twenty-eight of the GRC PFTC samples for 1-year space exposure. MISSE PECs for 3-year exposure, which will contain fifty-one GRC PFTC samples, will be installed on the ISS at a later date. Once returned from the ISS, MISSE GRC PFTC samples will be examined for changes in optical and mechanical properties and atomic oxygen (AO) erosion. Additional sapphire witness samples located on the AO exposed trays will be examined for deposition of contaminants.

  4. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    An overview of a self contained Direct Energy Transfer (DET) Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) Experiment. A brief synopsis of the flight characteristics of the power system are presented to illustrate the system's capability to function successfully in a low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment. The successful space flight operations of the battery, solar arrays, and power system electronics during the flight period of almost six years (approximately 32,000 LEO cycles) are discussed.

  5. The effects of repeated exposure to graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages: A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Arie; Bos, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarette packages. In this field-experiment, 118 smokers were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions with either graphic fear appeals or textual warnings on their cigarette packages. During 3 weeks, fear and disgust were assessed 6 times. The intention to quit smoking after 3 weeks and quitting activity during the 3 weeks were the dependent measures. The effects of 3 pretest individual difference moderators were tested: disengagement beliefs, number of cigarettes smoked a day, and readiness to quit. Three weeks of exposure to the graphic fear appeals led to a stronger intention to quit, but only when smokers scored low on disengagement beliefs, or were heavier smokers. In addition, smokers low in disengagement more often reported to have cut down on smoking in the graphic condition. There were no indications of habituation of fear and disgust over the 3 weeks. The effects of graphic fear appeals depended on smokers' characteristics: The moderators may explain the mixed findings in the literature. The lack of habituation may be caused by the renewal of the graphics every few days. The used field-experimental design with natural repeated exposure to graphics is promising. PMID:25621418

  6. Tracking skill of a deaf person with long-term tactile aid experience: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cholewiak, R W; Sherrick, C E

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes a case study of a single deaf individual who has been using a vibrotactile aid for approximately 13 years. He has acquired the ability to lip-read speakers in three languages, using the speech-analyzing device that he and his collaborators have developed. The report describes his communicative abilities with and without the aid in his native language, which is Russian, and in English and Hebrew. When he was tested with the De Filippo-Scott connected-discourse tracking technique, the aid produced a considerable improvement in performance over that for unaided lipreading. The amount of improvement was a function of several factors, in particular his unaided lipreading rates for the different languages. PMID:3723423

  7. Guidelines for the fitting of anomalous diffusion mean square displacement graphs from single particle tracking experiments.

    PubMed

    Kepten, Eldad; Weron, Aleksander; Sikora, Grzegorz; Burnecki, Krzysztof; Garini, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Single particle tracking is an essential tool in the study of complex systems and biophysics and it is commonly analyzed by the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) of the diffusive trajectories. However, past work has shown that MSDs are susceptible to significant errors and biases, preventing the comparison and assessment of experimental studies. Here, we attempt to extract practical guidelines for the estimation of anomalous time averaged MSDs through the simulation of multiple scenarios with fractional Brownian motion as a representative of a large class of fractional ergodic processes. We extract the precision and accuracy of the fitted MSD for various anomalous exponents and measurement errors with respect to measurement length and maximum time lags. Based on the calculated precision maps, we present guidelines to improve accuracy in single particle studies. Importantly, we find that in some experimental conditions, the time averaged MSD should not be used as an estimator. PMID:25680069

  8. Guidelines for the Fitting of Anomalous Diffusion Mean Square Displacement Graphs from Single Particle Tracking Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kepten, Eldad; Weron, Aleksander; Sikora, Grzegorz; Burnecki, Krzysztof; Garini, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Single particle tracking is an essential tool in the study of complex systems and biophysics and it is commonly analyzed by the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) of the diffusive trajectories. However, past work has shown that MSDs are susceptible to significant errors and biases, preventing the comparison and assessment of experimental studies. Here, we attempt to extract practical guidelines for the estimation of anomalous time averaged MSDs through the simulation of multiple scenarios with fractional Brownian motion as a representative of a large class of fractional ergodic processes. We extract the precision and accuracy of the fitted MSD for various anomalous exponents and measurement errors with respect to measurement length and maximum time lags. Based on the calculated precision maps, we present guidelines to improve accuracy in single particle studies. Importantly, we find that in some experimental conditions, the time averaged MSD should not be used as an estimator. PMID:25680069

  9. Expert and Novice Approaches to Using Graphs: Evidence from Eye-Track Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, K. R.; Lindgren, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Professionals and students in geology use an array of graphs to study the earth, but relatively little detail is known about how users interact with these graphs. Comprehension of graphical information in the earth sciences is further complicated by the common use of non-traditional formats (e.g., inverted axes, logarithmic scales, normalized plots, ternary diagrams). Many educators consider graph-reading skills an important outcome of general education science curricula, so it is critical that we understand both the development of graph-reading skills and the instructional practices that are most efficacious. Eye-tracking instruments provide quantitative information about eye movements and offer important insights into the development of expertise in graph use. We measured the graph reading skills and eye movements of novices (students with a variety of majors and educational attainment) and experts (faculty and staff from a variety of disciplines) while observing traditional and non-traditional graph formats. Individuals in the expert group consistently demonstrated significantly greater accuracy in responding to questions (e.g., retrieval, interpretation, prediction) about graphs. Among novices, only the number of college math and science courses correlated with response accuracy. Interestingly, novices and experts exhibited similar eye-tracks when they first encountered a new graph; they typically scanned through the title, x and y-axes, and data regions in the first 5-15 seconds. However, experts are readily distinguished from novices by a greater number of eye movements (20-35%) between the data and other graph elements (e.g., title, x-axis, y-axis) both during and after the initial orientation phase. We attribute the greater eye movements between the different graph elements an outcome of the generally better-developed self-regulation skills (goal-setting, monitoring, self-evaluation) that likely characterize individuals in our expert group.

  10. Energy Tracking in Classrooms - A Real Time Experiment with Grade 5 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, H. M.; Ho, F.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a K-G12 school in Hong Kong with over 1500 students and currently spanning 3 buildings, is retrofitting the school with an energy tracking system in three phases. The first phase during the fall of 2015 will include retrofitting eight Grade 5 classrooms. This new program will show the daily energy usage data from these classrooms. The Grade 5 students receive feedback on their energy use in real time as they compete over two months in their homeroom classes to lower their electrical use, and subsequently their carbon footprint. This competition style initiative will teach the 180 Grade 5 students about their energy usage in a fun and informative manner. ISF Academy has over 400 air-conditioners and we have already determined that the air conditioners are the largest single use of energy in the school. The energy tracking system installed and maintained by from Global Design Corporation utilizes uniquely identified current detectors attached to circuit breakers, to monitor electrical use of individual circuits. These detectors will also monitor the energy used for classroom lighting, fans and plugs, as well as the air conditioners. The system has been installed and the Grade 5 classrooms averaged between 40 kWh and 120 kWh of usage in May 2015. This data will be used as the baseline for the competition. Further analysis can also be done with the data, such as calculating the carbon emissions reduction throughout the school year, providing possible class learning activities and also aiding in future energy use and carbon footprint predictions. The data collected will help refine phase 2 and 3 of the installation, expanding the system to more buildings and also giving insight to the rollout of the system to the whole school when the systems are fully in place.

  11. Effect of AO/UV/RD exposure on spaceborne diffusers: a comparative experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minjie; Si, Fuqi; Liu, Cheng; Lu, Yihuai; Wang, Yu; Wang, Shimei; Zeng, Yi; Jiang, Yu; Zhou, Haijin; Liu, Wenqing

    2015-11-01

    The environmental measuring instrument (EMI) is a nadir-viewing wide-field imaging spectrometer, which adopts spaceborne diffusers in in-flight calibration systems, including an aluminum diffuser and a quartz volume diffuser. Spaceborne diffusers, are the key components of in-flight calibration systems, and are used to introduce sunlight into the EMI. Hemispheric reflectance and bidirectional reflectance distribution function were experimentally measured to analyze spaceborne diffuser performance. Radiation exposure experiments on atomic oxygen, UV, and radiation dose of the spaceborne diffusers were performed at ground level because the EMI works in low Earth orbit space environments. Effects of radiation exposure on spaceborne diffusers were discussed in detail. Protective methods were introduced to reduce the effects of the space environment, and an in-orbit monitoring method was also proposed. PMID:26560568

  12. A Consideration of Future Flight Material Exposure Experiments in Japan: Advanced Material Exposure Test Working Group's Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Masahito; Yokota, Kumiko; Cho, Mengu; Iwata, Minoru; Yokota, Rikio; Suzuki, Mineo; Matsumoto, Koji; Kimoto, Yugo; Miyazaki, Eiji; Shimamura, Hiroyuki

    In Japan, the largest material exposure program “SM/MPAC&SEED (Service Module/ Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device) Experiment” has been completed. This program is quite ambitious among the other Japanese materials exposure tests; 3 sets of samples have been exposed for 1, 2 and 3 years in orbit in order to discover the fluence dependence of the material responses. We have learned a lot of lessons from this program. Based on the lessons learned, the “Advanced Material Exposure Test Working Group” has been established by the Committee on Space Utilization in 2007. This working group discussed the current problems of the material exposure program (flight tests) and proposed the future direction of the experimental methodologies. In this presentation, problems and new challenges discussed in this working group will be discussed.

  13. Complex magnetic field exposure system for in vitro experiments at intermediate frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Rossella; Merla, Caterina; Pinto, Rosanna; Mancini, Sergio; Lopresto, Vanni; Lovisolo, Giorgio A

    2013-04-01

    In occupational environments, an increasing number of electromagnetic sources emitting complex magnetic field waveforms in the range of intermediate frequencies is present, requiring an accurate exposure risk assessment with both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this article, an in vitro exposure system able to generate complex magnetic flux density B-fields, reproducing signals from actual intermediate frequency sources such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, for instance, is developed and validated. The system consists of a magnetic field generation system and an exposure apparatus realized with a couple of square coils. A wide homogeneity (99.9%) volume of 210 × 210 × 110 mm(3) was obtained within the coils, with the possibility of simultaneous exposure of a large number of standard Petri dishes. The system is able to process any numerical input sequence through a filtering technique aimed at compensating the coils' impedance effect. The B-field, measured in proximity to a 1.5 T MRI bore during a typical examination, was excellently reproduced (cross-correlation index of 0.99). Thus, it confirms the ability of the proposed setup to accurately simulate complex waveforms in the intermediate frequency band. Suitable field levels were also attained. Moreover, a dosimetry index based on the weighted-peak method was evaluated considering the induced E-field on a Petri dish exposed to the reproduced complex B-field. The weighted-peak index was equal to 0.028 for the induced E-field, indicating an exposure level compliant with the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Bioelectromagnetics 34:211-219, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23060274

  14. First deep space operational experience with simultaneous X- and Ka-bands coherent tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, S.; Herrera, R.; Armstrong, J.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D.; Gatti, M.; Goltz, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the new DSN science capability and highlights of the engineering work that lead to its development. It will also discuss experience with operations along with statistics and data quality.

  15. Test Experiments on Muon Radiography with Emulsion Track Detectors in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Dedenko, L. G.; Fomenko, N. V.; Granich, G. M.; Galkin, V. I.; Konovalova, N. S.; Managadze, A. K.; Orurk, O. I.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Zemskova, S. G.

    Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI RAS) and Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU (SINP MSU) have started the series of test muon radiography experiments in Russia. These experiments are aimed at determination of the optimal conditions of the setup, elaboration of algorithms for data processing and the study of the method peculiarities. The final goal of the method development is drafting of monitoring systems for natural and technological objects which condition may be a threat for the population, infrastructure or environment.

  16. Pre-Flight Characterization of Samples for the MISSE-7 Spacesuit Fabric Exposure Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; McCue, Terry R.; Clark, Gregory W.; Rogers, Kerry J.; Mengesu, Tsega

    2009-01-01

    A series of six sample spacesuit pressure garment assembly (PGA) fabric samples were prepared for the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE-7) flight experiment to test the effects of damage by lunar dust on the susceptibility of the fabrics to radiation damage. These included pristine Apollo-era fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) fabric, Apollo-era FEP fabric that had been abraded with JSC-1A lunar simulant, and a piece of Alan Bean s Apollo 12 PGA sectioned from near the left knee. Also included was a sample of pristine orthofabric, and orthofabric that had been abraded to two different levels with JSC-1A. The samples were characterized using optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Two sets of six samples were then loaded in space environment exposure hardware, one of which was stored as control samples. The other set was affixed to the MISSE-7 experiment package, and will be mounted on the International Space Station, and exposed to the wake-side low Earth orbit environment. It will be retrieved after an exposure of approximately 12 months, and returned for post flight analysis.

  17. Operation of Direct Drive Systems: Experiments in Peak Power Tracking and Multi-Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Brophy, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct-drive power and propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce the mass of high-power solar electric propulsion spacecraft, among other advantages. Recent experimental direct-drive work has significantly mitigated or retired the technical risks associated with single-thruster operation, so attention is now moving toward systems-level areas of interest. One of those areas is the use of a Hall thruster system as a peak power tracker to fully use the available power from a solar array. A simple and elegant control based on the incremental conductance method, enhanced by combining it with the unique properties of Hall thruster systems, is derived here and it is shown to track peak solar array power very well. Another area of interest is multi-thruster operation and control. Dualthruster operation was investigated in a parallel electrical configuration, with both thrusters operating from discharge power provided by a single solar array. Startup and shutdown sequences are discussed, and it is shown that multi-thruster operation and control is as simple as for a single thruster. Some system architectures require operation of multiple cathodes while they are electrically connected together. Four different methods to control the discharge current emitted by individual cathodes in this configuration are investigated, with cathode flow rate control appearing to be advantageous. Dual-parallel thruster operation with equal cathode current sharing at total powers up to 10 kW is presented.

  18. From seeing to believing: labelling strategies for in vivo cell-tracking experiments

    PubMed Central

    Progatzky, Fränze; Dallman, Margaret J.; Lo Celso, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Intravital microscopy has become increasingly popular over the past few decades because it provides high-resolution and real-time information about complex biological processes. Technological advances that allow deeper penetration in live tissues, such as the development of confocal and two-photon microscopy, together with the generation of ever-new fluorophores that facilitate bright labelling of cells and tissue components have made imaging of vertebrate model organisms efficient and highly informative. Genetic manipulation leading to expression of fluorescent proteins is undoubtedly the labelling method of choice and has been used to visualize several cell types in vivo. This approach, however, can be technically challenging and time consuming. Over the years, several dyes have been developed to allow rapid, effective and bright ex vivo labelling of cells for subsequent transplantation and imaging. Here, we review and discuss the advantages and limitations of a number of strategies commonly used to label and track cells at high resolution in vivo in mouse and zebrafish, using fluorescence microscopy. While the quest for the perfect label is far from achieved, current reagents are valuable tools enabling the progress of biological discovery, so long as they are selected and used appropriately. PMID:23853708

  19. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J. Diaz; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O׳Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radiopurity required for this rare decay search.

  20. Technical specifications of low-frequency radio identification bedload tracking from field experiments: Differences in antennas, tags and operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Vaudor, L.; Bultingaire, L.; Fantino, G.

    2015-06-01

    Low-frequency passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) have been increasingly used for tracking bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers. Prior studies have reported high recovery rates in small streams, while recovery rates remained much lower in large systems, in large part because of the limited reading distance of the tags (< 1 m). Some laboratory tests have identified controlling factors for detection ranges (tag and antenna size, tag orientation, burial, submergence, etc.). Beyond these tests, improving our understanding of PIT tag functioning, using different equipment within different environments, is still needed in order to select the most suitable device for each geomorphic context. We address this knowledge gap with technical specifications for a low-frequency radio identification (RFID) device by working for the first time with real fluvial constraints, i.e., the gravel deposits and the aquatic channel. The three-dimensional detection envelopes of two types of tags and three types of antennas are quantified as well as the effect of practices (interoperator bias, battery power) on the detection. The interoperator variability and the intertag variability can be considered as negligible. The influence of burial in dry and water-saturated sediment and the influence of water immersion are shown to be minor. Finally, we summarize practical implications for RFID bedload tracking through these experiments.

  1. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature heat pipe experiment package power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of a self-contained Direct Energy Transfer Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package is presented. The power system operated successfully for the entire mission. Data recorded by the onboard recorder shows that the system operated within design specifications. Other than unanticipated overcharging of the battery, the power system operated as expected for nearly 32,000 low earth orbit cycles, and was still operational when tested after the LDEF recovery. Some physical damage was sustained by the solar array panels due to micrometeoroid hits, but there were not electrical failures.

  2. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) attitude measurements of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Motley, William R., III; Singer, S. Fred; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Weinberg, Jerry L.; Cooke, William J.; Wortman, Jim J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sun sensors has allowed a confirmation of the attitude of LDEF during its first year in orbit. Eight observations of the yaw angle at specific times were made and are tabulated in this paper. These values range from 4.3 to 12.4 deg with maximum uncertainty of plus or minus 2.0 deg and an average of 7.9 deg. No specific measurements of pitch or roll were made but the data indicates that LDEF had an average pitch down attitude of less than 0.7 deg.

  3. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interferes with experience-dependent dendritic plasticity and ryanodine receptor expression in weanling rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. A critical determinant of neuronal connectivity is the dendritic morphology of individual neurons, which is shaped by experience. The identification of environmental exposures ...

  4. Approaches to veterinary education--tracking versus a final year broad clinical experience. Part one: effects on career outcome.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, E S; Kass, P H; Walsh, D A

    2009-08-01

    This is the first of two papers that provide extensive data and analysis on the two major approaches to clinical veterinary education, which either provide students with experience of a broad range of species (often defined as omni/general clinical competence), or just a few species (sometimes just one), usually termed 'tracking'. Together the two papers provide a detailed analysis of these two approaches for the first time. The responsibilities of veterinary medicine and veterinary education are rapidly increasing throughoutthe globe. It is critical for all in veterinary education to reassess the approaches that have been used, and evaluate on a school-by-school basis which may best meet its expanding and ever-deepening responsibilities. PMID:20128492

  5. Speaking from Experience: Advice to Junior Faculty for Navigating the Tenure-Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson-Hall, Karin; Pfeiler-Wunder, Amy; Hsieh, Kevin; Henry, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Four faculty members of varying rank provide insight into beginning a career as a faculty member and the tenure process based on their experiences at three distinct universities in the United States. Examples of evaluation processes and documentation of activities are provided. Institutional support systems for teaching and scholarship are…

  6. Bush Tracks: Viewing Teachers' Experiences of Leadership in Rural Schools through a Contextual Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Paterson, David

    2006-01-01

    Due to the difficulties inherent in staffing rural schools it is increasingly common for early career teachers (ECTs) to experience school leadership roles. Such opportunities include a range of responsibilities such as establishing school and curriculum direction and providing leadership in pedagogy, assessment, and school-community relations.…

  7. The Role of Students in the Experience of Women Faculty on the Tenure Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bridget Turner; Fetridge, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Women faculty disproportionately leave academia by their second or third semester and experience slow rates of tenure and promotion. What then, may cause women faculty, both White and of color, to leave early or conversely, to stay through tenure? With a critical feminist framework, this article presents qualitative research into women's…

  8. Tracking Perceived and Observed Growth of Inquiry Practice: A Formative Plan to Improve Professional Development Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeff C.; Smart, Julie; Horton, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors worked with 22 middle school math and science teachers for one year with the goal of improving the quantity and quality of inquiry-based instruction implemented in the classroom. The professional development experience was framed by the 4E x 2 Instruction Model, which combines key components of inquiry instruction (Engage, Explore,…

  9. A system for simultaneous ultraviolet light and electromagnetic field exposure in in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Vesper, D N; Nindl, G; Johnson, M T; Spandau, D F; Swez, J A; Balcavage, W X

    2001-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is a common treatment for skin diseases such as psoriasis, but bears the risk of carcinogenic side effects. We have biological evidence that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can act additively with UV so that new therapeutic protocols combining UV and EMF might be developed to improve psoriasis phototherapy. In this study we report on a system that allows in vitro experiments testing this hypothesis. For simultaneous exposure of cell cultures to UVB and EMF, we built Merritt coils with an integrated UV exposure system. The coils can be operated in a sham or experimental mode (up to 1.5 mT and 20,000 Hz). Two UV bulbs were fitted inside the coils for UVB doses between 100-1000 J/m2/nm. In the exposure area the EMF is uniform within 0.0038%. For exposure, the cells are cultured in standard culture plates and placed in a specifically designed box. The box holds two plates in a top chamber covered with a Saran Wrap lid (91% UV transmission) so that cells are exposed to UVB and EMFs. The bottom chamber holds two plates, where cells are screened from UVB and only exposed to EMFs. Temperature control is maintained (+/- 1 degree C) by airflow vents on the side of the box and a fan placed 25 cm away from the cell culture box. To maintain sterility within the box the vents are covered with a bacterial filter. The box lid has additional ventilation through two air direction changes to create an additional bacterial barrier similar to that in culture plate lids. PMID:11347392

  10. LHC optics measurement with proton tracks detected by the Roman pots of the TOTEM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The TOTEM Collaboration; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Catanesi, M. G.; Covault, C.; Csanád, M.; Csörgö, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajíček, M. V.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Rodríguez, F. Lucas; Macrí, M.; Mäki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Peroutka, Z.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2014-10-01

    Precise knowledge of the beam optics at the LHC is crucial to fulfill the physics goals of the TOTEM experiment, where the kinematics of the scattered protons is reconstructed with near-beam telescopes—so-called Roman pots (RP). Before being detected, the protons’ trajectories are influenced by the magnetic fields of the accelerator lattice. Thus precise understanding of the proton transport is of key importance for the experiment. A novel method of optics evaluation is proposed which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered protons observed in the RPs. Theoretical predictions, as well as Monte Carlo studies, show that the residual uncertainty of the optics estimation method is smaller than 2.5.

  11. Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding.

    PubMed

    Zanetti-Domingues, Laura C; Tynan, Christopher J; Rolfe, Daniel J; Clarke, David T; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques are powerful tools to investigate the structure and dynamics of macromolecular complexes; however, data quality can suffer because of weak specific signal, background noise and dye bleaching and blinking. It is less well-known, but equally important, that non-specific binding of probe to substrates results in a large number of immobile fluorescent molecules, introducing significant artifacts in live cell experiments. Following from our previous work in which we investigated glass coating substrates and demonstrated that the main contribution to this non-specific probe adhesion comes from the dye, we carried out a systematic investigation of how different dye chemistries influence the behaviour of spectrally similar fluorescent probes. Single-molecule brightness, bleaching and probe mobility on the surface of live breast cancer cells cultured on a non-adhesive substrate were assessed for anti-EGFR affibody conjugates with 14 different dyes from 5 different manufacturers, belonging to 3 spectrally homogeneous bands (491 nm, 561 nm and 638 nm laser lines excitation). Our results indicate that, as well as influencing their photophysical properties, dye chemistry has a strong influence on the propensity of dye-protein conjugates to adhere non-specifically to the substrate. In particular, hydrophobicity has a strong influence on interactions with the substrate, with hydrophobic dyes showing much greater levels of binding. Crucially, high levels of non-specific substrate binding result in calculated diffusion coefficients significantly lower than the true values. We conclude that the physic-chemical properties of the dyes should be considered carefully when planning single-molecule experiments. Favourable dye characteristics such as photostability and brightness can be offset by the propensity of a conjugate for non-specific adhesion. PMID:24066121

  12. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life

    PubMed Central

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans. PMID:26087323

  13. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, A S; Hazen, E L; Goldbogen, J A; Stimpert, A K; Calambokidis, J; Southall, B L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral response studies provide significant insights into the nature, magnitude, and consequences of changes in animal behavior in response to some external stimulus. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) to study behavioral response have faced challenges in quantifying the importance of and interaction among individual variability, exposure conditions, and environmental covariates. To investigate these complex parameters relative to blue whale behavior and how it may change as a function of certain sounds, we deployed multi-sensor acoustic tags and conducted CEEs using simulated mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) and pseudo-random noise (PRN) stimuli, while collecting synoptic, quantitative prey measures. In contrast to previous approaches that lacked such prey data, our integrated approach explained substantially more variance in blue whale dive behavioral responses to mid-frequency sounds (r2 = 0.725 vs. 0.14 previously). Results demonstrate that deep-feeding whales respond more clearly and strongly to CEEs than those in other behavioral states, but this was only evident with the increased explanatory power provided by incorporating prey density and distribution as contextual covariates. Including contextual variables increases the ability to characterize behavioral variability and empirically strengthens previous findings that deep-feeding blue whales respond significantly to mid-frequency sound exposure. However, our results are only based on a single behavioral state with a limited sample size, and this analytical framework should be applied broadly across behavioral states. The increased capability to describe and account for individual response variability by including environmental variables, such as prey, that drive foraging behavior underscores the importance of integrating these and other relevant contextual parameters in experimental designs. Our results suggest the need to measure and account for the ecological dynamics of predator

  14. Tracking the sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds: Foraging in waste management facilities results in higher DecaBDE exposure in males

    SciTech Connect

    Gentes, Marie-Line; Mazerolle, Marc J.; Giroux, Jean-François; Patenaude-Monette, Martin; and others

    2015-04-15

    Differences in feeding ecology are now recognized as major determinants of inter-individual variations in contaminant profiles of free-ranging animals, but exceedingly little attention has been devoted to the role of habitat use. Marked inter-individual variations and high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (e.g., DecaBDE) have previously been documented in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) breeding in a colony near Montreal (QC, Canada). However, the environmental sources of these compounds, and thus the reasons causing these large inter-individual variations remain unidentified. In the present study, we used GPS-based telemetry (±5 to 10 m precision) to track ring-billed gulls from this colony to reconstruct their movements at the landscape level. We related habitat use of individual gulls (n=76) to plasma concentrations (ng/g ww) and relative contributions (percentages) to Σ{sub 38}PBDEs of major congeners in the internationally restricted PentaBDE and current-use DecaBDE mixtures. Male gulls that visited waste management facilities (WMFs; i.e., landfills, wastewater treatment plants and related facilities; 25% of all GPS-tracked males) exhibited greater DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) and lower PentaBDE (percentages) relative to those that did not. In contrast, no such relationships were found in females. Moreover, in males, DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) increased with percentages of time spent in WMFs (i.e., ~5% of total foraging time), while PentaBDE (percentages) decreased. No relationships between percentages of time spent in other habitats (i.e., urban areas, agriculture fields, and St. Lawrence River) were found in either sex. These findings suggest that animals breeding in the vicinity of WMFs as well as mobile species that only use these sites for short stopovers to forage, could be at risk of enhanced DecaBDE exposure. - Highlights: • The study was conducted on breeding gulls with high levels of flame

  15. One-way return-link Doppler navigation with the Tracking and Data Satellite System (TDRSS) - The ultrastable oscillator (USO) experiment on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. B.; Nemesure, M.; Teles, J.; Brown-Conwell, E. R.; Jackson, J. A.; Reamy, V. L.; Maher, M. J.; Elrod, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objectives of the USO experiment on the COBE spacecraft are defined, and results of space qualification studies for the COBE USO experiment are summarized. The principal objectives of the experiment are: (1) to determine flight performance of the USO coupled to the second-generation TDRSS transponder; (2) space qualify TDRSS noncoherent one-way return-link Doppler tracking; and (3) analyze algorithms for one-way navigation with real data. The three objectives of the experiment have been met in the first stage of the experiment analysis.

  16. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are an important astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organic compounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on an International Space Station (ISS) external platform. OREOcube is packaged as an identical pair of 10-cm cube instruments, each weighing < 2 kg and containing a highly capable UV-Visible-NIR spectrometer, a 24-sample carousel, and integral optics enabling use of the Sun as light source for spectroscopy, along with the electronics, microcontroller, and data storage to make each cube an autonomous stand-alone instrument package requiring only a standard power and data interface. We have characterized the influence of mineralogically relevant inorganic materials on the stability, modification, and degradation of the organic molecules under ground laboratory experimental conditions. The results of our laboratory experiments will be used as the basis for the selection of samples for further investigations on the OREOcube ISS experiment. OREOcube is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and University partners.

  17. Post-Flight Characterization of Samples for the MISSE-7 Spacesuit Fabric Exposure Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Jaworski, Donald A.; McCue, Terry R.; Folz, Angela; Baldwin, Sammantha; Clark, Gregory W.; Batman, Brittany; Bruce, John

    2012-01-01

    Six samples of pristine and dust-abraded outer layer spacesuit fabrics were included in the Materials International Space Station Experiment-7, in which they were exposed to the wake side low Earth orbit environment (LEO) on the International Space Station (ISS) for 18 months in order to determine whether abrasion by lunar dust increases radiation degradation. The fabric samples were characterized using optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and tensile testing before and after exposure on the ISS. Comparison of pre- and post-flight characterizations showed that wake side LEO environment darkened and reddened all six fabrics, increasing their integrated solar absorptance by 7 to 38 percent. There was a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure of lunar dust abraded Apollo spacesuit fibers by a factor of four and increased the elastic modulus by a factor of two. The severity of the degradation of the fabric samples over this short exposure time demonstrates the necessity to find ways to prevent or mitigate radiation damage to spacesuits when planning extended missions to the Moon.

  18. Development of a 150 000 channel MSGC tracking system for the experiment HERA-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeuner, T.

    1997-02-01

    The universities of Heidelberg, Siegen and Zürich are preparing the inner tracker of the HERA-B experiment at DESY designed to measure CP violation in B meson decays. The system consists of 200 MSGC chambers of sizes up to 30 × 30 cm 2 with a total of 150 000 electronic channels. Rates up to 10 4 s -1 mm -2 have to be handled. The gold electrodes (300 μm pitch) are produced by a lift-off process on an alkali-free glass (300 μm thick). The glass is CVD coated with amorphous carbon with a surface resistivity of 10 14ω/□. It provides the required lifetime of 5 years with an integrated charge of 30 mC per cm of the anode length. Gains > 5000 are obtained. The efficiency is greater than 99% with negligible noise rate. Measures to avoid deterioration of the anodes by discharges caused by heavy ionizing particles are discussed. The MSGC detectors are connected to hybrid electronics via Kapton foils. A special bonding machine has been built which allows the adjustment by a video system and the chariots moved by micrometer screws and contains electronically steered glue dispenser and pressure pistons. Members of the collaboration are: T. Beckmann, C. Bresch, H.-B. Dreis, F. Eisele, S. Feuerstack, S. Hausmann, A. Hölscher, T. Hott, A. Lange, A. Maag, V. Myalitsin, P. Robmann, B. Schmidt, S. Schmidt, S. Steiner, U. Straumann, P. Truöl, S. Visbeck, A.-H. Walenta, T. Walter, U. Werthenbach, G. Zech and T. Zeuner.

  19. Tracking Difference in Gene Expression in a Time-Course Experiment Using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Pui Shan; Tanaka, Michihiro; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Taniguchi, Takeaki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Aburatani, Sachiyo

    2014-01-01

    Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580 is a newly sequenced pennate diatom that is capable of simultaneously growing and accumulating lipids. This is a unique trait, not found in other related microalgae so far. It is able to accumulate between 40 to 60% of its cell weight in lipids, making it a strong candidate for the production of biofuel. To investigate this characteristic, we used RNA-Seq data gathered at four different times while Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580 was grown in oil accumulating and non-oil accumulating conditions. We then adapted gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to investigate the relationship between the difference in gene expression of 7,822 genes and metabolic functions in our data. We utilized information in the KEGG pathway database to create the gene sets and changed GSEA to use re-sampling so that data from the different time points could be included in the analysis. Our GSEA method identified photosynthesis, lipid synthesis and amino acid synthesis related pathways as processes that play a significant role in oil production and growth in Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580. In addition to GSEA, we visualized the results by creating a network of compounds and reactions, and plotted the expression data on top of the network. This made existing graph algorithms available to us which we then used to calculate a path that metabolizes glucose into triacylglycerol (TAG) in the smallest number of steps. By visualizing the data this way, we observed a separate up-regulation of genes at different times instead of a concerted response. We also identified two metabolic paths that used less reactions than the one shown in KEGG and showed that the reactions were up-regulated during the experiment. The combination of analysis and visualization methods successfully analyzed time-course data, identified important metabolic pathways and provided new hypotheses for further research. PMID:25268590

  20. Identifying and Tracking Simulated Synaptic Inputs from Neuronal Firing: Insights from In Vitro Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Volgushev, Maxim; Ilin, Vladimir; Stevenson, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately describing synaptic interactions between neurons and how interactions change over time are key challenges for systems neuroscience. Although intracellular electrophysiology is a powerful tool for studying synaptic integration and plasticity, it is limited by the small number of neurons that can be recorded simultaneously in vitro and by the technical difficulty of intracellular recording in vivo. One way around these difficulties may be to use large-scale extracellular recording of spike trains and apply statistical methods to model and infer functional connections between neurons. These techniques have the potential to reveal large-scale connectivity structure based on the spike timing alone. However, the interpretation of functional connectivity is often approximate, since only a small fraction of presynaptic inputs are typically observed. Here we use in vitro current injection in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons to validate methods for inferring functional connectivity in a setting where input to the neuron is controlled. In experiments with partially-defined input, we inject a single simulated input with known amplitude on a background of fluctuating noise. In a fully-defined input paradigm, we then control the synaptic weights and timing of many simulated presynaptic neurons. By analyzing the firing of neurons in response to these artificial inputs, we ask 1) How does functional connectivity inferred from spikes relate to simulated synaptic input? and 2) What are the limitations of connectivity inference? We find that individual current-based synaptic inputs are detectable over a broad range of amplitudes and conditions. Detectability depends on input amplitude and output firing rate, and excitatory inputs are detected more readily than inhibitory. Moreover, as we model increasing numbers of presynaptic inputs, we are able to estimate connection strengths more accurately and detect the presence of connections more quickly. These results illustrate the

  1. High resolution vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity obtained by computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data from the ITCZ experiment of 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.

