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Sample records for extended graphene nanomaterials

  1. Assessment of the toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2014-03-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick carbon nanosheet, has attracted great interest as a promising nanomaterial for a variety of bioapplications because of its extraordinary properties. However, the potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene-family nanomaterials. This review summarizes recent findings on the toxicological effects and the potential toxicity mechanisms of graphene-family nanomaterials in bacteria, mammalian cells, and animal models. Graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide elicit toxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, whereas surface modifications can significantly reduce their toxic interactions with living systems. Standardization of terminology and the fabrication methods of graphene-family nanomaterials are warranted for further investigations designed to decrease their adverse effects and explore their biomedical applications. PMID:24673908

  2. Surface-engineered graphene-based nanomaterials for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haiqing; Dong, Chunyan; Ren, Tianbin; Li, Yongyong; Shi, Donglu

    2014-09-01

    Graphene, as a newly discovered carbon allotrope, has attracted broad interest and intense attention since its discovery for both fundamental research and a vast array of industrial and biomedical applications. Considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the nano-bio-interfaces of graphene-based materials for exploring their potential biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biosensing, biomedical imaging, stem cell technology, and photothermal therapy. This review summarizes the current studies on the physiological stability, enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, active targeting and drug carrying capability of graphene-based nanomaterials, and it provides a basic understanding about the mechanisms of drug and gene delivery by these nanomaterials. Also reviewed is the recent progress on photosensitizers and theranostics using graphene-based nanomaterials. The biosafety of graphene at the cellular and animal levels is discussed. The challenges and perspectives of the field are addressed. PMID:25992450

  3. Surface Engineering of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, the biomedical applications of these intriguing nanomaterials are still limited due to their suboptimal solubility/biocompatibility, potential toxicity, and difficulties in achieving active tumor targeting, just to name a few. In this Topical Review, we will discuss in detail the important role of surface engineering (i.e., bioconjugation) in improving the in vitro/in vivo stability and enriching the functionality of graphene-based nanomaterials, which can enable single/multimodality imaging (e.g., optical imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and drug/gene delivery) of cancer. Current challenges and future research directions are also discussed and we believe that graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive nanoplatforms for a broad array of future biomedical applications. PMID:25117569

  4. Deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in human upper airways.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2016-01-01

    Graphene nanomaterials have attracted wide attention in recent years on their application to state-of-the-art technology due to their outstanding physical properties. On the other hand, the nanotoxicity of graphene materials also has rapidly become a serious concern especially in occupational health. Graphene naomaterials inevitably could become airborne in the workplace during manufacturing processes. The inhalation and subsequent deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in the human respiratory tract could potentially result in adverse health effects to exposed workers. Therefore, investigating the deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in the human airways is an indispensable component of an integral approach to graphene occupational health. For this reason, this study carried out a series of airway replica deposition experiments to obtain original experimental data for graphene aerosol airway deposition. In this study, graphene aerosols were generated, size classified, and delivered into human airway replicas (nasal and oral-to-lung airways). The deposition fraction and deposition efficiency of graphene aerosol in the airway replicas were obtained by a novel experimental approach. The experimental results acquired showed that the fractional deposition of graphene aerosols in airway sections studied were all less than 4%, and the deposition efficiency in each airway section was generally lower than 0.03. These results indicate that the majority of the graphene nanomaterial aerosols inhaled into the human respiratory tract could easily penetrate through the head airways as well as the upper part of the tracheobronchial airways and then transit down to the lower lung airways, where undesired biological responses might be induced. PMID:26317666

  5. Sunlight-induced Transformations of Graphene-based Nanomaterials in Aquatic Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Graphene-based nanomaterials and other related carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) can be released from products during their life cycles. Upon entry into aquatic environments, they are potentially transformed by photochemical reactions, oxidation reactions and biological processes, all ...

  6. Environmental applications of graphene-based nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Perreault, François; Fonseca de Faria, Andreia; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-08-21

    Graphene-based materials are gaining heightened attention as novel materials for environmental applications. The unique physicochemical properties of graphene, notably its exceptionally high surface area, electron mobility, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength, can lead to novel or improved technologies to address the pressing global environmental challenges. This critical review assesses the recent developments in the use of graphene-based materials as sorbent or photocatalytic materials for environmental decontamination, as building blocks for next generation water treatment and desalination membranes, and as electrode materials for contaminant monitoring or removal. The most promising areas of research are highlighted, with a discussion of the main challenges that we need to overcome in order to fully realize the exceptional properties of graphene in environmental applications. PMID:25812036

  7. Graphene-based nanomaterials as molecular imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Garg, Bhaskar; Sung, Chu-Hsun; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) is a noninvasive, real-time visualization of biochemical events at the cellular and molecular level within tissues, living cells, and/or intact objects that can be advantageously applied in the areas of diagnostics, therapeutics, drug discovery, and development in understanding the nanoscale reactions including enzymatic conversions and protein-protein interactions. Consequently, over the years, great advancement has been made in the development of a variety of MI agents such as peptides, aptamers, antibodies, and various nanomaterials (NMs) including single-walled carbon nanotubes. Recently, graphene, a material popularized by Geim & Novoselov, has ignited considerable research efforts to rationally design and execute a wide range of graphene-based NMs making them an attractive platform for developing highly sensitive MI agents. Owing to their exceptional physicochemical and biological properties combined with desirable surface engineering, graphene-based NMs offer stable and tunable visible emission, small hydrodynamic size, low toxicity, and high biocompatibility and thus have been explored for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications as a promising alternative of traditional imaging agents. This review begins by describing the intrinsic properties of graphene and the key MI modalities. After which, we provide an overview on the recent advances in the design and development as well as physicochemical properties of the different classes of graphene-based NMs (graphene-dye conjugates, graphene-antibody conjugates, graphene-nanoparticle composites, and graphene quantum dots) being used as MI agents for potential applications including theranostics. Finally, the major challenges and future directions in the field will be discussed. PMID:25857851

  8. Aggregation, Deposition and Release of Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Graphene is an atomically thin two dimensional carbon-based nanomaterial that is composed of a single layer of sp2 – hybridized carbon atoms as found in graphite.1, 2 Usage of graphene-based nanomaterials is increasing rapidly and these materials are predicted to be the most abun...

  9. Applications and toxicity of graphene family nanomaterials and their composites

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zorawar

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention of scientific community due to its enormous potential in different fields, including medical sciences, agriculture, food safety, cancer research, and tissue engineering. The potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs). Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, graphene and its derivatives have found important places in their respective application fields, yet they are being found to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects too. Since the discovery of graphene, a number of researches are being conducted to find out the toxic potential of GFNs to different cell and animal models, finding their suitability for being used in new and varied innovative fields. This paper presents a systematic review of the research done on GFNs and gives an insight into the mode and action of these nanosized moieties. The paper also emphasizes on the recent and up-to-date developments in research on GFNs and their nanocomposites for their toxic effects. PMID:27051278

  10. Applications and toxicity of graphene family nanomaterials and their composites.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention of scientific community due to its enormous potential in different fields, including medical sciences, agriculture, food safety, cancer research, and tissue engineering. The potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs). Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, graphene and its derivatives have found important places in their respective application fields, yet they are being found to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects too. Since the discovery of graphene, a number of researches are being conducted to find out the toxic potential of GFNs to different cell and animal models, finding their suitability for being used in new and varied innovative fields. This paper presents a systematic review of the research done on GFNs and gives an insight into the mode and action of these nanosized moieties. The paper also emphasizes on the recent and up-to-date developments in research on GFNs and their nanocomposites for their toxic effects. PMID:27051278

  11. Substrate-supported thermometry platform for nanomaterials like graphene, nanotubes, and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuanyi; Bae, Myung-Ho; Pop, Eric

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a substrate-supported thermometry platform to measure thermal conduction in nanomaterials like graphene, with no need to suspend them. We use three-dimensional simulations and careful uncertainty analysis to optimize the platform geometry and to obtain the sample thermal conductivity. The lowest thermal sheet conductance that can be sensed with <50% error is ˜25 nWK-1 at room temperature, indicating applicability of this platform to graphene or polymer thin films, nanotube or nanowire arrays, even a single Si nanowire. The platform can also be extended to plastic substrates, and could find wide applicability in circumstances where fabrication challenges and low yield associated with suspended platforms must be avoided.

  12. Facile synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials and their catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Wang, Ping; Wang, Li; Han, Lei; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we reported a simple, aqueous-phase route to the synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2 composite nanosheets (GSCN) hybrid nanostructures consisting of 5 nm Pt nanoparticles supported on the both sides of GSCN. Functional two-dimensional GSCN were obtained through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using SnCl2 in the presence of polyelectrolyte poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The main advantages of this preparation are that the reduction of GO, the formation of SnO2 and the functionalization of GSCN were achieved simultaneously through one-pot reaction. GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials were generated by in situ reduction of negatively charged PtCl62- precursors adsorbed on the positively charged surface of GSCN through electrostatic attraction. The as-synthesized GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials exhibited high cycle stabilization during the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol into p-aminophenol by NaBH4. Additionally, our approach is expected to extend to other hybrid nanomaterials. We believe that the obtained GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials have great potential for applications in other field, such as electrochemical energy storage, sensors, and so on.In this paper, we reported a simple, aqueous-phase route to the synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2 composite nanosheets (GSCN) hybrid nanostructures consisting of 5 nm Pt nanoparticles supported on the both sides of GSCN. Functional two-dimensional GSCN were obtained through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using SnCl2 in the presence of polyelectrolyte poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The main advantages of this preparation are that the reduction of GO, the formation of SnO2 and the functionalization of GSCN were achieved simultaneously through one-pot reaction. GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials were generated by in situ reduction of negatively charged PtCl62- precursors adsorbed on the positively charged surface of GSCN through

  13. Colloidal Properties and Stability of Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    While graphene oxide (GO) has been found to be the most toxic graphene-based nanomaterial, its environmental fate is still unexplored. In this study, the aggregation kinetics and stability of GO were investigated using time-resolved dynamic light scattering over a wide range of a...

  14. Recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Luo, Yanan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-15

    Graphene as a star among two-dimensional nanomaterials has attracted tremendous research interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their intrinsic properties, including the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties associated with their planar structure. The marriage of graphene and electrochemical biosensors has created many ingenious biosensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis and food safety. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the development of graphene based electrochemical biosensors. Special attention is paid to graphene-based enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Future perspectives on high-performance graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are also discussed. PMID:26187396

  15. Nanomaterial resistant microorganism mediated reduction of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Raghuraj S; Pandey, Ashish; Qureshi, Anjum; Ozguz, Volkan; Niazi, Javed H

    2016-10-01

    In this study, soil bacteria were isolated from nanomaterials (NMs) contaminated pond soil and enriched in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) in mineral medium to obtain NMs resistant bacteria. The isolated resistant bacteria were biochemically and genetically identified as Fontibacillus aquaticus. The resistant bacteria were allowed to interact with engineered GO in order to study the biotransformation in GO structure. Raman spectra of GO extracted from culture medium revealed decreased intensity ratio of ID/IG with subsequent reduction of CO which was consistent with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results. The structural changes and exfoliatied GO nanosheets were also evident from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage measurements confirmed the reduction of GO after the interaction with resistant bacteria. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of biotransformed GO revealed reduction of oxygen-containing species on the surface of nanosheets. Our results demonstrated that the presented method is an environment friendly, cost effective, simple and based on green approaches for the reduction of GO using NMs resistant bacteria. PMID:27248463

  16. Thinnest two-dimensional nanomaterial-graphene for solar energy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun Hang; Wang, Hui; Hu, Bo

    2010-07-19

    Graphene is a rapidly rising star in materials science. This two-dimensional material exhibits unique properties, such as low resistance, excellent optical transmittance, and high mechanical and chemical stabilities. These exceptional advantages possess great promise for its potential applications in photovoltaic devices. In this Review, we present the status of graphene research for solar energy with emphasis on solar cells. Firstly, the preparation and properties of graphene are described. Secondly, applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes and counter electrodes are presented. Thirdly, graphene-based electron- (or hole) accepting materials for solar energy conversion are evaluated. Fourthly, the promoting effect of graphene on photovoltaic devices and the photocatalytic property of graphene-semiconductor composites are discussed. Finally, the challenges to increase the power conversion efficiency of graphene-based solar cells are explored. PMID:20544792

  17. Extending the time scale in molecular dynamics simulations: Propagation of ripples in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewary, V. K.

    2009-10-01

    A technique using causal Green’s function is proposed for extending and bridging multiple time scales in molecular dynamics for modeling time-dependent processes at the atomistic level in nanomaterials and other physical, chemical, and biological systems. The technique is applied to model propagation of a pulse in a one-dimensional lattice of nonlinear oscillators and ripples in graphene from femtoseconds to microseconds. It is shown that, at least in the vibration problems, the technique can accelerate the convergence of molecular dynamics and extend the time scales by eight orders of magnitude.

  18. Investigating the Toxicity and Environmental Fate of Graphene Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hersam Laboratory at Northwestern University works with the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to study the toxicity and environmental fate of emergent nanomaterials, specifically carbon-based nanomate...