  2. Effect of crude oil exposure and dispersant application on meiofauna: an intertidal mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Elarbaoui, Soumaya; Richard, Marion; Boufahja, Fehmi; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2015-05-01

    Dispersant application is used as a response technique to minimize the environmental risk of an oil spill. In nearshore areas, dispersant application is a controversial countermeasure: environmental benefits are counteracted by the toxicity of dispersant use. The effects of the use of chemical dispersants on meiobenthic organisms and nematodes were investigated in a mesocosm experiment. A 20 day experiment was performed in four experimental sets of mesocosms. In three of them, sediments were contaminated, respectively by oil (500 mg kg(-1)), dispersed oil (oil + 5% dispersant), and dispersant alone, whereas in the last set sediments were kept undisturbed and used as a reference (Re). Our results showed that the meiobenthic response to oil contamination was rapid, for copepods and nematodes. One-way ANOVA showed a significant decrease of the abundance of copepods. In the case of nematodes, univariate and multivariate analyses indicated a clear decrease of the abundance of the species after only 20 days of pollutant exposure and thus reducing Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou's evenness. In contrast, Sphaerolaimus gracilis and Sabateria sp. became more frequent within disturbed assemblages and appeared to be resistant and/or opportunistic species in the presence of these kinds of toxicants. Moreover, responses of copepods and nematodes to the treatment seemed to be the same irrespective of whether only oil or oil + dispersant was performed. The main toxicities of dispersed oil come not from the "composition of a newly formed oil and oil spill dispersant mixture" but from the "quantities of increased dispersed oil droplets". PMID:25948118

  3. Manipulation and characterization of thin-film interfacial chemistry: Sol-gel deposition and single molecule tracking experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoum, Moussa

    Single molecule trajectories of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3'3'-tetramethylindocarbo - cyanine perchlorate (DiI) fluorophores diffusing on planar supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-snglycero- 3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayers imaged through total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy at different temperatures are investigated. The spatial resolution limit for detecting molecular motion is evaluated by characterizing the apparent motion which arises from the limited signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of imaged and simulated stationary DiI molecules. Statistical criteria for reliably distinguishing molecular motion from stationary molecules using F-test statistics, including the computation of local signal-to-noise ratios are then established and used for reliably detecting subdiffraction motion of DiI molecules on DMPC. The same single molecule tracking concept is used in investigating the temperature dependence of subdiffraction diffusional confinement of single Rhodamine 6G molecules in polymer brushes of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), pNIPAAm, above and below its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 32°C. Reliably distinguishing subdiffraction molecular motion from stationary events is crucial in validating the application of single molecule tracking experiment in probing nanometersized hydrophobic environments of polymer structure. A versatile and rapid sol-gel technique for the fabrication of high quality one-dimensional photonic bandgap materials was developed. Silica/titania multilayer materials are fabricated by a sol-gel chemistry route combined with dip-coating onto planar or curved substrate. A shock-cooling step immediately following the thin film heat-treatment process is introduced. The versatility of this sol-gel method is demonstrated by the fabrication of various Bragg stack-type materials with fine-tuned optical properties. Measured optical properties show good agreement with theoretical simulations confirming the high quality of these sol

  4. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0003 meteoroid and debris survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshishnek, M. J.; Gyetvay, S. R.; Paschen, K. W.; Coggi, J. M.

    1993-04-01

    A survey of the meteoroid and space debris impacts on LDEF experiment M0003 was performed. The purpose of this survey was to document significant impact phenomenology and to obtain impact crater data for comparison to current space debris and micrometeoroid models. The survey consists of the following: photomicrographs of significant impacts in a variety of material types; accurate measurements of impact crater coordinates and dimensions for selected experiment surfaces; and databasing of the crater data for reduction, manipulation, and comparison to models. Large area surfaces that were studied include the experiment power and data system (EPDS) sunshields, environment exposure control canister (EECC) sunshields, and the M0003 signal conditioning unit (SCU) covers. Crater diameters down to 25 microns were measured and cataloged. Both leading (D8) and trailing (D4) edge surfaces were studied and compared. The EPDS sunshields are aluminum panels painted with Chemglaze A-276 white thermal control paint, the EECC sunshields are chromic acid-anodized aluminum, and the SCU covers are aluminum painted with S13GLO white thermal control paint. Typical materials that have documented impacts are metals, glasses and ceramics, composites, polymers, electronic materials, and paints. The results of this survey demonstrate the different response of materials to hypervelocity impacts. Comparison of the survey data to curves derived from the Kessler debris model and the Cour-Palais micrometeoroid model indicates that these models overpredict small impacts (less than 100 micron) and may underpredict large impacts (greater than 1000 micron) while having fair to good agreement for the intermediate impacts. Comparison of the impact distributions among the various surfaces indicates significant variations, which may be a function of material response effects, or in some cases surface roughness. Representative photographs and summary graphs of the impact data are presented.

  5. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0003 meteoroid and debris survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshishnek, M. J.; Gyetvay, S. R.; Paschen, K. W.; Coggi, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the meteoroid and space debris impacts on LDEF experiment M0003 was performed. The purpose of this survey was to document significant impact phenomenology and to obtain impact crater data for comparison to current space debris and micrometeoroid models. The survey consists of the following: photomicrographs of significant impacts in a variety of material types; accurate measurements of impact crater coordinates and dimensions for selected experiment surfaces; and databasing of the crater data for reduction, manipulation, and comparison to models. Large area surfaces that were studied include the experiment power and data system (EPDS) sunshields, environment exposure control canister (EECC) sunshields, and the M0003 signal conditioning unit (SCU) covers. Crater diameters down to 25 microns were measured and cataloged. Both leading (D8) and trailing (D4) edge surfaces were studied and compared. The EPDS sunshields are aluminum panels painted with Chemglaze A-276 white thermal control paint, the EECC sunshields are chromic acid-anodized aluminum, and the SCU covers are aluminum painted with S13GLO white thermal control paint. Typical materials that have documented impacts are metals, glasses and ceramics, composites, polymers, electronic materials, and paints. The results of this survey demonstrate the different response of materials to hypervelocity impacts. Comparison of the survey data to curves derived from the Kessler debris model and the Cour-Palais micrometeoroid model indicates that these models overpredict small impacts (less than 100 micron) and may underpredict large impacts (greater than 1000 micron) while having fair to good agreement for the intermediate impacts. Comparison of the impact distributions among the various surfaces indicates significant variations, which may be a function of material response effects, or in some cases surface roughness. Representative photographs and summary graphs of the impact data are presented.

  6. Measurement of identified charged hadron spectra in proton-proton collisions using the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Biolcati, Emanuele

    2011-05-23

    The measurement of the identified charged hadron p{sub t} spectra using the ITS energy loss signal in the pp data at {radical}(s) = 900 GeV collected by the ALICE experiment at LHC will be discussed. It is performed using the Inner Tracking System (ITS) in stand-alone mode, both for track reconstruction and particle identification, allowing one to detect low momentum particles with p{sub t} below 200 MeV/c. A second method using the tracks reconstructed by both the ITS and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has also been developed. The obtained results will be compared with the ones obtained from the TPC and from the Time Of Flight detector and used to extract the mean p{sub t} value.

  7. Confounding Factors in the Transcriptome Analysis of an In-Vivo Exposure Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wackers, Paul F. K.; van Oostrom, Conny; Jonker, Martijs J.; Dekker, Rob J.; Rauwerda, Han; Ensink, Wim A.; de Vries, Annemieke; Breit, Timo M.

    2016-01-01

    Confounding factors In transcriptomics experimentation, confounding factors frequently exist alongside the intended experimental factors and can severely influence the outcome of a transcriptome analysis. Confounding factors are regularly discussed in methodological literature, but their actual, practical impact on the outcome and interpretation of transcriptomics experiments is, to our knowledge, not documented. For instance, in-vivo experimental factors; like Individual, Sample-Composition and Time-of-Day are potentially formidable confounding factors. To study these confounding factors, we designed an extensive in-vivo transcriptome experiment (n = 264) with UVR exposure of murine skin containing six consecutive samples from each individual mouse (n = 64). Analysis Approach Evaluation of the confounding factors: Sample-Composition, Time-of-Day, Handling-Stress, and Individual-Mouse resulted in the identification of many genes that were affected by them. These genes sometimes showed over 30-fold expression differences. The most prominent confounding factor was Sample-Composition caused by mouse-dependent skin composition differences, sampling variation and/or influx/efflux of mobile cells. Although we can only evaluate these effects for known cell type specifically expressed genes in our complex heterogeneous samples, it is clear that the observed variations also affect the cumulative expression levels of many other non-cell-type-specific genes. ANOVA ANOVA analysis can only attempt to neutralize the effects of the well-defined confounding factors, such as Individual-Mouse, on the experimental factors UV-Dose and Recovery-Time. Also, by definition, ANOVA only yields reproducible gene-expression differences, but we found that these differences were very small compared to the fold changes induced by the confounding factors, questioning the biological relevance of these ANOVA-detected differences. Furthermore, it turned out that many of the differentially expressed

  8. Long-Term CO2 Exposure Experiments - Geochemical Effects on Brine-Saturated Reservoir Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Wandrey, Maren

    2010-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is the most promising strategy for the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere via long-term geological storage. The study is part of the CO2SINK project conducted at Ketzin, situated 40 km west of Berlin. There, food grade CO2 has been pumped into the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation since June 2008. The main objective of the experimental program is to investigate the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on the physico-chemical properties of the reservoir rock. To achieve this goal, core samples from observation well Ktzi 202 have been saturated with synthetic brine and exposed to CO2 in high quality steel autoclaves at simulated reservoir P-T-conditions of 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C. The synthetic brine had a composition representative of the formation fluid (Förster et al., 2006) of 172.8 g/l NaCl, 8.0 g/l MgCl2×2H2O, 4.8 g/l CaCl2×2H2O and 0.6 g/l KCl. After 15 months, the first set of CO2-exposed samples was removed from the pressure vessels. Thin sections, XRD, SEM as well as EMP data were used to determine the mineralogical features of the reservoir rocks before and after the experiments. Additionally, NMR relaxation and MP was performed to measure poroperm and pore size distribution values of the twin samples. The analyzed samples are fine- to medium grained, moderately well- to well sorted and weakly consolidated sandstones. Quartz and plagioclase are the major components, while K-feldspar, hematite, white & dark mica, chlorite and illite are present in minor and varying amounts. Cements are composed of analcime, dolomite and anhydrite. Some samples show mm- to cm-scale cross-beddings. The laminae comprise lighter, quartz- and feldspar-dominated layers and dark-brownish layers with notably less quartz and feldspars. The results are consistent with those of Blaschke et al. (2008). The plagioclase composition indicates preferred dissolution of the Ca-component and a trend toward albite-rich phases or even pure

  9. Long Duration Exposure Facility experiment M0003 deintegration observation data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyetvay, S. R.; Coggi, J. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The four trays (2 leading edge and 2 trailing edge) of the M0003 materials experiment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) contained 1274 samples from 20 subexperiments. The complete sample complement represented a broad range of materials, including thin film optical coatings, paints, polymer sheets and tapes, adhesives, and composites, for use in various spacecraft applications, including thermal control, structures, optics, and solar power. Most subexperiments contained sets of samples exposed on both the leading and trailing edge trays of LDEF. Each individual sample was examined by high resolution optical microscope during the deintegration of the subexperiments from the M0003 trays. Observations of the post-flight condition of the samples made during this examination were recorded in a computer data base. The deintegration observation data base is available to requesters on floppy disk in 4th Dimension for the Macintosh format. Over 3,000 color macrographs and photomicrographs were shot to complement the observation records and to document the condition of the individual samples and of the M0003 trays. The photographs provide a visual comparison of the response of materials in leading and trailing edge LDEF environments. The Aerospace Corporate Archives is distributing photographs of the samples and hard copies of the database records to the general public upon request. Information on obtaining copies of the data base disks and for ordering photographs and records of specific samples or materials are given.

  10. Effect of training, education, professional experience, and need for cognition on accuracy of exposure assessment decision-making.

    PubMed

    Vadali, Monika; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-04-01

    Results are presented from a study that investigated the effect of characteristics of occupational hygienists relating to educational and professional experience and task-specific experience on the accuracy of occupational exposure judgments. A total of 49 occupational hygienists from six companies participated in the study and 22 tasks were evaluated. Participating companies provided monitoring data on specific tasks. Information on nine educational and professional experience determinants (e.g. educational background, years of occupational hygiene and exposure assessment experience, professional certifications, statistical training and experience, and the 'need for cognition (NFC)', which is a measure of an individual's motivation for thinking) and four task-specific determinants was also collected from each occupational hygienist. Hygienists had a wide range of educational and professional backgrounds for tasks across a range of industries with different workplace and task characteristics. The American Industrial Hygiene Association exposure assessment strategy was used to make exposure judgments on the probability of the 95th percentile of the underlying exposure distribution being located in one of four exposure categories relative to the occupational exposure limit. After reviewing all available job/task/chemical information, hygienists were asked to provide their judgment in probabilistic terms. Both qualitative (judgments without monitoring data) and quantitative judgments (judgments with monitoring data) were recorded. Ninety-three qualitative judgments and 2142 quantitative judgments were obtained. Data interpretation training, with simple rules of thumb for estimating the 95th percentiles of lognormal distributions, was provided to all hygienists. A data interpretation test (DIT) was also administered and judgments were elicited before and after training. General linear models and cumulative logit models were used to analyze the relationship between

  11. TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE. M J DeVito1 and M P Longnecker2. 1NHEERL, ORD, USEPA; Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Epidemiology
    Branch, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

    To ...

  12. ISSUES THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF MIXED EXPOSURES: THE EPA EXPERIENCE WITH AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues that Must be Addressed for Risk Assessment of Mixed Exposures: The EPA Experience with Air Quality

    Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D.

    Abstract
    Humans are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants in both their outdoor and indoor environments. The wide...

  13. Challenges associated with tracking resources allocation for reproductive health in sub-Saharan African countries: the UNFPA/NIDI resource flows project experience.

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Beekink, Erik; Maina, Beatrice W

    2015-01-01

    Universal access to reproductive health services entails strengthening health systems, but requires significant resource commitments as well as efficient and effective use of those resources. A number of international organizations and governments in developing countries are putting efforts into tracking the flow of health resources in order to inform resource mobilization and allocation, strategic planning, priority setting, advocacy and general policy making. The UNFPA/NIDI-led Resource Flows Project ("The UNFPA/NIDI RF Project") has conducted annual surveys since 1997 to monitor progress achieved by developing countries in implementing reproductive health financial targets. This commentary summarizes the Project experiences and challenges in gathering data on allocation of resources for reproductive health at the domestic level in sub-Saharan African countries. One key lesson learnt from the Project experience is the need for strengthening tracking mechanisms in sub-Saharan African countries and making information on reproductive health resources and expenditures available, in particular the private sector resources. PMID:26012472

  14. Different tracks for pathology informatics fellowship training: Experiences of and input from trainees in a large multisite fellowship program

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Bruce P.; McClintock, David S.; Lee, Roy E.; Lane, William J.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Baron, Jason M.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Brodsky, Victor; Beckwith, Bruce; Kuo, Frank; Gilbertson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pathology Informatics is a new field; a field that is still defining itself even as it begins the formalization, accreditation, and board certification process. At the same time, Pathology itself is changing in a variety of ways that impact informatics, including subspecialization and an increased use of data analysis. In this paper, we examine how these changes impact both the structure of Pathology Informatics fellowship programs and the fellows’ goals within those programs. Materials and Methods: As part of our regular program review process, the fellows evaluated the value and effectiveness of our existing fellowship tracks (Research Informatics, Clinical Two-year Focused Informatics, Clinical One-year Focused Informatics, and Clinical 1 + 1 Subspecialty Pathology and Informatics). They compared their education, informatics background, and anticipated career paths and analyzed them for correlations between those parameters and the fellowship track chosen. All current and past fellows of the program were actively involved with the project. Results: Fellows’ anticipated career paths correlated very well with the specific tracks in the program. A small set of fellows (Clinical – one or two year – Focused Informatics tracks) anticipated clinical careers primarily focused in informatics (Director of Informatics). The majority of the fellows, however, anticipated a career practicing in a Pathology subspecialty, using their informatics training to enhance that practice (Clinical 1 + 1 Subspecialty Pathology and Informatics Track). Significantly, all fellows on this track reported they would not have considered a Clinical Two-year Focused Informatics track if it was the only track offered. The Research and the Clinical One-year Focused Informatics tracks each displayed unique value for different situations. Conclusions: It seems a “one size fits all” fellowship structure does not fit the needs of the majority of potential Pathology Informatics

  15. Ecotoxicological risks of calcium nitrate exposure to freshwater tropical organisms: Laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Sueitt, A P E; Yamada-Ferraz, T M; Oliveira, A F; Botta, C M R; Fadini, P S; Nascimento, M R L; Faria, B M; Mozeto, A A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze laboratory and field data to assess the ecotoxicological risks of calcium nitrate exposure to freshwater tropical biota. Short-term laboratorial tests resulted in estimated EC₅₀ values of 76.72 (67.32-86.12)mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. silvestrii and 296.46 (277.16-315.76) mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. xanthus. Long-term laboratorial tests generated IC₂₅ values of 5.05 (4.35-5.75) and 28.73 (26.30-31.15) mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) for C. silvestrii and C. xanthus, respectively. The results from in situ mesocosm experiments performed in the Ibirité reservoir (a tropical eutrophic urban water body located in SE Brazil) indicated that C. silvestrii and C. xanthus were not under severe deleterious acute impact due to the treatment because the higher nitrate concentrations determined were 5.2 mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) (t=24 h; sediment-water interface) and 17.5 mg N-NO₃₋ L(-1) (t=600 h; interstitial water). However, an abrupt decrease in the densities of Cyanophyceae members and other benthic taxa was observed. In summary, the present work contributes greatly to the toxicity data linked to two taxonomically distinct organisms that have never been screened for calcium nitrate sensitivity. Furthermore, considering the problem of the management and restoration of eutrophic environments, our study reports a comprehensive field assessment that allows the elucidation of the possible toxic impacts caused by the addition of calcium nitrate (a remediation technique) on aquatic and benthic organisms as well as the implications on the aquatic ecosystem as a whole, which may greatly allow expanding the current knowledgebase on the topic. PMID:25868152

  16. Cryogenic Considerations for Superconducting Magnet Design for the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Dr. Jonathan A; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Caughman, John B; Goulding, Richard Howell; McGinnis, William Dean; Bjorholm, Thomas P; Rapp, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine long term performance of plasma facing components such as diverters and first walls for fusion devices, next generation plasma generators are needed. A Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) has been proposed to address this need through the generation of plasmas in front of the target with electron temperatures of 1-15 eV and electron densities of 1020 to 1021 m-3. Heat fluxes on target diverters could reach 20 MW/m2. In order generate this plasma, a unique radio frequency helicon source and heating of electrons and ions through Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) has been proposed. MPEX requires a series of magnets with non-uniform central fields up to 2 T over a 5m length in the heating and transport region and 1 T uniform central field over a 1-m length on a diameter of 1.3 m. Given the field requirements, superconducting magnets are under consideration for MPEX. In order to determine the best construction method for the magnets, the cryogenic refrigeration has been analyzed with respect to cooldown and operational performance criteria for open-cycle and closed-cycle systems, capital and operating costs of these system, and maturity of supporting technology such as cryocoolers. These systems will be compared within the context of commercially available magnet constructions to determine the most economical method for MPEX operation. The current state of the MPEX magnet design including details on possible superconducting magnet configurations will be presented.

  17. Cryogenic considerations for superconducting magnet design for the material plasma exposure experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckworth, R. C.; Demko, J. A.; Lumsdaine, A.; Rapp, J.; Bjorholm, T.; Goulding, R. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; McGinnis, W. D.

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine long term performance of plasma facing components such as diverters and first walls for fusion devices, next generation plasma generators are needed. A Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) has been proposed to address this need through the generation of plasmas in front of the target with electron temperatures of 1-15 eV and electron densities of 1020 to 1021 m-3. Heat fluxes on target diverters could reach 20 MW/m2. To generate this plasma, a unique radio frequency helicon source and heating of electrons and ions through Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) has been proposed. MPEX requires a series of magnets with non-uniform central fields up to 2 T over a 5-m length in the heating and transport region and 1 T uniform central field over a 1-m length on a diameter of 1.3 m. Given the field requirements, superconducting magnets are under consideration for MPEX. In order to determine the best construction method for the magnets, the cryogenic refrigeration has been analyzed with respect to cooldown and operational performance criteria for open-cycle and closed-cycle systems, capital and operating costs of these system, and maturity of supporting technology such as cryocoolers. These systems will be compared within the context of commercially available magnet constructions to determine the most economical method for MPEX operation. The current state of the MPEX magnet design including details on possible superconducting magnet configurations is presented.

  18. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) attitude measurements of the interplanetary dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Singer, S. Fred; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Weinberg, Jerry L.; Cooke, William J.; Wortman, Jim J.; Motley, William R., III

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) was unique in providing a time history of impacts of micron-sized particles on six orthogonal faces of LDEF during the first year in orbit. The value of this time resolved data depended on and was enhanced by the proper operation of some basic LDEF systems. Thus, the value of the data is greatly enhanced when the location and orientation of LDEF is known for each time of impact. The location and velocity of LDEF as a function of time can be calculated from the 'two-line elements' published by GSFC during the first year of the LDEF mission. The attitude of LDEF was passively stabilized in a gravity-gradient mode and a magnetically anchored viscous damper was used to dissipate roll, pitch, and yaw motions. Finally, the IDE used a standard LDEF Experiment Power and Data System (EPDS) to collect and store data and also to provide a crystal derived clock pulse (1 count every 13.1072 seconds) for all IDE time measurements. All that remained for the IDE was to provide a system to calibrate the clock, eliminating accumulative errors, and also verify the attitude of LDEF. The IDE used solar cells on six orthogonal faces to observe the LDEF sunrise and provide data about the LDEF attitude. The data was recorded by the EPDS about 10 times per day for the first 345 days of the LDEF mission. This data consist of the number of IDE counts since the last LDEF sunrise and the status of the six solar cells (light or dark) at the time of the last IDE count. The EPDS determined the time that data was recorded and includes, with each record, the master EPDS clock counter (1 count every 1.6384 seconds) that provided the range and resolution for time measurements. The IDE solar cells provided data for an excellent clock calibration, meeting their primary purpose, and the time resolved LDEF attitude measurements that can be gleaned from this data are presented.

  19. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Grace T.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  20. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the LDEF. Calculated atomic oxygen exposures are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation. Results also incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the six year flight of the spacecraft. Solar radiation exposure calculations are based on the form factors reported in the Solar Illumination Data Package prepared by NASA Langley. The earth albedo value for these calculations was based on the Nimbus 7 earth radiation data set. Summary charts for both atomic oxygen and solar radiation exposure are presented to facilitate the use of the data generated by LDEF experimenters.

  1. Turning a Common Lab Exercise into a Challenging Lab Experiment: Revisiting the Cart on an Inclined Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Joseph C.; Williams, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    A common lab exercise in the introductory college physics course employs a low-friction cart and associated track to study the validity of Newton's second law. Yet for college students, especially those who have already encountered a good high school physics course, the exercise must seem a little pointless. These students have already learned to…

  2. Design and characterization of the SiPM tracking system of NEXT-DEMO, a demonstrator prototype of the NEXT-100 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, V.; Ball, M.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T. H. V. T.; Díaz, J.; Egorov, M.; Esteve, R.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Garcia, A. N. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Gil, A.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, H.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jinete, M. A.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Moiseenko, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Natal da Luz, H.; Navarro, G.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Palma, R.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Seguí, L.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Tomás, A.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Vázquez, D.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2013-05-01

    NEXT-100 experiment aims at searching the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 136Xe isotope using a TPC filled with a 100 kg of high-pressure gaseous xenon, with 90% isotopic enrichment. The experiment will take place at the Laboratorio Subterr&aposaneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain. NEXT-100 uses electroluminescence (EL) technology for energy measurement with a resolution better than 1% FWHM. The gaseous xenon in the TPC additionally allows the tracks of the two beta particles to be recorded, which are expected to have a length of up to 30 cm at 10 bar pressure. The ability to record the topological signature of the ββ0ν events provides a powerful background rejection factor for the ββ experiment. In this paper, we present a novel 3D imaging concept using SiPMs coated with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) for the EL read out and its first implementation in NEXT-DEMO, a large-scale prototype of the NEXT-100 experiment. The design and the first characterization measurements of the NEXT-DEMO SiPM tracking system are presented. The SiPM response uniformity over the tracking plane drawn from its gain map is shown to be better than 4%. An automated active control system for the stabilization of the SiPMs gain was developed, based on the voltage supply compensation of the gain drifts. The gain is shown to be stabilized within 0.2% relative variation around its nominal value, provided by Hamamatsu, in a temperature range of 10°C. The noise level from the electronics and the SiPM dark noise is shown to lay typically below the level of 10 photoelectrons (pe) in the ADC. Hence, a detection threshold at 10 pe is set for the acquisition of the tracking signals. The ADC full dynamic range (4096 channels) is shown to be adequate for signal levels of up to 200 pe/μs, which enables recording most of the tracking signals.

  3. Common Sole Larvae Survive High Levels of Pile-Driving Sound in Controlled Exposure Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bolle, Loes J.; de Jong, Christ A. F.; Bierman, Stijn M.; van Beek, Pieter J. G.; van Keeken, Olvin A.; Wessels, Peter W.; van Damme, Cindy J. G.; Winter, Hendrik V.; de Haan, Dick; Dekeling, René P. A.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-)lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa) and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea) larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised. PMID:22431996

  4. Radiation sensitivity of quartz crystal oscillators experiment for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, J. S.; Venables, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    The stability of high precision quartz crystal oscillators exposed to the radiation environment of NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was studied. Comparisons between pre-flight and post-flight frequency drift rates indicate that oscillators made from swept premium Q quartz exhibited a significantly greater post-flight drift rate than before exposure, but that the effect annealed after five months aging at 75 C (the operating temperature). The result that six years worth of radiation damage annealed out in less than six months suggests that if the oscillators had been powered during the LDEF mission, no net change in drift rate beyond their normal baseline value would have occurred.

  5. Atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation mission total exposures for LDEF experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Rousslang, Ken W.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical treatment of the effect of thermal molecular velocity on spacecraft atomic oxygen (AO) flux is presented. The analysis leads to a closed form equation that incorporates the effect of atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, and incidence angle on AO flux. The effects of atmospheric rotation, solar activity, and geomagnetic index on AO flux are also included on the computer model. Data developed with the model are presented for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The results incorporate variations in the defining environmental and orbital parameters of the spacecraft over its six year orbital flight. Cumulative ultraviolet solar and albedo exposures were calculated .

  6. The Level of Exposure-Dental Experiences Questionnaire (LOE-DEQ): a measure of severity of exposure to distressing dental events.

    PubMed

    Oosterink, Floor M D; de Jongh, Ad; Hoogstraten, Johan; Aartman, Irene H A

    2008-08-01

    To understand the development of dental anxiety better and to identify those at increased risk of developing dental anxiety, the Level of Exposure-Dental Experiences Questionnaire (LOE-DEQ) was developed. The aim of the current study was to determine the psychometric properties (i.e. factor structure, reliability, and validity) of the LOE-DEQ and to determine its suitability as an additional screening instrument for dentally anxious patients. Five different samples were used: (i) highly dentally anxious patients (n = 119); (ii) general dental patients (n = 480); (iii) students (n = 186); (iv) psychiatric outpatients (n = 17); and (v) oral surgery patients (n = 34). Results of the factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution. The LOE-DEQ has sufficient internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.69 to 0.85) and satisfactory test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.78). The results further suggest that this instrument has adequate discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity. It is concluded that the LOE-DEQ is a useful tool for assessing patients' background in terms of previous exposure to distressing dental events, which is considered a vulnerability factor in the development of dental anxiety. PMID:18705803

  7. The < ln A > study with the Muon tracking detector in the KASCADE-Grande experiment - comparison of hadronic interaction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuczak, P.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Curcio, C.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Fuchs, B.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2015-08-01

    With the KASCADE-Grande Muon Tracking Detector it was possible to measure with high accuracy directions of EAS muons with energy above 0.8 GeV and up to 700 m distance from the shower centre. Reconstructed muon tracks allow investigation of muon pseudorapidity (η) distributions. These distributions are nearly identical to the pseudorapidity distributions of their parent mesons produced in hadronic interactions. Comparison of the η distributions from measured and simulated showers can be used to test the quality of the high energy hadronic interaction models. The pseudorapidity distributions reflect the longitudinal development of EAS and, as such, are sensitive to the mass of the cosmic ray primary particles. With various parameters of the η distribution, obtained from the Muon Tracking Detector data, it is possible to calculate the average logarithm of mass of the primary cosmic ray particles. The results of the < ln A > analysis in the primary energy range 1016 eV-1017 eV with the 1st quartile and the mean value of the distributions will be presented for the QGSJet-II-2, QGSJet-II-4, EPOS 1.99 and EPOS LHC models in combination with the FLUKA model.

  8. Long Duration Exposure Facility M0003-5 thermal control coatings on DoD flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Charles J.; Lehn, William L.

    1992-01-01

    The M0003-5 thermal control coatings and materials orbited on the LDEF M0003 Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials were a part of a Wright Laboratories Materials Directorate larger experiment. They were selected from new materials which emerged from development programs during the 1978-1982 time frame. Included were materials described in the technical literature which were being considered or had been applied to satellites. Materials that had been exposed on previous satellite materials experiments were also included to provide data correlation with earlier space flight experiments. The objective was to determine the effect of the LDEF environment on the physical and optical properties of thermal control coatings and materials. One hundred and two specimens of various pigmented organic and inorganic coatings, metallized polymer thin films, optical solar reflectors, and mirrors were orbited on LDEF. The materials were exposed in four separate locations on the vehicle. The first set was exposed on the direct leading edge of the satellite. The second set was exposed on the direct trailing edge of the vehicle. The third and fourth sets were exposed in environmental exposure control canisters (EECC) located 30 degrees off normal to the leading and trailing edges. The purpose of the experiment was to understand the changes in the properties of materials before and after exposure to the space environment and to compare the changes with predictions based on laboratory experiments. The basic approach was to measure the optical and physical properties of materials before and after long-term exposure to a low earth orbital environment comprised of UV, VUV, electrons, protons, atomic oxygen, thermal cycling, vacuum, debris, and micrometeoroids. Due to the unanticipated extended orbital flight of LDEF, the thermal control coatings and materials in the direct leading and trailing edge were exposed for a full five years and ten months to the space environment and the

  9. Pollution Comes Home and Gets Personal: Women's Experience of Household Chemical Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Brown, Phil; Averick, Mara

    2008-01-01

    We report on interviews conducted with participants in a novel study about environmental chemicals in body fluids and household air and dust. Interviews reveal how personal and collective environmental history influence the interpretation of exposure data, and how participants fashion an emergent understanding of environmental health problems from…

  10. EXPERIENCES WITH USING PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ANALYSIS METHODS IN THE U.S. EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade various Offices and Programs within the U.S. EPA have either initiated or increased the development and application of probabilistic exposure analysis models. These models have been applied to a broad range of research or regulatory problems in EPA, such as e...