  19. Graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold as elite nanomaterials for fabrication of biosensors for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Kumar, Rajesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2015-08-15

    Technological advancements worldwide at rapid pace in the area of materials science and nanotechnology have made it possible to synthesize nanoparticles with desirable properties not exhibited by the bulk material. Among variety of available nanomaterials, graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold nanopartilces proved to be elite and offered amazing electrochemical biosensing. This encourages us to write a review which highlights the recent achievements in the construction of genosensor, immunosensor and enzymatic biosensor based on the above nanomaterials. Carbon based nanomaterials offers a direct electron transfer between the functionalized nanomaterials and active site of bioreceptor without involvement of any mediator which not only amplifies the signal but also provide label free sensing. Gold shows affinity towards immunological molecules and is most routinely used for immunological sensing. Zinc oxide can easily immobilize proteins and hence offers a large group of enzyme based biosensor. Modification of the working electrode by introduction of these nanomaterials or combination of two/three of above nanomaterials together and forming a nanocomposite reflected the best results with excellent stability, reproducibility and enhanced sensitivity. Highly attractive electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of these elite nanomaterials have facilitated achievement of enhanced signal amplification needed for the construction of ultrasensitive electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of glucose, cholesterol, Escherichia coli, influenza virus, cancer, human papillomavirus, dopamine, glutamic acid, IgG, IgE, uric acid, ascorbic acid, acetlycholine, cortisol, cytosome, sequence specific DNA and amino acids. Recent researches for bedside biosensors are also discussed. PMID:25899923

  20. Graphene and Other Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Aptasensors

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Frank J.; Ozalp, Veli Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical aptasensors, which are based on the specificity of aptamer-target recognition, with electrochemical transduction for analytical purposes have received particular attention due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, simple instrumentation, as well as low production cost. Aptamers are functional nucleic acids with specific and high affinity to their targets, similar to antibodies. However, they are completely selected in vitro in contrast to antibodies. Due to their stability, easy chemical modifications and proneness to nanostructured device construction, aptamer-based sensors have been incorporated in a variety of applications including electrochemical sensing devices. In recent years, the performance of aptasensors has been augmented by incorporating novel nanomaterials in the preparation of better electrochemical sensors. In this review, we summarize the recent trends in the use of nanomaterials for developing electrochemical aptasensors. PMID:25585628

  1. From graphene to carbon nanotube: The oxygen effect on the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials on nickel foil during CVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yu-Ching; Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated an oxygen-assisted ultralow-pressure (20 mTorr) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including multilayer graphene (MLG), double-layer graphene (DLG), single-layer graphene (SLG), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a Ni foil substrate. Oxygen is typically considered undesirable to synthesize carbon nanomaterials during the CVD process. However, our study provided evidence demonstrating that the growth of MLG, DLG, SLG, and CNTs can be maintained by adjusting the oxygen concentration during the CVD process; it also provided an easy way in controlling the layer of graphene. It was observed that oxygen played an important role in controlling the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials.

  2. Click chemistry promoted by graphene supported copper nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Shaygan Nia, Ali; Rana, Sravendra; Döhler, Diana; Noirfalise, Xavier; Belfiore, Alice; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2014-12-18

    A facile and robust approach is provided for the synthesis of highly dispersed copper nanoparticles immobilized onto graphene nanosheets, useful as a recyclable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst with excellent catalytic activity to achieve Cu(I)-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition 'click' chemistry. PMID:25350638

  3. Safety and biocompatibility of graphene: A new generation nanomaterial for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Syama, S; Mohanan, P V

    2016-05-01

    Graphene, a material with great application potential is expected to revolutionize various fields in the near future particularly biomedical field with its inherent properties. However, significant increase in the research on graphene in the recent years has created anxiety about their safety/biocompatibility towards living organisms. Though there is increase in reports on graphene synthesis and application, in parallel reports on unwanted toxic effects of these materials is under scrutiny. Before exploiting their use, any engineered nanomaterials should undergo through investigation regarding the risk and health hazards imposed by them. Toxicity of nanomaterial depends on many factors like size, shape, surface chemistry, dose, duration and the biological milieu. In this account, we reviewed physico-chemical properties of graphene that plays a key role in toxicity prediction. We also detailed some examples of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies that have been published so far. The potential environmental risk associated with these carbon materials is also addressed, in order to avoid unintentional leaching of these materials into surface water. PMID:26851208

  4. Graphene-like two-dimensional layered nanomaterials: applications in biosensors and nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guohai; Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Zhu, Junjie; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-08-01

    The development of nanotechnology provides promising opportunities for various important applications. The recent discovery of atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials can offer manifold perspectives to construct versatile devices with high-performance to satisfy multiple requirements. Many studies directed at graphene have stimulated renewed interest on graphene-like 2D layered nanomaterials (GLNs). GLNs including boron nitride nanosheets, graphitic-carbon nitride nanosheets and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g. MoS2 and WS2) have attracted significant interest in numerous research fields from physics and chemistry to biology and engineering, which has led to numerous interdisciplinary advances in nano science. Benefiting from the unique physical and chemical properties (e.g. strong mechanical strength, high surface area, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization), these 2D layered nanomaterials have shown great potential in biochemistry and biomedicine. This review summarizes recent advances of GLNs in applications of biosensors and nanomedicine, including electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, bioimaging, drug delivery and cancer therapy. Current challenges and future perspectives in these rapidly developing areas are also outlined. It is expected that they will have great practical foundation in biomedical applications with future efforts.

  5. Graphene-based nanomaterials as heterogeneous acid catalysts: a comprehensive perspective.

    PubMed

    Garg, Bhaskar; Bisht, Tanuja; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Acid catalysis is quite prevalent and probably one of the most routine operations in both industrial processes and research laboratories worldwide. Recently, "graphene", a two dimensional single-layer carbon sheet with hexagonal packed lattice structure, imitative of nanomaterials, has shown great potential as alternative and eco-friendly solid carbocatalyst for a variety of acid-catalyzed reactions. Owing to their exceptional physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, graphene-based nanomaterials (G-NMs) offer highly stable Brønsted acidic sites, high mass transfer, relatively large surface areas, water tolerant character, and convenient recoverability as well as recyclability, whilst retaining high activity in acid-catalyzed chemical reactions. This comprehensive review focuses on the chemistry of G-NMs, including their synthesis, characterization, properties, functionalization, and up-to-date applications in heterogeneous acid catalysis. In line with this, in certain instances readers may find herein some criticisms that should be taken as constructive and would be of value in understanding the scope and limitations of current approaches utilizing graphene and its derivatives for the same. PMID:25225721

  6. Multi-nanomaterial electrochemical biosensor based on label-free graphene for detecting cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bing; Wang, Ping; Mao, Hongju; Hu, Bing; Zhang, Honglian; Cheng, Zule; Wu, Zhenhua; Bian, Xiaojun; Jia, Chunping; Jing, Fengxiang; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong

    2014-05-15

    Developing a rapid, accurate and sensitive electrochemical biosensor for detecting cancer biomarkers is important for early detection and diagnosis. This work reports an electrochemical biosensor based on a graphene (GR) platform which is made by CVD, combined with magnetic beads (MBs) and enzyme-labeled antibody-gold nanoparticle bioconjugate. MBs coated with capture antibodies (Ab1) were attached to GR sheets by an external magnetic field, to avoid reducing the conductivity of graphene. Sensitivity was also enhanced by modifying the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the detection antibody (Ab2), to form the conjugate Ab2-AuNPs-HRP. Electron transport between the electrode and analyte target was accelerated by the multi-nanomaterial, and the limit of detection (LOD) for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) reached 5 ng mL(-1). The multi-nanomaterial electrode GR/MBs-Ab1/CEA/Ab2-AuNPs-HRP can be used to detect biomolecules such as CEA. The EC biosensor is sensitive and specific, and has potential in the detection of disease markers. PMID:24462797

  7. Low-toxic and safe nanomaterials by surface-chemical design, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YanEqual Contribution, Liang; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shoujian; Hu, Zhongbo; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-02-01

    The toxicity grade for a bulk material can be approximately determined by three factors (chemical composition, dose, and exposure route). However, for a nanomaterial it depends on more than ten factors. Interestingly, some nano-factors (like huge surface adsorbability, small size, etc.) that endow nanomaterials with new biomedical functions are also potential causes leading to toxicity or damage to the living organism. Is it possible to create safe nanomaterials if such a number of complicated factors need to be regulated? We herein try to find answers to this important question. We first discuss chemical processes that are applicable for nanosurface modifications, in order to improve biocompatibility, regulate ADME, and reduce the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes). Then the biological/toxicological effects of surface-modified and unmodified carbon nanomaterials are comparatively discussed from two aspects: the lowered toxic responses or the enhanced biomedical functions. We summarize the eight biggest challenges in creating low-toxicity and safer nanomaterials and some significant topics of future research needs: to find out safer nanofactors; to establish controllable surface modifications and simpler chemistries for low-toxic nanomaterials; to explore the nanotoxicity mechanisms; to justify the validity of current toxicological theories in nanotoxicology; to create standardized nanomaterials for toxicity tests; to build theoretical models for cellular and molecular interactions of nanoparticles; and to establish systematical knowledge frameworks for nanotoxicology.

  8. Graphene valley pseudospin filter using an extended line defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter

    2011-03-01

    Although graphene exhibits excellent electron and thermal transport properties, it does not have an intrinsic band gap, required to use graphene as a replacement material for silicon and other semiconductors in conventional electronics. The band structure of graphene with its two cones near the Fermi level, however, offers opportunities to develop non-traditional applications. One such avenue is to exploit the valley degeneracy in graphene to develop valleytronics. A central component in valleytronics is the valley filter, just as the spin filter is central in spintronics. Herein, we present a two-dimensional valley filter based on scattering of electrons and holes off a recently observed extended line defect [Nat. Nanotech.5, 326 (2010)] within graphene. The transmission probability depends strongly on the valley pseudospin and the angle of incidence of the incident quasiparticles. Quasiparticles arriving at the line defect at a high angle of incidence lead to a valley polarization of the transmitted beam that is near 100 percent. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  9. Plasmon coupling in extended structures: Graphene superlattice nanoribbon arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Daniel; Low, Tony; Farmer, Damon B.; Altug, Hatice; Avouris, Phaedon

    2016-03-01

    Interaction between localized plasmons in isolated proximal nanostructures is a well-studied phenomenon. Here we explore plasmon-plasmon interactions in connected extended systems. Such systems can now be easily produced experimentally using graphene. However, the mechanisms of plasmonic interactions in extended systems are not well understood. We employ finite-element methods to study these interactions in graphene superlattice nanoribbon arrays with a periodically modulated electrochemical potential or number of layers. We find a rich variation in the resulting plasmonic resonances depending on the dimensions, the electrochemical potentials (doping), and the separation of the nanoribbon segments, and we demonstrate the involvement of both transverse and longitudinal plasmon-plasmon interactions. For example, unlike predictions based on the well-known "orbital hybridization model," the energies of the resulting hybrid plasmonic resonances in the extended system can lie between the energies of the plasmons in the individual components. Our results demonstrate that the plasmonic spectra of graphene superlattice structures can be easily adjusted, continuously tuned, and used to enhance optical fields in the infrared and terahertz regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  10. Colloidal properties and stability of graphene oxide nanomaterials in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Indranil; Duch, Matthew C; Mansukhani, Nikhita D; Hersam, Mark C; Bouchard, Dermont

    2013-06-18

    While graphene oxide (GO) has been found to be the most toxic graphene-based nanomaterial, its environmental fate is still unexplored. In this study, the aggregation kinetics and stability of GO were investigated using time-resolved dynamic light scattering over a wide range of aquatic chemistries (pH, salt types (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2), ionic strength) relevant to natural and engineered systems. Although pH did not have a notable influence on GO stability from pH 4 to 10, salt type and ionic strength had significant effects on GO stability due to electrical double layer compression, similar to other colloidal particles. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of GO were determined to be 44 mM NaCl, 0.9 mM CaCl2, and 1.3 mM MgCl2. Aggregation and stability of GO in the aquatic environment followed colloidal theory (DLVO and Schulze-Hardy rule), even though GO's shape is not spherical. CCC values of GO were lower than reported fullerene CCC values and higher than reported carbon nanotube CCC values. CaCl2 destabilized GO more aggressively than MgCl2 and NaCl due to the binding capacity of Ca(2+) ions with hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups of GO. Natural organic matter significantly improved the stability of GO in water primarily due to steric repulsion. Long-term stability studies demonstrated that GO was highly stable in both natural and synthetic surface waters, although it settled quickly in synthetic groundwater. While GO remained stable in synthetic influent wastewater, effluent wastewater collected from a treatment plant rapidly destabilized GO, indicating GO will settle out during the wastewater treatment process and likely accumulate in biosolids and sludge. Overall, our findings indicate that GO nanomaterials will be stable in the natural aquatic environment and that significant aqueous transport of GO is possible. PMID:23668881

  11. RKKY interaction between extended magnetic defect lines in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, P. D.; Duffy, J. M.; Power, S. R.; Ferreira, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Of fundamental interest in the field of spintronics is the mechanism of indirect exchange coupling between magnetic impurities embedded in metallic hosts. A range of physical features, such as magnetotransport and overall magnetic moment formation, are predicated upon this magnetic coupling, often referred to as the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction. Recent theoretical studies on the RKKY in graphene have been motivated by possible spintronic applications of magnetically doped graphene systems. In this paper a combination of analytic and numerical techniques are used to examine the effects of defect dimensionality on such an interaction. We show, in a mathematically transparent manner, that moving from single magnetic impurities to extended lines of impurities effectively reduces the dimensionality of the system and increases the range of the interaction. This has important consequences for the spintronic application of magnetically-doped systems, and we illustrate this with a simple magnetoresistance device.