  11. Exposure to Science Is Not Enough: The Influence of Classroom Experiences on Belief in Paranormal Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manza, Lou; Hilperts, Keri; Hindley, Lauren; Marco, Christina; Santana, Amanda; Hawk, Michelle Vosburgh

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs in scientifically unsubstantiated ideas were investigated with a study that contrasted college students' attitudes toward paranormal phenomena before and after exposure to skeptical arguments concerning these events. Specifically, students enrolled in 2 sections of a psychological statistics course were exposed to illustrations of…

  12. Defining Child Exposure to Domestic Violence as Neglect: Minnesota's Difficult Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Gassman-Pines, Jenny; Hill, Marissa B.

    2006-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly focusing on children exposed to domestic violence. The 1999 Minnesota legislature amended the definition of child neglect to include a child's exposure to family violence. What was initially seen as a simple change to bring more attention to children exposed to domestic violence resulted in great turmoil across…

  13. The impact of composite AUC estimates on the prediction of systemic exposure in toxicology experiments.

    PubMed

    Sahota, Tarjinder; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2015-06-01

    Current toxicity protocols relate measures of systemic exposure (i.e. AUC, Cmax) as obtained by non-compartmental analysis to observed toxicity. A complicating factor in this practice is the potential bias in the estimates defining safe drug exposure. Moreover, it prevents the assessment of variability. The objective of the current investigation was therefore (a) to demonstrate the feasibility of applying nonlinear mixed effects modelling for the evaluation of toxicokinetics and (b) to assess the bias and accuracy in summary measures of systemic exposure for each method. Here, simulation scenarios were evaluated, which mimic toxicology protocols in rodents. To ensure differences in pharmacokinetic properties are accounted for, hypothetical drugs with varying disposition properties were considered. Data analysis was performed using non-compartmental methods and nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Exposure levels were expressed as area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC), peak concentrations (Cmax) and time above a predefined threshold (TAT). Results were then compared with the reference values to assess the bias and precision of parameter estimates. Higher accuracy and precision were observed for model-based estimates (i.e. AUC, Cmax and TAT), irrespective of group or treatment duration, as compared with non-compartmental analysis. Despite the focus of guidelines on establishing safety thresholds for the evaluation of new molecules in humans, current methods neglect uncertainty, lack of precision and bias in parameter estimates. The use of nonlinear mixed effects modelling for the analysis of toxicokinetics provides insight into variability and should be considered for predicting safe exposure in humans. PMID:25868863

  14. Exposure to conflict and disaster: A national survey on the prevalence of psychotic experiences in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Keraite, Arune; Sumathipala, Athula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Recent research conducted in high-income countries suggests psychotic experiences are common in the general population, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains limited. Sri Lanka is a LMIC affected by three decades of civil conflict and, in 2004, a devastating tsunami. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic experiences in a general population sample in Sri Lanka and associations with conflict- and tsunami-related trauma. This is a first National Mental Health Survey conducted in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional, multi-stage, cluster sampling design was used to estimate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, conflict- and tsunami-related trauma, and psychotic experiences were collected using culturally validated measures in a sample of 5927 participants. The weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.7%. Exposure to one or more conflict-related events (adj. OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.40-2.31, p<0.001) and loss or injury of a family member or friend through conflict (adj. OR, 1.83, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, p<0.001) were associated with increased odds of reporting psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were more common in individuals directly exposed to tsunami disaster (adj. OR, 1.68, 95% CI 1.04-2.73, P=0.035) and in those who had a family member who died or was injured as result of tsunami (adj. OR, 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94, p=0.029). Our findings suggest that psychotic experiences are common in the Sri Lankan population. Exposure to traumatic events in armed conflicts and natural disasters may be important socio-environmental factors in the development of psychotic experiences. PMID:26817400

  15. Foreign-language experience in infancy: Effects of short-term exposure and social interaction on phonetic learning

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2003-01-01

    Infants acquire language with remarkable speed, although little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the acquisition process. Studies of the phonetic units of language have shown that early in life, infants are capable of discerning differences among the phonetic units of all languages, including native- and foreign-language sounds. Between 6 and 12 mo of age, the ability to discriminate foreign-language phonetic units sharply declines. In two studies, we investigate the necessary and sufficient conditions for reversing this decline in foreign-language phonetic perception. In Experiment 1, 9-mo-old American infants were exposed to native Mandarin Chinese speakers in 12 laboratory sessions. A control group also participated in 12 language sessions but heard only English. Subsequent tests of Mandarin speech perception demonstrated that exposure to Mandarin reversed the decline seen in the English control group. In Experiment 2, infants were exposed to the same foreign-language speakers and materials via audiovisual or audio-only recordings. The results demonstrated that exposure to recorded Mandarin, without interpersonal interaction, had no effect. Between 9 and 10 mo of age, infants show phonetic learning from live, but not prerecorded, exposure to a foreign language, suggesting a learning process that does not require long-term listening and is enhanced by social interaction. PMID:12861072

  16. WE-G-BRF-08: Robust Characterization and Patient Experience of a Time-Resolved Ultrasound System for Prostate Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, R; Yan, D; Ionascu, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Characterization of a time resolved ultrasound device (4D-US), used for localization and motion monitoring of prostate radiotherapy. Methods: The 4D-US system accuracy to reproduce prostate motion was investigated and artifacts were determined under detailed experimental and ultimately clinical conditions. Two fields of view (FOV) of 30 and 60 degrees and two corresponding acquisition speeds were evaluated under experimental conditions with gradual increased complexity. The reconstruction ability and trajectory tracking depends on the relative speed between the ultrasound probe and the moving object. Two different types of phantoms were developed; one capable of following a predetermined trajectory with variable speeds, and a second one designed to test the US ability to a track dynamically-deformed prostate. Four hypo-prostate patients (10fx) were monitored during the treatment to detect intrafraction motion. Results: Prostate speeds up to 6mm/s and 3mm/s can be successfully tracked by the system when using the small and large FOV, respectively. The system response time, calculated based on the speedinduced volumetric distortion, is dependent on the FOV, with 1.1s for the small FOV and 1.4s for the large FOV. The response time was also found dependent on the size of target, increasing from 1.4s to 1.7s for target diameters of 4cm to 2.8cm. The deformable dynamic phantom has shown that the system is able to successfully follow a highly-deformed, slowmoving prostate with an error < 0.5mm. The overall range of patient intrafraction motion was (−2.4 to 2.2)mm, (−2.6 to 2.4)mm, (−3.0 to 4.3)mm in the RL, SI and AP directions, respectively. Conclusion: The 4DUS system using a large FOV is appropriate to monitor the prostate motion as well as the adjacent organs at risk. However, infrequent abrupt motion can be problematic and the small FOV system is preferred for such patients, particularly for future applications as online prostate monitoring employed

  17. Exposure to oscillating magnetic fields influences sensitivity to electrical stimuli. 2: Experiments on humans

    SciTech Connect

    Papi, F.; Del Seppia, C.; Luschi, P.; Ghione, S.; Rosa, C.

    1995-12-01

    To assess the effect of a magnetic treatment on pain perception, the authors compared the sensory threshold in 18 healthy volunteers. They determined the threshold by noninvasive electrical stimulation of the tooth pulp and skin before and after exposure to an altered magnetic field of low intensity and to a sham treatment. Five different parameters were recorded: the sensory and pain thresholds for the tooth and the sensory, pain, and tolerance thresholds for the skin. Two hours of exposure to a weak, oscillating magnetic field induced a significant decrease in three parameters (dental sensory and cutaneous pain and tolerance thresholds), whereas the other two parameters showed a similar tendency. When the same subjects were exposed to a sham treatment, only marginal, nonsignificant variations in all parameters were observed. These results represent the first piece of evidence that weak alterations of the magnetic field may induce hyperalgesia in humans.

  18. Reducing the underreporting of percutaneous exposure incidents: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Carlos; Heine, Markus; Loebermann, Micha; Klammt, Sebastian; Podbielski, Andreas; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Reisinger, Emil C

    2016-08-01

    Although risk reduction strategies have been implemented throughout the world, underreporting of percutaneous exposure incidents (PEIs) is common among exposed health care workers. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate of reported PEIs before and after implementation of an intensified reporting management policy. The introduction of an intensified reporting system led to significantly increased reporting after a PEI has occurred. However, continuous education needs to be provided to improve awareness. PMID:27125915

  19. Solidification under zero gravity: A Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment for an early space shuttle mission. [project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Project planning for two series of simple experiments on the effect of zero gravity on the melting and freezing of metals and nonmetals is described. The experiments will be performed in the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and their purpose will be to study: (1) the general morphology of metals and nonmetals during solidification, (2) the location of ullage space (liquid-vapor interfaces), and (3) the magnitude of surface tension driven convection during solidification of metals and nonmetals. The preliminary design of the experiments is presented. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given. In addition a work plan and cost analysis are provided.

  20. Space Environment Exposure Results from the MISSE 5 Polymer Film Thermal Control Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Dever, Joyce A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that polymer films can degrade in space due to exposure to the environment, but the magnitude of the mechanical property degradation and the degree to which the different environmental factors play a role in it is not well understood. This paper describes the results of an experiment flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 to determine the change in tensile strength and % elongation of some typical polymer films exposed in a nadir facing environment on the International Space Station and where possible compare to similar ram and wake facing experiments flown on MISSE 1 to get a better indication of the role the different environments play in mechanical property change.

  1. The LDCE Particle Impact Experiment as flown on STS-46. [limited duration space environment candidate materials exposure (LDCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, Carl R.; Tanner, William G.; Borg, Janet; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Alexander, W. Merle; Maag, Andrew J.

    1992-01-01

    Many materials and techniques have been developed by the authors to sample the flux of particles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Though regular in-site sampling of the flux in LEO the materials and techniques have produced data which compliment the data now being amassed by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) research activities. Orbital debris models have not been able to describe the flux of particles with d sub p less than or = 0.05 cm, because of the lack of data. Even though LDEF will provide a much needed baseline flux measurement, the continuous monitoring of micron and sub-micron size particles must be carried out. A flight experiment was conducted on the Space Shuttle as part of the LDCE payload to develop an understanding of the Spatial Density (concentration) as a function of size (mass) for particle sizes 1 x 10(exp 6) cm and larger. In addition to the enumeration of particle impacts, it is the intent of the experiment that hypervelocity particles be captured and returned intact. Measurements will be performed post flight to determine the flux density, diameters, and subsequent effects on various optical, thermal control and structural materials. In addition to these principal measurements, the Particle Impact Experiment (PIE) also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment, e.g., thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen, etc. The experiment will measure the optical property changes of mirrors and will provide the fluence of the ambient atomic oxygen environment to other payload experimenters. In order to augment the amount of material returned in a form which can be analyzed, the survivability of the experiment as well as the captured particles will be assessed. Using Sandia National Laboratory's hydrodynamic computer code CTH, hypervelocity impacts on the materials which comprise the experiments have been investigated and the progress of these studies are reported.

  2. Eye-tracking AFROC study of the influence of experience and training on chest x-ray interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, David; Ethell, Susan C.; Crawford, Trevor

    2003-05-01

    Four observer groups with different levels of expertise were tested in an investigation into the comparative nature of expert performance. The radiological task was the detection and localization of significant pulmonary nodules in postero-anterior vies of the chest in adults. Three test banks of 40 images were used. The observer groups were 6 experienced radiographers prior to a six month training program in chest image interpretation, the same radiographers after their tr4aining program, and 6 fresher undergraduate radiography students. Eye tracking was carried out on all observers to demonstrate differences in visual activity and nodule detection performance was measured with an AFROC technique. Detection performances of the four groups showed the radiologists and radiographers after training were measurably superior at the task. The eye-tracking parameters saccadic length, number of fixations visual coverage and scrutiny timer per film were measured for all subjects and compared. The missed nodules fixated and not fixated were also determined for the radiologist group. Results have shown distinct stylistic differences in the visual scanning strategies between the experienced and inexperienced observers that we believe can be generalized into a description of characteristics of expert versus non-expert performance. The findings will be used in the educational program of image interpretation for non-radiology practitioners.

  3. [My experience in mercury toxicology: behavioral teratology study of the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    I would like to express sincere thanks to all the people involved in awarding the 2005 Congress Award. It is a great honor to be given the prize. I have been interested in mercury toxicology since I was a graduate student and mercury toxicology has been my main subject of focus for 30 years. I am proud to continue the research in this field. In this presentation I would like to summarize some of my research works and to talk anecdotes related to the research works. Soon after I became involved in this research field, I came across "behavioral teratology", which is a novel field of study whose focus is understanding the postnatal consequences of exposure to harmful agents in utero. Spyker and her colleagues clearly showed postnatal behavioral deviations in mouse offspring exposed to a low dose of methylmercury prenatally. In various animal experiments, I elucidated the subtle consequences that appear postnatally. I found that these consequences are modified by many factors such as selenium status, PCBs, and heat, because the degree of exposure to produce these consequences can be extremely small. These experiments simulate actual human life and the results will be useful to assess the risk of methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in the human population, since fish eating populations are exposed to these factors at a low dose. Recently, cohort studies elucidating the possible effects of prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants in the postnatal period have been established and ongoing. When a conclusion is drawn, it is expected to serve as basic information that is useful for the risk assessment of methylmercury and other environmental pollutants. This will give great gratification to scientists in environmental health and preventive medicine. PMID:17575786

  4. Activation, Heating and Exposure Rates for Mo‐99 Experiments with 25‐Disk Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Charles T. IV

    2012-05-09

    An MCNPX model of the 25-disk target assembly inside the vacuum cube inside the shielded box was prepared. This was used to calculate heating and photon and neutron fluxes throughout the model. Production rates for photonuclear reaction products were calculated using the photon fluxes and ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Measured isomer to ground state yield ratios were used where available. Where not available the new correlation between spin deficit and isomer to ground state yield ratios presented at AccApp'11 was used. The photonuclear production rates and neutron fluxes were input to CINDER2008 for transmutation calculations. A cross section update file was used to supply (n,n') reactions missing from CINDER2008 libraries. Decay photon spectra produced by CINDER2008 were then used to calculate exposure rates using the MCNPX model. Two electron beam irradiations were evaluated. The first was for a thermal test at 15 MeV with 1300 {micro}A incident on one target end and the second was for a production test at 35 MeV with 350 {micro}A incident on both target ends (700 {micro}A total current on target). For the thermal test 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h irradiation times were simulated, each followed by decay time steps out to 42 days. For the production test 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h irradiation times were simulated followed by the same decay periods. For all simulations beam FWHMs in x and y were both assumed to be 6 mm. Simulations were run for Mo-100 enriched and natural Mo targets for both tests. It is planned that thermal test will be run for 4 h with natural target disks and production test will be run for 24 h with enriched target disks. Results for these two simulations only are presented in this report. Other results can be made available upon request. Post irradiation exposure rates were calculated at 30 cm distances from left, right, front and back of the following configurations: (1) Shielded box with everything in it (beam pipes, cooling pipes, vacuum cube

  5. Results of the "Komplast" experiment on the long-term exposure of materials specimens on the ISS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumov, Andrey; Novikov, Lev

    The "Komplast" materials experiment was designed by the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center together with Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University and other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out since 1998. The aim of the experiment is to study the complex effects of space factors on specimens of various materials. Eight “Komplast” panels fitted with material specimens equipped UV-sensors and temperature sensors were located on the International Space Station (ISS) Functional Cargo Block (FGB) module exterior surface. The panels were sent into orbit with the FGB when it launched on November 20, 1998. Two of these panels were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle Discovery after 12 years of LEO exposure. The uniqueness of the "Komplast" experiment determined by long duration of open space exposure, which is much longer than in other similar experiments. For example LDEF: 1984-1990, МЕЕР (Space Station «Mir»): 1996-1997, MISSE-1, -2 (ISS): 1,5-2 years. In this work reveals laboratory research results of some materials specimens, which had been exposed on “Komplast” panels. A distinctive feature of this research was additional irradiation of specimens by atomic oxygen and electrons with energies of ~ 1-8 MeV in laboratory. In the interpretation of the experiment results was taken into account the specimens exposure temperature conditions on the ISS exterior surface and the conditions of their sunlit, defined by the above-mentioned sensors readings. Lot of attention was paid to the investigation of rubber materials specimens. The deformation, mechanical and relaxation characteristics were defined for the specimens. Also were investigations the seals-ability of model rubber seals after the long-term outer exposure. It was determined conservation volumetric deformation and relaxation characteristics of the exposed specimens and the localization of structural changes in the thin

  6. Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Gunnar D.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

  7. Acquisition, tracking, pointing, and line-of-sight control laboratory experiments for a space-based bifocal relay mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Michael G.; Agrawal, Brij N.; Romano, Marcello; Brunson, Richard L.; Dillow, James D.; Nelson, Douglas H.; Connors, J. J.; Restaino, Sergio R.

    2002-07-01

    Space based bifocal relay mirrors are potentially an enabling/enhancing piece of any architecture making use of long-range laser propagation. Inherent in the bifocal concept is dual line of sight control. This is especially challenging in this space-based application due to spacecraft attitude control issues. This paper presents a summary of the research into acquisition, tracking, pointing (ATP) and control technologies relevant to a bifocal relay mirror system as well as the development of a laboratory experimental test bed to integrate the advanced optics systems onto a Three-axis spacecraft simulator. The relay geometry includes a cooperative source and either a cooperative or non-cooperative target depending on the application. The described test bed is a joint effort with the Air Force Research Laboratory (optics) and the Naval Postgraduate School (spacecraft simulator).

  8. Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements of Fusion-Reaction Protons

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowska, A.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Sadowski, M. J.; Wassenhove, G. van; Galkowski, A.

    2008-03-19

    The paper reports on measurements of the space distribution of fusion protons of energy equal to about 3-MeV, originating from the D(d, p)T reactions. The measurements were carried out on the TEXTOR facility by means of a small ion pinhole camera, which was equipped with a solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type. The results obtained in two series of successive discharges are compared. The first series was performed with an additional heating of TEXTOR plasmas with NBI of fast deuterons, whereas in the second series plasma was heated by ICRF and NBI of hydrogen neutrals. Computer simulations of different trajectories of charged particles have been performed with the Gourdon code and the detection efficiency has been calculated for various orientations of the measuring assembly.

  9. SU-E-I-58: Experiences in Setting Up An Online Fluoroscopy Tracking System in a Large Healthcare System

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R; Wunderle, K; Lingenfelter, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Transitioning from a paper based to an online system for tracking fluoroscopic case information required by state regulation and to conform to NCRP patient dose tracking suggestions. Methods: State regulations require documentation of operator, equipment, and some metric of tube output for fluoroscopy exams. This information was previously collected in paper logs, which was cumbersome and inefficient for the large number of fluoroscopic units across multiple locations within the system. The “tech notes” feature within Siemens’ Syngo workflow RIS was utilized to create an entry form for technologists to input case information, which was sent to a third party vendor for archiving and display though an online web based portal. Results: Over 55k cases were logged in the first year of implementation, with approximately 6,500 cases per month once fully online. A system was built for area managers to oversee and correct data, which has increased the accuracy of inputted values. A high-dose report was built to automatically send notifications when patients exceed trigger levels. In addition to meeting regulatory requirements, the new system allows for larger scale QC in fluoroscopic cases by allowing comparison of data from specific procedures, locations, equipment, and operators so that instances that fall outside of reference levels can be identified for further evaluation. The system has also drastically improved identification of operators without documented equipment specific training. Conclusion: The transition to online fluoroscopy logs has improved efficiency in meeting state regulatory requirements as well as allowed for identification of particular procedures, equipment, and operators in need of additional attention in order to optimize patient and personnel doses, while high dose alerts improve patient care and follow up. Future efforts are focused on incorporating case information from outside of radiology, as well as on automating processes for

  10. Skill Learning Through Early Clinical Exposure: An Experience of Indian Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Jagzape, Arunita; Srivastava, Tripti; Gotarkar, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Indian Medical curriculum being discipline based, there is a line of demarcation between preclinical and clinical subjects. The challenges in medical education include the methods that would enhance the clinical education quality; one such method been Early Clinical Exposure (ECE). ECE can help to instill the skill component of medical education in the first year students helping to minimize the line of demarcation. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the skill learning of students through early clinical exposure and to collate the perception of them. Materials and Methods: In the present study, students of 1st MBBS were exposed to ECE as an adjunct teaching method with preset modules. They were evaluated by Objectively Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Feedback was obtained from 1st MBBS and also from the same students after passing the 1st MBBS in 4th semester. Results Significant differences in pre and post OSCE scores were noted (p<0.0001). Seventy six percent students rated ECE as an excellent tool. Second year students also perceived ECE held in 1st year was helpful to correlate topics and increasing confidence. Conclusion ECE had an effective influence on learning as manifested in skills gained by the students and their perceptions of ECE being helpful prospectively in their routine clinical posting. PMID:26894088

  11. MISSE PEACE Polymers: An International Space Station Environmental Exposure Experiment Being Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Hammerstrom, Anne; Youngstrom, Erica; Kaminski, Carolyn; Marx, Laura; Fine, Elizabeth; Gummow, Jonathan D.; Wright, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), 41 different polymers are being exposed for approximately 1 1/2 years to the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) environment on the exterior of the International Space Station. MISSE is a materials flight experiment sponsored by the Air Force Research Lab/Materials Lab and NASA, and is the first external experiment on the space station. A similar set of 41 polymers will be flown as part of the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) a shuttle flight experiment that is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center collaboratively with the Hathaway Brown School for girls. Therefore, these 41 polymers are collectively called the MISSE PEACE Polymers. The purpose of the MISSE PEACE Polymers experiment is to determine how durable polymers are in the LEO space environment where spacecraft, such as the space station, orbit. Polymers are commonly used as spacecraft materials because of their desirable properties such as good flexibility, low density, and certain electrical properties or optical properties (such as a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance). Two examples of the use of polymers on the exterior of spacecraft exposed to the space environment include metalized Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene, DuPont) thermal control materials on the Hubble Space Telescope, and polyimide Kapton (DuPont) solar array blankets.

  12. The AMINO experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-R experiment on the International Space Station and in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Colas, Cyril; Cadène, Martine; Chaput, Didier; Brack, Andre; Cottin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the results of previous experiments concerning the chemical behaviour of organic molecules in the space environment, organic molecules (amino acids and a dipeptide) in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the AMINO experiment in the EXPOSE-R facility onboard the International Space Station. After exposure to space conditions for 24 months (2843 h of irradiation), the samples were returned to the Earth and analysed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar ultraviolet (UV) and other electromagnetic radiation. Laboratory UV exposure was carried out in parallel in the Cologne DLR Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt). The molecules were extracted from the sample holder and then (1) derivatized by silylation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the compounds and (2) analysed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to understand the chemical reactions that occurred. The GC-MS results confirm that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and of the wavelengths of the UV light. They also confirm the protective effect of a coating of meteorite powder. The most altered compounds were the dipeptides and aspartic acid while the most robust were compounds with a hydrocarbon chain. The MS analyses document the products of reactions, such as decarboxylation and decarbonylation of aspartic acid, taking place after UV exposure. Given the universality of chemistry in space, our results have a broader implication for the fate of organic molecules that seeded the planets as soon as they became habitable as well as for the effects of UV radiation on exposed molecules at the surface of Mars, for example.

  13. The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) Experiment on the Organisms/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) Nanosatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Ricco, A.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.

    2010-04-01

    The organism/organic exposure to orbital stresses nanosatellite has been developed as the first flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small-Payloads Program. The satellite includes the SEVO experiment, which investigates the stability of organics.

  14. Metabolic model of lead kinetics based upon measured organ burdens during chronic exposure experiments with infant and juvenile baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the kinetics of lead metabolism in the infant and juvenile baboon has been developed based upon data from chronic exposure experiments in this non-human primate. The model of lead metabolism presents in quantitative terms the rates of uptake, distribution and elimination that lead may undergo during its passage through the organism. The organs of accumulation are defined as compartments, each of which is defined as a quantity of tissue that behaves kinetically like a distinct, homogeneous, well mixed pool in terms of lead concentration. The flow of lead between the compartments of accumulation is described by a series of differential equations. Elimination rate coefficients, expressed in terms of the biological half-life for each compartment have been estimated. The model describes the observed build-up and accumulation of lead in the major body compartments of the infant and juvenile baboon. The model indicates that: the biological half-life of lead in blood of the very young animals is shorter than that of the older animals; there is a higher rate of uptake of lead in the soft tissues and in the bones of rapidly growing animals; and there is an inverse relationship between the quality of lead administered and the amount of lead absorbed, i.e., as exposure increases the rate of absorption decreases. The model derived for the older animals accurately predicts the accumulation and retention of lead in adult humans under normal exposure conditions.

  15. Results of the Komplast experiment on the long-term exposure of materials specimens on the ISS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumov, A. E.; Novikov, L. S.; Shaevich, S. K.; Aleksandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.; Nikishin, E. F.; Chernik, V. N.; Petukhov, V. P.; Voronina, E. N.; Sedov, V. V.; Salnikova, I. A.; Babaevskiy, P. G.; Kozlov, N. A.; Deev, I. S.; Startsev, O. V.; Shindo, D. J.; Golden, J. L.; Kravchenko, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Komplast materials experiment was designed by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center together with Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University and other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out by Mission Control Moscow since 1998. The purpose of this experiment is to study the complex effect of the low Earth orbit environment on samples of various spacecraft materials. On November 20, 1998 the Komplast experiment began with the launch of the first International Space Station module Zarya, or Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Eight Komplast panels with samples of materials and sensors were installed on the outer surface of FGB module. Two of eight experiment panels were retrieved during Russian extravehicular activity in February 2011 after 12 years of space exposure and were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle "Discovery" on the STS-133/ULF-5 mission in March 2011. The article presents the results obtained from this unique long-duration experiment on board of the International Space Station.

  16. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) preliminary findings: LEO space effects on the space plasma-voltage drainage experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakkolb, Brian K.; Yaung, James Y.; Henderson, Kelly A.; Taylor, William W.; Ryan, Lorraine E.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment (SP-HVDE) provided a unique opportunity to study long term space environmental effects on materials because it was comprised of two identical experimental trays; one tray located on the ram facing side (D-10), and the other on the wake facing side (B-4) of the LDEF. This configuration allows for the comparison of identical materials exposed to two distinctly different environments. The purpose of this work is to document an assessment of the effects of five and three quarters years of low Earth orbital space exposure on materials comprising the SP-HVDE (experiment no. A0054). The findings of the materials investigation reported focus on atomic oxygen effects, micrometeor and debris impact site documentation, thermal property measurements, and environmentally induced contamination.

  17. A 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure facility for nonhuman primates: Design and operational data during experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Cory, W.E.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    A unique exposure facility was designed and constructed to generate large-scale vertical electric fields (EF) of up to 65 kV/m and horizontal magnetic fields (MF) of up to 100 {micro}T (1G), so that the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of 60 Hz EF or combined electric and magnetic field (E/MF) exposure could be examined using nonhuman primates as subjects. Facility design and operational problems and their solutions are presented, and representative operational data from four sets of experiments are provided. A specially designed, optically isolated, 4 cm spherical-dipole EF probe and a commercially available MF probe were used to map the EF and MF within the fiberglass animal cages. In addition, amplifiers, signal conditioners, and A/D converters provided EF, MF, and transformer signals to a microcomputer at 15 min intervals. The apparatus produced homogeneous, stable E/MF at the desired intensities, and the fiberglass cages did not produce appreciable distortion or attenuation. Levels of recognized EF artifacts such as corona and ozone were negligible. The facility worked as intended, providing a well-characterized and artifact-controlled environment for experiments with baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

  18. Inferring Latent States and Refining Force Estimates via Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Modeling in Single Particle Tracking Experiments.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Christopher P; Bloom, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the basis for intracellular motion is critical as the field moves toward a deeper understanding of the relation between Brownian forces, molecular crowding, and anisotropic (or isotropic) energetic forcing. Effective forces and other parameters used to summarize molecular motion change over time in live cells due to latent state changes, e.g., changes induced by dynamic micro-environments, photobleaching, and other heterogeneity inherent in biological processes. This study discusses limitations in currently popular analysis methods (e.g., mean square displacement-based analyses) and how new techniques can be used to systematically analyze Single Particle Tracking (SPT) data experiencing abrupt state changes in time or space. The approach is to track GFP tagged chromatids in metaphase in live yeast cells and quantitatively probe the effective forces resulting from dynamic interactions that reflect the sum of a number of physical phenomena. State changes can be induced by various sources including: microtubule dynamics exerting force through the centromere, thermal polymer fluctuations, and DNA-based molecular machines including polymerases and protein exchange complexes such as chaperones and chromatin remodeling complexes. Simulations aiming to show the relevance of the approach to more general SPT data analyses are also studied. Refined force estimates are obtained by adopting and modifying a nonparametric Bayesian modeling technique, the Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Switching Linear Dynamical System (HDP-SLDS), for SPT applications. The HDP-SLDS method shows promise in systematically identifying dynamical regime changes induced by unobserved state changes when the number of underlying states is unknown in advance (a common problem in SPT applications). We expand on the relevance of the HDP-SLDS approach, review the relevant background of Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes, show how to map discrete time HDP-SLDS models to classic SPT models, and

  19. Inferring Latent States and Refining Force Estimates via Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Modeling in Single Particle Tracking Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Bloom, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the basis for intracellular motion is critical as the field moves toward a deeper understanding of the relation between Brownian forces, molecular crowding, and anisotropic (or isotropic) energetic forcing. Effective forces and other parameters used to summarize molecular motion change over time in live cells due to latent state changes, e.g., changes induced by dynamic micro-environments, photobleaching, and other heterogeneity inherent in biological processes. This study discusses limitations in currently popular analysis methods (e.g., mean square displacement-based analyses) and how new techniques can be used to systematically analyze Single Particle Tracking (SPT) data experiencing abrupt state changes in time or space. The approach is to track GFP tagged chromatids in metaphase in live yeast cells and quantitatively probe the effective forces resulting from dynamic interactions that reflect the sum of a number of physical phenomena. State changes can be induced by various sources including: microtubule dynamics exerting force through the centromere, thermal polymer fluctuations, and DNA-based molecular machines including polymerases and protein exchange complexes such as chaperones and chromatin remodeling complexes. Simulations aiming to show the relevance of the approach to more general SPT data analyses are also studied. Refined force estimates are obtained by adopting and modifying a nonparametric Bayesian modeling technique, the Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Switching Linear Dynamical System (HDP-SLDS), for SPT applications. The HDP-SLDS method shows promise in systematically identifying dynamical regime changes induced by unobserved state changes when the number of underlying states is unknown in advance (a common problem in SPT applications). We expand on the relevance of the HDP-SLDS approach, review the relevant background of Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes, show how to map discrete time HDP-SLDS models to classic SPT models, and

  20. Rehabilitation Medicine Educational Experiences: A Retrospective Study of Exposure to RM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeyer, Thomas W.