  12. Magnetic nanomaterial derived from graphene oxide/layered double hydroxide hybrid for efficient removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Ji, Shanshan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Lulu; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-10-15

    Magnetic hybrid nanomaterials composed of reduced graphene oxide, zero-valent nickel, and NiAl-mixed metal oxides (rGO/Ni/MMO) have been synthesized by calcining graphene oxide (GO)/layered double hydroxide (LDH) hybrid in nitrogen atmosphere. Structural characterizations demonstrate that with the presence of GO substrate, NiAl-LDHs can be reduced into zero-valent Ni and NiAl-MMOs during calcination. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to investigate the morphology of the as-prepared hybrid nanomaterials, demonstrating that the introduction of GO substrate prevents the aggregation of LDHs. Magnetism characterization proves the ferromagnetic property of rGO/Ni/MMO hybrid. This magnetic hybrid nanomaterial exhibits excellent adsorption ability toward methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions. The kinetics of the adsorption process and the adsorption isotherm are investigated. The MO removal process is found to obey the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model, and its kinetics follows pseudo-second-order rate equation. In addition, the magnetic hybrid also exhibits good recycle ability for MO removal. This novel magnetic hybrid nanomaterial derived from GO/LDH hybrid demonstrates great potential in the applications of water treatment. PMID:23928490

  13. Two dimension (2-D) graphene-based nanomaterials as signal amplification elements in electrochemical microfluidic immune-devices: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Graphene is a 2-D carbon nanomaterial with many distinctive properties that are electrochemically beneficial, such as large surface-to-volume ratio, lowered power usage, high conductivity and electron mobility. Graphene-based electrochemical immune-devices have recently gained much importance for detecting antigens and biomarkers responsible for cancer diagnosis. This review describes fabrication and chemical modification of the surfaces of graphene for immunesensing applications. We also present a comprehensive overview of current developments and key issues in the determination of some biological molecules with particular emphasis on evaluating the models. This review focuses mostly on new developments in the last 5years in development of chip architecture and integration, different sensing modes that can be used in conjunction with microfluidics, and new applications that have emerged or have been demonstrated; it also aims to point out where future research can be directed to in these areas. PMID:27524045

  14. Enhanced dehydrochlorination of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane by graphene-based nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuguang; Chen, Weifeng; Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Yao; Wang, Fanfan; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) materials contain a variety of surface O-functional groups that are chemically reactive. When released into the environment these materials may significantly affect the abiotic transformation of organic contaminants, and therefore, may alter their fate and risks. We found that two GO and five RGO materials that varied in C/O ratio, hydrophobicity, and type/distribution of surface O-functionality all had catalytic effects on the dehydrochlorination of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA). Even though the catalytic effects of the materials originated from their deprotonated surface O-functional groups, which served as conjugated bases to catalyze the reaction, the catalytic efficiencies of the materials did not correlate strongly with their surface O contents. The spectroscopic evidence (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), surface charge data, and adsorption experiments demonstrated that the catalytic efficiencies of the GO/RGO materials were controlled by a complex interplay of the type and distribution of surface O-functionality, as well as adsorption affinity of the materials. Both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) inhibited the catalytic efficiency of the materials by binding to the surface O-functional groups, and consequently, decreasing the basicity of the functional groups. At an environmentally relevant concentration of 10 mg/L, Suwannee River humic acid (used as a model dissolved organic matter) alone had little effect on the dehydrochlorination of TeCA. However, it could inhibit the catalytic efficiency of the GO/RGO materials by coating on their surface and thus, decreasing the adsorption affinity of these materials for TeCA. The findings further underline the potentially important impacts of nanomaterials on contaminant fate and effects in the environment. PMID:27107258

  15. Graphene-Based Nanomaterials as Efficient Peroxidase Mimetic Catalysts for Biosensing Applications: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Garg, Bhaskar; Bisht, Tanuja; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2015-01-01

    "Artificial enzymes", a term coined by Breslow for enzyme mimics is an exciting and promising branch of biomimetic chemistry aiming to imitate the general and essential principles of natural enzymes using a variety of alternative materials including heterogeneous catalysts. Peroxidase enzymes represent a large family of oxidoreductases that typically catalyze biological reactions with high substrate affinity and specificity under relatively mild conditions and thus offer a wide range of practical applications in many areas of science. The increasing understanding of general principles as well as intrinsic drawbacks such as low operational stability, high cost, difficulty in purification and storage, and sensitivity of catalytic activity towards atmospheric conditions of peroxidases has triggered a dynamic field in nanotechnology, biochemical, and material science that aims at joining the better of three worlds by combining the concept adapted from nature with the processability of catalytically active graphene-based nanomaterials (G-NMs) as excellent peroxidase mimetic catalysts. This comprehensive review discusses an up-to-date synthesis, kinetics, mechanisms, and biosensing applications of a variety of G-NMs that have been explored as promising catalysts to mimic natural peroxidases. PMID:26248071

  16. The extended growth of graphene oxide flakes using ethanol CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Larisika, Melanie; Fam, W. H. Derrick; He, Qiyuan; Nimmo, Myra A.; Nowak, Christoph; Tok, I. Y. Alfred

    2013-03-01

    We report the extended growth of Graphene Oxide (GO) flakes using atmospheric pressure ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). GO was used to catalyze the deposition of carbon on a substrate in the ethanol CVD with Ar and H2 as carrier gases. Raman, SEM, XPS and AFM characterized the growth to be a reduced GO (RGO) of <5 layers. This newly grown RGO possesses lower defect density with larger and increased distribution of sp2 domains than chemically reduced RGO. Furthermore this method without optimization reduces the relative standard deviation of electrical conductivity between chips, from 80.5% to 16.5%, enabling RGO to be used in practical electronic devices.We report the extended growth of Graphene Oxide (GO) flakes using atmospheric pressure ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). GO was used to catalyze the deposition of carbon on a substrate in the ethanol CVD with Ar and H2 as carrier gases. Raman, SEM, XPS and AFM characterized the growth to be a reduced GO (RGO) of <5 layers. This newly grown RGO possesses lower defect density with larger and increased distribution of sp2 domains than chemically reduced RGO. Furthermore this method without optimization reduces the relative standard deviation of electrical conductivity between chips, from 80.5% to 16.5%, enabling RGO to be used in practical electronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The ethanol CVD setup, TEM of CVD treated RGO, graphite 2D Raman spectra, GO synthesis, transfer and reduction methods and details of characterization techniques are described in the document. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33704a

  17. Envelopment-Internalization Synergistic Effects and Metabolic Mechanisms of Graphene Oxide on Single-Cell Chlorella vulgaris Are Dependent on the Nanomaterial Particle Size.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Shaohu; Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-08-19

    The interactions between nanomaterials and cells are fundamental in biological responses to nanomaterials. However, the size-dependent synergistic effects of envelopment and internalization as well as the metabolic mechanisms of nanomaterials have remained unknown. The nanomaterials tested here were larger graphene oxide nanosheets (GONS) and small graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQD). GONS intensively entrapped single-celled Chlorella vulgaris, and envelopment by GONS reduced the cell permeability. In contrast, GOQD-induced remarkable shrinkage of the plasma membrane and then enhanced cell permeability through strong internalization effects such as plasmolysis, uptake of nanomaterials, an oxidative stress increase, and inhibition of cell division and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Metabolomics analysis showed that amino acid metabolism was sensitive to nanomaterial exposure. Shrinkage of the plasma membrane is proposed to be linked to increases in the isoleucine levels. The inhibition of cell division and chlorophyll a biosynthesis was associated with decreases in aspartic acid and serine, the precursors of chlorophyll a. The increases in mitochondrial membrane potential loss and oxidative stress were correlated with an increase in linolenic acid. The above metabolites can be used as indicators of the corresponding biological responses. These results enhance our systemic understanding of the size-dependent biological effects of nanomaterials. PMID:26221973

  18. Screening of toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials using in vitro and alternative in vivo toxicity testing systems

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nivedita; Yang, Ji Su; Park, Kwangsik; Oh, Seung Min; Park, Jeonggue; Choi, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The widely promising applications of graphene nanomaterials raise considerable concerns regarding their environmental and human health risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity profiling of graphene family nananomaterials (GFNs) in alternative in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing models. Methods The GFNs used in this study are graphene nanoplatelets ([GNPs]–pristine, carboxylate [COOH] and amide [NH2]) and graphene oxides (single layer [SLGO] and few layers [FLGO]). The human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B cells) as in vitro system and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as in vivo system were used to profile the toxicity response of GFNs. Cytotoxicity assays, colony formation assay for cellular toxicity and reproduction potentiality in C. elegans were used as end points to evaluate the GFNs’ toxicity. Results In general, GNPs exhibited higher toxicity than GOs in Beas2B cells, and among the GNPs the order of toxicity was pristine>NH2>COOH. Although the order of toxicity of the GNPs was maintained in C. elegans reproductive toxicity, but GOs were found to be more toxic in the worms than GNPs. In both systems, SLGO exhibited profoundly greater dose dependency than FLGO. The possible reason of their differential toxicity lay in their distinctive physicochemical characteristics and agglomeration behavior in the exposure media. Conclusions The present study revealed that the toxicity of GFNs is dependent on the graphene nanomaterial’s physical forms, surface functionalizations, number of layers, dose, time of exposure and obviously, on the alternative model systems used for toxicity assessment. PMID:26602558

  19. A critical review of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes and graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhigang; Garcia-Gancedo, Luis; Flewitt, Andrew J; Xie, Huaqing; Moussy, Francis; Milne, William I

    2012-01-01

    There has been an explosion of research into the physical and chemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials, since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Iijima in 1991. Carbon nanomaterials offer unique advantages in several areas, like high surface-volume ratio, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and strong mechanical strength, and are thus frequently being incorporated into sensing elements. Carbon nanomaterial-based sensors generally have higher sensitivities and a lower detection limit than conventional ones. In this review, a brief history of glucose biosensors is firstly presented. The carbon nanotube and grapheme-based biosensors, are introduced in Sections 3 and 4, respectively, which cover synthesis methods, up-to-date sensing approaches and nonenzymatic hybrid sensors. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future direction for carbon nanomaterials to be used in the sensing area. PMID:22778628

  20. A Critical Review of Glucose Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanomaterials: Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhigang; Garcia-Gancedo, Luis; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Xie, Huaqing; Moussy, Francis; Milne, William I.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an explosion of research into the physical and chemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials, since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Iijima in 1991. Carbon nanomaterials offer unique advantages in several areas, like high surface-volume ratio, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and strong mechanical strength, and are thus frequently being incorporated into sensing elements. Carbon nanomaterial-based sensors generally have higher sensitivities and a lower detection limit than conventional ones. In this review, a brief history of glucose biosensors is firstly presented. The carbon nanotube and grapheme-based biosensors, are introduced in Sections 3 and 4, respectively, which cover synthesis methods, up-to-date sensing approaches and nonenzymatic hybrid sensors. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future direction for carbon nanomaterials to be used in the sensing area. PMID:22778628

  1. Functionalized graphene nanomaterials: new insight into direct exfoliation of graphite with supramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Chia; Chang, Feng-Chih; Wang, Jui-Hsu; Chen, Jem-Kun; Yen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-01-14

    A novel urea-cytosine end-capped polypropylene glycol (UrCy-PPG) can self-assemble into a long-range ordered lamellar microstructure on the surface of graphene, due to the strong specific interactions between UrCy-PPG and graphene. In addition, the graphene composite produced exhibits a high conductivity (∼1093 S m(-1)) with a dramatic thermo-responsive ON/OFF resistance-switching behavior (10 consecutive cycles). PMID:26660032

  2. Extended Simulations of Graphene Growth with Updated Rate Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, R; You, X; Frenklach, M

    2010-03-18

    New simulations of graphene growth in flame environments are presented. The simulations employ a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm coupled to molecular mechanics (MM) geometry optimization to track individual graphenic species as they evolve. Focus is given to incorporation of five-member rings and resulting curvature and edge defects. The model code has been re-written to be more computationally efficient enabling a larger set of simulations to be run, decreasing stochastic fluctuations in the averaged results. The model also includes updated rate coefficients for graphene edge reactions recently published in the literature. The new simulations are compared to results from the previous model as well as to hydrogen to carbon ratios recorded in experiment and calculated with alternate models.

  3. Synthesis of Extended Atomically Perfect Zigzag Graphene - Boron Nitride Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Drost, Robert; Kezilebieke, Shawulienu; M. Ervasti, Mikko; Hämäläinen, Sampsa K.; Schulz, Fabian; Harju, Ari; Liljeroth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The combination of several materials into heterostructures is a powerful method for controlling material properties. The integration of graphene (G) with hexagonal boron nitride (BN) in particular has been heralded as a way to engineer the graphene band structure and implement spin- and valleytronics in 2D materials. Despite recent efforts, fabrication methods for well-defined G-BN structures on a large scale are still lacking. We report on a new method for producing atomically well-defined G-BN structures on an unprecedented length scale by exploiting the interaction of G and BN edges with a Ni(111) surface as well as each other. PMID:26584674

  4. 3D graphene nanomaterials for binder-free supercapacitors: scientific design for enhanced performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuijian; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Because of the excellent intrinsic properties, especially the strong mechanical strength, extraordinarily high surface area and extremely high conductivity, graphene is deemed as a versatile building block for fabricating functional materials for energy production and storage applications. In this article, the recent progress in the assembly of binder-free and self-standing graphene-based materials, as well as their application in supercapacitors are reviewed, including electrical double layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and asymmetric supercapacitors. Various fabrication strategies and the influence of structures on the capacitance performance of 3D graphene-based materials are discussed. We finally give concluding remarks and an outlook on the scientific design of binder-free and self-standing graphene materials for achieving better capacitance performance.