    1979-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine: the effect of rehabilitation medicine (RM) educational experiences during medical school on physicians' awareness of RM; attitude toward RM; the management of long-term care; and the tendency to seek expert consultation and patient referral when necessary. (Author/MH)

  1. What Was I Thinking? Eye-Tracking Experiments Underscore the Bias that Architecture Exerts on Nuclear Grading in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Stephan C.; Mast, Fred W.; Lehr, Hans-Anton

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that nuclear grade assignment of prostate carcinomas is subject to a cognitive bias induced by the tumor architecture. Here, we asked whether this bias is mediated by the non-conscious selection of nuclei that “match the expectation” induced by the inadvertent glance at the tumor architecture. 20 pathologists were asked to grade nuclei in high power fields of 20 prostate carcinomas displayed on a computer screen. Unknown to the pathologists, each carcinoma was shown twice, once before a background of a low grade, tubule-rich carcinoma and once before the background of a high grade, solid carcinoma. Eye tracking allowed to identify which nuclei the pathologists fixated during the 8 second projection period. For all 20 pathologists, nuclear grade assignment was significantly biased by tumor architecture. Pathologists tended to fixate on bigger, darker, and more irregular nuclei when those were projected before kigh grade, solid carcinomas than before low grade, tubule-rich carcinomas (and vice versa). However, the morphometric differences of the selected nuclei accounted for only 11% of the architecture-induced bias, suggesting that it can only to a small part be explained by the unconscious fixation on nuclei that “match the expectation”. In conclusion, selection of « matching nuclei » represents an unconscious effort to vindicate the gravitation of nuclear grades towards the tumor architecture. PMID:22666438

  2. Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Grunert, Klaus G; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-05-01

    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. PMID:24503332

  3. Exploiting Satellite Remote-Sensing Data in Fine Particulate Matter Characterization for Serving the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN): The HELIX-Atlanta Experience and NPOESS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the U.S. National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) led a project in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects were conducted to develop methods to better characterize exposure; link health and environmental datasets; and analyze spatial/temporal relationships. This paper describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(sub 2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the CDC's pilot study of HELIX-Atlanta. It describes a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM(sub 2.5) concentrations using spatial surfacing techniques and leveraging NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM(sub 2.5) from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM(sub 2.5) estimates derived from NASA's MODIS data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM(sub 2.5) estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM(sub 2.5), may provide a more complete daily representation of PM(sub 2.5), than either data set alone would allow, and can reduce the errors in the PM(sub 2.5) estimated surfaces. Future work in this area should focus on combining MODIS column measurements with profile information provided by satellites like the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The Visible Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aerosol

  4. Defining Occupational and Consumer Exposure Limits for Nanomaterials - First Experiences from REACH Registrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschberger, K.; Klöslova, Z.; Falck, G.; Christensen, F. M.

    2013-04-01

    By 1 December 2010 substances manufactured or imported in the EU >= 1000 t (as well as certain other substances) had to be registered under the REACH Regulation 1907/2006. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) in close cooperation with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) carried out an analysis and assessment of what type of information on nanomaterials was provided in the received registrations. The aim of the assessment was to develop options for an adaptation of the REACH regulation to ensure proper information generation and reporting and an appropriate risk/safety assessment of nanomaterials (Nano Support project). It should be noted that this analysis and assessment was not a compliance check of the dossiers. From 26000 submitted registration dossiers covering 4700 substances finally 25 dossiers (19 substances) were identified to cover nanomaterials or nanoforms of a substance. It is possible that other dossiers are considered to cover nanomaterials or nanoforms by the registrants, however such dossiers could not be identified to address nanoforms given the information contained in those dossiers. The identified 25 dossiers were subject to a detailed analysis and assessment of information provided for all endpoints including substance identity, physico-chemical properties, human health, environmental fate & behaviour, ecotoxicity, PBT6 assessment, Classification and Labelling as well as the attached Chemical Safety Report documenting the Chemical Risk/Safety Assessment. In order to evaluate how the safety of workers and consumers was ensured, it was appropriate to check how the "Derived No (Minimum) Effect Levels" (DN(M)ELs) were established for substances, covering nanomaterials or nanoforms. DNELs were established mainly for long term inhalation exposure of workers. Half of the assessed dossiers included an oral long term DNEL for the general population. DNELs were usually not specific for nanosized forms and, in the few cases where they were calculated for

  5. Exposure of nuclear track emulsion to a mixed beam of relativistic {sup 12}N, {sup 10}C, and {sup 7}Be nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kattabekov, R. R.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Vokal, S.; Zhomurodov, D. M.; Zarubin, P. I. Zarubina, I. G.; Igamkulov, Z. A.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Krivenkov, D. O.; Malakhov, A. I.; Orlova, G. I.; Peresadko, N. G.; Polukhina, N. G.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Haiduc, M.

    2010-12-15

    A nuclear track emulsion was exposed to a mixed beam of relativistic {sup 12}N, {sup 10}C, and {sup 7}Be nuclei having a momentum of 2 GeV/c per nucleon. The beam was formed upon charge exchange processes involving {sup 12}C primary nuclei and their fragmentation. An analysis indicates that {sup 10}C nuclei are dominant in the beam and that {sup 12}N nuclei are present in it. The charge topology of relativistic fragments in the coherent dissociation of these nuclei is presented.

  6. LDEF transverse flat plate heat pipe experiment /S1005/. [Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, G. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the Transverse Flat Plate Heat Pipe Experiment. A transverse flat plate heat pipe is a thermal control device that serves the dual function of temperature control and mounting base for electronic equipment. In its ultimate application, the pipe would be a lightweight structure member that could be configured in a platform or enclosure and provide temperature control for large space structures, flight experiments, equipment, etc. The objective of the LDEF flight experiment is to evaluate the zero-g performance of a number of transverse flat plate heat pipe modules. Performance will include: (1) the pipes transport capability, (2) temperature drop, and (3) ability to maintain temperature over varying duty cycles and environments. Performance degradation, if any, will be monitored over the length of the LDEF mission. This information is necessary if heat pipes are to be considered for system designs where they offer benefits not available with other thermal control techniques, such as minimum weight penalty, long-life heat pipe/structural members.

  7. The PROCESS experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-E experiment on the international space station and in laboratory simulations.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, M; Chabin, A; Brack, A; Cottin, H; Chaput, D; Westall, F

    2012-05-01

    To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the PROCESS experiment in the EXPOSE-E facility mounted on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform on board the International Space Station (ISS). After exposure to space conditions for 18 months, the samples were returned to Earth and analyzed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar UV and cosmic radiation. Chemical degradation and possible racemization and oligomerization, the main reactions caused by photochemistry in the vacuum ultraviolet domain (VUV, wavelength range 100-200 nm for photon energy from 6.2 to 12.4 eV) were examined in particular. The molecules were extracted and derivatized by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the rate of the degradation of the compounds. Laboratory exposure in several wavelength ranges from UV to VUV was carried out in parallel in the Cologne Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Center and Centre de biophysique moléculaire (CBM) laboratories. The results show that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and the wavelengths of the UV light. The most altered compounds were the dipeptide, aspartic acid, and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. Our results also demonstrate the protective effect of meteorite powder, which reemphasizes the importance of exogenic contribution to the inventory of prebiotic organics on early Earth. PMID:22680689

  8. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attribute and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  9. Charge, energy and LET spectra of high LET primary and secondary particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors of the P0006 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. V.; Oda, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the charge, energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of about 800 high LET (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 50 keV/micron) particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors in the P0006 experiment of LDEF. Primary particles with residual range at the reference surface greater than about 2 microns and secondary particles produced in the detector material with total range greater than about 4 microns were measured. We have used a multi-etch technique and an internal calibration to identify and measure the energy of the particles at the reference surface. The LET spectrum was obtained from the charge and energy distribution of the particles.

  10. Cadmium distribution in sediment and the lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Everaarts, J.M.; SaralaDevi, K.

    1996-12-31

    In the central and southern North Sea, and in the Dutch coastal zone, total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in water are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/L and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/L, respectively Cadmium in the estuarine waters of the Dutch Wadden Sea varied from 0.3 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/L in the western part to 0.08 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/L in the eastern part. In whole sediment, the Cd background concentration for the Wadden Sea is 0.5 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/g dry weight (dw), whereas the reference concentration is 0.08 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/g dw. The concentrations of total-Cd in surface bulk sediments (0-2 cm) of the central North Sea (Oyster Grounds), and of intertidal mud-flats in the western Wadden Sea varied from 0.05 to 0.15 {mu}g/g dw and from 0.13 to 0.46 {mu}g dw, respectively (calculated from Kahn et al. 1992). These concentration ranges match the reference Cd concentration for Wadden Sea whole sediment (0.5 {+-} 0.01) {mu}g/g dw. Cadmium concentrations in surface sediments of the Dutch coastal zone and estuaries are only slightly elevated compared to the 0.2 {mu}g/g dw, considered as the background concentrations in pristine areas, but well below the level of 10 {mu}g/g dw at heavily contaminated sites. This laboratory study reports on the distribution of cadmium in the sediment column, and the uptake in the blood/coelomic fluid, intestine and body-wall of lugworms at low cadmium concentration exposure. The aim was to determine possible interaction between the vertical distribution of sediment-bound cadmium and the bioturbating activity of lugworms. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Reducing Cost of Rabies Post Exposure Prophylaxis: Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Salahuddin, Naseem; Gohar, M. Aftab; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a uniformly fatal disease, but preventable by timely and correct use of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Unfortunately, many health care facilities in Pakistan do not carry modern life-saving vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG), assuming them to be prohibitively expensive and unsafe. Consequently, Emergency Department (ED) health care professionals remain untrained in its application and refer patients out to other hospitals. The conventional Essen regimen requires five vials of cell culture vaccine (CCV) per patient, whereas Thai Red Cross intradermal (TRC-id) regimen requires only one vial per patient, and gives equal seroconversion as compared with Essen regimen. Methodology/Principal Findings This study documents the cost savings in using the Thai Red Cross intradermal regimen with cell culture vaccine instead of the customary 5-dose Essen intramuscular regimen for eligible bite victims. All patients presenting to the Indus Hospital ED between July 2013 to June 2014 with animal bites received WHO recommended PEP. WHO Category 2 bites received intradermal vaccine alone, while Category 3 victims received vaccine plus wound infiltration with Equine RIG. Patients were counseled, and subsequent doses of the vaccine administered on days 3, 7 and 28. Throughput of cases, consumption utilization of vaccine and ERIG and the cost per patient were recorded. Conclusions/Significance Government hospitals in Pakistan are generally underfinanced and cannot afford treatment of the enormous burden of dog bite victims. Hence, patients are either not treated at all, or asked to purchase their own vaccine, which most cannot afford, resulting in neglect and high incidence of rabies deaths. TRC-id regimen reduced the cost of vaccine to 1/5th of Essen regimen and is strongly recommended for institutions with large throughput. Training ED staff would save lives through a safe, effective and affordable technique. PMID:26919606

  12. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  13. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  14. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a low-temperature (182 K) phase change material. A total of 390 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe and an axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the data acquisition system's batteries lost power. Each heat pipe had approximately 1 watt applied throughout this period. The HEPP was not able to cool below 188.6 K during the mission. As a result, the preprogrammed transport test sequence which initiates when the PCM temperature drops below 180 K was never exercised, and transport tests with both pipes and the diode reverse mode test could not be run in flight. Also, because the melt temperature of the n-heptane PCM is 182 K, its freeze/thaw behavior could not be tested. Post-flight thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses have indicated that there was an apparent error in the original thermal analyses that led to this unfortunate result. Post-flight tests have demonstrated that the performance of both heat pipes and the PCM has not changed since being fabricated more than 14 years ago. A summary of HEPP's flight data and post-flight test results are presented.

  15. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1992-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a n-Heptane Phase Change Material (PCM) canister. A total of 388 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe of axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the EDS batteries lost power. The inability of the HEPP's radiator to cool below 190 K in flight prevented freezing of the PCM and the opportunity to conduct transport tests with the heat pipes. Post flight tests showed that the heat pipes and the PCM are still functioning. This paper presents a summary of the flight data analysis for the HEPP and its related support systems. Pre and post-flight thermal vacuum tests results are presented for the HEPP thermal control system along with individual heat pipe performance and PCM behavior. Appropriate SIG related systems data will also be included along with a 'lessons learned' summary.

  16. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khuong V; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures and exposure to agricultural pesticides are becoming more frequent and intense under global change. Their combination may be especially problematic when animals suffer food limitation. We exposed Coenagrion puella damselfly larvae to a simulated heat wave combined with food limitation and subsequently to a widespread agricultural pesticide (chlorpyrifos) in an indoor laboratory experiment designed to obtain mechanistic insights in the direct effects of these stressors in isolation and when combined. The heat wave reduced immune function (activity of phenoloxidase, PO) and metabolic rate (activity of the electron transport system, ETS). Starvation had both immediate and delayed negative sublethal effects on growth rate and physiology (reductions in Hsp70 levels, total fat content, and activity levels of PO and ETS). Exposure to chlorpyrifos negatively affected all response variables. While the immediate effects of the heat wave were subtle, our results indicate the importance of delayed effects in shaping the total fitness impact of a heat wave when followed by pesticide exposure. Firstly, the combination of delayed negative effects of the heat wave and starvation, and the immediate negative effect of chlorpyrifos considerably (71%) reduced larval growth rate. Secondly and more strikingly, chlorpyrifos only caused considerable (ca. 48%) mortality in larvae that were previously exposed to the combination of the heat wave and starvation. This strong delayed synergism for mortality could be explained by the cumulative metabolic depression caused by each of these stressors. Further studies with increased realism are needed to evaluate the consequences of the here-identified delayed synergisms at the level of populations and communities. This is especially important as this synergism provides a novel explanation for the poorly understood potential of heat waves and of sublethal pesticide concentrations to cause mass mortality. PMID:27390895

  17. Whole Lichen Thalli Survive Exposure to Space Conditions: Results of Lithopanspermia Experiment with Aspicilia fruticulosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggio, J.; Pintado, A.; Ascaso, C.; De La Torre, R.; De Los Ríos, A.; Wierzchos, J.; Horneck, G.; Sancho, L. G.

    2011-05-01

    The Lithopanspermia space experiment was launched in 2007 with the European Biopan facility for a 10-day spaceflight on board a Russian Foton retrievable satellite. Lithopanspermia included for the first time the vagrant lichen species Aspicilia fruticulosa from Guadalajara steppic highlands (Central Spain), as well as other lichen species. During spaceflight, the samples were exposed to selected space conditions, that is, the space vacuum, cosmic radiation, and different spectral ranges of solar radiation (λ ≥ 110, ≥ 200, ≥ 290, or ≥ 400 nm, respectively). After retrieval, the algal and fungal metabolic integrity of the samples were evaluated in terms of chlorophyll a fluorescence, ultrastructure, and CO2 exchange rates. Whereas the space vacuum and cosmic radiation did not impair the metabolic activity of the lichens, solar electromagnetic radiation, especially in the wavelength range between 100 and 200 nm, caused reduced chlorophyll a yield fluorescence; however, there was a complete recovery after 72 h of reactivation. All samples showed positive rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration in the gas exchange experiment. Although the ultrastructure of all flight samples showed some probable stress-induced changes (such as the presence of electron-dense bodies in cytoplasmic vacuoles and between the chloroplast thylakoids in photobiont cells as well as in cytoplasmic vacuoles of the mycobiont cells), we concluded that A. fruticulosa was capable of repairing all space-induced damage. Due to size limitations within the Lithopanspermia hardware, the possibility for replication on the sun-exposed samples was limited, and these first results on the resistance of the lichen symbiosis A. fruticulosa to space conditions and, in particular, on the spectral effectiveness of solar extraterrestrial radiation must be considered preliminary. Further testing in space and under space-simulated conditions will be required. Results of this study indicate that the

  18. Whole lichen thalli survive exposure to space conditions: results of Lithopanspermia experiment with Aspicilia fruticulosa.

    PubMed

    Raggio, J; Pintado, A; Ascaso, C; De La Torre, R; De Los Ríos, A; Wierzchos, J; Horneck, G; Sancho, L G

    2011-05-01

    The Lithopanspermia space experiment was launched in 2007 with the European Biopan facility for a 10-day spaceflight on board a Russian Foton retrievable satellite. Lithopanspermia included for the first time the vagrant lichen species Aspicilia fruticulosa from Guadalajara steppic highlands (Central Spain), as well as other lichen species. During spaceflight, the samples were exposed to selected space conditions, that is, the space vacuum, cosmic radiation, and different spectral ranges of solar radiation (λ ≥ 110, ≥200, ≥290, or ≥400 nm, respectively). After retrieval, the algal and fungal metabolic integrity of the samples were evaluated in terms of chlorophyll a fluorescence, ultrastructure, and CO(2) exchange rates. Whereas the space vacuum and cosmic radiation did not impair the metabolic activity of the lichens, solar electromagnetic radiation, especially in the wavelength range between 100 and 200 nm, caused reduced chlorophyll a yield fluorescence; however, there was a complete recovery after 72 h of reactivation. All samples showed positive rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration in the gas exchange experiment. Although the ultrastructure of all flight samples showed some probable stress-induced changes (such as the presence of electron-dense bodies in cytoplasmic vacuoles and between the chloroplast thylakoids in photobiont cells as well as in cytoplasmic vacuoles of the mycobiont cells), we concluded that A. fruticulosa was capable of repairing all space-induced damage. Due to size limitations within the Lithopanspermia hardware, the possibility for replication on the sun-exposed samples was limited, and these first results on the resistance of the lichen symbiosis A. fruticulosa to space conditions and, in particular, on the spectral effectiveness of solar extraterrestrial radiation must be considered preliminary. Further testing in space and under space-simulated conditions will be required. Results of this study indicate

  19. Preliminary design of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, G.; Martin, M. Z.; Martin, R.; Biewer, T. M.

    2014-11-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique for measuring surface matter composition. LIBS is performed by focusing laser radiation onto a target surface, ablating the surface, forming a plasma, and analyzing the light produced. LIBS surface analysis is a possible diagnostic for characterizing plasma-facing materials in ITER. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has enabled the initial installation of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic on the prototype Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX), which strives to mimic the conditions found at the surface of the ITER divertor. This paper will discuss the LIBS implementation on Proto-MPEX, preliminary design of the fiber optic LIBS collection probe, and the expected results.

  20. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Tobias; Braitmayer, Lars; van Duijl, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this systematic literature review

  1. Exposure to traumatic experiences is associated with abnormal neural mechanism during charitable donation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Shen, Yimo; Du, Xue; Li, Wenfu; Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-10-30

    Previous studies suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be associated with dysfunctional reward processing. At present, little is known about the neural mechanisms of reward-related processing during a charitable donation task in trauma survivors who do not go on to develop PTSD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of charitable donation in non-PTSD survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Results showed that activations in the striatum of trauma survivors were reduced in both the low donation (donated a small amount to the Red Cross) and the high donation conditions (donated a large amount to the Red Cross) compared with the healthy controls. Furthermore, the trauma survivors also exhibited less activity in the insula than the healthy controls in the high donation condition. These findings suggest that abnormal reward-related activations might be associated with dysfunctions in the reward pathway of trauma survivors. Also, we discuss the possibility that traumatic experiences attenuate the reactivity of reward-related brain areas to positive emotions (as induced by advantageous donations). PMID:23920149

  2. Definition study for an advanced cosmic ray experiment utilizing the long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    To achieve the goals of cosmic ray astrophysics, an ultraheavy cosmic ray experiment on an LDEF reflight should be in an orbit with high inclination (approximately 57 deg) at approximately 230 nm for approximately 2 years near solar minimum (approximately 1986). It should fill 61 trays. Each tray should contain 4 modules of total active area 0.7 sq m, with a thermal blanket, thermal labyrinth mounts, aluminum honeycomb mechanical support, and total weight approximately 100 kg. Each module should contain interleaved CR39, Lexan, and thin copper sheets plus one event-thermometer canned in a thin metal cannister sealed with approximately 0.2 atm dry O2. The CR39 and Lexan should be manufactured to specifications and the sheet copper rolled to specifications. The event-thermometer should be a stiffened CR39 sheet that slides via bimetal strips relative to fixed CR39 sheet so that stack temperature can be read out for each event. The metal cannister can be collapsed at launch and landing, capturing the sliding assembly to prevent damage. An engineering study should be made of a prototype LDEF tray; this will include thermal and mechanical tests of detectors and the event thermometer.

  3. Definition study for an advanced cosmic ray experiment utilizing the long duration exposure facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, P. B.

    1982-06-01

    To achieve the goals of cosmic ray astrophysics, an ultraheavy cosmic ray experiment on an LDEF reflight should be in an orbit with high inclination (approximately 57 deg) at approximately 230 nm for approximately 2 years near solar minimum (approximately 1986). It should fill 61 trays. Each tray should contain 4 modules of total active area 0.7 sq m, with a thermal blanket, thermal labyrinth mounts, aluminum honeycomb mechanical support, and total weight approximately 100 kg. Each module should contain interleaved CR39, Lexan, and thin copper sheets plus one event-thermometer canned in a thin metal cannister sealed with approximately 0.2 atm dry O2. The CR39 and Lexan should be manufactured to specifications and the sheet copper rolled to specifications. The event-thermometer should be a stiffened CR39 sheet that slides via bimetal strips relative to fixed CR39 sheet so that stack temperature can be read out for each event. The metal cannister can be collapsed at launch and landing, capturing the sliding assembly to prevent damage. An engineering study should be made of a prototype LDEF tray; this will include thermal and mechanical tests of detectors and the event thermometer.

  4. Raman investigation of magma mingling experiments as a tool for tracking the chemical and structural evolution of melt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Morgavi, D.; Hess, K. U.; Pritchard, C. J.; Borovkov, N.; Perugini, D.; Larson, P. B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Magma mixing is a petrologic phenomenon, for which extensive evidence has been documented in rocks young and old, from intrusive and effusive igneous environments. Although magma mixing between mafic and silicic magmas is regarded as a major differentiation process, documentation of the mechanisms acting in melt interaction, both in its physical and chemical aspects, is still incomplete. We present the first Raman spectroscopic investigation of the products of magma-mixing experiments performed using natural basaltic and rhyolitic melts from the Yellowstone Norris-Mammoth Corridor. The mixing process is driven by a recently-developed apparatus that generates chaotic streamlines in the melts, mimicking the development of magma mixing in nature. The chemical variation of major elements is studied in detail by electron microprobe (EMPA) on mixed filaments of 1000 μm diameter. Raman and microprobe measurements have been performed every 10 μm this allow us to investigate the evolution of silicate structure, from the rhyolitic to the basaltic composition. Deconvoluted Raman spectra collected from the mixed experiment yield information about network-forming structural units (Qn species, where n indicates the number of bridging oxygen). By combining Raman spectra and chemical analyses we show, for the first time, how the percent of Qn species evolve with chemical composition in these natural silicate melts. Moreover, our results show how the ratio of network modifiers respect to network former cations, dramatically affects the Raman spectra of the rhyolitic end-member.

  5. The Effect of Exposure on Syntactic Parsing in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussias, Paola E.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    An eye tracking experiment examined how exposure to a second language (L2) influences sentence parsing in the first language. Forty-four monolingual Spanish speakers, 24 proficient Spanish-English bilinguals with limited immersion experience in the L2 environment and 20 proficient Spanish-English bilinguals with extensive L2 immersion experience…

  6. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  7. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  8. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Tracking with the LHCb spectrometer: Detector performance and track reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuning, N.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    The LHCb experiment aims to measure CP violation and rare B-decays. For this, a tracking system is constructed consisting of a silicon micro-strip vertex locator close to the interaction point, and tracking detectors around a dipole magnet. The resulting tracking performance is estimated from simulation to yield 95% efficiency. The momentum and impact parameter resolutions vary between 0.35% and 0.5%, and 20 and 160 μm, respectively.

  10. The possible interplanetary transfer of microbes: assessing the viability of Deinococcus spp. under the ISS Environmental conditions for performing exposure experiments of microbes in the Tanpopo mission.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yang, Yinjie; Kawashiri, Narutoshi; Shiraishi, Keisuke; Takasu, Masako; Narumi, Issay; Satoh, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Kazumichi; Tanigawa, Yoshiaki; Momoki, Yoh-Hei; Tanabe, Maiko; Sugino, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Yuta; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the possible interplanetary transfer of life, numerous exposure experiments have been carried out on various microbes in space since the 1960s. In the Tanpopo mission, we have proposed to carry out experiments on capture and space exposure of microbes at the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experimental Module of the International Space Station (ISS). Microbial candidates for the exposure experiments in space include Deinococcus spp.: Deinococcus radiodurans, D. aerius and D. aetherius. In this paper, we have examined the survivability of Deinococcus spp. under the environmental conditions in ISS in orbit (i.e., long exposure to heavy-ion beams, temperature cycles, vacuum and UV irradiation). A One-year dose of heavy-ion beam irradiation did not affect the viability of Deinococcus spp. within the detection limit. Vacuum (10(-1) Pa) also had little effect on the cell viability. Experiments to test the effects of changes in temperature from 80 °C to -80 °C in 90 min (± 80 °C/90 min cycle) or from 60 °C to -60 °C in 90 min (± 60 °C/90 min cycle) on cell viability revealed that the survival rate decreased severely by the ± 80 °C/90 min temperature cycle. Exposure of various thicknesses of deinococcal cell aggregates to UV radiation (172 nm and 254 nm, respectively) revealed that a few hundred micrometer thick aggregate of deinococcal cells would be able to withstand the solar UV radiation on ISS for 1 year. We concluded that aggregated deinococcal cells will survive the yearlong exposure experiments. We propose that microbial cells can aggregate as an ark for the interplanetary transfer of microbes, and we named it 'massapanspermia'. PMID:24132659

  11. Mechanism of Traumatic Brain Injury at Distant Locations After Exposure to Blast Waves: Preliminary Results from Animal and Phantom Experiments.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Ohtani, Kiyonobu; Goda, Keisuke; Kudo, Daisuke; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the least understood of the four phases of blast injury. Distant injury induced by the blast wave, on the opposite side from the wave entry, is not well understood. This study investigated the mechanism of distant injury in bTBI. Materials and Methods Eight 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: group 1 served as the control group and did not receive any shock wave (SW) exposure; group 2 was exposed to SWs (12.5 ± 2.5 MPa). Propagation of SWs within a brain phantom was evaluated by visualization, pressure measurement, and numerical simulation. Results Intracerebral hemorrhage near the ignition site and elongation of the distant nucleus were observed, despite no apparent damage between the two locations in the animal experiment. Visualization, pressure measurement, and numerical simulation indicated the presence of complex wave dynamics accompanying a sudden increase in pressure, followed by negative pressure in the phantom experiment. Conclusion A local increase in pressure above the threshold caused by interference of reflection and rarefaction waves in the vicinity of the brain-skull surface may cause distant injury in bTBI. PMID:27165867

  12. Tracking nitrogen losses in a greenhouse crop rotation experiment in North China using the EU-Rotate_N simulation model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruiying; Nendel, Claas; Rahn, Clive; Jiang, Chunguang; Chen, Qing

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable production in China is associated with high inputs of nitrogen, posing a risk of losses to the environment. Organic matter mineralisation is a considerable source of nitrogen (N) which is hard to quantify. In a two-year greenhouse cucumber experiment with different N treatments in North China, non-observed pathways of the N cycle were estimated using the EU-Rotate_N simulation model. EU-Rotate_N was calibrated against crop dry matter and soil moisture data to predict crop N uptake, soil mineral N contents, N mineralisation and N loss. Crop N uptake (Modelling Efficiencies (ME) between 0.80 and 0.92) and soil mineral N contents in different soil layers (ME between 0.24 and 0.74) were satisfactorily simulated by the model for all N treatments except for the traditional N management. The model predicted high N mineralisation rates and N leaching losses, suggesting that previously published estimates of N leaching for these production systems strongly underestimated the mineralisation of N from organic matter. PMID:20227804

  13. Effect of chromium (VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status and trace element homeostasis in acute experiment in rat.

    PubMed

    Kotyzová, Dana; Hodková, Anna; Bludovská, Monika; Eybl, Vladislav

    2015-11-01

    Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environment. Cr(VI) is a proven toxin and carcinogen. The Cr(VI) compounds are easily absorbed, can diffuse across cell membranes, and have strong oxidative potential. Despite intensive studies of Cr(VI) pro-oxidative effects, limited data exist on the influence of Cr(VI) on selenoenzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-important components of antioxidant defense system. This study investigates the effect of Cr(VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status, with focus on these selenoenzymes, and on trace element homeostasis in an acute experiment in rat. Male Wistar rats (130-140g) were assigned to two groups of 8 animals: I. control; and II. Cr(VI) treated. The animals in Cr(VI) group were administered a single dose of K2Cr2O7 (20 mg /kg, intraperitoneally (ip)). The control group received saline solution. After 24 h, the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidneys were examined for lipid peroxidation (LP; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration), the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of GPx-1, TrxR-1, and glutathione reductase (GR). Samples of tissues were also used to estimate Cr accumulation and alterations in zinc, copper, and iron levels. The acute Cr(VI) exposure caused an increase in both hepatic and renal LP (by 70%, p < 0.01 and by 15%, p < 0.05, respectively), increased hepatic GSH level and GPx-1 activity, and decreased renal GPx-1 activity. The activity of GR was not changed. A significant inhibitory effect of Cr(VI) was found on TrxR-1 activity in both the liver and the kidneys. The ability of Cr(VI) to cause TrxR inhibition could contribute to its cytotoxic effects. Further investigation of oxidative responses in different in vivo models may enable the development of strategies to protect against Cr(VI) oxidative damage. PMID:23625905

  14. Determination of nuclear tracks parameters on sequentially etched PADC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwacik, Tomasz; Bilski, Pawel; Koerner, Christine; Facius, Rainer; Berger, Thomas; Nowak, Tomasz; Reitz, Guenther; Olko, Pawel

    Polyallyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detectors find many applications in radiation protection. One of them is the cosmic radiation dosimetry, where PADC detectors measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles (from protons to heavy ions), supplementing TLD detectors in the role of passive dosemeter. Calibration exposures to ions of known LET are required to establish a relation between parameters of track observed on the detector and LET of particle creating this track. PADC TASTRAK nuclear track detectors were exposed to 12 C and 56 Fe ions of LET in H2 O between 10 and 544 keV/µm. The exposures took place at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan in the frame of the HIMAC research project "Space Radiation Dosimetry-Ground Based Verification of the MATROSHKA Facility" (20P-240). Detectors were etched in water solution of NaOH with three different temperatures and for various etching times to observe the appearance of etched tracks, the evolution of their parameters and the stability of the etching process. The applied etching times (and the solution's concentrations and temperatures) were: 48, 72, 96, 120 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 50 O C), 20, 40, 60, 80 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 60 O C) and 8, 12, 16, 20 hours (7N NaOH, 70 O C). The analysis of the detectors involved planimetric (2D) measurements of tracks' entrance ellipses and mechanical measurements of bulk layer thickness. Further track parameters, like angle of incidence, track length and etch rate ratio were then calculated. For certain tracks, results of planimetric measurements and calculations were also compared with results of optical track profile (3D) measurements, where not only the track's entrance ellipse but also the location of the track's tip could be directly measured. All these measurements have been performed with the 2D/3D measurement system at DLR. The collected data allow to create sets of V(LET in H2 O) calibration curves suitable for short, intermediate and

  15. Manipulation of BDNF Signaling Modifies the Experience-Dependent Plasticity Induced by Pure Tone Exposure during the Critical Period in the Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Anomal, Renata; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael M.; Panizzutti, Rogerio

    2013-01-01

    Sensory experience powerfully shapes cortical sensory representations during an early developmental “critical period” of plasticity. In the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), the experience-dependent plasticity is exemplified by significant, long-lasting distortions in frequency representation after mere exposure to repetitive frequencies during the second week of life. In the visual system, the normal unfolding of critical period plasticity is strongly dependent on the elaboration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the establishment of inhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF signaling plays a role in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. Elvax resin implants filled with either a blocking antibody against BDNF or the BDNF protein were placed on the A1 of rat pups throughout the critical period window. These pups were then exposed to 7 kHz pure tone for 7 consecutive days and their frequency representations were mapped. BDNF blockade completely prevented the shaping of cortical tuning by experience and resulted in poor overall frequency tuning in A1. By contrast, BDNF infusion on the developing A1 amplified the effect of 7 kHz tone exposure compared to control. These results indicate that BDNF signaling participates in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in A1. PMID:23700463

  16. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  17. Dopamine receptor D4 gene moderates the effect of positive and negative peer experiences on later delinquency: the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Veenstra, René

    2013-11-01

    The quality of adolescents' relationships with peers can have a lasting impact on later psychosocial adjustment, mental health, and behavior. However, the effect of peer relations on later problem behavior is not uniformly strong, and genetic factors might influence this association. This study used four-wave longitudinal (11-19 years) data (n = 1,151) from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a Dutch cohort study into adolescent development to test whether the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism moderates the impact of negative (i.e., victimization) and positive peer experiences (i.e., social well-being) on later delinquency. Contrary to our expectations, results showed that carriers of the dopamine receptor D4 gene 4-repeat homozygous variant instead of those carrying the 7-repeat allele were more susceptible to the effects of both peer victimization and social well-being on delinquency later in adolescence. Findings of our study are discussed in light of other studies into genetic moderation of peer effects on adolescent development and the possibility that developmental specifics in adolescence, such as maturation processes in brain structure and functioning, may affect the interplay of environmental and genetic factors in this period in life. PMID:24229552

  18. Simulated Irradiation of Samples in HFIR for use as Possible Test Materials in the MPEX (Material Plasma Exposure Experiment) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ronald James; Rapp, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The importance of Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) facility will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. The project presented in this paper involved performing assessments of the induced radioactivity and resulting radiation fields of a variety of potential fusion reactor materials. The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of the samples in HFIR; generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. These state-of-the-art simulation methods were used in addressing the challenge of the MPEX project to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples for inclusion in the MPEX facility.