  5. Pulmonary Responses of Sprague-Dawley Rats in Single Inhalation Exposure to Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Gu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kim, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Gun Ho; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Heon Sang; Song, Nam Woong; Ahn, Kangho; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is receiving increased attention due to its potential widespread applications in future. However, the health effects of graphene have not yet been well studied. Therefore, this study examined the pulmonary effects of graphene oxide using male Sprague-Dawley rats and a single 6-hour nose-only inhalation technique. Following the exposure, the rats were allowed to recover for 1 day, 7 days, or 14 days. A total of three groups were compared: control (fresh air), low concentration (0.46 ± 0.06 mg/m3), and high concentration (3.76 ± 0.24 mg/m3). The exposure to graphene oxide did not induce significant changes in the body weights, organ weights, and food consumption during the 14 days of recovery time. The microalbumin and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were not significantly changed due to the exposure. Similarly, total cell count, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and lymphocytes were not significantly altered in the BAL fluid. Plus, the histopathological examination of the rat lungs only showed an uptake of graphene oxide in the alveolar macrophages of the high-concentration group. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the single inhalation exposure to graphene oxide induce minimal toxic responses in rat lungs at the concentrations and time points used in the present study. PMID:26295037

  6. Functionalized graphene nanomaterials: new insight into direct exfoliation of graphite with supramolecular polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chih-Chia; Chang, Feng-Chih; Wang, Jui-Hsu; Chen, Jem-Kun; Yen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-12-01

    A novel urea-cytosine end-capped polypropylene glycol (UrCy-PPG) can self-assemble into a long-range ordered lamellar microstructure on the surface of graphene, due to the strong specific interactions between UrCy-PPG and graphene. In addition, the graphene composite produced exhibits a high conductivity (~1093 S m-1) with a dramatic thermo-responsive ON/OFF resistance-switching behavior (10 consecutive cycles).A novel urea-cytosine end-capped polypropylene glycol (UrCy-PPG) can self-assemble into a long-range ordered lamellar microstructure on the surface of graphene, due to the strong specific interactions between UrCy-PPG and graphene. In addition, the graphene composite produced exhibits a high conductivity (~1093 S m-1) with a dramatic thermo-responsive ON/OFF resistance-switching behavior (10 consecutive cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07076g

  7. Potentiating effect of graphene nanomaterials on aromatic environmental pollutant-induced cytochrome P450 1A expression in the topminnow fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Tobias; Boisseaux, Paul; Navas, José M

    2015-09-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are an emerging class of carbon nanomaterial with great potential for a broad range of industrial and consumer applications. However, their increasing production and use is expected to result in release of nano-sized graphene platelets into the environment, where they may interact with chemical pollutants modifying their fate and toxic potential. The objective of this study was to assess whether graphene nanoplatelets can act as vector for aromatic environmental pollutants increasing their cellular uptake and associated hazardous effects in vitro. For this purpose, cell cultures of the topminnow fish (Poeciliopsis lucida) hepatoma cell line PLHC-1 were simultaneously (and successively) exposed to graphene nanoplatelets (graphene oxide (GO) or carboxyl graphene (CXYG)) and an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist (β-naphthoflavone (β-NF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) or 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB169)). Following exposure cytochrome P450 1A (Cyp1A) induction was assessed by measuring cyp1A mRNA expression levels using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Cyp1A-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. It was observed that pre- and co-exposure of cells to GO and CXYG nanoplatelets had a potentiating effect on β-NF, BkF, and PCB169-dependent Cyp1A induction suggesting that graphene nanoplatelets increase the effective concentration of AhR agonists by facilitating their passive diffusion into the cells by damaging the cells' plasma membrane and/or by transporting them over the plasma membrane via a Trojan horse-like mechanism. The results demonstrate the existence of combination effects between nanomaterials and environmental pollutants and stress the importance of considering these effects when evaluating their respective hazard. PMID:24706484

  8. Thermal conductivity reduction in analogous 2D nanomaterials with isotope substitution: Graphene and silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Srilok; Ray, Upamanyu; Balasubramanian, Ganesh

    2016-04-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to understand how the presence of isotopes influences thermal transport across silicene, and compare the findings with that in structurally analogous graphene. The simulated structures are about 140 nm long and around 4 nm wide. The phonon spectra along with the variation of thermal conductivity reveal that out-of-plane modes are delocalized relative to the in-plane counterparts. The absolute thermal conductivity reductions are more pronounced in graphene than in silicene. Our computational findings agree with results of an analytical model based on mean-field approximation with appropriate corrections for the lattice anharmonicity.

  9. Interactions of Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials with Natural Organic Matter and Metal Oxide Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions of graphene oxide (GO) with silica surfaces were investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Both GO deposition and release were monitored on silica- and poly-l-lysine (PLL) coated surfaces as a function of GO concentration a...

  10. Biological Interactions of Graphene-Family Nanomaterials – An Interdisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Vanesa C.; Jachak, Ashish; Hurt, Robert H.; Kane, Agnes B.

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. Related materials include few-layer-graphene (FLG), ultrathin graphite, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene nanosheets (GNS). This review proposes a systematic nomenclature for this set of “Graphene-Family Nanomaterials” (GFNs) and discusses specific materials properties relevant for biomolecular and cellular interactions. The article discusses several unique modes of interaction between GFNs and nucleic acids, lipid bilayers, and conjugated small molecule drugs and dyes. Some GFNs are produced as dry powders using thermal exfoliation, and in these cases inhalation is a likely route of human exposure. Some GFNs have aerodynamic sizes that can lead to inhalation and substantial deposition in the human respiratory tract, which may impair lung defense and clearance leading to formation of granulomas and lung fibrosis. The limited literature on in vitro toxicity suggests that GFNs can be either benign or toxic to cells, and it is hypothesized that the biological response will vary across the material family depending on layer number, lateral size, stiffness, hydrophobicity, surface functionalization, and dose. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in target cells is a potential mechanism for toxicity, although the extremely high hydrophobic surface area of some GFNs may also lead to significant interactions with membrane lipids leading to direct physical toxicity or adsorption of biological molecules leading to indirect toxicity. Limited in vivo studies demonstrate systemic biodistribution and biopersistence of GFNs following intravenous delivery. Similar to other smooth, continuous, biopersistent implants or foreign bodies, GFNs have the potential to induce foreign body tumors. Long-term adverse health impacts must be considered in design of GFNs for drug delivery, tissue

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Evaluation of TiO2-Reinforced Boron and Nitrogen co-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Hybrid Nanomaterials as Efficient Antiwear Lubricant Additives.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Vinay; Kalyani; Umrao, Sima; Rastogi, Rashmi B; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Anchal

    2016-05-11

    The microwave-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (MRG), boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-MRG), nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-MRG), boron-nitrogen-co-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-N-MRG), and TiO2-reinforced B-N-MRG (TiO2-B-N-MRG) nanomaterials have been synthesized and characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, like Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the tribological properties of prepared nanomaterials as antiwear additives in neutral paraffin oil have been evaluated using a four-ball machine at an optimized additive concentration (0.15% w/v). The tribological parameters, like mean wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction, and wear rates, revealed that these nanomaterials have potential to be developed as environmentally friendly sulfated-ash-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free antiwear lubricant additives. The friction- and wear-reducing behavior of MRG increased upon successive doping of nitrogen, boron, and both nitrogen and boron. Among these additives, B-N-co-doped MRG shows superior tribological behavior in paraffin base oil. Besides this, the load-carrying properties of B-N-co-doped MRG have significantly improved after its reinforcement with TiO2 nanoparticles. A comparative study of the surface morphology of a lubricated track in the presence of various additives has been assessed by SEM and contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have proved that the excellent lubrication properties of TiO2-B-N-MRG are due to the in situ formation of a tribofilm composed of boron nitride, adsorbed graphene layers, and tribosintered TiO2 nanoparticles during the tribocontact. Being sulfur-, halogen-, and phosphorus-free, these graphene-based nanomaterials act as green antiwear additives, protecting interacting

  12. Cuprous Sulfide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials: Solvothermal Synthesis and Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhanjun; Zhu, Yabo; Xing, Zheng; Wang, Zhengyuan

    2016-01-01

    The cuprous sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites have been successfully prepared via a facile and efficient solvothermal synthesis method. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that CuS micronspheres composed of nanosheets and distributed on the rGO layer in well-monodispersed form. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that graphene oxide (GO) had been reduced to rGO. The electrochemical performances of CuS/rGO nanocomposites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge techniques, which showed that the specific capacitance of CuS/rGO nanocomposites was enhanced because of the introduction of rGO.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of commercially sourced naphthenic acids by TiO2-graphene composite nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juncheng; Wang, Lin; Tang, Jingchun; Ma, Jianli

    2016-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a major contributor to the toxicity in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), which is produced by hot water extraction of bitumen. NAs are extremely difficult to be degraded due to its complex ring and side chain structure. Photocatalysis is recognized as a promising technology in the removal of refractory organic pollutants. In this work, TiO2-graphene (P25-GR) composites were synthesized by means of solvothermal method. The results showed that P25-GR composite exhibited better photocatalytic activity than pure P25. The removal efficiency of naphthenic acids in acid solution was higher than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. It was the first report ever known on the photodegradation of NAs based on graphene, and this process achieved a higher removal rate than other photocatalysis degradation of NAs in a shorter reaction time. LC/MS analysis showed that macromolecular NAs (carbon number 17-22, z value -2) were easy to be degraded than the micromolecular ones (carbon number 11-16, z value -2). Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species that play the main role in the photocatalysis system were studied. It was found that holes and ·OH were the main reactive species in the UV/P25-GR photocatalysis system. Given the high removal efficiency of refractory organic pollutants and the short degradation time, photodegradation based on composite catalysts has a broad and practical prospect. The study on the photodegradation of commercially sourced NAs may provide a guidance for the degradation of OSPW NAs by this method. PMID:26874061

  14. Synthesis of graphene nanomaterials and their application in electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoping

    The need to store and use energy on diverse scales in a modern technological society necessitates the design of large and small energy systems, among which electrical energy storage systems such as batteries and capacitors have attracted much interest in the past several decades. Supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors, or electrochemical capacitors, with fast power delivery and long cycle life are complementing or even replacing batteries in many applications. The rapid development of miniaturized electronic devices has led to a growing need for rechargeable micro-power sources with high performance. Among different sources, electrochemical micro-capacitors or micro-supercapacitors provide higher power density than their counterparts and are gaining increased interest from the research and engineering communities. Rechargeable Li ion batteries with high energy and power density, long cycling life, high charge-discharge rate (1C - 3C) and safe operation are in high demand as power sources and power backup for hybrid electric vehicles and other applications. In the present work, graphene-based graphene materials have been designed and synthesized for electrochemical energy storage applications, e.g., conventional supercapacitors (macro-supercapacitors), microsupercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. Factors influencing the formation and structure of graphitic petals grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates were investigated through process variation and materials analysis. Insights gained into the growth mechanism of these graphitic petals suggest a simple scribing method can be used to control both the location and formation of petals on flat Si substrates. Transitional metal oxides and conducting polymers have been coated on the graphitic petal-based electrodes by facile chemical methods for multifunctional energy storage applications. Detailed electrochemical characterization (e.g., cyclic voltammetry and

  15. Tailored synthesis of various nanomaterials by using a graphene-oxide-based gel as a nanoreactor and nanohybrid-catalyzed C-C bond formation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2014-12-01

    New graphene oxide (GO)-based hydrogels that contain vitamin B2/B12 and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) have been synthesized in water (at neutral pH value). These gel-based soft materials have been used to synthesize various metal nanoparticles, including Au, Ag, and Pd nanoparticles, as well as nanoparticle-containing reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based nanohybrid systems. This result indicates that GO-based gels can be used as versatile reactors for the synthesis of different nanomaterials and hybrid systems on the nanoscale. Moreover, the RGO-based nanohybrid hydrogel with Pd nanoparticles was used as an efficient catalyst for C-C bond-formation reactions with good yields and showed high recyclability in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. PMID:25224859

  16. Deoxidation of graphene oxide nanosheets to extended graphenites by ``unzipping'' elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Lay-Lay; Wang, Shuai; Chia, Perq-Jon; Chen, Lan; Zhao, Li-Hong; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T.-S.; Ho, Peter K.-H.

    2008-09-01

    Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy on alkyl-surface-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets reveals the formation of low-dimensional graphenite nanostructures with extended π-conjugation at deoxidation temperatures above 150°C. The elimination of these alkyl chains from the surface of the nanosheets does not occur uniformly, but in distinctive patterns that correspond to the formation of an underlying network of graphenite one-dimensional "tracks" and "dots." Atomic-resolution imaging of these graphenite regions reveals a defective honeycomb lattice characteristic of single-layer graphenes. These extended graphenite structures percolate the nanosheet even for moderate levels of deoxidation and regraphenization of the basal plane. The formation of extended conjugation indicates a regioselective rather than random elimination of the oxygen atoms and alkyl chains. The resultant network morphology allows bandlike transport of charge carriers across the sheets despite defects and disorder. The sub-meV apparent activation energies for the field-effect mobilities at low temperatures (70-30K ) for both electrons and holes rule out significant electron-phonon coupling. This suggests a remarkable potential for electronic applications of these solution-processable functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets.