  19. Polymer gel dosimetry for neutron beam in the Neutron Exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Sato, H.; Hamano, T.; Suda, M.; Yoshii, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether gel dosimetry could be used to measure neutron beams. We irradiated a BANG3-type polymer gel dosimeter using neutron beams in the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. First, the polymer gels were irradiated from 0 to 7.0 Gy to investigate the dose-R2 responses. Irradiated gels were evaluated using 1.5-T magnetic resonance R2 images. Second, the polymer gels were irradiated to 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 Gy to acquire a depth-R2 response curve. The dose-R2 response curve was linear up to approximately 7 Gy, with a slope of 1.25 Gy-1·s-1. Additionally, compared with the photon- irradiated gels, the neutron-irradiated gels had lower R2 values. The acquired depth-R2 curves of the central axis from the 3.0- and 5.0-Gy neutron dose-irradiated gels exhibited an initial build-up. Although, a detailed investigation is needed, polymer gel dosimetry is effective for measuring the dose-related R2 linearity and depth-R2 relationships of neutron beams.

  20. Biological effects of marine diesel oil exposure in red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) assessed through a water and foodborne exposure experiment.

    PubMed

    Sagerup, Kjetil; Nahrgang, Jasmine; Frantzen, Marianne; Larsen, Lars-Henrik; Geraudie, Perrine

    2016-08-01

    Shipping activities are expected to increase in the Arctic Seas. Today, the majority of vessels are using marine diesel oil (MDO) as propulsion fuel. However, there is a general lack of knowledge of how cold-water marine species respond to acute exposures to MDO. Arctic red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus) were exposed to mechanically dispersed MDO in a flow-through exposure system for one week followed by three weeks of recovery. Observations of increased movements in exposed crabs were interpreted as avoidance behaviour. Further, glutathione peroxidase activity increased in high exposed crab, the catalase activity showed an insignificant increase with exposure, while no differences between groups were observed for lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase activity. After three weeks of recovery in clean seawater, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the crabs were significantly reduced, with no specific biomarker responses in exposed groups compared to the control. The results suggest that effects from instantaneous MDO spill only will have short-term effects on the red king crab. PMID:27266989

  1. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  2. An Investigation of the Effects of the Time Lag due to Long Transmission Distances Upon Remote Control. Phase 1; Tracking Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James L.

    1961-01-01

    A series of pursuit tracking tasks were performed incorporating a transport lag in the control loop. The target was a mixture of four sine waves, the fastest having a frequency of 16 cycles per minute at full speed. An attempt was made to design the experiments so that they would provide data applicable to remote control of a ground vehicle over long transmission distances. Three programs were run. In each the time lag was placed between the control and the display. In the first program a velocity control was used and the operator was told that his knob controlled a vehicle, the problem represented a road 9 and he was to drive his vehicle along the road 9 using the delayed vehicle position as feedback for whatever means he desired. The objective was not to match the display traces. In the second program a velocity control was used, and the operator was told that the problem trace represented a road and the delayed trace represented a vehicle and he was to keep them together. The objective was to match display traces. The third program was identical with the first, except that an acceleration control was used rather than a velocity control. Target speeds used were full speed, 1/2 speed, 1/4 speed, 1/8 speed, and 1/16 speed. Time lags were 1/4 second, l/2 second, 1 second, 1-1/2 second, 2 second, 3 second, and 6 seconds. The experimental results are presented in the last section of this report.

  3. Review of Experience of a Statewide Poison Control Center With Pediatric Exposures to Oral Antineoplastic Drugs in the Nonmedical Setting.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Stephen L; Liu, Jehnan; Soleymani, Kamyar; Romasco, Rebecca L; Farid, Hanieh; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    The use of oral antineoplastic agents in nonmedical settings continues to increase. There are limited data available on pediatric exposures to these agents. We sought to identify characteristics of such exposures. We performed a retrospective review of database of a statewide poison system from 2000 to 2009 for all cases of pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic agents, which took place in a nonmedical setting. Data collected include gender, age, agent of exposure, dose, drug concentration, reason for exposure, symptoms, outcomes, interventions, and length of hospital stay. There were a total of 328 patients. The mean average age was 4.1 years. Eighty-nine percentage (n = 293) was unintentional. Exposures to 21 different antineoplastic agents were identified. Methotrexate (n = 91) and 6-mercaptopurine (n = 47) were the most common agents encountered. Two hundred ninety-nine (91%) cases had no symptoms reported. When reported, gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 17) and central nervous system sedation (n = 6) were most common. One case of pancytopenia was reported. No deaths were reported in this series. Sixty-seven percent (n = 220) were managed at home, whereas 19 (6%) were admitted to a health care facility. Cases were followed by the poison control center for 0.34 days (SD = 1.40). In this study, exposures to oral antineoplastics were primarily unintentional, asymptomatic, and managed at home. Study limitations include possible reporting bias, inability to objectively confirm exposures, and limited duration of monitoring by the poison control center. In this retrospective review, no significant morbidity or mortality was reported from pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic drugs in the nonmedical setting. PMID:23884076

  4. Doppler tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher Jacob

    This study addresses the development of a methodology using the Doppler Effect for high-resolution, short-range tracking of small projectiles and vehicles. Minimal impact on the design of the moving object is achieved by incorporating only a transmitter in it and using ground stations for all other components. This is particularly useful for tracking objects such as sports balls that have configurations and materials that are not conducive to housing onboard instrumentation. The methodology developed here uses four or more receivers to monitor a constant frequency signal emitted by the object. Efficient and accurate schemes for filtering the raw signals, determining the instantaneous frequencies, time synching the frequencies from each receiver, smoothing the synced frequencies, determining the relative velocity and radius of the object and solving the nonlinear system of equations for object position in three dimensions as a function of time are developed and described here.

  5. Elemental bioimaging of thulium in mouse tissues by laser ablation-ICPMS as a complementary method to heteronuclear proton magnetic resonance imaging for cell tracking experiments.

    PubMed

    Reifschneider, Olga; Wentker, Kristina S; Strobel, Klaus; Schmidt, Rebecca; Masthoff, Max; Sperling, Michael; Faber, Cornelius; Karst, Uwe

    2015-04-21

    Due to the fact that cellular therapies are increasingly finding application in clinical trials and promise success by treatment of fatal diseases, monitoring strategies to investigate the delivery of the therapeutic cells to the target organs are getting more and more into the focus of modern in vivo imaging methods. In order to monitor the distribution of the respective cells, they can be labeled with lanthanide complexes such as thulium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodoecane-α,α,α,α-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (Tm(DOTMA)). In this study, experiments on a mouse model with two different cell types, namely, tumor cells and macrophages labeled with Tm(DOTMA), were performed. The systemic distribution of Tm(DOTMA) of both cell types was investigated by means of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Using the high resolution of 25 μm, distribution maps of Tm in different tissues such as tumor, liver, lung, and spleen as well as in explanted gel pellets were generated and the behavior of the labeled cells inside the tissue was investigated. Additionally, quantitative data were obtained using homemade matrix-matched standards based on egg yolk. Using this approach, limits of detection and quantification of 2.2 and 7.4 ng·g(-1), respectively, and an excellent linearity over the concentration range from 0.01 to 46 μg·g(-1) was achieved. The highest concentration of the label agent, 32.4 μg·g(-1), in tumor tissue was observed in the area of the injection of the labeled tumor cells. Regarding the second experiment with macrophages for cell tracking, Tm was detected in the explanted biogell pellet with relatively low concentrations below 60 ng·g(-1) and in the liver with a relatively high concentration of 10 μg·g(-1). Besides thulium, aluminum was detected with equal distribution behavior in the tumor section due to a contamination resulting from the labeling procedure, which includes the usage of an Al electrode. PMID:25791208

  6. An attempt to understand the properties of interstellar dust based on space exposure experiment of laboratory-synthesized carbonaceous samples using ISS/KIBO/ExHAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Kimura, Yuki; Kimura, Seiji; Nakamura, Masato; Ichimura, Atsushi; Wada, Setsuko

    2016-07-01

    We present the project overview and the latest status of our space exposure experiments of various solid samples with International Space Station (ISS)/KIBO/ExHAM. The major goals of this project are to identify the composition and properties of dust formed in the Asymptotic Giant Banch (AGB) stellar wind and to demonstrate how it is chemically and physically altered in nature in the circumstellar environment until it becomes a member of the interstellar medium. In particular, we aim to investigate the properties of 'astronomical' polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the carrier of the unidentified infrared (UIR) bands which have been observed ubiquitously in various astrophysical environments. Various experiment samples including the laboratory synthesized carbonaceous solids such as quenched carbonaceous composites (QCCs), deuterated quenched carbonaceous composites (deut-QCCs) and nitrogen-containing carbonaceous composites (NCCs) are brought to the ISS and are exposed in the space exposure environment for approximately one year by means of the ExHAM. The difference in properties of our experiment samples between before and after the space exposure experiment is investigated based on infrared micro-spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron microscopic observations, etc.

  7. [To-day exposure to occupational carcinogens and their effects. The experience of the rubber industry, iron metallurgy, asphalt work and aviculture].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Pietro Gino

    2009-01-01

    While the progressive improvement of hygiene situations in the workplaces has taken to a reduction of chemical carcinogens exposure, in recent years in Italy the number of compensated occupational cancer resulting from carcinogens exposures of distant decades, has been increasing. Nevertheless, several experiences suggest that the proportion of occupational cancers unrecognised and not notified, as required by law, still remains important. This contribution concerns some experiences, performed between 2004-2008 by the Local Occupational Health Service (SPSAL) located in a highly industrialised province, on the working sector of rubber, iron and steel industry, the asphalt working and the poultry stock-breeders. This work concerns the following issues: - the evaluation of carcinogens exposure; - technical preventive measures and personal protection; - the level of workers' information and formation and the registration of exposed workers; - the characterization of work-related cancer. The results of the 5 years of activity allow us to underline that, in the most of 49 plants involved in the study, the carcinogens exposure evaluation and the prevention and protection measures were lacking. Information of workers was largely deficient and the registration of exposed workers was absent. A major attention to detect and to evaluate the work-related cancer has allowed us to recognize 50 new cases in the iron-steel industries and 21 new cases in a rubber industry. Although this experience concerns only few occupational fields, it provides the basis to call for a greater commitment of SPSAL addressed to companies and general practitioners to both, the promotion and surveillance of the correct procedures of carcinogens exposure evaluation and his prevention, and the active detection of occupational cancer, still missing. PMID:20124649

  8. Building an industry-wide occupational exposure database for respirable mineral dust - experiences from the IMA dust monitoring programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houba, Remko; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Jongen, Richard; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-02-01

    Building an industry-wide database with exposure measurements of respirable mineral dust is a challenging operation. The Industrial Minerals Association (IMA-Europe) took the initiative to create an exposure database filled with data from a prospective and ongoing dust monitoring programme that was launched in 2000. More than 20 industrial mineral companies have been collecting exposure data following a common protocol since then. Recently in 2007 ArboUnie and IRAS evaluated the quality of the collected exposure data for data collected up to winter 2005/2006. The data evaluated was collected in 11 sampling campaigns by 24 companies at 84 different worksites and considered about 8,500 respirable dust measurements and 7,500 respirable crystalline silica. In the quality assurance exercise four criteria were used to evaluate the existing measurement data: personal exposure measurements, unique worker identity, sampling duration not longer than one shift and availability of a limit of detection. Review of existing exposure data in the IMA dust monitoring programme database showed that 58% of collected respirable dust measurements and 62% of collected respirable quartz could be regarded as 'good quality data' meeting the four criteria mentioned above. Only one third of the measurement data included repeated measurements (within a sampling campaign) that would allow advanced statistical analysis incorporating estimates of within- and between-worker variability in exposure to respirable mineral dust. This data came from 7 companies comprising measurements from 23 sites. Problematic data was collected in some specific countries and to a large extent this was due to local practices and legislation (e.g. allowing 40-h time weighted averages). It was concluded that the potential of this unique industry-wide exposure database is very high, but that considerable improvements can be made. At the end of 2006 relatively small but essential changes were made in the dust monitoring

  9. Status of the COBRA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Kai

    2009-11-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the 4-fold forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double beta decay limits of Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented based on 18 kg×days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description on the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  10. Status of the COBRA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zuber, Kai

    2009-11-09

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the 4-fold forbidden beta decay of {sup 113}Cd and a variety of double beta decay limits of Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented based on 18 kgxdays of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description on the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  11. Discovery of nuclear tracks in interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fraundorf, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear tracks have been identified in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) collected from the stratosphere. The presence of tracks unambiguously confirms the extraterrestrial nature of IDP's, and the high track densities (10 to the 10th to 10 to the 11th per square centimeter) suggest an exposure age of approximately 10,000 years within the inner solar system. Tracks also provide an upper temperature limit for the heating of IDP's during atmospheric entry, thereby making it possible to distinguish between pristine and thermally modified micrometeorites.

  12. Learning to track multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Tao, Dacheng; Song, Mingli; Zhang, Luming; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun

    2015-05-01

    Monocular multiple-object tracking is a fundamental yet under-addressed computer vision problem. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for tracking multiple objects by detection. First, instead of heuristically defining a tracking algorithm, we learn that a discriminative structure prediction model from labeled video data captures the interdependence of multiple influence factors. Given the joint targets state from the last time step and the observation at the current frame, the joint targets state at the current time step can then be inferred by maximizing the joint probability score. Second, our detection results benefit from tracking cues. The traditional detection algorithms need a nonmaximal suppression postprocessing to select a subset from the total detection responses as the final output and a large number of selection mistakes are induced, especially under a congested circumstance. Our method integrates both detection and tracking cues. This integration helps to decrease the postprocessing mistake risk and to improve performance in tracking. Finally, we formulate the entire model training into a convex optimization problem and estimate its parameters using the cutting plane optimization. Experiments show that our method performs effectively in a large variety of scenarios, including pedestrian tracking in crowd scenes and vehicle tracking in congested traffic. PMID:25051561

  13. Assessing the mutagenic activities of smoke from different cigarettes in direct exposure experiments using the modified Ames Salmonella assay.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Kanemaru, Yuki; Nara, Hidenori; Erami, Kazuo; Nagata, Yasufumi

    2016-06-01

    The Ames assay is useful for evaluating the mutagenic potentials of chemicals, and it has been used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of cigarette smoke (CS). In vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to mimic CS exposure in the human respiratory tract, and the Ames assay has been used with such systems. Ames tests were performed using the Vitrocell(®) direct exposure system in this study. The mutagenic potentials of whole mainstream CS and gas/vapor phase fractions produced by conventional combustible cigarettes under two smoking regimens were compared. Salmonella Typhimurium TA98 and TA100 were used with and without metabolic activation, and the number of revertants induced by exposure to each CS was determined. The amount of smoke particles to which cells were exposed were also determined, and dose-response curves describing the relationships between exposure to smoke particles and the number of revertants induced were plotted. The slopes of linear regressions of the dose-response curves were determined, and the slope for each CS was used as a mutagenic activity index for that CS. A new heated cigarette was also tested and smoke from the heated cigarette had a lower mutagenic activity in TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation than did the conventional CS. The results indicate that the direct exposure system and the Ames test can be used to determine the mutagenic potentials of CS produced by different cigarettes under different conditions (i.e., using different Salmonella Typhimurium strains with and without metabolic activation, and using different smoking conditions). PMID:27265375

  14. Understanding the Changing Faculty Workforce in Higher Education: A Comparison of Full-Time Non-Tenure Track and Tenure Line Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Molly; Cisneros, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Non-tenure track faculty are a growing majority in American higher education, but research examining their work lives is limited. Moreover, the theoretical frameworks commonly used by scholars have been critiqued for reliance on ideologically charged assumptions. Using a conceptual model developed from Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job…

  15. Preliminary spectra of the primary cosmic ray nuclei from the first year of the NUCLEON experiment exposure time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    The NUCLEON cosmic ray observatory is designed to measure high energy cosmic ray composition and energy distribution. Methods of identification of charge and energy measurement for primary cosmic ray nuclei are considered. C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, Fe energy spectra are presented and discussed. The results are obtained from the first year of the planned exposure time.

  16. Preliminary cosmic ray proton and helium spectra from the first year of the NUCLEON experiment exposure time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Igor

    2016-07-01

    The NUCLEON cosmic ray observatory is designed to measure high energy cosmic ray composition and energy distribution. Methods of identification of charge and energy measurement are presented. Preliminary proton and helium spectra and proton to helium ratio are presented. The results are obtained from the first year of the planned exposure time.

  17. Preliminary cosmic ray all-particle spectrum from the first year of the NUCLEON experiment exposure time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podorozhny, Dmitry

    2016-07-01

    The NUCLEON cosmic ray observatory is designed to measure high energy cosmic ray composition and energy distributions. Methods of identification of charge and energy reconstruction and a preliminary cosmic ray all-particle spectrum are presented and discussed. The results are obtained from the first year of the planned exposure time.

  18. Galilean Tracks in the Physics Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Variations of Galileo's famous track experiments in acceleration are commonly performed in high school and college. The purpose of this article is to present a sequence of three low-tech basic kinematics experiments using Galilean tracks that can be set up extremely quickly and yet generally yield excellent results. A low-cost construction method…

  19. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  20. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  1. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  2. The relationship between adult sexual adjustment and childhood experiences regarding exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parental bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Janda, L H

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between adult sexual functioning and childhood experiences with exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parents' bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality was examined. Although a variety of experts have provided their opinion on this issue, empirical research on this topic has been lacking. In this study, male and female college students were asked to retrospectively report on the frequency of sleeping in the parental bed as a child, the frequency of seeing others nude during childhood, and parental attitudes regarding sexuality. Information on current sexual functioning and adjustment was also obtained. The results suggest that childhood experiences with exposure to nudity and sleeping in the parental bed are not adversely related to adult sexual functioning and adjustment. In fact, there is modest support that these childhood experiences are positively related to indices of adjustment. Results also suggest that a positive attitude toward sexuality can be beneficial for a child's comfort with his/her sexuality. Finally, examination of gender differences revealed that male and female experience paternal attitudes toward sexuality differently but are similar in their perceptions of maternal attitudes. PMID:3421828

  3. Leveraging Spatial Model to Improve Indoor Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Xu, W.; Penard, W.; Zlatanova, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we leverage spatial model to process indoor localization results and then improve the track consisting of measured locations. We elaborate different parts of spatial model such as geometry, topology and semantics, and then present how they contribute to the processing of indoor tracks. The initial results of our experiment reveal that spatial model can support us to overcome problems such as tracks intersecting with obstacles and unstable shifts between two location measurements. In the future, we will investigate more exceptions of indoor tracking results and then develop additional spatial methods to reduce errors of indoor tracks.

  4. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  5. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role. PMID:25815743

  6. Is plasma {beta}-glucuronidase a novel human biomarker for monitoring anticholinesterase pesticides exposure? A Malaysian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H. |. E-mail: salmaan@mib.gov.my; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Ali, Noor Suhailah; El Sersi, Magdi; Toong, Lee Mun; Zainal, Awang Mat; Hashim, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Mohd Shariman; Saidin, Mohd Nazri; Rahman, Ab Razak Ab; Rafaai, Mohd Jamil Mohd; Omar, Sollahudin; Rapiai, Rafiah; Othman, Radziah; Chan, Lee Tiong; Johari, Amran; Soon, Wong Hing; Salleh, Abdul Rahim; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-03-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure on the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme activity among five patients of acute pesticide poisoning in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang, 230 farmers in the MADA area, Kedah and 49 fishermen in Setiu, Terengganu. The duration of pesticide exposure among the patients was unknown, but the plasma samples from patients were collected on day one in the hospital. The duration of pesticide exposure among the farmers was between 1 and 45 years. The {beta}-glucuronidase activity was compared with plasma cholinesterase activity in the same individual. The plasma cholinesterase activity was measured using Cholinesterase (PTC) Reagent set kit (Teco Diagnostics, UK) based on colorimetric method, while the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity was measured fluorometrically based on {beta}-glucuronidase assay. The plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) among the patients (1386.786 {+-} 791.291 U/L/min) but the inhibition in plasma cholinesterase activity among the farmers (7346.5 {+-} 1860.786 U/L/min) was not significant (p > 0.05). The plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity among the farmers was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) (0.737 {+-} 0.425 {mu}M/h) but not significant among the patients (p > 0.05). The plasma cholinesterase activity was positively correlated with the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity among the farmers (r = 0.205, p < 0.01) but not among the patients (r = 0.79, p > 0.05). Thus, plasma {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme activity can be measured as a biomarker for the chronic exposure of pesticide. However, further studies need to be performed to confirm whether plasma {beta}-glucuronidase can be a sensitive biomarker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning.

  7. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  8. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  9. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  10. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  11. Science requirements for Heavy Nuclei Collection (HNC) experiment on NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Mission 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. Buford

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Nuclei Collection (HNC) is a passive array of stacks of a special glass, 14 sheets thick, that record tracks of ultraheavy cosmic rays for later readout by automated systems on Earth. The primary goal is to determine the relative abundances of both the odd- and even-Z cosmic rays with Z equal to or greater than 50 with statistics a factor at least 60 greater than obtained in HEAO-3 and to obtain charge resolution at least as good as 0.25 charge unit. The secondary goal is to search for hypothetical particles such as superheavy elements. The HNC detector array will have a cumulative collection power equivalent to flying 32 sq m of detectors in space for 4 years. The array will be flown as a free-flight spacecraft and/or attached to Space Station Freedom.

  12. The Other Side of the Coin: A Self-Study of Graduate Student Exposure to International Experiences of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleishman, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective understanding of self-study by re-living a study abroad experience through critical reflection. It will explain and clarify how reflection and self-study of the personal experiences of a graduate student can enhance the meaning of inclusion. This paper begins with a brief conceptualization of self-study,…

  13. Study of nuclear multifragmentation induced by ultrarelativistic μ-mesons in nuclear track emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Haiduc, M.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Neagu, A.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2016-02-01

    Exposures of test samples of nuclear track emulsion were analyzed. The formation of high-multiplicity nuclear stars was observed upon irradiating nuclear track emulsions with ultrarelativistic muons. Kinematical features studied in this exposure of nuclear track emulsions for events of the muon-induced splitting of carbon nuclei to three α-particles are indicative of the nuclear-diffraction interaction mechanism.

  14. Radio tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, J. C.; Komarek, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The principles and techniques of deep space radio tracking are described along with the uses of tracking data in navigation and radio science. Emphasis is placed on the measurement functions of radio tracking.

  15. Endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) experience repeated, concurrent exposure to multiple environmental neurotoxins produced by marine algae.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Gregory J; Mikulski, Christina M; King, Kristen L; Roth, Patricia B; Wang, Zhihong; Leandro, Luis F; DeGrasse, Stacey L; White, Kevin D; De Biase, Daniela; Gillett, Roxanne M; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2012-01-01

    The western North Atlantic population of right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the most critically endangered of any whale population in the world. Among the factors considered to have potentially adverse effects on the health and reproduction of E. glacialis are biotoxins produced by certain microalgae responsible for causing harmful algal blooms. The worldwide incidence of these events has continued to increase dramatically over the past several decades and is expected to remain problematic under predicted climate change scenarios. Previous investigations have demonstrated that N. Atlantic right whales are being exposed to at least two classes of algal-produced environmental neurotoxins-paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and domoic acid (DA). Our primary aims during this six-year study (2001-2006) were to assess whether the whales' exposure to these algal biotoxins occurred annually over multiple years, and to what extent individual whales were exposed repeatedly and/or concurrently to one or both toxin classes. Approximately 140 right whale fecal samples obtained across multiple habitats in the western N. Atlantic were analyzed for PSTs and DA. About 40% of these samples were attributed to individual whales in the North Atlantic Right Whale Catalog, permitting analysis of biotoxin exposure according to sex, age class, and reproductive status/history. Our findings demonstrate clearly that right whales are being exposed to both of these algal biotoxins on virtually an annual basis in multiple habitats for periods of up to six months (April through September), with similar exposure rates for females and males (PSTs: ∼70-80%; DA: ∼25-30%). Notably, only one of 14 lactating females sampled did not contain either PSTs or DA, suggesting the potential for maternal toxin transfer and possible effects on neonatal animals. Moreover, 22% of the fecal samples tested for PSTs and DA showed concurrent exposure to both neurotoxins, leading to questions of interactive

  16. Approximate Bayesian multibody tracking.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Oswald

    2006-09-01

    Visual tracking of multiple targets is a challenging problem, especially when efficiency is an issue. Occlusions, if not properly handled, are a major source of failure. Solutions supporting principled occlusion reasoning have been proposed but are yet unpractical for online applications. This paper presents a new solution which effectively manages the trade-off between reliable modeling and computational efficiency. The Hybrid Joint-Separable (HJS) filter is derived from a joint Bayesian formulation of the problem, and shown to be efficient while optimal in terms of compact belief representation. Computational efficiency is achieved by employing a Markov random field approximation to joint dynamics and an incremental algorithm for posterior update with an appearance likelihood that implements a physically-based model of the occlusion process. A particle filter implementation is proposed which achieves accurate tracking during partial occlusions, while in cases of complete occlusion, tracking hypotheses are bound to estimated occlusion volumes. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is efficient, robust, and able to resolve long-term occlusions between targets with identical appearance. PMID:16929730

  17. Increased Mortality Exposure within the Family Rather than Individual Mortality Experiences Triggers Faster Life-History Strategies in Historic Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans. PMID:24421897

  18. Quantitative measures of air-gun pulses recorded on sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using acoustic tags during controlled exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P T; Johnson, M; Miller, P J O; Aguilar Soto, N; Lynch, J; Tyack, P

    2006-10-01

    The widespread use of powerful, low-frequency air-gun pulses for seismic seabed exploration has raised concern about their potential negative effects on marine wildlife. Here, we quantify the sound exposure levels recorded on acoustic tags attached to eight sperm whales at ranges between 1.4 and 12.6 km from controlled air-gun array sources operated in the Gulf of Mexico. Due to multipath propagation, the animals were exposed to multiple sound pulses during each firing of the array with received levels of analyzed pulses falling between 131-167 dB re. 1 microPa (pp) [111-147 dB re. 1 microPa (rms) and 100-135 dB re. 1 microPa2 s] after compensation for hearing sensitivity using the M-weighting. Received levels varied widely with range and depth of the exposed animal precluding reliable estimation of exposure zones based on simple geometric spreading laws. When whales were close to the surface, the first arrivals of air-gun pulses contained most energy between 0.3 and 3 kHz, a frequency range well beyond the normal frequencies of interest in seismic exploration. Therefore air-gun arrays can generate significant sound energy at frequencies many octaves higher than the frequencies of interest for seismic exploration, which increases concern of the potential impact on odontocetes with poor low frequency hearing. PMID:17069331

  19. A personal experience reducing radiation exposures: protecting family in Kiev during the first two weeks after Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Eremenko, V A; Droppo, J G

    2006-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident occurred in 1986. The plume from the explosions and fires was highly radioactive and resulted in very high exposure levels in the surrounding regions. This paper describes how the people in Kiev, Ukraine, a city 120 km (90 miles) south of Chernobyl, and in particular one individual in that city, Professor Vitaly Eremenko, became aware of the threat before the official announcement and the steps he took to mitigate potential impacts to his immediate family. The combination of being informed and using available resources led to greatly reduced consequences for his family and, in particular, his newborn granddaughter. He notes how quickly word of the some aspects of the hazard spread in the city and how other aspects appear to not have been understood. Although these events are being recalled as the 20 anniversary of the terrible event approaches, the lessons are still pertinent today. Threats of possible terrorist use of radiation dispersal devices makes knowledge of effective individual actions for self-protection from radiation exposures a topic of current interest. PMID:16823271

  20. A Personal Experience Reducing Radiation Exposures: Protecting Family in Kiev during the First Two Weeks after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, Vitaly A.; Droppo, James G.

    2006-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident occurred in 1986. The plume from the explosions and fires was highly radioactive and resulted in very high exposure levels in the surrounding regions. This paper describes how the people in Kiev, Ukraine, a city 90 miles (120 km) south of Chernobyl, and in particular one individual in that city, Professor Vitaly Eremenko, became aware of the threat before the official announcement and the steps he took to mitigate potential impacts to his immediate family. The combination of being informed and using available resources led to greatly reduced consequences for his family and, in particular, his newborn granddaughter. He notes how quickly word of some aspects of the hazard spread in the city and how other aspects appear to not have been understood. Although these events are being recalled as the 20th anniversary of the terrible event approaches, the lessons are still pertinent today. Threats of possible terrorist use of radiation dispersal devices makes knowledge of effective individual actions for self-protection from radiation exposures a topic of current interest.

  1. Cross-national comparison of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on infant and early child physical growth: A natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Beau; LaGasse, Linda L.; Wouldes, Trecia; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Wilcox, Tara; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study seeks to compare the effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) on infant and child physical growth between the United States (US) and New Zealand (NZ). This cross-national comparison provides a unique opportunity to examine the potential impact of services provided to drug using mothers on child health. Methods The longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study of PME from birth to 36 months was conducted in the US and NZ. The US cohort included 204 children with PME and 212 non-PME matched comparisons (NPME); the NZ cohort included 108 children with PME and 115 NPME matched comparisons. Latent growth curve models were used to examine effects of PME, country of origin, and the country × PME interaction on growth in length/height and weight. Results In regard to length/height, PME and country of origin were associated with initial length and growth over time. There was also a significant interaction effect, such that children with PME in the US were shorter at birth than children with PME in NZ after controlling for other prenatal exposures, infant set, socioeconomic status, and maternal height. In regard to weight, there was only an effect of country of origin. Conclusions Effects of PME on infant and child growth were shown to differ across countries, with exposed children in NZ faring better than exposed children in the US. Implications for prevention programs and public policy are discussed. PMID:23943149

  2. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjie; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Li, Zhigang; Gow, Andrew; Chung, Kian Fan; Hu, Min; Sun, Zhongsheng; Zeng, Limin; Zhu, Tong; Jia, Guang; Li, Xiaoqian; Duarte, Marlyn; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Limited experimental data have shown that early-life exposure to ambient particles either increases susceptibility to diet-induced weight gain in adulthood or increases insulin resistance, adiposity, and inflammation. However, no data have directly supported a link between air pollution and non-diet-induced weight increases. In a rodent model, we found that breathing Beijing's highly polluted air resulted in weight gain and cardiorespiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Compared to those exposed to filtered air, pregnant rats exposed to unfiltered Beijing air were significantly heavier at the end of pregnancy. At 8 wk old, the offspring prenatally and postnatally exposed to unfiltered air were significantly heavier than those exposed to filtered air. In both rat dams and their offspring, after continuous exposure to unfiltered air we observed pronounced histologic evidence for both perivascular and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs, increased tissue and systemic oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and an enhanced proinflammatory status of epididymal fat. Results suggest that TLR2/4-dependent inflammatory activation and lipid oxidation in the lung can spill over systemically, leading to metabolic dysfunction and weight gain.-Wei, Y., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Gow, A., Chung, K. F., Hu, M., Sun, Z., Zeng, L., Zhu, T., Jia, G., Li, X., Duarte, M., Tang, X. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing. PMID:26891735

  3. Perceived benefits and challenges of repeated exposure to high fidelity simulation experiences of first degree accelerated bachelor nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Vandyke, Olga; Smallwood, Christopher; Gonzalez, Kristen Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of first-degree entry-level accelerated bachelor nursing students regarding benefits and challenges of exposure to multiple high fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios, which has not been studied to date. These perceptions conformed to some research findings among Associate Degree, traditional non-accelerated, and second-degree accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students faced with one to two simulations. However, first-degree accelerated BSN students faced with multiple complex simulations perceived improvements on all outcomes, including critical thinking, confidence, competence, and theory-practice integration. On the negative side, some reported feeling overwhelmed by the multiple HFS scenarios. Evidence from this study supports HFS as an effective teaching and learning method for nursing students, along with valuable implications for many other fields. PMID:26260522

  4. ATLAS TrackingEvent Data Model -- 12.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS; Akesson, F.; Atkinson, T.; Costa, M.J.; Elsing, M.; Fleischmann, S.; Gaponenko, A.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.; Siebel, M.