  17. Aerosol synthesis and application of folded graphene-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yantao; Wang, Zhongying; Qiu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide colloid has been widely used in the synthesis of various graphene-based materials. Graphene oxide sheets, with a low bending rigidity, can be folded when assembled in aqueous phase. A simple but industrial scalable way, aerosol processing, can be used to fabricate folded graphene-based materials. These folded materials can carry various cargo materials and be used in different applications such as time-controlled drug release, medical imaging enhancement, catalyst support and energy related areas. The aerosol synthesis of folded graphene-based materials can also be easily extended to fabricate hybrid nanomaterials without any complicated chemistries.

  18. Hybrid Nanomaterials Based on Graphene and Gold Nanoclusters for Efficient Electrocatalytic Reduction of Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhong; Li, Na; Wang, Qiannan; Tang, Zhenghua

    2016-12-01

    Nanocomposites based on gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with polyvinyl pyrrolidone as ligand and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been prepared and employed as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). AuNCs were synthesized through a wet chemical approach and then loaded onto the RGO. The as-prepared hybrid materials were pyrolyzed to remove the organic ligands. The composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as other techniques. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that the hybrid materials exhibited effective ORR activity in alkaline media. Among a series of samples tested, the pyrolyzed sample with 50 % AuNCs mass loading exhibited the best activity, superior than AuNCs alone, RGO alone, and the others, in terms of onset potential and kinetic current density as well as durability. The method here may provide a generic approach to prepare supported noble metal nanoclusters with excellent reactivity and robust stability for ORR. PMID:27431494

  19. Hybrid Nanomaterials Based on Graphene and Gold Nanoclusters for Efficient Electrocatalytic Reduction of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changhong; Li, Na; Wang, Qiannan; Tang, Zhenghua

    2016-07-01

    Nanocomposites based on gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with polyvinyl pyrrolidone as ligand and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been prepared and employed as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). AuNCs were synthesized through a wet chemical approach and then loaded onto the RGO. The as-prepared hybrid materials were pyrolyzed to remove the organic ligands. The composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as other techniques. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that the hybrid materials exhibited effective ORR activity in alkaline media. Among a series of samples tested, the pyrolyzed sample with 50 % AuNCs mass loading exhibited the best activity, superior than AuNCs alone, RGO alone, and the others, in terms of onset potential and kinetic current density as well as durability. The method here may provide a generic approach to prepare supported noble metal nanoclusters with excellent reactivity and robust stability for ORR.

  20. In Situ Fabrication of CoS and NiS Nanomaterials Anchored on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Reversible Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yingbin; Liang, Ming; Lou, Peili; Cui, Zhonghui; Guo, Xiangxin; Sun, Weiwei; Yu, Xuebin

    2016-06-15

    CoS and NiS nanomaterials anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets, synthesized via combination of hydrothermal with sulfidation process, are studied as high-capacity anode materials for the reversible lithium storage. The obtained CoS nanofibers and NiS nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on rGO sheets without aggregation, forming the sheet-on-sheet composite structure. Such nanoarchitecture can not only facilitate ion/electron transport along the interfaces, but also effectively prevent metal-sulfide nanomaterials aggregation during the lithium reactions. Both the rGO-supported CoS nanofibers (NFs) and NiS nanoparticles (NPs) show superior lithium storage performance. In particular, the CoS NFs-rGO electrodes deliver the discharge capacity as high as 939 mA h g(-1) after the 100th cycle at 100 mA g(-1) with Coulombic efficiency above 98%. This strategy for construction of such composite structure can also synthesize other metal-sulfide-rGO nanomaterials for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27224962

  1. Ferromagnetically coupled local moments along an extended line defect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Carter T.; Vasudevan, Smitha; Gunlycke, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Recently an extended line defect was observed composed of octagonal and pentagonal carbon rings embedded in a graphene sheet [Nat. Nanotech. 5, 326 (2010)]. We report results of studies we have made of this defect using both first-principles and semi-empirical methods. Two types of boundary-localized states arising from the defect are identified. The first (second) type has eigenstates with wavefunctions that are anti- symmetric (symmetric) with respect to a mirror plane that is perpendicular to the graphene sheet and passes through the line defect center line. The boundary-localized anti-symmetric states are shown to be intimately connected to the zigzag edge states of semi-infinite graphene. They exhibit little dispersion along the defect line and lie close to the Fermi level giving rise to a spontaneous spin polarization along the defect once electron-electron interactions are included at the level of a mean field approximation to a Hubbard Model. Within this approach, symmetry requires that the principal moments couple ferromagnetically both along and across the line defect leading to approximately 2/3 more up than down spin electrons per defect repeat unit. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  2. Conductive nanomaterials for printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Kamyshny, Alexander; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-09-10

    This is a review on recent developments in the field of conductive nanomaterials and their application in printed electronics, with particular emphasis on inkjet printing of ink formulations based on metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene sheets. The review describes the basic properties of conductive nanomaterials suitable for printed electronics (metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene), their stabilization in dispersions, formulations of conductive inks, and obtaining conductive patterns by using various sintering methods. Applications of conductive nanomaterials for electronic devices (transparent electrodes, metallization of solar cells, RFID antennas, TFTs, and light emitting devices) are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25340186

  3. Spectroscopic Studies of Abiotic and Biological Nanomaterials: Silver Nanoparticles, Rhodamine 6G Adsorbed on Graphene, and c-Type Cytochromes and Type IV Pili in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrall, Elizabeth S.

    This thesis describes spectroscopic studies of three different systems: silver nanoparticles, the dye molecule rhodamine 6G adsorbed on graphene, and the type IV pili and c-type cytochromes produced by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. Although these systems are quite different in some ways, they can all be considered examples of nanomaterials. A nanomaterial is generally defined as having at least one dimension below 100 nm in size. Silver nanoparticles, with sub-100 nm size in all dimensions, are examples of zero-dimensional nanomaterials. Graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon atoms, is the paradigmatic two-dimensional nanomaterial. And although bacterial cells are on the order of 1 μm in size, the type IV pili and multiheme c-type cytochromes produced by G. sulfurreducens can be considered to be one- and zero-dimensional nanomaterials respectively. A further connection between these systems is their strong interaction with visible light, allowing us to study them using similar spectroscopic tools. The first chapter of this thesis describes research on the plasmon-mediated photochemistry of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles support coherent electron oscillations, known as localized surface plasmons, at resonance frequencies that depend on the particle size and shape and the local dielectric environment. Nanoparticle absorption and scattering cross-sections are maximized at surface plasmon resonance frequencies, and the electromagnetic field is amplified near the particle surface. Plasmonic effects can enhance the photochemistry of silver particles alone or in conjunction with semiconductors according to several mechanisms. We study the photooxidation of citrate by silver nanoparticles in a photoelectrochemical cell, focusing on the wavelength-dependence of the reaction rate and the role of the semiconductor substrate. We find that the citrate

  4. Purifying Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor); Hurst, Janet (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of purifying a nanomaterial and the resultant purified nanomaterial in which a salt, such as ferric chloride, at or near its liquid phase temperature, is used to penetrate and wet the internal surfaces of a nanomaterial to dissolve impurities that may be present, for example, from processes used in the manufacture of the nanomaterial.

  5. Probing the extended-state width of disorder-broadened Landau levels in epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, K.; Hibino, H.; Muraki, K.

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the width of extended states in disorder-broadened Landau levels (LLs) in top-gated epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide using two different methods: gated transport spectroscopy and activation gap measurements on integer quantum Hall states. The transport spectroscopy reveals that the widths of the extended states in the zero-energy (N =0 ) and first excited (N =1 ) LLs are of similar magnitude over the ranges of magnetic field (4-16 T) and temperature studied (1.6-150 K). Under certain assumptions we find that the extended-state width follows a power-law temperature dependence with the exponent η ˜0.3 in the N =0 (N =1 ) LL, with almost no (very weak) magnetic-field dependence. Activation gap measurements at the filling factors of ν =2 and 6 give results consistent with transport spectroscopy for the N =1 LL, but indicate a larger broadening for the N =0 LL than deduced from the spectroscopy.

  6. Fundamentals and applications of monodisperse carbon-based nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersam, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention due to their potential to enable and/or improve applications such as transistors, transparent conductors, solar cells, batteries, water purification systems, infrastructure materials, drug delivery, and biosensors. This talk will delineate chemical strategies for tuning and enhancing the properties of these promising nanomaterials. For example, we have developed and commercialized a scalable technique for sorting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by their physical and electronic structure using density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU). The resulting monodisperse SWCNTs possess unprecedented uniformity in their electronic and optical properties, which enables the fabrication of high performance thin film field-effect transistors, optoelectronic devices, and transparent conductors. The DGU technique also enables multi-walled carbon nanotubes to be sorted by the number of walls, and solution phase graphene to be sorted by thickness, thus expanding the suite of monodisperse carbon-based nanomaterials. By recently extending our DGU efforts to SWCNTs and graphene dispersed in biocompatible polymers (e.g., DNA, poloxamers, etc.), new opportunities have emerged in biomedical applications. Ultimately, the ability to control structure and surface chemistry with sub-nanometer precision enables optimized properties for a diverse range of technologies that employ carbon-based nanomaterials.

  7. Is graphene a promising nano-material for promoting surface modification of implants or scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering?

    PubMed

    Gu, Ming; Liu, Yunsong; Chen, Tong; Du, Feng; Zhao, Xianghui; Xiong, Chunyang; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2014-10-01

    Bone tissue engineering promises to restore bone defects that are caused by severe trauma, congenital malformations, tumors, and nonunion fractures. How to effectively promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or seed cells has become a hot topic in this field. Many researchers are studying the ways of conferring a pro-osteodifferentiation or osteoinductive capability on implants or scaffold materials, where osteogenesis of seed cells is promoted. Graphene (G) provides a new kind of coating material that may confer the pro-osteodifferentiation capability on implants and scaffold materials by surface modification. Here, we review recent studies on the effects of graphene on surface modifications of implants or scaffold materials. The ability of graphene to improve the mechanical and biological properties of implants or scaffold materials, such as nitinol and carbon nanotubes, and its ability to promote the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs or osteoblasts have been demonstrated in several studies. Most previous studies were performed in vitro, but further studies will explore the mechanisms of graphene's effects on bone regeneration, its in vivo biocompatibility, its ability to promote osteodifferentiation, and its potential applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24447041

  8. Is Graphene a Promising Nano-Material for Promoting Surface Modification of Implants or Scaffold Materials in Bone Tissue Engineering?

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ming; Liu, Yunsong; Chen, Tong; Du, Feng; Zhao, Xianghui; Xiong, Chunyang

    2014-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering promises to restore bone defects that are caused by severe trauma, congenital malformations, tumors, and nonunion fractures. How to effectively promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or seed cells has become a hot topic in this field. Many researchers are studying the ways of conferring a pro-osteodifferentiation or osteoinductive capability on implants or scaffold materials, where osteogenesis of seed cells is promoted. Graphene (G) provides a new kind of coating material that may confer the pro-osteodifferentiation capability on implants and scaffold materials by surface modification. Here, we review recent studies on the effects of graphene on surface modifications of implants or scaffold materials. The ability of graphene to improve the mechanical and biological properties of implants or scaffold materials, such as nitinol and carbon nanotubes, and its ability to promote the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs or osteoblasts have been demonstrated in several studies. Most previous studies were performed in vitro, but further studies will explore the mechanisms of graphene's effects on bone regeneration, its in vivo biocompatibility, its ability to promote osteodifferentiation, and its potential applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24447041

  9. Adsorption of toxic carbamate pesticide oxamyl from liquid phase by newly synthesized and characterized graphene quantum dots nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shilpi; Sadeghi, Nima; Tyagi, Inderjeet; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Fakhri, Ali

    2016-09-15

    Graphene quantum dots have been synthesized using the microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. The surface textural and morphological structure of synthesized adsorbent i.e. graphene quantum dots was analyzed using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption instrumental techniques. The application of graphene quantum dots as an adsorbent for the removal of noxious pesticide compound i.e. oxamyl from aqueous solutions was well investigated and elucidated. The impact of several effective parameters such as effect of agitation speed, pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature and initial concentration on sorption efficiency was studied and optimized using batch adsorption experiments. The optimized pH for maximum oxamyl adsorption was found to be 8.0 and for the maximum adsorption rates the adsorbent dose of 0.6g was found to be optimum to carry out the adsorption with in less than 25min of contact time. From the results obtained, it is clear that for all contact times, an increase in oxamyl concentration resulted in increase in the percent oxamyl removal. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were well fitted and found to be in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:27362399

  10. Real-time electro-diffusion method to discriminate carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Tamoghna; Chatterjee, Arumoy; Chatterjee, Budhaditya; Raja, Sufi O; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2015-12-01

    We report both the experimental and theoretical insights of differential electro-diffusion behavior of carbon nanomaterials (e.g. single wall, multiwall carbon nanotubes, and graphene). We thus discriminate one from the other in a soft gel system. The differential mobility of such material depends on their intrinsic properties, both extend and rate of migration bearing the discriminatory signature. The mobility analysis is made by a real time monitoring of the respective bands. PMID:26395102

  11. Electrochemical sensor for Isoniazid based on the glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide-Au nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhuo; Wang, Ze-Yu; Wang, Hui-Hua; Huang, Guo-Qing; Li, Meng-Meng

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor has been fabricated to detect Isoniazid (INZ) using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Au nanocomposites (RGO-Au). RGO-Au nanocomposites were synthesized by a solution-based approach of chemical co-reduction of Au(III) and graphene oxide (GO), and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The Au nanoparticles separate the RGO sheets in the precipitate and prevent RGO sheets from aggregation upon π-π stacking interactions. RGO-Au nanocomposites were used to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical properties of RGO-Au/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the RGO-Au/GCE exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities towards INZ. Under the optimized conditions, there was linear relationships between the peak currents and the concentrations in the range of 1.0×10(-7)M to 1.0×10(-3)M for INZ, with the limit of detection (LOD) (based on S/N=3) of 1.0×10(-8)M for INZ. PMID:26354255

  12. Superconductivity in carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugon, Katarzyna

    The purpose of this thesis is to explain the phenomenon of superconductivity in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. In the introductory chapter, there is a description of superconductivity and how it occurs at critical temperature (Tc) that is characteristic and different to every superconducting material. The discovery of superconductivity in mercury in 1911 by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes is also mentioned. Different types of superconductors, type I and type II, low and high temperatures superconductors, as well as the BCS theory that was developed in 1957 by Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer, are also described in detail. The BCS theory explains how Cooper's pairs are formed and how they are responsible for the superconducting properties of many materials. The following chapters explain superconductivity in doped fullerenes, graphene and carbon nanotubes, respectively. There is a thorough explanation followed by many examples of different types of carbon nanomaterials in which small changes in chemical structure cause significant changes in superconducting properties. The goal of this research was not only to take into consideration well known carbon based superconductors but also to search for the newest available materials such as the fullerene nanowhiskers discovered quite recently. There is also a presentation of fairly new ideas about inducing superconductivity in a monolayer of graphene which is more challenging than inducing superconductivity in graphite by simply intercalating metal atoms between its graphene sheets. An effort has been taken to look for any available information about carbon nanomaterials that have the potential to superconduct at room temperature, mainly because discovery of such materials would be a real revolution in the modern world, although no such materials have been discovered yet.

  13. Planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial for extraction of chlorophenols from environmental water samples coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Su, Jie; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Qian; Dong, Chun-Ying; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-08-12

    A planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial (PGO-MILN) was synthesized. The prepared PGO-MILN was characterized by transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results of adsorption experiments showed that the PGO-MILN had great adsorption capacity for 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Based on the adsorption experimental data, a sensitive magnetic method for determination of the five CPs in environmental water samples was developed by an effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effects of main MSPE parameters including the solution pH, extraction time, desorption time, and volume of desorption solution on the extraction efficiencies had been investigated in detail. The recoveries ranged from 85.3 to 99.3% with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9994 and the linear ranges were between 10 and 500ngL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the five CPs ranged from 0.2 to 2.6ngL(-1) and 0.6 to 8.7ngL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter- day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range from 0.6% to 7.4% and from 0.7% to 8.4%, respectively. It was confirmed that the PGO-MILN was a kind of highly effective MSPE materials used for enrichment of trace CPs in the environmental water. PMID:27425762

  14. Ice Nucleation Properties of Oxidized Carbon Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Whale, Thomas F; Rosillo-Lopez, Martin; Murray, Benjamin J; Salzmann, Christoph G

    2015-08-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in many fields, particularly atmospheric science, but is still poorly understood. All known inorganic ice nucleating particles are relatively large in size and tend to be hydrophilic. Hence it is not obvious that carbon nanomaterials should nucleate ice. However, in this paper we show that four different readily water-dispersible carbon nanomaterials are capable of nucleating ice. The tested materials were carboxylated graphene nanoflakes, graphene oxide, oxidized single walled carbon nanotubes and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The carboxylated graphene nanoflakes have a diameter of ∼30 nm and are among the smallest entities observed so far to nucleate ice. Overall, carbon nanotubes were found to nucleate ice more efficiently than flat graphene species, and less oxidized materials nucleated ice more efficiently than more oxidized species. These well-defined carbon nanomaterials may pave the way to bridging the gap between experimental and computational studies of ice nucleation. PMID:26267196

  15. Ice Nucleation Properties of Oxidized Carbon Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in many fields, particularly atmospheric science, but is still poorly understood. All known inorganic ice nucleating particles are relatively large in size and tend to be hydrophilic. Hence it is not obvious that carbon nanomaterials should nucleate ice. However, in this paper we show that four different readily water-dispersible carbon nanomaterials are capable of nucleating ice. The tested materials were carboxylated graphene nanoflakes, graphene oxide, oxidized single walled carbon nanotubes and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The carboxylated graphene nanoflakes have a diameter of ∼30 nm and are among the smallest entities observed so far to nucleate ice. Overall, carbon nanotubes were found to nucleate ice more efficiently than flat graphene species, and less oxidized materials nucleated ice more efficiently than more oxidized species. These well-defined carbon nanomaterials may pave the way to bridging the gap between experimental and computational studies of ice nucleation. PMID:26267196

  16. Impact of Carbon Nanomaterials on Actin Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Xu; Li, Xin; Zhao, Lina

    2016-03-01

    Many nanomaterials have entered people's daily lives and impact the normal process of biological entities consequently. As one kind of the important nanomaterials, carbon based nanomaterials have invoked a lot of concerns from scientific researches because of their unique physicochemical properties. In eukaryotes, actin is the most abundantly distributed protein in both cytoplasm and cell nucleus, and closely controls the cell proliferation and mobility. Recently, many investigations have found some carbon based nanomaterials can affect actin cytoskeleton remarkably, including fullerenes derivatives, carbon nanotubes, graphene and its derivatives. However, these interaction processes are complicated and the underlying mechanism is far from being understood clearly. In this review, we discussed the different mechanisms of carbon nanomaterials impact on actin polymerization into three pathways, as triggering the signaling pathways from carbon nanomaterials outside of cells, increasing the production of reactive oxygen species from carbon nanomaterials inside of cells and direct interaction from carbon nanomaterials inside of cells. As a result, the dimension and size of carbon nanomaterials play a key role in regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, we forecasted the possible investigation strategy for meeting the challenges of the future study on this topic. We hope the findings are helpful in understanding the molecular mechanism in carbon nanomaterials regulating actin polymerization, and provide new insight in novel nanomedicine development for inhibition tumor cell migration. PMID:27455649

  17. Transparent conductors composed of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Layani, Michael; Kamyshny, Alexander; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-06-01

    This is a review on recent developments in the field of transparent conductive coatings (TCCs) for ITO replacement. The review describes the basic properties of conductive nanomaterials suitable for fabrication of such TCCs (metallic nanoparticles and nanowires, carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets), various methods of patterning the metal nanoparticles with formation of conductive transparent metallic grids, honeycomb structures and 2D arrays of interconnected rings as well as fabrication of TCCs based on graphene and carbon nanotubes. Applications of TCCs in electronic and optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, electroluminescent and electrochromic devices, touch screens and displays, and transparent EMI shielders, are discussed. PMID:24777332

  18. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  19. Isotropic Growth of Graphene toward Smoothing Stitching.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mengqi; Tan, Lifang; Wang, Lingxiang; Mendes, Rafael G; Qin, Zhihui; Huang, Yaxin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Liwen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yue, Shuanglin; Rümmeli, Mark H; Peng, Lianmao; Liu, Zhongfan; Chen, Shengli; Fu, Lei

    2016-07-26

    The quality of graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition still has very great disparity with its theoretical property due to the inevitable formation of grain boundaries. The design of single-crystal substrate with an anisotropic twofold symmetry for the unidirectional alignment of graphene seeds would be a promising way for eliminating the grain boundaries at the wafer scale. However, such a delicate process will be easily terminated by the obstruction of defects or impurities. Here we investigated the isotropic growth behavior of graphene single crystals via melting the growth substrate to obtain an amorphous isotropic surface, which will not offer any specific grain orientation induction or preponderant growth rate toward a certain direction in the graphene growth process. The as-obtained graphene grains are isotropically round with mixed edges that exhibit high activity. The orientation of adjacent grains can be easily self-adjusted to smoothly match each other over a liquid catalyst with facile atom delocalization due to the low rotation steric hindrance of the isotropic grains, thus achieving the smoothing stitching of the adjacent graphene. Therefore, the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be eliminated and the excellent transport performance of graphene will be more guaranteed. What is more, such an isotropic growth mode can be extended to other types of layered nanomaterials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal chalcogenides for obtaining large-size intrinsic film with low defect. PMID:27403842

  20. Reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, I.; Gusev, A.; Tkachev, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the current review, we assembled the experimental evidences of an association between carbon nanomaterials including carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets, graphene, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and fullerene exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in vitro and in vivo studies. It is shown that carbon nanomaterials reveal toxic effect on reproductive system and offspring development of the animals of various system groups to a certain degree depending on carbon crystal structure. Although this paper provides initial information about the potential male and female reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, further studies, using characterized nanoparticles, relevant routes of administration, and doses closely reflecting all the expected levels of exposure are needed.

  1. Nanomaterial Based Sensors for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), graphene and metal nanowires have shown interesting electronic properties and therefore have been pursued for a variety of space applications requiring ultrasensitive and light-weight sensor and electronic devices. We have been pursuing development of chemical and biosensors using carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers for the last several years and this talk will present the benefits of nanomaterials these applications. More recently, printing approaches to manufacturing these devices have been explored as a strategy that is compatible to a microgravity environment. Nanomaterials are either grown in house or purchased and processed as electrical inks. Chemical modification or coatings are added to the nanomaterials to tailor the nanomaterial to the exact application. The development of printed chemical sensors and biosensors will be discussed for applications ranging from crew life support to exploration missions.

  2. Dimensionality of carbon nanomaterials determines the binding and dynamics of amyloidogenic peptides: multiscale theoretical simulations.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Nevena; Makarucha, Adam J; Hine, Nicholas D M; Mostofi, Arash A; Yarovsky, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles can affect the rate of protein self-assembly, possibly interfering with the development of protein misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion disease caused by aggregation and fibril formation of amyloid-prone proteins. We employ classical molecular dynamics simulations and large-scale density functional theory calculations to investigate the effects of nanomaterials on the structure, dynamics and binding of an amyloidogenic peptide apoC-II(60-70). We show that the binding affinity of this peptide to carbonaceous nanomaterials such as C60, nanotubes and graphene decreases with increasing nanoparticle curvature. Strong binding is facilitated by the large contact area available for π-stacking between the aromatic residues of the peptide and the extended surfaces of graphene and the nanotube. The highly curved fullerene surface exhibits reduced efficiency for π-stacking but promotes increased peptide dynamics. We postulate that the increase in conformational dynamics of the amyloid peptide can be unfavorable for the formation of fibril competent structures. In contrast, extended fibril forming peptide conformations are promoted by the nanotube and graphene surfaces which can provide a template for fibril-growth. PMID:24339760

  3. Dimensionality of Carbon Nanomaterials Determines the Binding and Dynamics of Amyloidogenic Peptides: Multiscale Theoretical Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Nicholas D. M.; Mostofi, Arash A.; Yarovsky, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles can affect the rate of protein self-assembly, possibly interfering with the development of protein misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion disease caused by aggregation and fibril formation of amyloid-prone proteins. We employ classical molecular dynamics simulations and large-scale density functional theory calculations to investigate the effects of nanomaterials on the structure, dynamics and binding of an amyloidogenic peptide apoC-II(60-70). We show that the binding affinity of this peptide to carbonaceous nanomaterials such as C60, nanotubes and graphene decreases with increasing nanoparticle curvature. Strong binding is facilitated by the large contact area available for π-stacking between the aromatic residues of the peptide and the extended surfaces of graphene and the nanotube. The highly curved fullerene surface exhibits reduced efficiency for π-stacking but promotes increased peptide dynamics. We postulate that the increase in conformational dynamics of the amyloid peptide can be unfavorable for the formation of fibril competent structures. In contrast, extended fibril forming peptide conformations are promoted by the nanotube and graphene surfaces which can provide a template for fibril-growth. PMID:24339760

  4. A simple and controllable graphene-templated approach to synthesise 2D silica-based nanomaterials using water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yang; Ye, Yun-Sheng; Chen, Fang-Yan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Chao; Xue, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Xing-Ping; Xie, Xiao-Lin; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2016-01-11

    Using the versatility of silica chemistry, we describe herein a simple and controllable approach to synthesise two-dimensional (2D) silica-based nanomaterials: the diversity and utility of the resulting structures offer excellent platforms for many potential applications. PMID:26549827

  5. Extending the potential of x-ray free-electron lasers to industrial applications—an initiatory attempt at coherent diffractive imaging on car-related nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Rikiya; Yamashige, Hisao; Miura, Masahide; Kimura, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kuramoto, Mayumi; Yu, Jian; Khakurel, Krishna; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Nishino, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) open up new pathways for contributing to industrial research-and-development activities. In this article, we describe our initiatory attempt at using the SPring-8 Ångström compact free-electron laser (SACLA) for industrial applications. The attempt was conducted by the authors through the industry-academia partnership program initiated by RIKEN, aimed at examining the potential of XFELs for the analysis of car-related nanomaterials. Using the infrastructures developed at SACLA, we performed single-shot coherent diffractive imaging experiments on automotive exhaust catalysts and succeeded in obtaining the reconstructed images. This effort has paved the way for the future use of XFELs in the research-and-development activity of automotive exhaust catalysts.