    2006-07-23

    In this report the event data model (EDM) relevant for tracking in the ATLAS experiment is presented. The core component of the tracking EDM is a common track object which is suited to describe tracks in the innermost tracking sub-detectors and in the muon detectors in offline as well as online reconstruction. The design of the EDM was driven by a demand for modularity and extensibility while taking into account the different requirements of the clients. The structure of the track object and the representation of the tracking-relevant information are described in detail.

  5. Persuasion Via Mere Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Raymond K.; Ware, Paul D.

    1971-01-01

    Describes an experiment which sought to effect persuasion by merely exposing subjects to the name of a stimulus object for a specified number of times. Through illustration, explains the theoretical basis and methodology employed in a mere exposure experiment. (Author)

  6. Nevirapine exposure with WHO pediatric weight band dosing: enhanced therapeutic concentrations predicted based on extensive international pharmacokinetic experience.

    PubMed

    Nikanjam, Mina; Kabamba, Desiré; Cressey, Tim R; Burger, David; Aweeka, Francesca T; Acosta, Edward P; Spector, Stephen A; Capparelli, Edmund V

    2012-10-01

    Nevirapine (NVP) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) used worldwide as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in infants and children to treat HIV infection. Dosing based on either weight or body surface area has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but can be difficult to implement in resource-limited settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed simplified weight band dosing for NVP, but it has not been critically evaluated. NVP pharmacokinetic data were combined from eight pediatric clinical trials (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group [PACTG] studies 245, 356, 366, 377, 403, 1056, and 1069 and Children with HIV in Africa Pharmacokinetics and Adherence of Simple Antiretroviral Regimens [CHAPAS]) representing subjects from multiple continents and across the pediatric age continuum. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterize developmental changes in NVP disposition, identify potential sources of NVP pharmacokinetic variability, and assess various pediatric dosing strategies and their impact on NVP exposure. Age, CYP2B6 genotype, and ritonavir were independent predictors of oral NVP clearance. The Triomune fixed-dose tablet was an independent predictor of bioavailability compared to the liquid and other tablet formulations. Monte Carlo simulations of the final model were used to assess WHO weight band dosing recommendations. The final pharmacokinetic model indicated that WHO weight band dosing is likely to result in a percentage of children with NVP exposure within the target range similar to that obtained with FDA dosing. Weight band dosing of NVP proposed by the WHO has the potential to provide a simple and effective dosing strategy for resource limited settings. PMID:22869579

  7. Cell crawling on filamentous tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Schwarz, Jennifer; Das, Moumita

    2014-03-01

    Recent experiments suggest that the migration of some cells in three dimensions has strong resemblance to one-dimensional migration. Motivated by this observation, we simulate a one-dimensional model cell made of beads and springs that moves on a tense semiflexible filamentous track. Physical parameters, such as the spring constants and friction coefficients, are calculated using effective theories. We investigate the mechanical feedback between the model cell and this track, as mediated by the active myosin-driven contractility and the catch/slip bond behavior of the focal adhesions, as the model cell crawls. We then compare our calculations of cell speed and the amount of deformation in the track with experiments.

  8. Multiple-object tracking while driving: the multiple-vehicle tracking task.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin J; Trick, Lana M

    2014-11-01

    Many contend that driving an automobile involves multiple-object tracking. At this point, no one has tested this idea, and it is unclear how multiple-object tracking would coordinate with the other activities involved in driving. To address some of the initial and most basic questions about multiple-object tracking while driving, we modified the tracking task for use in a driving simulator, creating the multiple-vehicle tracking task. In Experiment 1, we employed a dual-task methodology to determine whether there was interference between tracking and driving. Findings suggest that although it is possible to track multiple vehicles while driving, driving reduces tracking performance, and tracking compromises headway and lane position maintenance while driving. Modified change-detection paradigms were used to assess whether there were change localization advantages for tracked targets in multiple-vehicle tracking. When changes occurred during a blanking interval, drivers were more accurate (Experiment 2a) and ~250 ms faster (Experiment 2b) at locating the vehicle that changed when it was a target rather than a distractor in tracking. In a more realistic driving task where drivers had to brake in response to the sudden onset of brake lights in one of the lead vehicles, drivers were more accurate at localizing the vehicle that braked if it was a tracking target, although there was no advantage in terms of braking response time. Overall, results suggest that multiple-object tracking is possible while driving and perhaps even advantageous in some situations, but further research is required to determine whether multiple-object tracking is actually used in day-to-day driving. PMID:24946866

  9. Single track effects, Biostack and risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The scientific career of Prof. Bucker has spanned a very exciting period in the fledgling science of Space Radiation Biology. The capability for placing biological objects in space was developed, and the methods for properly packaging, retrieving and analyzing them were worked out. Meaningful results on the effects of radiation were obtained for the first time. In fact, many of the successful techniques and methodologies for handling biological samples were developed in Prof. Bucker's laboratories, as attested by the extensive Biostack program. He was the first to suggest and successfully carry out experiments in space directly aimed at measuring effects of single tracks of high-energy heavy galactic cosmic rays by specifically identifying whether or not the object had been hit by a heavy particle track. Because the "hit" frequencies of heavy galactic cosmic rays to cell nuclei in the bodies of space travelers will be low, it is expected that any effects to humans on the cellular level will be dominated by single-track cell traversals. This includes the most important generally recognized late effect of space radiation exposure: radiation-induced cancer. This paper addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single "hits" in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth's magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when "hit" by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore Bacillus subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground

  10. Single track effects, Biostack and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B

    1994-01-01

    The scientific career of Prof. Bucker has spanned a very exciting period in the fledgling science of Space Radiation Biology. The capability for placing biological objects in space was developed, and the methods for properly packaging, retrieving and analyzing them were worked out. Meaningful results on the effects of radiation were obtained for the first time. In fact, many of the successful techniques and methodologies for handling biological samples were developed in Prof. Bucker's laboratories, as attested by the extensive Biostack program. He was the first to suggest and successfully carry out experiments in space directly aimed at measuring effects of single tracks of high-energy heavy galactic cosmic rays by specifically identifying whether or not the object had been hit by a heavy particle track. Because the "hit" frequencies of heavy galactic cosmic rays to cell nuclei in the bodies of space travelers will be low, it is expected that any effects to humans on the cellular level will be dominated by single-track cell traversals. This includes the most important generally recognized late effect of space radiation exposure: radiation-induced cancer. This paper addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single "hits" in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth's magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when "hit" by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore Bacillus subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground

  11. Attentional costs in multiple-object tracking

    PubMed Central

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E.

    2008-01-01

    Attentional demands of multiple-object tracking were demonstrated using a dual-task paradigm. Participants were asked to make speeded responses based on the pitch of a tone, while at the same time tracking four of eight identical dots. Tracking difficulty was manipulated either concurrent with or after the tone task. If increasing tracking difficulty increases attentional demands, its effect should be larger when it occurs concurrent with the tone. In Experiment 1, tracking difficulty was manipulated by having all dots briefly attract one another on some trials, causing a transient increase in dot proximity and speed. Results showed that increasing proximity and speed had a significantly larger effect when it occurred at the same time as the tone task. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that manipulating either proximity or speed independently was sufficient to produce this pattern of results. Experiment 4 manipulated object contrast, which affected tracking performance equally whether it occurred concurrent with or after the tone task. Overall, results support the view that the moment-to-moment tracking of multiple objects demands attention. Understanding what factors increase the attentional demands of tracking may help to explain why tracking is sometimes successful and at other times fails. PMID:18281028

  12. Nuclear track study of Jilin chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellas, P.; Bourot-Denise, M.

    1985-02-01

    Attention is given to nuclear track records in olivines from 21 specimens of Jilin which sample the whole spectrum of Ne-21 concentrations and come from both the main mass and the strewn fragments. Although 19 of the specimens exhibit extremely low track densities, two which have high Ne-21 contents and the largest Ar-40 and He-4 losses are found, and noted to have track densities of about 750 and 1500/sq cm. These tracks are attributed to very heavy cosmic ray nuclei. These results may be explained in terms of production during the first stage exposure, or during the second irradiation stage of 0.4 Myr. The ubiquitous presence of a track density background in most samples is best explained by the spontaneous fission of U-238 since 4.0 Gyr.

  13. Diverging Experiences during Out-of-School Time: The Race Gap in Exposure to After-School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kathryn; Sanders, Felicia

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying ways to close the Black-White achievement gap. This study examines race differences in children's participation in after-school programs, an out-of-school time experience that may influence children's achievement. Using nationally representative data spanning 1995-2005, the authors find that African…

  14. Constraints on the thermal history of Taylorsville Basin, Virginia, U.S.A., from fluid-inclusion and fission-track analyses: Implications for subsurface geomicrobiology experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-Y.; Onstott, T.C.; Burruss, R.C.; Miller, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Microbial populations have been found at the depth of 2621-2804 m in a borehole near the center of Triassic Taylorsville Basin, Virginia. To constrain possible scenarios for long-term survival in or introduction of these microbial populations to the deep subsurface, we attempted to refine models of thermal and burial history of the basin by analyzing aqueous and gaseous fluid inclusions in calcite/quartz veins or cements in cuttings from the same borehole. These results are complemented by fission-track data from the adjacent boreholes. Homogenization temperatures of secondary aqueous fluid inclusions range from 120?? to 210??C between 2027- and 3069-m depth, with highest temperatures in the deepest samples. The salinities of these aqueous inclusions range from 0 to ??? 4.3 eq wt% NaCl. Four samples from the depth between 2413 and 2931 m contain both two-phase aqueous and one-phase methane-rich inclusions in healed microcracks. The relative CH4 and CO2 contents of these gaseous inclusions was estimated by microthermometry and laser Raman spectroscopy. If both types of inclusions in sample 2931 m were trapped simultaneously, the density of the methane-rich inclusions calculated from the Peng - Robinson equation of state implies an entrapment pressure of 360 ?? 20 bar at the homogenization temperature (162.5 ?? 12.5??C) of the aqueous inclusions. This pressure falls between the hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures at the present depth 2931 m of burial. If we assume that the pressure regime was hydrostatic at the time of trapping, then the inclusions were trapped at 3.6 km in a thermal gradient of ??? 40??C/km. The high temperatures recorded by the secondary aqueous inclusions are consistent with the pervasive resetting of zircon and apatite fission-track dates. In order to fit the fission-track length distributions of the apatite data, however, a cooling rate of 1-2??C/Ma following the thermal maximum is required. To match the integrated dates, the thermal maximum

  15. Kalman filter-based fast track reconstruction for charged particles in a Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment using parallel computing on a multicore server at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazimov, T. O.; Zyzak, M. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Kisel, P. I.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main goals in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment (GSI, Germany) is to find parameters of charged particle trajectories. An online full event reconstruction is planned to be carried out in this experiment, thus demanding fast algorithms be developed, which make the most of the capabilities of modern CPU and GPU architectures. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Kalman filter-based track reconstruction for charged particles implemented by using various code parallelization methods. A multicore server located at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (LIT JINR), with two CPU Intel Xeon X5660 processors and a GPU Nvidia GTX 480 video card is used.

  16. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  17. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star. PMID:20048888

  18. Tracking Success in Youth Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Corinne H.

    1979-01-01

    Youthwork, Incorporated, was created by the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) to keep track of youth employment and training programs. Privately-owned Youthwork administers federal demonstration grants across the country to help provide job guidance, work experience credit, private sector involvement, and…

  19. Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

  20. Americans' Experiences with ACA Marketplace and Medicaid Coverage: Access to Care and Satisfaction: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, February–April 2016.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The fourth wave of the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, February--April 2016, finds at the close of the third open enrollment period that the working-age adult uninsured rate stands at 12.7 percent, statistically unchanged from 2015 but significantly lower than 2014 and 2013. Uninsured rates in the past three years have fallen most steeply for low-income adults though remain higher compared to wealthier adults. ACA marketplace and Medicaid coverage is helping to end long bouts without insurance, bridge gaps when employer insurance is lost, and improve access to health care. Sixty-one percent of enrollees who had used their insurance to get care said they would not have been able to afford or access it prior to enrolling. Doctor availability and appointment wait times are similar to those reported by insured Americans overall. Majorities with marketplace or Medicaid coverage continue to be satisfied with their insurance. PMID:27224966

  1. Americans' Experiences with ACA Marketplace Coverage: Affordability and Provider Network Satisfaction: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, February--April 2016.

    PubMed

    Gunja, Munira Z; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    For people with low and moderate incomes, the Affordable Care Act's tax credits have made premium costs roughly comparable to those paid by people with job-based health insurance. For those with higher incomes, the tax credits phase out, meaning that adults in marketplace plans on average have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. The law's cost-sharing reductions are reducing deductibles. Lower-income adults in marketplace plans were less likely than higher-income adults to report having deductibles of $1,000 or more. Majorities of new marketplace enrollees and those who have changed plans since they initially obtained marketplace coverage are satisfied with the doctors participating in their plans. Overall, the majority of marketplace enrollees expressed confidence in their ability to afford care if they were to become seriously ill. This issue brief explores these and other findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, February--April 2016. PMID:27400465

  2. Technical Description of Radar and Optical Sensors Contributing to Joint UK-Australian Satellite Tracking, Data-fusion and Cueing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastment, J.; Ladd, D.; Donnelly, P.; Ash, A.; Harwood, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.; Bennett, J.; Rutten, M.; Gordon, N.

    2014-09-01

    DSTL, DSTO, EOS and STFC have recently participated in a campaign of co-ordinated observations with both radar and optical sensors in order to demonstrate and to refine methodologies for orbit determination, data fusion and cross-sensor cueing. The experimental programme is described in detail in the companion paper by Harwood et al. At the STFC Chilbolton Observatory in Southern England, an S-band radar on a 25 m diameter fully-steerable dish antenna was used to measure object range and radar cross-section. At the EOS Space Systems facility on Mount Stromlo, near Canberra, Australia, an optical system comprising a 2 m alt / az observatory, with Coude path laser tracking at 400W power, was used to acquire, lock and laser track the cued objects, providing accurate orbit determinations for each. DSTO, located at Edinburgh, Australia, operated an optical system consisting of a small commercial telescope and mount, measuring the direction to the objects. Observation times were limited to the evening solar terminator period. Data from these systems was processed independently, using DSTL-developed and DSTO / EOS-developed algorithms, to perform orbit determination and to cross-cue: (i) the radar, based on the optical measurements; (ii) the optical system, based on the radar measurements; and (iii) the radar, using its own prior observations (self-cueing). In some cases, TLEs were used to initialise the orbit determination process; in other cases, the cues were derived entirely from sensor data. In all 3 scenarios, positive results were obtained for a variety of satellites in low earth orbits, demonstrating the feasibility of the different cue generation techniques. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technical characteristics of the radar and optical systems used, the modes of operation employed to acquire the observations, and details of the parameters measured and the data formats.

  3. Solidification under zero gravity: A Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment for an early space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. A.; Whitfield, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of two series of simple experiments the objectives of which are to determine the effect of an absence of gravity on (1) the general morphology of the structure, (2) location of ullage space, and (3) magnitude of surface tension driven convection, during the solidification of several metallic and nonmetallic systems is described. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given.

  4. Cell inactivation, repair and mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion exposure: results from experiments at accelerators and in space.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G; Schafer, M; Baltschukat, K; Weisbrod, U; Micke, U; Facius, R; Bucker, H

    1989-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of accelerated heavy ions on biological matter, the responses of spores of B. subtilis to this structured high LET radiation was investigated applying two different approaches. 1) By the use of the Biostack concept, the inactivation probability as a function of radial distance to single particles' trajectory (i.e. impact parameter) was determined in space experiments as well as at accelerators using low fluences of heavy ions. It was found that spores can survive even a central hit and that the effective range of inactivation extends far beyond impact parameters where inactivation by delta-ray dose would be effective. Concerning the space experiment, the inactivation cross section exceeds those from comparable accelerator experiments by roughly a factor of 20. 2) From fluence effect curves, cross sections for inactivation and mutation induction, and the efficiency of repair processes were determined. They are influenced by the ions characteristics in a complex manner. According to dependence on LET, at least 3 LET ranges can be differentiated: A low LET range (app. < 200 keV/micrometers), where cross sections for inactivation and mutation induction follow a common curve for different ions and where repair processes are effective; an intermediate LET range of the so-called saturation cross section with negligible mutagenic and repair efficiency; and a high LET range (>1000 keV/micrometers) where the biological endpoints are majorly dependent on atomic mass and energy of the ion under consideration. PMID:11537282

  5. The response of amphibian larvae to exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup WeatherMax) and nutrient enrichment in an ecosystem experiment.

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher; Thompson, Dean; Hao, Chunyan; Houlahan, Jeff

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides and fertilizers are widely used throughout the world and pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems. Using a replicated, whole ecosystem experiment in which 24 small wetlands were split in half with an impermeable barrier we tested whether exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup WeatherMax™, alone or in combination with nutrient enrichment has an effect on the survival, growth or development of amphibians. The herbicide was applied at one of two concentrations (low=210 μg a.e./L, high=2880 μg a.e./L) alone and in combination with nutrient enrichment to one side of wetlands and the other was left as an untreated control. Each treatment was replicated with six wetlands, and the experiment was repeated over two years. In the high glyphosate and nutrient enrichment treatment the survival of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) larvae was lower in enclosures placed in situ on the treated sides than the control sides of wetlands. However, these results were not replicated in the second year of study and they were not observed in free swimming wood frog larvae in the wetlands. In all treatments, wood frog larvae on the treated sides of wetlands were slightly larger (<10%) than those on the control side, but no effect on development was observed. The most dramatic finding was that the abundance of green frog larvae (Lithobates clamitans) was higher on the treated sides than the control sides of wetlands in the herbicide and nutrient treatments during the second year of the study. The results observed in this field study indicate that caution is necessary when extrapolating results from artificial systems to predict effects in natural systems. In this experiment, the lack of toxicity to amphibian larvae was probably due to the fact the pH of the wetlands was relatively low and the presence of sediments and organic surfaces which would have mitigated the exposure duration. PMID:25173748

  6. Eigenspace-based tracking for feature points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Chen, Qian; Qian, Wei-xian

    2014-05-01

    Feature point tracking deals with image streams that change over time. Most existing feature point tracking algorithms only consider two adjacent frames at a time, and forget the feature information of previous frames. In this paper, we present a new eigenspace-based tracking method that learns an eigenspace representation of training features online, and finds the target feature point with Gauss-Newton style search method. A coarse-to-fine processing strategy is introduced to handle large affine transformations. Several simulations and experiments on real images indicate the effectiveness of the proposed feature tracking algorithm under the conditions of large pose changes and temporary occlusions.

  7. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Antoine S. G.; Metzler, Knut; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Leya, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    If chondrules were exposed to cosmic rays prior to meteorite compaction, they should retain an excess of cosmogenic noble gases. Beyersdorf-Kuis et al. (2015) showed that such excesses can be detected provided that the chemical composition of each individual chondrule is precisely known. However, their study was limited to a few samples as they had to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor for instrumental neutron activation analysis. We developed a novel analytical protocol that combines the measurements of He and Ne isotopic concentrations with a fast method to correct for differences in chemical composition using micro X-ray computed tomography. Our main idea is to combine noble gas, nuclear track, and petrography data for numerous chondrules to understand the precompaction exposure history of the chondrite parent bodies. Here, we report our results for a total of 77 chondrules and four matrix samples from NWA 8276 (L3.00), NWA 8007 (L3.2), and Bjurböle (L/LL4). All chondrules from the same meteorite have within uncertainty identical 21Ne exposure ages, and all chondrules from Bjurböle have within uncertainty identical 3He exposure ages. However, most chondrules from NWA 8276 and a few from NWA 8007 show small but resolvable differences in 3He exposure age that we attribute to matrix contamination and/or gas loss. The finding that none of the chondrules has noble gas excesses is consistent with the uniform track density found for each meteorite. We conclude that the studied chondrules did not experience a precompaction exposure longer than a few Ma assuming present-day flux of galactic cosmic rays. A majority of chondrules from L and LL chondrites thus rapidly accreted and/or was efficiently shielded from cosmic rays in the solar nebula.

  8. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Antoine S. G.; Metzler, Knut; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Leya, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    If chondrules were exposed to cosmic rays prior to meteorite compaction, they should retain an excess of cosmogenic noble gases. Beyersdorf-Kuis et al. showed that such excesses can be detected provided that the chemical composition of each individual chondrule is precisely known. However, their study was limited to a few samples as they had to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor for instrumental neutron activation analysis. We developed a novel analytical protocol that combines the measurements of He and Ne isotopic concentrations with a fast method to correct for differences in chemical composition using micro X-ray computed tomography. Our main idea is to combine noble gas, nuclear track, and petrography data for numerous chondrules to understand the precompaction exposure history of the chondrite parent bodies. Here, we report our results for a total of 77 chondrules and four matrix samples from NWA 8276 (L3.00), NWA 8007 (L3.2), and Bjurböle (L/LL4). All chondrules from the same meteorite have within uncertainty identical 21Ne exposure ages, and all chondrules from Bjurböle have within uncertainty identical 3He exposure ages. However, most chondrules from NWA 8276 and a few from NWA 8007 show small but resolvable differences in 3He exposure age that we attribute to matrix contamination and/or gas loss. The finding that none of the chondrules has noble gas excesses is consistent with the uniform track density found for each meteorite. We conclude that the studied chondrules did not experience a precompaction exposure longer than a few Ma assuming present-day flux of galactic cosmic rays. A majority of chondrules from L and LL chondrites thus rapidly accreted and/or was efficiently shielded from cosmic rays in the solar nebula.

  9. Does exposure to lahars risk affect people's risk-preferences and other attitudes? Field data from incentivized experiments and surveys in Arequipa - Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitz, C.; Bchir, M. A.; Willinger, M.

    2012-04-01

    Many individuals are exposed to risks which are either difficult to insure or hard to mitigate, such as tsunamis, floods, volcanic eruption,... Little is known about how exposure to such risks shapes individuals' risk-preferences. Are they more (less) risk-averse than people who are unexposed to such hazard risk? We provide empirical evidence about this question for the case of individuals exposed to lahars risk. Lahars are sediments laden flows from volcanic origin. We compare the risk-attitude of people exposed - versus non-exposed ones - to lahars risk. The originality of our approach is that we combine standard survey data to behavioural data collected by means of incentivized experiments. We collected data in various locations of the city of Arequipa (Peru), a densely populated area down the volcano El Misti. Participants in our experiment were identified as (non-)exposed to lahars risk based on risk zoning. Our survey questionnaire allows us to compare assessed exposure and the perceived exposure. We elicit risk-preference, time-preference, and trusting behaviour (a measure of social capital) for each respondent in addition to standard survey data. Our field experiment involved a total of 209 respondents from exposed and non-exposed areas. While respondents endow legitimacy in risk reduction (more than 74%) to a national authority (Defensa Civil) in charge of the management of risk in the city, more than 64% of them consider that they are not sufficiently informed about the behaviours to adopt in case of a disaster. Respondents are therefore poorly motivated to adopt initiatives of self-protection (23%) and express instead high expectations with respect to authorities' actions for decreasing their vulnerability (73%). The experimental data show that participants who live in exposed areas are not significantly more risk-averse than those living in non-exposed ones. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in time-preference between exposed and non

  10. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  11. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Jack W.; Shields, Rob W; Valley, Michael T.

    2004-08-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  12. Tracking filter algorithm for automatic video tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEver, Mark A.; Kimbrell, James E.

    2006-05-01

    In addition to servo control and power amplification, motion control systems for optical tracking pedestals feature capabilities such as electro-optical tracking using an integrated Automatic Video Tracker (AVT) card. An electro-optical system tracking loop is comprised of sensors mounted on a pointing pedestal, an AVT that detects a target in the sensor imagery, and a tracking filter algorithm that commands the pedestal to follow the target. The tracking filter algorithm receives the target boresight error from the AVT and calculates motion demands for the pedestal servo controller. This paper presents a tracking algorithm based on target state estimation using a Kalman filter. The servo demands are based on calculating the Kalman filter state estimate from absolute line-of-sight angles to the target. Simulations are used to compare its performance to tracking loops without tracking filters, and to other tracking filter algorithms, such as rate feedback loops closed around boresight error. Issues such as data latency and sensor alignment error are discussed.

  13. Field controlled experiments on the physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to low-level air and soil mercury exposures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Yi; Ci, Zhijia

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of tons of mercury (Hg) are released from anthropogenic and natural sources to the atmosphere in a gaseous elemental form per year, yet little is known regarding the influence of airborne Hg on the physiological activities of plant leaves. In the present study, the effects of low-level air and soil Hg exposures on the gas exchange parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves and their accumulation of Hg, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined via field open-top chamber and Hg-enriched soil experiments, respectively. Low-level air Hg exposures (<50 ng m(-3)) had little effects on the gas exchange parameters of maize leaves during most of the daytime (p > 0.05). However, both the net photosynthesis rate and carboxylation efficiency of maize leaves exposed to 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly lower than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg in late morning (p < 0.05). Additionally, the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves exposed to 20 and 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly higher than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the increase in airborne Hg potentially damaged functional photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves, inducing free proline accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Due to minor translocation of soil Hg to the leaves, low-level soil Hg exposures (<1,000 ng g(-1)) had no significant influences on the gas exchange parameters, or the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves (p > 0.05). Compared to soil Hg, airborne Hg easily caused physiological stress to plant leaves. The effects of increasing atmospheric Hg concentration on plant physiology should be of concern. PMID:23943002

  14. Application of VNIIRS for target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Kahler, Bart

    2015-05-01

    The Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) has created the Video National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (VNIIRS). VNIIRS extends NIIRS to scene characterization from streaming video to include object recognition of various targets for a given size. To apply VNIIRs for target tracking, there is a need to understand the operating conditions of the sensor type, environmental phenomenon, and target behavior (SET). In this paper, we explore VNIIRS for target tracking given the sensor resolution to support the relative tracking performance using track success. The relative assessment can be used in relation to the absolute target size associated with the VNIIRS. In a notional analysis, we determine the issues and capabilities of using VNIIRS video quality ratings to determine track success. The outcome of the trade study is an experiment to understand how to use VNIIRS can support target tracking evaluation.

  15. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses' Exposure to Clients With Problematic Internet Experiences: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane M

    2015-10-01

    The current study explored the type and number of problematic Internet experiences (PIE) encountered by psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHN) in clinical practice and analyzed PMHNs' clinical cases of clients with PIE. A mixed-methods quantitative survey with a qualitative component measured the types and number of PIE cases via a descriptive survey and derived themes using narrative inquiry methodology from written case descriptions. A sample of 16 PMHNs provided quantitative data and nine participants summarized clinical cases. PMHNs reported 92 adult and 33 child cases of PIE. Six themes were derived from the narrative data: (a) searching for pornography; (b) developing online romantic relationships; (c) online gaming is ruining my life; (d) spending excessive time on the Internet; (e) coming to terms with online sexual behaviors and addiction; and (f) cyberbullying. Implications for PMHN practice include the need for further assessment and intervention as PIE increase in the future. PMID:26489102

  16. The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Paweł; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes. PMID:24252101

  17. An optical tracking system for virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrimech, Hamid; Merienne, Frederic

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we present a low-cost 3D tracking system which we have developed and tested in order to move away from traditional 2D interaction techniques (keyboard and mouse) in an attempt to improve user's experience while using a CVE. Such a tracking system is used to implement 3D interaction techniques that augment user experience, promote user's sense of transportation in the virtual world as well as user's awareness of their partners. The tracking system is a passive optical tracking system using stereoscopy a technique allowing the reconstruction of three-dimensional information from a couple of images. We have currently deployed our 3D tracking system on a collaborative research platform for investigating 3D interaction techniques in CVEs.

  18. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its

  19. Biological Significance of Acoustic Impacts on Marine Mammals: Examples Using an Acoustic Recording tag to Define Acoustic Exposure of Sperm Whales, Physeter catodon, Exposed to Airgun Sounds in Controlled Exposure Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; Miller, P. J.; Lynch, J.

    2006-05-01

    There has been considerable debate about how to regulate behavioral disruption in marine mammals. The U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act prohibits "taking" marine mammals, including harassment, which is defined as injury or disruption of behavioral patterns. A 2005 report by the National Academy of Sciences focuses on the need to analyze acoustic impacts on marine mammal behavior in terms of biological significance. The report develops a model for predicting population consequences of acoustic impacts. One of the key data gaps involves methods to estimate the impact of disruption on an animal's ability to complete life functions critical for growth, survival, and reproduction. One of the few areas where theory and data are available involves foraging energetics. Patrick Miller in the next talk and I will discuss an example study designed to evaluate the impact of exposure to seismic survey on the foraging energetics of sperm whales. As petroleum exploration moves offshore to deep water, there is increasing overlap between seismic exploration and deep diving toothed whales such as the sperm whale which is listed by the US as an endangered species. With support from the US Minerals Management Service and the Industry Research Funding Coalition, we tagged sperm whales with tags that can record sound, orientation, acceleration, temperature and depth. Eight whales tagged in the Gulf of Mexico during 2002-2003 were subjects in 5 controlled experiments involving exposure to sounds of an airgun array. One critical component of evaluating effects involves quantifying exposure at the animal. While the on-axis signature of airgun arrays has been well quantified, there are few broadband calibrated measurements in the water column displaced horizontally away from the downward-directed beam. The acoustic recording tags provide direct data on sounds as received at the animals. Due to multipath propagation, multiple sound pulses were recorded on the tagged whales for each firing of

  20. 3D visualisation and analysis of single and coalescing tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Brown, Louise; Petford, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionising decay products can cause lung cancer in humans (1). Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) can be used to monitor radon concentrations (2). Radon particles form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable 2D surface image analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (3). The aim of the study was to further investigate track angles and patterns in SSNTDs. A 'LEXT' confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 3D image datasets of five CR-39 plastic SSNTD's. The resultant 3D visualisations were analysed by eye and inclination angles assessed on selected tracks. From visual assessment, single isolated tracks as well as coalescing tracks were observed on the etched detectors. In addition varying track inclination angles were observed. Several different patterns of track formation were seen such as single isolated and double coalescing tracks. The observed track angles of inclination may help to assess the angle at which alpha particles hit the detector. Darby, S et al. Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer : collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. British Medical Journal 2005; 330, 223-226. Phillips, P.S., Denman, A.R., Crockett, R.G.M., Gillmore, G., Groves-Kirkby, C.J., Woolridge, A., Comparative Analysis of Weekly vs. Three monthly radon measurements in dwellings. DEFRA Report No., DEFRA/RAS/03.006. (2004). Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. Journal of Microscopy 2010; 237: 1-6.

  1. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students in high…

  2. Calculating track thrust with track functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-08-01

    In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a “calorimetric” measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a “track-based” measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape “track thrust” and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

  3. Could Uptake and Acropetal Translocation of PBDEs by Corn Be Enhanced Following Cu Exposure? Evidence from a Root Damage Experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Jiang, Longfei; Song, Mengke; Zhang, Dayi; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-19

    Cocontamination by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is ubiquitous in the environment. Fate of POPs within soil/water-plant system is a significant concern and an area where much uncertainty still exists when plants suffered cotoxicity from POPs and metals. This study investigated the fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) when copper (Cu) was present within the soil/water-plant system using pot and hydroponic experiments. The presence of Cu was found to induce damage to the root cell membranes of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Nongda 108) with increasing concentration in both shoots and roots. The PBDE congeners BDE209 and BDE47 in shoots were also enhanced with the increasing electrolytic leakage from root, attributed to Cu damage, and the highest shoot BDE209 and BDE47 levels were observed under the highest Cu dosage. In addition, positive correlations were observed between the PBDE content of corn shoots and the electrolytic leakage of corn roots. These results indicated that within a defective root system, more PBDEs will penetrate the roots and are acropetally translocated in the shoots. The potential ecological risk associated with the translocation and accumulation of POPs into plant shoots needs careful reconsideration in media cocontaminated with metals and POPs, whereas often ignored or underestimated in environmental risk assessments. PMID:26694851

  4. Tracking the Evolution of FE-,TI-OXIDE Phase Changes in Microbial Fossilization Experiments: Understanding the Role of Microbes in Diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, D. M.; Steele, A.

    2010-12-01

    The complex relationships between microbes and minerals under different chemical and geologic conditions over time is still not well constrained. In many ancient sedimentary rocks on Earth, “fossil” microstructures often contain interesting mineral assemblages that are dominated by clays and metal oxides. In some cases, microfossils are preserved along with Fe and Ti-oxides that contain trace amounts of graphitic carbon. Complicated histories and atmospheric inputs have influenced much of the mineralic makeup of the subaerially exposed rocks we see today, and these assemblages may not the same as what was originally formed with the rocks billions of years ago. To elucidate changes in Fe- and Ti-oxides during diagenesis, precipitates of iron and titanium oxides produced by microbes were compared to those formed abiotically. The samples were tracked over time to monitor the phase changes in minerals along with changes in the state of organic matter. This was carried out under laboratory controlled conditions of increasing temperatures and pressures to mimic the effects of diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism. A suite of analytical techniques were used to identify the mineral phases and carbonaceous compounds in these samples, including micro Raman spectroscopy, SEM, and XRD. To compliment this technique, NanoSims measurements of C, O, Fe, and Ti isotopes will also be made on samples analyzed by TEM. Collectively, the results show a correlation between the phase changes of Fe- and Ti-oxide and the presence of microbes under diagenetic conditions. The preliminary results presented here are part of an ongoing study and can be applied to understanding the role of microbes in diagenesis. It is hoped that we may also establish mineralic biosignatures, and in the process continue to perfect instrumental techniques that can be used on future planetary exploration missions.

  5. Time-sharing visual and auditory tracking tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Pamela S.; Vidulich, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment is described which examined the benefits of distributing the input demands of two tracking tasks as a function of task integrality. Visual and auditory compensatory tracking tasks were utilized. Results indicate that presenting the two tracking signals in two input modalities did not improve time-sharing efficiency. This was attributed to the difficulty insensitivity phenomenon.

  6. Track structure model of cell damage in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Ngo, Duc M.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenological track-structure model of cell damage is discussed. A description of the application of the track-structure model with the NASA Langley transport code for laboratory and space radiation is given. Comparisons to experimental results for cell survival during exposure to monoenergetic, heavy-ion beams are made. The model is also applied to predict cell damage rates and relative biological effectiveness for deep-space exposures.

  7. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  8. Image analysis used to count and measure etched tracks from ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, George E.; Schulz, Cindy K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed techniques to use digitized scanning electron micrographs and computer image analysis programs to measure track densities in lunar soil grains and plastic dosimeters. Tracks in lunar samples are formed by highly ionizing solar energetic particles and cosmic rays during near surface exposure on the Moon. The track densities are related to the exposure conditions (depth and time). Distributions of the number of grains as a function of their track densities can reveal the modality of soil maturation. We worked on two samples identified for a consortium study of lunar weathering effects, 61221 and 67701. They were prepared by the lunar curator's staff as polished grain mounts that were etched in boiling 1 N NaOH for 6 h to reveal tracks. We determined that backscattered electron images taken at 10 percent contrast and approximately 50 percent brightness produced suitable high contrast images for analysis. We used the NIH Image program to cut out areas that were unsuitable for measurement such as edges, cracks, etc. We ascertained a gray-scale threshold of 25 to separate tracks from background. We used the computer to count everything that was two pixels or greater in size and to measure the area to obtain track densities. We found an excellent correlation with manual measurements for track densities below 1 x 10(exp 8) cm(exp -2). For track densities between 1 x 10(exp 8) cm(exp -2) to 1 x 10(exp 9) cm(exp -2) we found that a regression formula using the percentage area covered by tracks gave good agreement with manual measurements. We determined the track density distributions for 61221 and 67701. Sample 61221 is an immature sample, but not pristine. Sample 67701 is a submature sample that is very close to being fully mature. Because only 10 percent of the grains have track densities less than 10(exp 9) cm(exp -2), it is difficulty to determine whether the sample matured in situ or is a mixture of a mature and a submature soil. Although our analysis

  9. Image analysis used to count and measure etched tracks from ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, George E.; Schulz, Cindy K.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed techniques to use digitized scanning electron micrographs and computer image analysis programs to measure track densities in lunar soil grains and plastic dosimeters. Tracks in lunar samples are formed by highly ionizing solar energetic particles and cosmic rays during near surface exposure on the Moon. The track densities are related to the exposure conditions (depth and time). Distributions of the number of grains as a function of their track densities can reveal the modality of soil maturation. We worked on two samples identified for a consortium study of lunar weathering effects, 61221 and 67701. They were prepared by the lunar curator's staff as polished grain mounts that were etched in boiling 1 N NaOH for 6 h to reveal tracks. We determined that backscattered electron images taken at 10 percent contrast and approximately 50 percent brightness produced suitable high contrast images for analysis. We used the NIH Image program to cut out areas that were unsuitable for measurement such as edges, cracks, etc. We ascertained a gray-scale threshold of 25 to separate tracks from background. We used the computer to count everything that was two pixels or greater in size and to measure the area to obtain track densities. We found an excellent correlation with manual measurements for track densities below 1 x 10(exp 8) cm(exp -2). For track densities between 1 x 10(exp 8) cm(exp -2) to 1 x 10(exp 9) cm(exp -2) we found that a regression formula using the percentage area covered by tracks gave good agreement with manual measurements. We determined the track density distributions for 61221 and 67701. Sample 61221 is an immature sample, but not pristine. Sample 67701 is a submature sample that is very close to being fully mature. Because only 10 percent of the grains have track densities less than 10(exp 9) cm(exp -2), it is difficulty to determine whether the sample matured in situ or is a mixture of a mature and a submature soil. Although our analysis

  10. Photographing Track Meets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the sport of track and field, because of the sport itself and its relatively easy access to photographers, is an obvious target for cameras. Discusses rules of the track that photographers must follow; picking a location; and equipment. Discusses shooting four specific track and field events and offers behind the scenes photos. (SR)

  11. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  12. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  13. Track and Field Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Discusses planning and design tips that help ensure track and field facilities are successful and well-suited to both school and community use. Examines approaches to determining the best track surface and ways to maximize track and field flexibility with limited space. (GR)

  14. Orbit determination accuracies using satellite-to-satellite tracking. [applicable to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Argentiero, P. D.; Schmid, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and the ATS-6/NIMBUS-6 satellite-to-satellite tracking orbit determination experiments are reported. The tracking systems used in these experiments differ from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), primarily in the use of one rather than two synchronous relay satellites. However, the simulations mentioned indicate that the insights gained from the experiments with regard to proper data reduction techniques and expected results are applicable to the TDRSS.

  15. Optimizing global health experiences in emergency medicine residency programs: a consensus statement from the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors 2011 Academic Assembly global health specialty track

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasing number of emergency medicine (EM) residency training programs have residents interested in participating in clinical rotations in other countries. However, the policies that each individual training program applies to this process are different. To our knowledge, little has been done in the standardization of these experiences to help EM residency programs with the evaluation, administration and implementation of a successful global health clinical elective experience. The objective of this project was to assess the current status of EM global health electives at residency training programs and to establish recommendations from educators in EM on the best methodology to implement successful global health electives. Methods During the 2011 Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) Academic Assembly, participants met to address this issue in a mediated discussion session and working group. Session participants examined data previously obtained via the CORD online listserve, discussed best practices in global health applications, evaluations and partnerships, and explored possible solutions to some of the challenges. In addition a survey was sent to CORD members prior to the 2011 Academic Assembly to evaluate the resources and processes for EM residents’ global experiences. Results Recommendations included creating a global health working group within the organization, optimizing a clearinghouse of elective opportunities for residents and standardizing elective application materials, site evaluations and resident assessment/feedback methods. The survey showed that 71.4% of respondents have global health partnerships and electives. However, only 36.7% of programs require pre-departure training, and only 20% have formal competency requirements for these global health electives. Conclusions A large number of EM training programs have global health experiences available, but these electives and the trainees may benefit from

  16. The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of 4 pressure vessels (3 experiment tray). The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 2000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Postflight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed. Provisional results from analysis of preflight and postflight calibrations are presented.

  17. A Motion Tracking and Sensor Fusion Module for Medical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunhe; Wu, Fan; Tseng, Kuo-Shih; Ye, Ding; Raymond, John; Konety, Badrinath; Sweet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a motion tracking or navigation module for medical simulation systems. Our main contribution is a sensor fusion method for proximity or distance sensors integrated with inertial measurement unit (IMU). Since IMU rotation tracking has been widely studied, we focus on the position or trajectory tracking of the instrument moving freely within a given boundary. In our experiments, we have found that this module reliably tracks instrument motion. PMID:27046606

  18. An unusual phenotypic and genotypic expression in F2 generation following one stage zidovudine exposure during pregnancy and lactation- an experiment in mice.

    PubMed

    Rajlakshmi, Chongtham; Roy, Jagat Kumar; Rai, Amit Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Asima; Pandey, Bajarang Lal

    2012-02-01

    Zidovudine (3'-Azido-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine, AZT, ZDV) is routinely used as one of the component of antiretroviral therapy to prevent transmission of the HIV infection from mother to child. The drug, when given during pregnancy can give rise to myriad toxicities as reported in previous studies on human, animal and in-vitro experiments. The present study was an attempt to explore the Zidovudine teratogenesis in F1 and F2 generation of mice following initial maternal exposure to Zidovudine during pregnancy, through delivery and lactation. The F1 generation actually would have got the exposure during embryonic development and infant stages. Pregnant Swiss mice were treated orally with ZDV 50 mg/kg/day or distilled water (control), from day eighth of gestation, through delivery and continued for first ten days of lactation. The F1 generation litters were raised and mated to produce F2 generation mice. An interesting phenotype of "healthy" and "sick" was noted in F2 generation but not in the F1 generation. In F2 generation 35% died on different postnatal day during 120 days of follow up period. Chromosomal study from bone marrow of F1 and F2 showed various chromosomal aberrations. Lipodystrophy and hepatotoxicity was observed in "sick" mice. The study generated a hypothesis of recessive mutation and concludes that Zidovudine is a transplacental genotoxic agent. The result of present study therefore suggests the need to study the effect of zidovudine in human subjects for a longer period of time to rule out similar genotoxic effect. PMID:22293411

  19. Finite resolution multitarget tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mušicki, Darko; Morelande, Mark R.

    2005-09-01

    Target tracking algorithms have to operate in an environment of uncertain measurement origin, due to the presence of randomly detected target measurements as well as clutter measurements from unwanted random scatterers. A majority of Bayesian multi-target tracking algorithms suffer from computational complexity which is exponential in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. The Linear Multi-target (LM) tracking procedure is a Bayesian multi-target tracking approximation with complexity which is linear in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. It also has a much simpler structure than the "optimal" Bayesian multi-target tracking, with apparently negligible decrease in performance. A vast majority of target tracking algorithms have been developed with the assumption of infinite sensor resolution, where a measurement can have only one source. This assumption is not valid for real sensors, such as radars. This paper presents a multi-target tracking algorithm which removes this restriction. The procedure utilizes a simple structure of LM tracking procedure to obtain a LM Finite Resolution (LMfr) tracking procedure which is much simpler than the previously published efforts. Instead of calculating the probability of measurement merging for each combination of potentially merging targets, we evaluate only one merging hypotheses for each measurement and each track. A simulation study is presented which compares LMfr-IPDA with LM-IPDA and IPDA target tracking in a cluttered environment utilizing a finite resolution sensor with five crossing targets. The study concentrates on the false track discrimination performance and the track retention capabilities.

  20. OFAI: 3D block tracking for a real-size rockfall experiment in the weathered volcanic context of Tahiti, French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, Thomas; Nachbaur, Aude; Mathon, Christian; Sedan, Olivier; Berger, Frédéric; Des Garets, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    The Land Management Authority of French Polynesia contracted BRGM to run a real-size rockfall experiment name-coded OFAI in September 2009. The purposes of the experiment are two fold: first observe real-size rock trajectories in a context of variably weathered volcanic rock slopes; and second, use observed rockfall trajectories to calibrate block propagation numerical models (see Mathon et al., EGU 2010, this session). 90 basalt blocks were dropped down a 150-m-long slope made of hard basalt veins, lenses of colluvium and erosion channels covered in blocks of various sizes. Parameters of the experiment concerned the shape (from nearly perfect sphere to elongated cubes) and mass of the blocks (from 300 kg to >5000 kg), and the launching point, in order to bounce the blocks both off stiff basalt veins and colluvium lenses. The presentation addresses the monitoring technique developed to measure block trajectories in 3D and the variables extracted from them. A set of two 50-frame-per-second digital reflex cameras (Panasonic GH1) were installed on two prominent vantage points in order to record block motion in stereoscopy. A series of ground control points, surveyed with centimetre accuracy, served to orient pairs of images in the local topographic reference frame. This enabled the computation of block position at 50 Hz along a section of ca. 30-m-long slope, constrained by the cameras field of view. These results were then processed to extract parameters, such as velocity (horizontal, vertical, rotational, incident and reflected), number of impacts, and height of rebounds in relation with ground cover properties.

  1. Robust Fluoroscopic Tracking of Fiducial Markers: Exploiting the Spatial Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Sharp, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Two new fluoroscopic fiducial tracking methods that exploit the spatial relationship among the multiple implanted fiducial to achieve fast, accurate and robust tracking are proposed in this paper. The spatial relationship between multiple implanted markers are modeled as Gaussian distributions of their pairwise distances over time. The means and standard deviations of these distances are learned from training sequences, and pairwise distances that deviate from these learned distributions are assigned a low spatial matching score. The spatial constraints are incorporated in two different algorithms: a stochastic tracking method and a detection based method. In the stochastic method, hypotheses of the “true” fiducial position are sampled from a pre-trained respiration motion model. Each hypothesis is assigned an importance value based on image matching score and spatial matching score. Learning the parameters of the motion model is needed in addition to the learning the distribution parameters of the pairwise distances in the proposed stochastic tracking approach. In the detection based method, a set of possible marker locations are identified by using a template matching based fiducial detector. The best location is obtained by optimizing the image matching score and spatial matching score through non-serial dynamic programming. In this detection based approach, there is no need to learn the respiration motion model. The two proposed algorithms are compared with a recent work using multiple hypothesis tracking algorithm which is denoted by MHT[19]. Phantom experiments were performed using fluoroscopic videos captured with known motion relative to an anthropomorphic phantom. The patient experiments were performed using a retrospective study of 16 fluoroscopic videos of liver cancer patients with implanted fiducials. For the motion phantom data sets, the detection based approach has the smallest tracking error (μerr: 0.78 – 1.74 mm, σerr: 0.39 – 1.16 mm) for

  2. Robust fluoroscopic tracking of fiducial markers: exploiting the spatial constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Sharp, Gregory

    2013-03-21

    Two new fluoroscopic fiducial tracking methods that exploit the spatial relationship among the multiple implanted fiducial to achieve fast, accurate and robust tracking are proposed in this paper. The spatial relationship between multiple implanted markers are modeled as Gaussian distributions of their pairwise distances over time. The means and standard deviations of these distances are learned from training sequences, and pairwise distances that deviate from these learned distributions are assigned a low spatial matching score. The spatial constraints are incorporated in two different algorithms: a stochastic tracking method and a detection based method. In the stochastic method, hypotheses of the 'true' fiducial position are sampled from a pre-trained respiration motion model. Each hypothesis is assigned an importance value based on image matching score and spatial matching score. Learning the parameters of the motion model is needed in addition to learning the distribution parameters of the pairwise distances in the proposed stochastic tracking approach. In the detection based method, a set of possible marker locations are identified by using a template matching based fiducial detector. The best location is obtained by optimizing the image matching score and spatial matching score through non-serial dynamic programming. In this detection based approach, there is no need to learn the respiration motion model. The two proposed algorithms are compared with a recent work using a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithm which is denoted by MHT, Tang et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 4081-98). Phantom experiments were performed using fluoroscopic videos captured with known motion relative to an anthropomorphic phantom. The patient experiments were performed using a retrospective study of 16 fluoroscopic videos of liver cancer patients with implanted fiducials. For the motion phantom data sets, the detection based approach has the smallest tracking error (μerr: 0

  3. Robust fluoroscopic tracking of fiducial markers: exploiting the spatial constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Sharp, Gregory

    2013-03-01

    Two new fluoroscopic fiducial tracking methods that exploit the spatial relationship among the multiple implanted fiducial to achieve fast, accurate and robust tracking are proposed in this paper. The spatial relationship between multiple implanted markers are modeled as Gaussian distributions of their pairwise distances over time. The means and standard deviations of these distances are learned from training sequences, and pairwise distances that deviate from these learned distributions are assigned a low spatial matching score. The spatial constraints are incorporated in two different algorithms: a stochastic tracking method and a detection based method. In the stochastic method, hypotheses of the ‘true’ fiducial position are sampled from a pre-trained respiration motion model. Each hypothesis is assigned an importance value based on image matching score and spatial matching score. Learning the parameters of the motion model is needed in addition to learning the distribution parameters of the pairwise distances in the proposed stochastic tracking approach. In the detection based method, a set of possible marker locations are identified by using a template matching based fiducial detector. The best location is obtained by optimizing the image matching score and spatial matching score through non-serial dynamic programming. In this detection based approach, there is no need to learn the respiration motion model. The two proposed algorithms are compared with a recent work using a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithm which is denoted by MHT, Tang et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 4081-98). Phantom experiments were performed using fluoroscopic videos captured with known motion relative to an anthropomorphic phantom. The patient experiments were performed using a retrospective study of 16 fluoroscopic videos of liver cancer patients with implanted fiducials. For the motion phantom data sets, the detection based approach has the smallest tracking error (

  4. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  5. Vehicle track loading simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupa, Milan; Severa, Libor; Vlach, Radek

    2011-12-01

    The paper describes possible design of the vehicle track computational model and basic testing procedure of the track dynamic loading simulation. The proposed approach leads to an improvement of track vehicle course stability. The computational model is built for MSC. ADAMS, AVT computational simulating system. Model, which is intended for MSC computational system, is built from two basic parts. The first one is represented by geometrical part, while the second one by contact computational part of the model. The aim of the simulating calculation consist in determination of change influence of specific vehicle track constructive parameters on changes of examined qualities of the vehicle track link and changes of track vehicle course stability. The work quantifies the influence of changes of track preloading values on the demanded torque changes of driving sprocket. Further research possibilities and potential are also presented.

  6. Deer Tracks in the City?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  7. Wafer CD variation for random units of track and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Ackmann, Paul; Richter, Frank; Kurth, Karin; Maelzer, Stephanie; Hsieh, Michael; Schurack, Frank; GN, Fang Hong

    2012-03-01

    After wafer processing in a scanner the process of record (POR) flows in a photo track are characterized by a random correlation between post exposure bake (PEB) and development (DEV) units of the photo track. The variation of the critical dimensions (CD) of the randomly correlated units used for PEB and DEV should be as small as possible - especially for technology nodes of 28nm and below. Even a point-to-point error of only 1nm could affect the final product yield results due to the relatively narrow process window of 28nm tech-node. The correlation between reticle measurements to target (MTT) and wafer MTT may in addition be influenced by the random correlation between units used for PEB and DEV. The polarization of the light source of the scanner is one of the key points for the wafer CD performance too - especially for the critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) performance. We have investigated two track flows, one with fixed and one with random unit correlation. The reticle used for the experiments is a 28nm active layer sample reticle. The POR track flow after wafer process in the scanner is characterized by a random correlation between PEB- and DEV-units. The set-up of the engineering (ENG) process flow is characterized by a fixed unit correlation between PEB- and development-units. The critical dimension trough pitch (CDTP) and linearity performance is demonstrated; also the line-end performance for two dimensional (2D) structures is shown. The sub-die of intra-field CDU for isolated and dense structures is discussed as well as the wafer intra-field CD performance. The correlation between reticle MTT and wafer intra-field MTT is demonstrated for track POR and ENG processes. For different polarization conditions of the scanner source, the comparison of CDU for isolated and dense features has been shown. The dependency of the wafer intra-field MTT with respect to different polarization settings of the light source is discussed. The correlation between reticle

  8. The innovative moments coding system and the assimilation of problematic experiences scale: a case study comparing two methods to track change in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Miguel M; Gabalda, Isabel Caro; Ribeiro, António P; Pinheiro, PatrÍcia; Borges, Raquel; Sousa, Inês; Stiles, William B

    2014-01-01

    The Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES) and the Innovative Moments Coding System were applied to transcripts of a successful case of linguistic therapy of evaluation independently by different research groups. Assimilation theory and research suggest that higher APES scores reflect therapeutic gains, with a level of approximately 4.0 separating good from poor outcome cases. The innovative moments (IMs) model suggests that IMs classified as reconceptualization and performing change occur mainly in good outcome cases, whereas action, reflection and protest occur in both good and poor outcome cases. Passages coded as reconceptualization and performing change were rare in this case, but 100% of them were rated at or above APES 4. By contrast, 63% passages coded as action, reflection or protest were rated below APES 4 (Chi-square = 28.62, p < .001). Implications for research are discussed. PMID:24099105

  9. Characterization of the energy resolution and the tracking capabilities of a hybrid pixel detector with CdTe-sensor layer for a possible use in a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipenko, Mykhaylo; Gleixner, Thomas; Anton, Gisela; Durst, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    Many different experiments are being developed to explore the existence of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) since it would imply fundamental consequences for particle physics. In this work we present results on the evaluation of Timepix detectors with cadmium-telluride sensor material to search for 0 νββ in 116Cd. This work was carried out with the COBRA collaboration and the Medipix collaboration. Due to the relatively small pixel dimension of 110×110×1000 μm3 the energy deposited by particles typically extends over several detector pixels leading to a track in the pixel matrix. We investigated the separation power regarding different event-types like α-particles, atmospheric muons, single electrons and electron-positron pairs produced at a single vertex. We achieved excellent classification power for α-particles and muons. In addition, we achieved good separation power between single electron and electron-positron pair production events. These separation abilities indicate a very good background reduction for the 0 νββ search. Further, in order to distinguish between 2 νββ and 0 νββ, the energy resolution is of particular importance. We carried out simulations which demonstrate that an energy resolution of 0.43 % is achievable at the Q-value for 0 νββ of 116Cd at 2.814 MeV. We measured an energy resolution of 1.6 % at a nominal energy of 1589 keV for electron-positron tracks which is about two times worse that predicted by our simulations. This deviation is probably due to the problem of detector calibration at energies above 122 keV which is discussed in this paper as well.

  10. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  11. I Knew I Would Be Safer. Experiences of Kenyan HIV Serodiscordant Couples Soon After Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Initiation.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathyrn; Vusha, Sophie; Ngutu, Mariah; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-02-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-uninfected persons is highly efficacious for HIV prevention. Understanding how people at risk for HIV will use PrEP is important to inform PrEP scale-up and implementation. We used qualitative methods to gather insights into couples' early experiences with PrEP use within the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label implementation study evaluating integrated delivery of PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART). PrEP is offered to HIV uninfected partners until the HIV-infected partner initiates and sustains ART use (i.e., PrEP as a "bridge" to ART initiation and viral suppression). From August 2013 to March 2014 we conducted 20 in-depth dyadic interviews (n = 40) with heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples participating at the Thika, Kenya study site, exploring how couples make decisions about using PrEP for HIV prevention. We developed and applied deductive and inductive codes to identify key themes related to experiences of PrEP initiation and use of time-limited PrEP. Couples reported that PrEP offered them an additional strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission, meet their fertility desires, and cope with HIV serodiscordance. Remaining HIV negative at follow-up visits reinforced couples' decisions and motivated continued adherence to PrEP. In addition, confidence in their provider's advice and client-friendly services were critical to their decisions to initiate and continue use of PrEP. Strategies for wide-scale PrEP delivery for HIV serodiscordant couples in low resource settings may include building capacity of health providers to counsel on PrEP adoption while addressing couples' concerns and barriers to adoption and continued use. PMID:26836236

  12. Women’s Experiences with Oral and Vaginal Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: The VOICE-C Qualitative Study in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van der Straten, Ariane; Stadler, Jonathan; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Hartmann, Miriam; Magazi, Busiswe; Mathebula, Florence; Schwartz, Katie; Laborde, Nicole; Soto-Torres, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Background In VOICE, a multisite HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial, plasma drug levels pointed to widespread product nonuse, despite high adherence estimated by self-reports and clinic product counts. Using a socio-ecological framework (SEF), we explored socio-cultural and contextual factors that influenced participants’ experience of daily vaginal gel and oral tablet regimens in VOICE. Methods In Johannesburg, a qualitative ancillary study was concurrently conducted among randomly selected VOICE participants assigned to in-depth interviews (n = 41), serial ethnographic interviews (n = 21), or focus group discussions (n = 40). Audiotaped interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded thematically for analysis. Results Of the 102 participants, the mean age was 27 years, and 96% had a primary sex partner with whom 43% cohabitated. Few women reported lasting nonuse, which they typically attributed to missed visits, lack of product replenishments, and family-related travel or work. Women acknowledged occasionally skipping or mistiming doses because they forgot, were busy, felt lazy or bored, feared or experienced side effects. However, nearly all knew or heard of other study participants who did not use products daily. Three overarching themes emerged from further analyses: ambivalence toward research, preserving a healthy status, and managing social relationships. These themes highlighted the profound and complex meanings associated with participating in a blinded HIV PrEP trial and taking antiretroviral-based products. The unknown efficacy of products, their connection with HIV infection, challenges with daily regimen given social risks, lack of support–from partners and significant others–and the relationship tradeoffs entailed by using the products appear to discourage adequate product use. Conclusions Personal acknowledgment of product nonuse was challenging. This qualitative inquiry highlighted key influences at all SEF levels that

  13. Low-dose neutron dose response of zebrafish embryos obtained from the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. Y. P.; Kong, E. Y.; Konishi, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Suya, N.; Cheng, S. H.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-09-01

    The dose response of embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, irradiated at 5 h post fertilization (hpf) by 2-MeV neutrons with ≤100 mGy was determined. The neutron irradiations were made at the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. A total of 10 neutron doses ranging from 0.6 to 100 mGy were employed (with a gamma-ray contribution of 14% to the total dose), and the biological effects were studied through quantification of apoptosis at 25 hpf. The responses for neutron doses of 10, 20, 25, and 50 mGy approximately fitted on a straight line, while those for neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy exhibited neutron hormetic effects. As such, hormetic responses were generically developed by different kinds of ionizing radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) values. The responses for neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy were significantly below the lower 95% confidence band of the best-fit line, which strongly suggested the presence of gamma-ray hormesis.

  14. OSIRIS observations of meter-sized exposures of H2O ice at the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and interpretation using laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Pajola, M.; Groussin, O.; Auger, A.-T.; Oklay, N.; Fornasier, S.; Feller, C.; Davidsson, B.; Gracia-Berná, A.; Jost, B.; Marschall, R.; Poch, O.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; La Forgia, F.; Keller, H. U.; Kührt, E.; Lowry, S. C.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertini, I.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; De Cecco, M.; Debei, S.; Güttler, C.; Fulle, M.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Küppers, E.; Lara, L.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. L.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Since OSIRIS started acquiring high-resolution observations of the surface of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, over one hundred meter-sized bright spots have been identified in numerous types of geomorphologic regions, but mostly located in areas receiving low insolation. The bright spots are either clustered, in debris fields close to decameter-high cliffs, or isolated without structural relation to the surrounding terrain. They can be up to ten times brighter than the average surface of the comet at visible wavelengths and display a significantly bluer spectrum. They do not exhibit significant changes over a period of a few weeks. All these observations are consistent with exposure of water ice at the surface of boulders produced by dislocation of the weakly consolidated layers that cover large areas of the nucleus. Laboratory experiments show that under simulated comet surface conditions, analog samples acquire a vertical stratification with an uppermost porous mantle of refractory dust overlaying a layer of hard ice formed by recondensation or sintering under the insulating dust mantle. The evolution of the visible spectrophotometric properties of samples during sublimation is consistent with the contrasts of brightness and color seen at the surface of the nucleus. Clustered bright spots are formed by the collapse of overhangs that is triggered by mass wasting of deeper layers. Isolated spots might be the result of the emission of boulders at low velocity that are redepositioned in other regions.

  15. Evolution of the SOFIA tracking control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebig, Norbert; Jakob, Holger; Pfüller, Enrico; Röser, Hans-Peter; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    The airborne observatory SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is undergoing a modernization of its tracking system. This included new, highly sensitive tracking cameras, control computers, filter wheels and other equipment, as well as a major redesign of the control software. The experiences along the migration path from an aged 19" VMbus based control system to the application of modern industrial PCs, from VxWorks real-time operating system to embedded Linux and a state of the art software architecture are presented. Further, the concept is presented to operate the new camera also as a scientific instrument, in parallel to tracking.

  16. Combat Experiences, Pre-Deployment Training, and Outcome of Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness. PMID:22253233

  17. Spin Rotation of Formalism for Spin Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio,A.

    2008-02-01

    The problem of which coefficients are adequate to correctly represent the spin rotation in vector spin tracking for polarized proton and deuteron beams in synchrotrons is here re-examined in the light of recent discussions. The main aim of this note is to show where some previous erroneous results originated and how to code spin rotation in a tracking code. Some analysis of a recent experiment is presented that confirm the correctness of the assumptions.

  18. Angle only tracking with particle flow filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-09-01

    We show the results of numerical experiments for tracking ballistic missiles using only angle measurements. We compare the performance of an extended Kalman filter with a new nonlinear filter using particle flow to compute Bayes' rule. For certain difficult geometries, the particle flow filter is an order of magnitude more accurate than the EKF. Angle only tracking is of interest in several different sensors; for example, passive optics and radars in which range and Doppler data are spoiled by jamming.

  19. Tracking toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A new report tracking industrial pollution in North America indicates some good news, in terms of downward trends in the release and transfer of these substances.The July report, which tracks 165 chemicals released in the United States and Canada, shows that the total amount of 3.2 million tonnes of chemical releases and transfers from industrial facilities tracked by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) decreased by 2% overall from 1995 to 1998.

  20. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers’ Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Krakower, Douglas S.; Eldahan, Adam I.; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Dovidio, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers’ adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers’ firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription—financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)—as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014–2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered

  1. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers' Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H; Krakower, Douglas S; Eldahan, Adam I; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers' adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers' firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription-financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)-as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014-2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered a wide

  2. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  3. Status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the 4-fold forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double beta decay limits of Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented based on 18 kg × days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description on the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  4. The status of the COBRA double-beta-decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2010-04-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the fourfold-forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double-beta-decay limits for Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented, based on 18 kg× days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description of the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  5. Rover Tracks at Crater's Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tracks left by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it traveled along the rim of Victoria Crater can be seen clearly in this image taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft.

    This is a subframe of a larger image that the camera acquired on June 26, 2007. The larger image will be released as HiRISE catalogue number PSP_004289_1780 after geometric processing.

    Opportunity first approached Victoria Crater at an alcove informally named 'Duck Bay' (see tracks at left). It then drove along the crater's sinuous edge in a clockwise direction before heading back to Duck Bay, where it is expected to enter the crater in early July 2007.