  6. Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Biofunctionalization and Applications in Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Jun; Li, Jinghong; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-01

    Graphene is the basic building block of zero-dimensional fullerene, 1D carbon nanotubes, and 3D graphite. Graphene has a unique planar structure as well as novel electronic properties, which have attracted great interest from scientists. This review selectively analyzes current advances in the field of graphene bioapplications. In particular, the functionalization of graphene for biological applications, FRET-based biosensor development by using graphene-based nanomaterials, and the investigation of graphene for living cell studies have been summarized in more details. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed.

  7. Emerging Carbon and Post-Carbon Nanomaterial Inks for Printed Electronics.

    PubMed

    Secor, Ethan B; Hersam, Mark C

    2015-02-19

    Carbon and post-carbon nanomaterials present desirable electrical, optical, chemical, and mechanical attributes for printed electronics, offering low-cost, large-area functionality on flexible substrates. In this Perspective, recent developments in carbon nanomaterial inks are highlighted. Monodisperse semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes compatible with inkjet and aerosol jet printing are ideal channels for thin-film transistors, while inkjet, gravure, and screen-printable graphene-based inks are better-suited for electrodes and interconnects. Despite the high performance achieved in prototype devices, additional effort is required to address materials integration issues encountered in more complex systems. In this regard, post-carbon nanomaterial inks (e.g., electrically insulating boron nitride and optically active transition-metal dichalcogenides) present promising opportunities. Finally, emerging work to extend these nanomaterial inks to three-dimensional printing provides a path toward nonplanar devices. Overall, the superlative properties of these materials, coupled with versatile assembly by printing techniques, offer a powerful platform for next-generation printed electronics. PMID:26262476

  8. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  9. Impact of Graphene-Metal Interfaces on the Raman and Transport Properties of Graphene Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Allen; Hofmann, Mario; Fang, Wenjing; Kimg, Ki Kang; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    Graphene is an amazing nano-material with many exciting properties and applications. However, due to its low dimensionality, the performance of this material is mainly limited by interfaces and surface properties. One of these interfaces, important for graphene field effect transistors and catalysts supported on graphene membranes, is that between the graphene and a metal layer. In this study, we experimentally examine the impact of various metals on graphene through Raman and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We find that strong graphene-metal interactions have significant impacts on the phonon structure in graphene. Furthermore, we observe changes in our Raman spectra relating to the crystallographic orientation between a metal and graphene.

  10. Heat-Initiated Chemical Functionalization of Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guodong; Liu, Dandan; Tang, Shangcheng; Huang, Can; He, Mengci; Guo, Yu; Sun, Xiudong; Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A heat-initiated chemical reaction was developed to functionalize CVD-grown graphene at wafer scale and the reaction was universally extended to carbon nanotubes, and other precursors that could be thermally converted to active radicals. The chemical reaction can occur in absence of oxygen and water vapor when the temperature is above the decomposition temperature of the reactants. The chemical reaction was also found to be substrate-dependent due to surface doping and inhomogeneity. A large-scale graphene pattern was demonstrated by combing with microfluidic technique. This heat-initiated solid-phase chemical reaction provides a facile and environmentally friendly approach to functionalize carbon nanomaterials with various functional groups. PMID:26818231

  11. Heat-Initiated Chemical Functionalization of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guodong; Liu, Dandan; Tang, Shangcheng; Huang, Can; He, Mengci; Guo, Yu; Sun, Xiudong; Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A heat-initiated chemical reaction was developed to functionalize CVD-grown graphene at wafer scale and the reaction was universally extended to carbon nanotubes, and other precursors that could be thermally converted to active radicals. The chemical reaction can occur in absence of oxygen and water vapor when the temperature is above the decomposition temperature of the reactants. The chemical reaction was also found to be substrate-dependent due to surface doping and inhomogeneity. A large-scale graphene pattern was demonstrated by combing with microfluidic technique. This heat-initiated solid-phase chemical reaction provides a facile and environmentally friendly approach to functionalize carbon nanomaterials with various functional groups.

  12. Heat-Initiated Chemical Functionalization of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guodong; Liu, Dandan; Tang, Shangcheng; Huang, Can; He, Mengci; Guo, Yu; Sun, Xiudong; Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A heat-initiated chemical reaction was developed to functionalize CVD-grown graphene at wafer scale and the reaction was universally extended to carbon nanotubes, and other precursors that could be thermally converted to active radicals. The chemical reaction can occur in absence of oxygen and water vapor when the temperature is above the decomposition temperature of the reactants. The chemical reaction was also found to be substrate-dependent due to surface doping and inhomogeneity. A large-scale graphene pattern was demonstrated by combing with microfluidic technique. This heat-initiated solid-phase chemical reaction provides a facile and environmentally friendly approach to functionalize carbon nanomaterials with various functional groups. PMID:26818231

  13. Nanomaterial-mediated Biosensors for Monitoring Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masashige; Ptitsyn, Andre; McLamore, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of physiological glucose transport is crucial for gaining new understanding of diabetes. Many techniques and equipment currently exist for measuring glucose, but these techniques are limited by complexity of the measurement, requirement of bulky equipment, and low temporal/spatial resolution. The development of various types of biosensors (eg, electrochemical, optical sensors) for laboratory and/or clinical applications will provide new insights into the cause(s) and possible treatments of diabetes. State-of-the-art biosensors are improved by incorporating catalytic nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, electrospun nanofibers, and quantum dots. These nanomaterials greatly enhance biosensor performance, namely sensitivity, response time, and limit of detection. A wide range of new biosensors that incorporate nanomaterials such as lab-on-chip and nanosensor devices are currently being developed for in vivo and in vitro glucose sensing. These real-time monitoring tools represent a powerful diagnostic and monitoring tool for measuring glucose in diabetes research and point of care diagnostics. However, concerns over the possible toxicity of some nanomaterials limit the application of these devices for in vivo sensing. This review provides a general overview of the state of the art in nanomaterial-mediated biosensors for in vivo and in vitro glucose sensing, and discusses some of the challenges associated with nanomaterial toxicity. PMID:24876594

  14. Two-dimensional soft nanomaterials: a fascinating world of materials.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Wu, Dongqing; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-01-21

    The discovery of graphene has triggered great interest in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials for scientists in chemistry, physics, materials science, and related areas. In the family of newly developed 2D nanostructured materials, 2D soft nanomaterials, including graphene, Bx Cy Nz nanosheets, 2D polymers, covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and 2D supramolecular organic nanostructures, possess great advantages in light-weight, structural control and flexibility, diversity of fabrication approaches, and so on. These merits offer 2D soft nanomaterials a wide range of potential applications, such as in optoelectronics, membranes, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, sensing, biotechnology, etc. This review article provides an overview of the development of 2D soft nanomaterials, with special highlights on the basic concepts, molecular design principles, and primary synthesis approaches in the context. PMID:25155302

  15. Synthesis and device applications of graphitic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umair, Ahmad

    This thesis is focused on two topics: (i) synthesis and characterization of bilayer graphene and pyrolytic carbon by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition, and (ii) application of graphene in the fabrication of a buckyball memory device. Monolayer and bilayer graphene are semi-metal with zero bandgap. One can induce a bandgap in bilayer graphene by applying a gate voltage in the stacking direction. Thus, bandgap and Fermi level in bilayer graphene can be controlled simultaneously with a double-gate device, making it a useful material for future semiconducting applications. Controlled synthesis of bilayer graphene would be the first step to fabricate bilayer graphene based devices. In this context, we report a uniform and low-defect synthesis of bilayer graphene on evaporated nickel films. Ultra-fast cooling is employed to control the number of layers and sample uniformity. The process is self-limiting, which leads to bilayer graphene synthesis over a wide range of growth-time and precursor flow-rate. Pryolytic carbon is another important carbon nanomaterial, due to its diverse applications in electronic and biomedicalengineering. We employ chemical vapor deposition with ultra-fast cooling technique to synthesize pyrolytic carbon. Furthermore, we elucidate a method to calculate the in-plane crystal size by using Raman spectroscopy. Finally, the use of bilayer graphene in a write-once read-many memory device has been demonstrated. The device showed irreversible switching from low-resistance to high-resistance state, with hysteresis in the transport characteristics. The control sample showed random switching and hysteresis due to electromigration of metal atoms into the active material of the device. We attribute the reliability and performance of the reported device to the ultra-smooth graphene contacts, which additionally inhibits electromigration from the underlying metallic film. Moreover, the memory device showed excellent endurance and retention

  16. Terahertz science and technology of carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, R. R.; Kono, J.; Portnoi, M. E.

    2014-08-01

    The diverse applications of terahertz (THz) radiation and its importance to fundamental science makes finding ways to generate, manipulate and detect THz radiation one of the key areas of modern applied physics. One approach is to utilize carbon nanomaterials, in particular, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene. Their novel optical and electronic properties offer much promise to the field of THz science and technology. This article describes the past, current, and future of THz science and technology of carbon nanotubes and graphene. We will review fundamental studies such as THz dynamic conductivity, THz nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as THz applications such as THz sources, detectors, modulators, antennas and polarizers.

  17. Evaluation of in vivo graphene oxide toxicity for Acheta domesticus in relation to nanomaterial purity and time passed from the exposure.

    PubMed

    Dziewięcka, Marta; Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Augustyniak, Maria; Majchrzycki, Łukasz; Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Maria A

    2016-03-15

    Graphene and its oxidized form-graphene oxide (GO) have become exceptionally popular in industry and medicine due to their unique properties. However, there are suspicions that GO can cause adverse effects. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge on its potential toxicity is essential. This research assesses the in vivo toxicity of pure and manganese ion contaminated GO, which were injected into the hemolymph of Acheta domesticus. The activity of catalase (CAT) and gluthiathione peroxidases (GSTPx) as well as heat shock protein (HSP 70) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were measured at consecutive time points-1h, 24h, 48h and 72h after injection. Neither pure GO nor GO contaminated with manganese were neutral to the organism. The results proved the intensification of oxidative stress after GO injection, which was confirmed by increased enzyme activity. The organism seems to cope with this stress, especially in the first 24h after injection. In the following days, increasing HSP 70 levels were observed, which might suggest the synthesis of new proteins and the removal of old and damaged ones. With that in mind, the potential toxicity of the studied material, which could lead to serious and permanent damage to the organism, should still be taken into consideration. PMID:26642444

  18. Elastomeric composites based on carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Zhang, Liqun; Zaman, Izzuddin; Majewski, Peter; Ma, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials including carbon black (CB), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have attracted increasingly more interest in academia due to their fascinating properties. These nanomaterials can significantly improve the mechanical, electrical, thermal, barrier, and flame retardant properties of elastomers. The improvements are dependent on the molecular nature of the matrix, the intrinsic property, geometry and dispersion of the fillers, and the interface between the matrix and the fillers. In this article, we briefly described the fabrication processes of elastomer composites, illuminated the importance of keeping fillers at nanoscale in matrices, and critically reviewed the recent development of the elastomeric composites by incorporating CB, CNTs, and graphene and its derivatives. Attention has been paid to the mechanical properties and electrical and thermal conductivity. Challenges and further research are discussed at the end of the article.

  19. Genotoxicity of Graphene in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ananya

    Rapid advances in nanotechnology necessitate assessment of the safety of nanomaterials in the resulting products and applications. One key nanomaterial attracting much interest in many areas of science and technology is graphene. Graphene is a one atom thick carbon allotrope arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. In addition to being extremely thin, graphene has several extraordinary physical properties such as its exceptional mechanical strength, thermal stability, and high electrical conductivity. Graphene itself is relatively chemically inert and therefore pristine graphene must undergo a process called functionalization, which is combination of chemical and physical treatments that change the properties of graphene, to make it chemically active. Functionalization of graphene is of crucial importance as the end application of graphene depends on proper functionalization. In the field of medicine, graphene is currently a nanomaterial of high interest for building biosensors, DNA transistors, and probes for cancer detection. Despite the promising applications of graphene in several areas of biomedicine, there have been only few studies in recent years that focus on evaluating cytotoxicity of graphene on cells, and almost no studies that investigate how graphene exposure affects cellular genetic material. Therefore, in this study we used a novel approach to evaluate the genotoxicity, i.e., the effects of graphene on DNA, using Escherichia coli as a prokaryotic model organism.

  20. Graphene based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan; Salmankurt, Bahadır

    2016-03-01

    Nanometer-sized graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. It is expected that biomaterials incorporating graphene will be developed for the graphene-based drug delivery systems and biomedical devices. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on nucleobases on graphene. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene by applied charging.

  1. ECOTOXICOLOGY OF NANOMATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of issues associated with potential ecological toxicity of nanomaterials with research needs outlined, current literature reviewed and discussion of nanomaterial toxicity relative to concerns that EPA and state risk assessors might have.

  2. Parameterizing water quality analysis and simulation program (WASP) for carbon-based nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphenes are among the most popular carbon-based nanomaterials due to their unique electronic, mechanic and structural properties. Exposure modeling of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment is necessary to predict the fate of these materials. ...