  6. Heteronuclear decoupling by optimal tracking.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jorge L; Heitmann, Björn; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2009-11-01

    The problem to design efficient heteronuclear decoupling sequences is studied using optimal control methods. A generalized version of the gradient ascent engineering (GRAPE) algorithm is presented that makes it possible to design complex non-periodic decoupling sequences which are characterized by tens of thousands of pulse sequence parameters. In contrast to conventional approaches based on average Hamiltonian theory, the concept of optimal tracking is used: a pulse sequence is designed that steers the evolution of an ensemble of spin systems such that at a series of time points, a specified trajectory of the density operator is tracked as closely as possible. The approach is demonstrated for the case of low-power heteronuclear decoupling in the liquid state for in vivo applications. Compared to conventional sequences, significant gains in decoupling efficiency and robustness with respect to offset and inhomogeneity of the radio-frequency field were found in simulations and experiments. PMID:19695913

  7. A Benchmark for Cloud Tracking Wind Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Mitchell, J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Ewald, S. P.; Marcus, P. S.; de Pater, I.; Wong, M. H.; Choi, D. S.; Sussman, M.; Ogohara, K.; Imamura, T.; Kouyama, T.; Takagi, M.; Satoh, N.; Del Genio, A. D.; Barbara, J.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; García-Melendo, E.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Cloud tracking has been the primary method of measuring wind speeds in planetary atmospheres through Earth- and space- based remote sensing. Latest developments of automated feature tracking software are able to harvest thousands of wind vectors out of a sequence of high-resolution images acquired with an appropriate temporal separation. However, unlike satellite-based cloud-tracking measurements of Earth, these planetary measurements cannot easily be validated against in-situ data, which makes the interpretation difficult when different cloud-tracking schemes do not agree on their results. To address the issue of data validation, we run multiple automated cloud-tracking software independently developed at multiple institutions on synthetic wind data generated using a General Circulation Model. Our simulations calculate the advection of tracer distributions to represent cloud motions as done by Sayanagi and Showman (2007, Icarus 187, p520-539). The motions of tracers are measured using cloud-tracking software to derive wind vector fields, which will be compared against the model "truth." We test the performance of cloud-tracking software for different wind scenarios. Our first test wind field contains a simple zonal jet. The second test scenario is a large vortex like Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. The third test case has waves propagating alongside a zonal jet. We compare the results returned from different cloud-tracking schemes and discuss what approaches work better at measuring winds. In addition to verifying the wind vector field measurements, we also address the accuracy and validity of eddy momentum flux measurements by tracking clouds. The difficulties of such measurements are discussed by Salyk et al. (2006, Icarus 185, p430-442), and we re-examine the issue using our synthetic wind data. From our experiments, we aim to establish a standard benchmark of cloud tracking measurements for planetary mission applications.

  8. On physical factors that controlled the massive green tide occurrence along the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in 2008: A numerical study using a particle-tracking experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Ho; Pang, Ig-Chan; Moon, Il-Ju; Ryu, Joo-Hyung

    2011-12-01

    A Lagrangian-particle-tracking experiment has been conducted using Regional Ocean Modeling System to determine physical factors that controlled the occurrence of the record-breaking massive green tide along the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula (SP) in 2008. The numerical results reveal that the southerly wind in May is responsible for the offshore movement of the green tide from the Jiangsu Province and the easterly wind in June is responsible for its extension up to the coast of the SP. From the analysis of 30 year wind fields, it was also found that the wind patterns in 2008, which were very unique and rare, provided the most favorable conditions for the migration of the bloom to the SP. Through analyzing the pathway of particles, a recurrent upwelling region due to tides was found between the Jiangsu coast and the western Yellow Sea where the massive green tide bloomed. This area seems to provide nutrients for the green tide blooms. In particular, it is estimated that the nutrient supply in 2008 was large because the upwelling occurred during a spring tide. These results suggest that the massive green tide along the SP in 2008 occurred due to the combination of a recent rapid expansion of seaweed aquaculture, unique wind patterns, and nutrient supplies due to strong tidal forcing in blooming regions. This implies that the massive green tides in the SP could occur again as a very rare event if all conditions become favorable for the blooming and migration in the future.

  9. Variations in the Nature of Behavioral Experience Can Differentially Alter the Consequences of Developmental Exposures to Lead, Prenatal Stress, and the Combination

    PubMed Central

    Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral experience (BE) can critically influence later behavior and brain function, but the central nervous system (CNS) consequences of most developmental neurotoxicants are examined in the absence of any such context. We previously demonstrated marked differences in neurotransmitter changes produced by developmental lead (Pb) exposure ± prenatal stress (PS) depending upon whether or not rats had been given BE (Cory-Slechta, D. A., Virgolini, M. B., Rossi-George, A., Weston, D., and Thiruchelvam, M. (2009). The current study examined the hypothesis that the nature of the BE itself would be a critical determinant of outcome in mice that had been continually exposed to 0 or 100 ppm Pb acetate in drinking water alone or in combination with prenatal restraint stress. Half of the offspring in each of the four resulting groups/gender were exposed to positively reinforced (food-rewarded Fixed Interval schedule-controlled behavior) or negatively reinforced (inescapable forced swim) BE. Brain monoamines and amino acids differed significantly in relation to BE, even in control animals, as did the trajectory of effects of Pb ± PS, particularly in frontal cortex, hippocampus (both genders), and midbrain (males). In males, Pb ± PS-related changes in neurotransmitters correlated with behavioral performance. These findings suggest that CNS consequences of developmental toxicants studied in the absence of a broader spectrum of BEs may not necessarily be predictive of human outcomes. Evaluating the role of specific BEs as a modulator of neurodevelopmental insults offers the opportunity to determine what specific BEs may ameliorate the associated impacts and can assist in establishing underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:22930682

  10. Muon tracking underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Denni, U.; Iarocci, E.

    1986-04-01

    The design and performance of plastic streamer tubes for use in large underground particle-physics experiments such as the muon, astrophysics, and cosmic-ray observatory (MACRO) being developed for Gran Sasso Laboratory are reported. The large (1000 sq m or more) detector area required to achieve high-angular-resolution muon tracking in MACRO is covered by modules with eight 3 x 3-cm-cross section active streamer-tube cells each, similar to those used in the Mt. Blanc Laboratory detector. The MACRO modules have a maximum length of 12 m; and the cells have 60-micron-diameter wires, two conducting graphite sides, and two insulating sides (electrodeless electric-field shaping). The results of performance tests flowing 3:1 He:n-pentane through a tube module are presented graphically. Spatial resolution 1 cm and time resolution 100 ns are obtained, and the ability of the streamer tubes to detect large ionization losses with respect to the minimum is demonstrated.

  11. Measuring track densities in lunar grains by image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, George E.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed techniques to use digitized scanning electron micrographs and computer image analysis programs to measure track densities in lunar soil grains. Tracks were formed by highly ionizing solar energetic particles and cosmic rays during near surface exposure on the Moon. The track densities are related to the exposure conditions (depth and time). Distributions of the number of grains as a function of their track densities can reveal the modality of soil maturation. We used a sample that had already been etched in 6 N NaOH at 118 C for 15 h to reveal tracks. We determined that back-scattered electron images taken at 50 percent contrast and approximately 49.8 percent brightness produced suitable high contrast images for analysis. We ascertained gray-scale thresholds of interest: 0-230 for tracks, 231 for masked regions, and 232-255 for background. We found no need to set an upper size limit for distinguishing tracks. We did use lower limits to exclude noise: 16 pixels at 15000x, 4 pixels at 10000x, 2 pixels at 6800x, and 0 pixels at 4600x. We used computer counting and measurement of area to obtain track densities. We found an excellent correlation with manual measurements for track densities below 1x10(exp 8) sq cm. For track densities between 1x10(exp 8) sq cm to 1x10(exp 9) sq cm, we found that a regression formula using the percentage area covered by tracks gave good agreement with manual measurements. Finally we used these new techniques to obtain a track density distribution that gave more detail and was more rapidly obtained than using manual techniques 15 years ago.

  12. Military Exposures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... for Providers Diagnosis and Treatment of Exposure Health Effects More Provider Resources » return to top Get Email ...

  13. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  14. On the Wrong Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    By any measure--student achievement, social development, or democratic values--ability grouping and tracking practices are indefensible and unsupported by research. Tracking allows schools to practice in-school segregation and perpetuate unequal opportunities and unequal socialization within classrooms. Jonathan Kozol's investigation shows how…

  15. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  16. Explaining cloud chamber tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1992-06-16

    The operation of many detection devices is usually explained in terms of the ionization tracks produced by particles despite the fact that the corresponding incident wave functions extended over the entire sensitive regions of the detectors. The mechanisms by which the wave function appears to collapse to a track is analyzed here.

  17. TMDL TRACKING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The TMDL Tracking System database contains information on the waters listed under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act and to track those listed waters through TMDL development. The purpose of the database is to allow EPA, the States/Territories/Tribes, ...

  18. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  19. Track record in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, S. A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of nuclear-track analysis in meteoritic crystals with reference to several areas of research is reviewed. The applications discussed include: fission-track retention ages and cooling rates of meteoritic parent bodies, cosmic-ray studies, determination of pre-atmospheric sizes of meteorites, and search for superheavy elements.

  20. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  1. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  2. Reservoir rock integrity of the Ketzin pilot storage site (Germany) during long-term CO2-exposure experiments - Mineralogical, petrophysical and geochemical modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, S.; Liebscher, A.; Zemke, K.; De Lucia, M.; Ketzin Team

    2012-04-01

    In order to investigate CO2-brine-rock interactions occurring at the Ketzin pilot storage site, core samples of the siliciclastic reservoir rock were exposed to pure CO2 and synthetic reservoir brine at simulated in-situ P-T conditions of 5 MPa and 40 °C. Autoclaves were opened and rock and fluid samples taken after 15, 21, 24 and 40 months, respectively. The samples were analysed for mineralogical and chemical composition and compared to baseline data of untreated samples. XRD data with Rietveld refinement show decreasing weight percentages for analcime, chlorite, hematite and illite. While plagioclase as well as K-feldspar both do not reveal a coherent trend over time, quartz exhibits increasing weight percentages in the same interval. On freshly broken rock fragments corrosion textures were found on plagioclase, K-feldspar and anhydrite surfaces of CO2-treated samples. BSE images of the respective samples indicate (intensified) alterations of feldspar minerals. EMPA data display a change in plagioclase composition from intermediate to sodium-rich and albite endmember compositions during CO2 exposure. Compared to the synthetic brine used for the experiments, sodium, magnesium and chloride concentrations increased slightly, while potassium, calcium and sulfate concentrations significantly increased. Potassium and calcium even exceed reservoir brine concentration levels. Experimental observations were reproduced using the reactive geochemical modeling code Phreeqc-2. The mineralogical and geochemical measurements imply preferred dissolution of calcium out of plagioclase next to dissolution of K-feldspar and anhydrite. Petrophysical data show tendentially increasing porosities and permeabilities that also suggest mineral dissolution during the experiments. Due to the heterogeneous character of the Stuttgart Formation it is often difficult to distinguish between natural, lithostratigraphic variability and CO2-related changes. Assuming thermodynamic equilibrium

  3. Large area emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Emulsion-chamber experiments employing nuclear-track emulsions, etchable plastic detectors, metal plates, and X-ray films continue to demonstrate high productivity and potential in the study of cosmic-ray primaries and their interactions. Emulsions, with unsurpassed track-recording capability, provide an appropriate medium for the study of nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy, which will likely produce observations of a phase change in nuclear matter. The many advantages of emulsion chambers (excellent multitrack recording capability, large geometry factor, low apparatus cost, simplicity of design and construction) are complemented by the major advantages of the Space Shuttle as an experiment carrier. A Shuttle experiment which could make a significant advance in both cosmic-ray primary and nucleus-nucleus interaction studies is described. Such an experiment would serve as a guide for use of emulsions during the Space Station era. Some practical factors that must be considered in planning a Shuttle exposure of emulsion chambers are discussed.

  4. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  5. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parametersmore » of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.« less

  6. Kalman Filter Tracking on Parallel Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerati, Giuseppe; Elmer, Peter; Lantz, Steven; McDermott, Kevin; Riley, Dan; Tadel, Matevž; Wittich, Peter; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avi

    2015-12-01

    Power density constraints are limiting the performance improvements of modern CPUs. To address this we have seen the introduction of lower-power, multi-core processors, but the future will be even more exciting. In order to stay within the power density limits but still obtain Moore's Law performance/price gains, it will be necessary to parallelize algorithms to exploit larger numbers of lightweight cores and specialized functions like large vector units. Example technologies today include Intel's Xeon Phi and GPGPUs. Track finding and fitting is one of the most computationally challenging problems for event reconstruction in particle physics. At the High Luminosity LHC, for example, this will be by far the dominant problem. The need for greater parallelism has driven investigations of very different track finding techniques including Cellular Automata or returning to Hough Transform. The most common track finding techniques in use today are however those based on the Kalman Filter [2]. Significant experience has been accumulated with these techniques on real tracking detector systems, both in the trigger and offline. They are known to provide high physics performance, are robust and are exactly those being used today for the design of the tracking system for HL-LHC. Our previous investigations showed that, using optimized data structures, track fitting with Kalman Filter can achieve large speedup both with Intel Xeon and Xeon Phi. We report here our further progress towards an end-to-end track reconstruction algorithm fully exploiting vectorization and parallelization techniques in a realistic simulation setup.

  7. UWB Tracking System Design with TDOA Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Schwing, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort using a tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A two-stage weighted least square method is chosen to solve the TDOA non-linear equations. Matlab simulations in both two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. The error analysis reveals various ways to improve the tracking resolution. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWBTDOA tracking capability with fine resolution. This research effort is motivated by a prototype development project Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS).

  8. Tracking in high-frame-rate imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shih-Ying; Wang, Shun-Li; Li, Pai-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Speckle tracking has been used for motion estimation in ultrasound imaging. Unlike conventional Doppler techniques, which are angle-dependent, speckle tracking can be utilized to estimate velocity vectors. However, the accuracy of speckle-tracking methods is limited by speckle decorrelation, which is related to the displacement between two consecutive images, and, hence, combining high-frame-rate imaging and speckle tracking could potentially increase the accuracy of motion estimation. However, the lack of transmit focusing may also affect the tracking results and the high computational requirement may be problematic. This study therefore assessed the performance of high-frame-rate speckle tracking and compared it with conventional focusing. The effects of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bulk motion, and velocity gradients were investigated in both experiments and simulations. The results show that high-frame-rate speckle tracking can achieve high accuracy if the SNR is sufficiently high. In addition, its computational complexity is acceptable because smaller search windows can be used due to the displacements between frames generally being smaller during high-frame-rate imaging. Speckle decor-relation resulting from velocity gradients within a sample volume is also not as significant during high-frame-rate imaging. PMID:20690428

  9. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  10. The new ATLAS track reconstruction (NEWT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, T.; Elsing, M.; Gavrilenko, I.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.

    2008-07-01

    The track reconstruction of modern high energy physics experiments is a very complex task that puts stringent requirements onto the software realisation. The ATLAS track reconstruction software has been in the past dominated by a collection of individual packages, each of which incorporating a different intrinsic event data model, different data flow sequences and calibration data. Recently, the ATLAS track reconstruction has undergone a major design revolution to ensure maintainability during the long lifetime of the ATLAS experiment and the flexibility needed for the startup phase. The entire software chain has been re-organised in modular components and a common event data model has been deployed. A complete new track reconstruction that concentrates on common tools aimed to be used by both ATLAS tracking devices, the Inner Detector and the Muon System, has been established. It has been already used during many large scale tests with data from Monte Carlo simulation and from detector commissioning projects such as the combined test beam 2004 and cosmic ray events. This document concentrates on the technical and conceptual details of the newly developed track reconstruction.

  11. Measuring track densities in lunar grains using image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E.; Mckay, D. S.; Bernhard, R. P.; Schulz, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    We have used digitized scanning electron micrographs and computer image analysis programs to measure track densities in lunar soil grains. Tracks were formed by highly ionizing solar energetic particles and cosmic rays. Back-scattered electron images produced suitable high contrast images for analysis. We used computer counting and measurement of area to obtain track densities. We found an excellent correlation with manual measurements for track densities below 1x10(exp 8) cm(exp -2). For track densities between 1x10(exp 8) to 1x10(exp 9) cm(exp -2) we found that a regression formula using the percentage area covered by tracks gave good agreement with manual measurements. Measurement of tract densities in lunar samples has been a very rewarding technique for measuring exposure ages and soil maturation processes. We have shown that we can reliably measure track densities in lunar grains using image analysis techniques. Automating track counting may allow application of this technique to important problems in regolith dynamics including the ratio of radiation exposure to reworking in various surface and core samples and in regolith breccias.

  12. Tracking the actions and possessions of agents

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Noles, Nicholaus S.; Stilwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    We propose that there is a powerful human disposition to track the actions and possessions of agents. In two experiments, 3-year-olds and adults viewed sets of objects, learned a new fact about one of the objects in each set (either that it belonged to the participant, or that it possessed a particular label), and were queried about either the taught fact or an unrelated dimension (preference) immediately after a spatiotemporal transformation, and after a delay. Adults uniformly tracked object identity under all conditions, whereas children tracked identity more when taught ownership versus labeling information, and only regarding the taught fact (not the unrelated dimension). These findings suggest that the special attention that children and adults pay to agents readily extends to include inanimate objects. That young children track an object’s history, despite their reliance on surface features on many cognitive tasks, suggests that unobservable historical features are foundational in human cognition. PMID:25111732

  13. Extrapolating target tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, James R.

    2012-05-01

    Steady-state performance of a tracking filter is traditionally evaluated immediately after a track update. However, there is commonly a further delay (e.g., processing and communications latency) before the tracks can actually be used. We analyze the accuracy of extrapolated target tracks for four tracking filters: Kalman filter with the Singer maneuver model and worst-case correlation time, with piecewise constant white acceleration, and with continuous white acceleration, and the reduced state filter proposed by Mookerjee and Reifler.1, 2 Performance evaluation of a tracking filter is significantly simplified by appropriate normalization. For the Kalman filter with the Singer maneuver model, the steady-state RMS error immediately after an update depends on only two dimensionless parameters.3 By assuming a worst case value of target acceleration correlation time, we reduce this to a single parameter without significantly changing the filter performance (within a few percent for air tracking).4 With this simplification, we find for all four filters that the RMS errors for the extrapolated state are functions of only two dimensionless parameters. We provide simple analytic approximations in each case.

  14. Separating sensitivity from exposure in assessing extinction risk from climate change

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Maria G.; Orme, C. David L.; Suttle, K. Blake; Mace, Georgina M.

    2014-01-01

    Predictive frameworks of climate change extinction risk generally focus on the magnitude of climate change a species is expected to experience and the potential for that species to track suitable climate. A species' risk of extinction from climate change will depend, in part, on the magnitude of climate change the species experiences, its exposure. However, exposure is only one component of risk. A species' risk of extinction will also depend on its intrinsic ability to tolerate changing climate, its sensitivity. We examine exposure and sensitivity individually for two example taxa, terrestrial amphibians and mammals. We examine how these factors are related among species and across regions and how explicit consideration of each component of risk may affect predictions of climate change impacts. We find that species' sensitivities to climate change are not congruent with their exposures. Many highly sensitive species face low exposure to climate change and many highly exposed species are relatively insensitive. Separating sensitivity from exposure reveals patterns in the causes and drivers of species' extinction risk that may not be evident solely from predictions of climate change. Our findings emphasise the importance of explicitly including sensitivity and exposure to climate change in assessments of species' extinction risk. PMID:25367429

  15. Effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence or in adulthood on Pavlovian conditioned approach in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    McClory, Alexander James; Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-12-01

    Human studies have shown that adolescents who repeatedly use alcohol are more likely to be dependent on alcohol and are more likely to suffer from psychological problems later in life. There has been limited research examining how ethanol exposure in adolescence might contribute to later abuse or addiction in adulthood. The present experiment examined effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence on sign-tracking behavior in adulthood, indexed by a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) task wherein an 8s lever presentation served as a cue predicting subsequent delivery of a flavored food pellet. Although no response was required for food delivery, after multiple pairings, 1 of 2 different responses often emerged during the lever presentation: goal tracking (head entries into the food trough) or sign tracking (engagement with the lever when presented). Sign tracking is thought to reflect the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues and has been previously correlated with addiction-like behaviors. Following the last PCA session, blood samples were collected for analysis of post-session corticosterone levels. Sixty-two rats (n = 10-12/group) were pseudo-randomly assigned to 1 of 2 intragastric (i.g.) exposure groups (water or 4 g/kg ethanol) or a non-manipulated (NM) control group. Animals were intubated with ethanol or water every other session from postnatal session (PND) 28-48 or PND 70-90. Rats were then tested in adulthood (PND 71-79 or PND 113-122) on the PCA task. Animals exposed chronically to ethanol during adolescence exhibited significantly higher levels of sign-tracking behavior in adulthood than NM and water-treated animals, and showed higher corticosterone than NM control animals. These effects were not seen after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. These results suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure has long-term consequences on the expression of potential addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood. PMID:25449366

  16. Particle tracking around surface nanobubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Erik; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Lohse, Detlef; Seddon, James R. T.

    2013-05-01

    The exceptionally long lifetime of surface nanobubbles remains one of the biggest questions in the field. One of the proposed mechanisms for producing the stability is the dynamic equilibrium model, which describes a constant flux of gas in and out of the bubble. Here, we describe results from particle tracking experiments carried out to measure this flow. The results are analysed by measuring the Voronoï cell size distribution, the diffusion, and the speed of the tracer particles. We show that there is no detectable difference in the movement of particles above nanobubble-laden surfaces as compared to ones above nanobubble-free surfaces.

  17. The Categorical Distinction Between Targets and Distractors Facilitates Tracking in Multiple Identity Tracking Task

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Lyu, Chuang; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the tracking facilitation effect during categorical distinction between targets and distractors in the Multiple Identity Tracking task. We asked observers to track four targets in a total of eight moving objects, and manipulated categorical distinctions of targets and distractors across four experiments, with different combinations of inter-category and intra-category differences. Results show that tracking performance was significantly better when the targets and distractors were inter-category different, compared to when the targets and distractors were identical or intra-category distinctive. As the inter-category distinction between targets and distractors narrowed, tracking performance improved, but the inter-category facilitation effect decreased. These results may indicate a category-based grouping effect: the observers organized the targets within the same semantic category into one group and made the targets more easily and accurately rediscovered when lost during tracking. Furthermore, the tracking facilitation of categorical distinction diminished when all the objects were inverted. This proved that besides their visual distinctiveness, objects’ semantic category information also played an important role during tracking. PMID:27199824

  18. NorTRACK TM product tracking system—development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, W.; Veselovsky, P.

    1999-06-01

    This paper presents the experience gained by developers and users with implementation and operation of NorTRACK TM, a real-time computerized product tracking system. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) collects and transfers data in real time to NorTRACK's Oracle TM database on a Windows NT TM server network. After extensive development and Beta testing at MDS Nordion's Canadian Irradiation Centre in Montreal, Canada, NorTRACK was installed in January 1997 with a new irradiation facility in Ethicon Endo-Surgery Inc.'s Albuquerque plant in the United States. NorTRACK communicates with the irradiator control and safety system, the plant's central manufacturing database, an innovative pallet staging and tote loading robot, and an automated dosimetry reading system. This integrated system allows the sterilization facility to monitor the irradiator operation and the flow of many products, through varied processing modes, continuously and reliably. As a result of operating with NorTRACK, both MDS Nordion's CIC facility and the Endo-Surgery manufacturing site, are beginning to realize unique benefits in their respective operations. MDS Nordion is also initiating several future product enhancements and additional productivity modules. This paper describes the NorTRACK system, the various stages of the development project and Beta tests, and the experience of the users to date in their operations.

  19. Ground maneuvering target tracking based on the strong tracking and the cubature Kalman filter algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Baoquan

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to improve the tracking accuracy of the ground maneuvering target in infrared images, a method is proposed based on the strong tracking filter (STF) and the cubature Kalman filter (CKF) algorithms. In this method, the fading factor is introduced from the STF algorithm and is calculated by transforming the nonlinear measurement variance matrix to be linear approximately, and then the fading factor is used to correct the prediction error covariance matrix (PECM) of CKF, so that the gain matrix can be adjusted at real time and hence the tracking ability of the maneuvering target could be improved. After the digital simulation experiment, it is shown that, comparing with CKF and the unscented Kalman filter algorithms, the average tracking accuracy of the location is increased by more than 20% with the target velocity under 20 m/s and acceleration under 5 m/s2, and it can even be increased by 50% when the target step maneuver occurs. With the tracking experiment on the real infrared tank images, it can be concluded that the target could be tracked stably by the proposed method, and the maximum tracking error is not more than 8 pixels even though the 180 deg turning takes place.

  20. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  1. Enhanced optical tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSheery, Tracy

    2008-04-01

    Enhanced tracking is accomplished by increasing the resolution, frame rate and processing capabilities in tracking dynamic regions of interest for vision applications. In many proven algorithms, the ability to distinguish an object and track it is dependent on the system performance in more than one attribute. We have conducted studies on proven techniques such as Active Appearance Models, Principle Component Analysis and Eigen tracking. All perform better as the camera resolution increases, and camera frame rate increases. Additional opportunities have been observed by combining these techniques, taking advantage of Multicore CPUs, and GPU graphic card processing. Results from an 8 Megapixel commercial sensor combined with a Field Programmable Gate array are presented, and algorithm performance compared with down scaled images of the same scenes, and simulated typical 30 hertz frame rates verses the 120 hertz to 300 hertz typical of this smart camera.

  2. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  3. LET, track structure and models. A review.

    PubMed

    Kraft, G; Krämer, M; Scholz, M

    1992-01-01

    Swift heavy ions when penetrating through matter strip off those electrons having a smaller orbital velocity than the ion velocity. The remaining electrons screen the nuclear charge yielding an effective charge. The effective charge of the ions interacts predominantly with the target electrons causing excitation and ionizations of the target atoms. Using the Bethe Bloch formula for the energy loss combined with the Barkas formula for effective charge, the energy loss values as well as unrestricted and restricted linear transfer can be calculated within a few percent of accuracy. From the primary energy loss only a small fraction of 10% or less is transformed into excitation. The major part of the energy loss is used for the ionization of the target atoms and the emission of the corresponding electrons with a high kinetic energy. These electrons form the track around the trajectory of the primary ion in which two thirds of the primary energy is deposited by collisions of primary, secondary and later generations of electrons with the target molecules. In the electron diffusion process the energy is transported from the center of the track into the halo. The radial dose decreases with the square of the radial distance from the center. The diameter of the track is determined by the maximum range of the emitted electrons, i.e. by the maximum energy electrons. All ions having the same velocity i.e. the same specific energy produce electrons of the same energy and therefore tracks of the same diameters independent of the effective charge. But the dose inside the track increases with the square of the effective charge. Track structure models using this continuous dose distributions produce a better agreement with the experiment than models based on microdosimetry. The critical volume as used in microdosimetry is too large compared to the size of the DNA as critical structure inside the biological objects. Track structure models yield better results because the gross

  4. Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers. Part I: The reduction plants and coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoue, J.; Gerin, M.; Cote, J.; Lapointe, R.

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents the exposure assessment and job-exposure matrix (JEM) used to estimate coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) exposure for a study of mortality and cancer incidence in aluminum smelter workers in Quebec, Canada. Historical CTPV exposure was assessed by estimating benzene-soluble material (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) levels for combinations of job and time period. Estimates were derived by using several procedures including averaging measurement data, a deterministic mathematical model using process-related correction factors, and expert-based extrapolation. The JEM comprised 28,910 jobs, covering 7 facilities from 1916 to 1999. Estimated exposures ranged from 0.01 {mu} g/m{sup 3} to 68.08 {mu} g/m{sup 3} (B(a)P) and 0.01 mg/m{sup 3} to 3.64 mg/m{sup 3} (BSW) and were lowest before 1940 and after 1980. This methodology constitutes an improvement compared with methods used for previous studies of the Quebec cohort.

  5. Effect of α-damage on fission-track annealing in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasuya, Masao; Naeser, Charles W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined fission-track lengths in four zircon samples having different spontaneous track densities (i.e., different amounts of ??-damage) has been studied by one-hour isochronal annealing experiments. The thermal stability of spontaneous track lengths is independent of initial spontaneous track density. The thermal stability of induced track lengths in pre-annealed zircon, however, is significantly higher than that of spontaneous track lengths. The results indicate that the presence of ??-damage lowers the thermal stability of fission-tracks in zircon.

  6. The effect of α-damage on fission-track annealing in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasuya, M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined fission-track lengths in four zircon samples having different spontaneous track densities (i.e. different amounts of ??-damage) has been studied by one hour isochronal annealing experiments. The thermal stability of spontaneous track lengths is independent of initial spontaneous track density. The thermal stability of induced track lengths in pre-annealed zircon, however, is significantly higher than that of spontaneous track lengths. The results indicate that the presence of ??-damage lowers the thermal stability of fission-tracks in zircon. ?? 1988.

  7. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  8. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY AT THE U.S. EPA, NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH BRANCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HERB has developed several immunoassay methods for environmental and human exposure studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been developed for dietary and indoor exposure surveys. An immunoassay for th...

  9. A phased array tracking antenna for vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmori, Shingo; Mano, Kazukiko; Tanaka, Kenji; Matsunaga, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Makio

    1990-01-01

    An antenna system including antenna elements and a satellite tracking method is considered a key technology in implementing land mobile satellite communications. In the early stage of land mobile satellite communications, a mechanical tracking antenna system is considered the best candidate for vehicles, however, a phased array antenna will replace it in the near future, because it has many attractive advantages such as a low and compact profile, high speed tracking, and potential low cost. Communications Research Laboratory is now developing a new phased array antenna system for land vehicles based on research experiences of the airborne phased array antenna, which was developed and evaluated in satellite communication experiments using the ETS-V satellite. The basic characteristics of the phased array antenna for land vehicles are described.

  10. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  11. Identifying Communities of Vulnerability: Using NASA's Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer to Enhance Public Health Tracking of Particle Exposure in Los Angeles - An Empirical Approach to Examining L1 MISR Radiance Measurements and PM2.5 Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laygo, K.; Kontgis, C.; Hollins, A.

    2011-12-01

    Los Angeles is consistently ranked as one of the most polluted cities in the United States, exhibiting high levels of both ozone and particulate matter. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less, or PM2.5, is of special concern for health professionals, since it is fine enough to be inhaled into the lungs. Additionally, studies show that it is associated with respiratory disease risks such as asthma. Remote sensing technologies have the potential to be useful in air pollution health studies, but have so far been sparsely implemented. Satellite-derived measurements would be especially useful in air pollution studies, since the concentrations of interest can change by orders of magnitude over small distances. However, with current remote sensing technologies, it is difficult to predict pollution levels within small areas. This study utilizes remote sensing information in combination with a ground-based network of data to create a more comprehensive approach to tracking public health concerns. According to the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, there is a continued need for research that establishes the relationship between remotely sensed data and predicting public health risks related to environmental factors. For this study, we conducted linear regression models using Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) L1 radiance data and ground-based PM2.5 measurements from 13 EPA stations within the Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical Area. MISR senses in 4 bands (visible blue, green, red and near infrared) and 9 separate angles, producing a total of 36 bands. Using all 36 bands, we generated models for each station individually and for all stations combined. Two time periods were assessed: June, July and August from 2000 - 2009, and all months from 2009. Summer months were looked at specifically, since pollution levels tend to be higher than other parts of the year due to strong inversion layers and low rainfall levels. Generally, the models

  12. Color image processing and object tracking workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Paulick, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A system is described for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape which was developed to meet the needs of the microgravity combustion and fluid science experiments at NASA Lewis. The system consists of individual hardware parts working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware parts include 16 mm film projector, a lens system, a video camera, an S-VHS tapedeck, a frame grabber, and some storage and output devices. Both the projector and tapedeck have a computer interface enabling remote control. Tracking software was developed to control the overall operation. In the automatic mode, the main tracking program controls the projector or the tapedeck frame incrementation, grabs a frame, processes it, locates the edge of the objects being tracked, and stores the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Three representative applications are described. These applications represent typical uses and include tracking the propagation of a flame front, tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility, and characterizing a diffusion flame according to color and shape.

  13. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  14. Attentional Modulation of the Mere Exposure Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The "mere exposure effect" refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increase participants' subsequent affective preference for those stimuli. This study explored the effect of selective attention on the mere exposure effect. The experiments manipulated the to-be-attended drawings in the exposure period (either red or green…

  15. Acquisition and track algorithms for the Astros star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalom, E.; Alexander, J. W.; Stanton, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Astros star tracker has been designed for an employment with the Space Shuttle. An achievement of the performance levels needed has required critical trade-offs between the hardware design and the control algorithms. This paper provides a description of the development of the acquisition and track algorithms. Attention is given to an Astros system overview, a system firmware description, cluster evaluation, guide star selection, exposure time determination, video data input, update interval timing, exposure time sequencing full frame video A/D conversion, analog threshold for acquisition, minimum threshold determination, and the theoretical basis for the track algorithm.

  16. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  17. DSSTox chemical-index files for exposure-related experiments in ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus: enabling toxico-chemogenomics data linkages

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) ARYEXP and GEOGSE files are newly published, structure-annotated files of the chemical-associated and chemical exposure-related summary experimental content contained in the ArrayExpress Repository and Gene Expression Omnibus...

  18. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  19. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47. PMID:27291303

  20. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.