  3. EDITORIAL: Whither nanomaterials? Whither nanomaterials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallouk, Thomas E.; Pinkerton, Fred; Stetson, Ned

    2009-10-01

    As the journal Nanotechnology enters its third decade it is interesting to look back on the field and to think about where it may be headed in the future. The growth of the journal over the past twenty years mirrors that of the field, with exponentially rising numbers of citations and a widening diversity of topics that we identify as nanotechnology. In the early 1990s, Nanotechnology was focused primarily on nanoscale electronics and on scanning probe tools for fabricating and characterizing nanostructures. The synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials was already an active area in chemical research; however, it did not yet intersect strongly with the activities of the physics community, which was interested primarily in new phenomena that emerged on the nanoscale and on the devices that derived from them. In the 1990s there were several key advances that began to bridge this gap. Techniques were developed for making nanocrystals of compound semiconductors, oxides, and metals with very fine control over shape and superstructure. Carbon nanotubes were discovered and their unique electronic properties were demonstrated. Research on the self-assembly of organic molecules on surfaces led to the development of soft lithography and layer-by- layer assembly of materials. The potential to use DNA and then proteins as building blocks of precise assemblies of nanoparticles was explored. These bottom-up structures could not be made by top-down techniques, and their unique properties as components of sensors, electronic devices, biological imaging agents, and drug delivery vehicles began to change the definition of the field. Ten years ago, Inelke Malsch published a study on the scientific trends and organizational dynamics of nanotechology in Europe (1999 Nanotechnology 10 1-7). Scientists from a variety of disciplines were asked which areas of research they would include in the definition of nanotechnology. Although the article concluded with forward-looking thoughts in the

  4. Nanomaterials for Electronics and Optoelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica E.; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes(CNTs), graphene, and inorganic nanowires(INWs) have shown interesting electronic, mechanical, optical, thermal, and other properties and therefore have been pursued for a variety of applications by the nanotechnology community ranging from electronics to nanocomposites. While the first two are carbon-based materials, the INWs in the literature include silicon, germanium, III-V, II-VI, a variety of oxides, nitrides, antimonides and others. In this talk, first an overview of growth of these three classes of materials by CVD and PECVD will be presented along with results from characterization. Then applications in development of chemical sensors, biosensors, energy storage devices and novel memory architectures will be discussed.

  5. Water flattens graphene wrinkles: laser shock wrapping of graphene onto substrate-supported crystalline plasmonic nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaowu; Lee, Seunghyun; Kumar, Prashant; Nian, Qiong; Wang, Wenqi; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Cheng, Gary J.

    2015-11-01

    Hot electron injection into an exceptionally high mobility material can be realized in graphene-plasmonic nanoantenna hybrid nanosystems, which can be exploited for several front-edge applications including photovoltaics, plasmonic waveguiding and molecular sensing at trace levels. Wrinkling instabilities of graphene on these plasmonic nanostructures, however, would cause reactive oxygen or sulfur species to diffuse and react with the materials, decrease charge transfer rates and block intense hot-spots. No ex situ graphene wrapping technique has been explored so far to control these wrinkles. Here, we present a method to generate seamless integration by using water as a flyer to transfer the laser shock pressure to wrap graphene onto plasmonic nanocrystals. This technique decreases the interfacial gap between graphene and the covered substrate-supported plasmonic nanoparticle arrays by exploiting a shock pressure generated by the laser ablation of graphite and the water impermeable nature of graphene. Graphene wrapping of chemically synthesized crystalline gold nanospheres, nanorods and bipyramids with different field confinement capabilities is investigated. A combined experimental and computational method, including SEM and AFM morphological investigation, molecular dynamics simulation, and Raman spectroscopy characterization, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique. Graphene covered gold bipyramid exhibits the best result among the hybrid nanosystems studied. We have shown that the hybrid system fabricated by laser shock can be used for enhanced molecular sensing. The technique developed has the characteristics of tight integration, and chemical/thermal stability, is instantaneous in nature, possesses a large scale and room temperature processing capability, and can be further extended to integrate other 2D materials with various 0-3D nanomaterials.Hot electron injection into an exceptionally high mobility material can be realized in graphene

  6. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas. PMID:23880913

  7. Multi-functional carbon nanomaterials: Tailoring morphology for multidisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dervishi, Enkeleda

    2015-05-14

    Carbon based nanomaterials are being developed to have many new properties and applications. Graphene, is a mono-layer 2D atomic thick structure formed from hexagons of carbon atoms bound together by sp^2hybrid bonds. A carbon nanotube (CNT) can be viewed as a sheet of graphene rolled up into a cylinder, usually 1-2 nanometers in diameter and a few microns thick. A few applications of graphene and carbon nanotubes include the development of Nanoelectronics, nanocomposite materials, Hydrogen storage and Li⁺ battery, etc.

  8. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  9. Recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have attracted great interest over past decades owing to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this article, we review recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS). Various types of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanodots, nanodiamond, nanofibers, nanohorns, and their derivative forms, are involved. The applications of these materials as new matrices or probes in matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI or SELDI MS) are discussed. Finally, we summarize current challenges and give our perspectives on the future of applications of carbon nanomaterials in LDI MS. Graphical Abstract Carbon nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond, etc.) can be used as novel matrices or probes in MALDI or SELDI MS. PMID:26753968

  10. Nanomaterial-based functional scaffolds for amperometric sensing of bioanalytes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Bera, Raj Kumar; Raj, C R

    2013-04-01

    Functional nanomaterials have emerged as promising candidates in the development of an amperometric sensing platform for the detection and quantification of bioanalytes. The remarkable characteristics of nanomaterials based on metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene ensure enhanced performance of the sensors in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, detection limit, response time, and multiplexing capability. The electrocatalytic properties of these functional materials can be combined with the biocatalytic activity of redox enzymes to develop integrated biosensing platforms. Highly sensitive and stable miniaturized amperometric sensors have been developed by integrating the nanomaterials and biocatalyst with the transducers. This review provides an update on recent progress in the development of amperometric sensors/biosensors using functional nanomaterials for the sensing of clinically important metabolites such as glucose, cholesterol, lactate, and glutamate, immunosensing of cancer biomarkers, and genosensing. PMID:23254456

  11. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  12. Phototoxicity of Selected Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of exposure to nanomaterials is critical for assessing their environmental hazard and risk. This is an immediate issue for nano-TiO2 because it is one of more common nanomaterials now in commerce, and is difficult to analyze using common acid-digestion techniques. ...

  13. Nanoscale strain engineering of graphene and graphene-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, N.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Teague, M. L.; Wang, J.-Q.; Boyd, D. A.; Chen, C.-C.

    2016-02-01

    Structural distortions in nano-materials can induce dramatic changes in their electronic properties. This situation is well manifested in graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb structure of carbon atoms with only one atomic layer thickness. In particular, strained graphene can result in both charging effects and pseudo-magnetic fields, so that controlled strain on a perfect graphene lattice can be tailored to yield desirable electronic properties. Here, we describe the theoretical foundation for strain-engineering of the electronic properties of graphene, and then provide experimental evidence for strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects in monolayer graphene. We further demonstrate the feasibility of nano-scale strain engineering for graphene-based devices by means of theoretical simulations and nano-fabrication technology.

  14. Nanoscale strain engineering of graphene and graphene-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, N.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Teague, M. L.; Wang, J.-Q.; Boyd, D. A.; Chen, C.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Structural distortions in nano-materials can induce dramatic changes in their electronic properties. This situation is well manifested in graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb structure of carbon atoms with only one atomic layer thickness. In particular, strained graphene can result in both charging effects and pseudo-magnetic fields, so that controlled strain on a perfect graphene lattice can be tailored to yield desirable electronic properties. Here, we describe the theoretical foundation for strain-engineering of the electronic properties of graphene, and then provide experimental evidence for strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects in monolayer graphene. We further demonstrate the feasibility of nano-scale strain engineering for graphene-based devices by means of theoretical simulations and nano-fabrication technology.

  15. Terahertz science and technology of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, R R; Kono, J; Portnoi, M E

    2014-08-15

    The diverse applications of terahertz (THz) radiation and its importance to fundamental science makes finding ways to generate, manipulate and detect THz radiation one of the key areas of modern applied physics. One approach is to utilize carbon nanomaterials, in particular, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene. Their novel optical and electronic properties offer much promise to the field of THz science and technology. This article describes the past, current, and future of THz science and technology of carbon nanotubes and graphene. We will review fundamental studies such as THz dynamic conductivity, THz nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as THz applications such as THz sources, detectors, modulators, antennas and polarizers. PMID:25051014

  16. The effect of pristine carbon-based nanomaterial on the growth of green gram sprouts and pH of water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We examined the toxicity of four carbon-based nanomaterials (unmodified) by using carbon quantum dots (CQDs), graphene quantum dots (GQDs), graphene oxide (GO), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to cultivate bean sprout. Results showed that the toxicity of these four carbon nanomaterials increases with the increasing of concentration and cultivating time. In addition, pH test was applied to study the effect of carbon-based nanomaterials on water. pH of culture solution displayed unconspicuous dose-dependent, but nanomaterials indeed have a considerable impact on the pH even at low concentration. PMID:25346649

  17. Enzyme-catalyzed degradation of carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchey, Gregg P.

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene, the nanoscale sp 2 allotropes of carbon, have garnered widespread attention as a result of their remarkable electrical, mechanical, and optical properties and the promise of new technologies that harness these properties. Consequently, these carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have been employed for diverse applications such as electronics, sensors, composite materials, energy conversion devices, and nanomedicine. The manufacture and eventual disposal of these products may result in the release of CNMs into the environment and subsequent exposure to humans, animals, and vegetation. Given the possible pro-inflammatory and toxic effects of CNMs, much attention has been focused on the distribution, toxicity, and persistence of CNMs both in living systems and the environment. This dissertation will guide the reader though recent studies aimed at elucidating fundamental insight into the persistence of CNMs such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide). In particular, in-testtube oxidation/degradation of CNMs catalyzed by peroxidase enzymes will be examined, and the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying these processes will be discussed. Finally, an outlook of the current field including in vitro and in vivo biodegradation experiments, which have benefits in terms of human health and environmental safety, and future directions that could have implications for nanomedical applications such as imaging and drug delivery will be presented. Armed with an understanding of how and why CNMs undergo enzyme-catalyzed oxidation/biodegradation, researchers can tailor the structure of CNMs to either promote or inhibit these processes. For example, in nanomedical applications such as drug delivery, the incorporation of carboxylate functional groups could facilitate biodegradation of the nanomaterial after delivery of the cargo. Also, the incorporation of CNMs with defect sites in consumer

  18. Rebar graphene.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng; Peng, Zhiwei; Casillas, Gilberto; Lin, Jian; Xiang, Changsheng; Zhou, Haiqing; Yang, Yang; Ruan, Gedeng; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Samuel, Errol L G; Hauge, Robert H; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Tour, James M

    2014-05-27

    As the cylindrical sp(2)-bonded carbon allotrope, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used to reinforce bulk materials such as polymers, ceramics, and metals. However, both the concept demonstration and the fundamental understanding on how 1D CNTs reinforce atomically thin 2D layered materials, such as graphene, are still absent. Here, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of CNT-toughened graphene by simply annealing functionalized CNTs on Cu foils without needing to introduce extraneous carbon sources. The CNTs act as reinforcing bar (rebar), toughening the graphene through both π-π stacking domains and covalent bonding where the CNTs partially unzip and form a seamless 2D conjoined hybrid as revealed by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. This is termed rebar graphene. Rebar graphene can be free-standing on water and transferred onto target substrates without needing a polymer-coating due to the rebar effects of the CNTs. The utility of rebar graphene sheets as flexible all-carbon transparent electrodes is demonstrated. The in-plane marriage of 1D nanotubes and 2D layered materials might herald an electrical and mechanical union that extends beyond carbon chemistry. PMID:24694285

  19. Rebar Graphene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As the cylindrical sp2-bonded carbon allotrope, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used to reinforce bulk materials such as polymers, ceramics, and metals. However, both the concept demonstration and the fundamental understanding on how 1D CNTs reinforce atomically thin 2D layered materials, such as graphene, are still absent. Here, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of CNT-toughened graphene by simply annealing functionalized CNTs on Cu foils without needing to introduce extraneous carbon sources. The CNTs act as reinforcing bar (rebar), toughening the graphene through both π–π stacking domains and covalent bonding where the CNTs partially unzip and form a seamless 2D conjoined hybrid as revealed by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. This is termed rebar graphene. Rebar graphene can be free-standing on water and transferred onto target substrates without needing a polymer-coating due to the rebar effects of the CNTs. The utility of rebar graphene sheets as flexible all-carbon transparent electrodes is demonstrated. The in-plane marriage of 1D nanotubes and 2D layered materials might herald an electrical and mechanical union that extends beyond carbon chemistry. PMID:24694285

  20. Suppression of single-molecule conductance fluctuations using extended anchor groups on graphene and carbon-nanotube electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péterfalvi, Csaba G.; Lambert, Colin J.

    2012-08-01

    Devices formed from single molecules attached to noble-metal electrodes exhibit large conductance fluctuations, which inhibit their development as reproducible functional units. We demonstrate that single molecules with planar anchor groups attached to carbon-based electrodes are more resilient to atomic-scale variation in the contacts and exhibit significantly lower conductance fluctuations. We examine the conductance of a 2,6-dibenzylamino core-substituted naphthalenediimide chromophore attached to carbon electrodes by either phenanthrene anchors or more extended anchor groups, which include oligophenylene ethynylene spacers. We demonstrate that for the more spatially extended anchor groups conductance fluctuations are significantly reduced. The current-voltage characteristic arising from long-range tunneling is found to be strongly nonlinear with pronounced conductance suppression below a threshold voltage of approximately 2.5 V.

  1. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  2. Applications of Nanomaterials in Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Choi, Jungwook; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-09-01

    Nanomaterials have drawn great interest in recent years due to their extraordinary properties that make them advantageous in food packaging applications. Specifically, nanoparticles can impart significant barrier properties, as well as mechanical, optical, catalytic, and antimicrobial properties into packaging. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and nanoclay account for the majority of the nano-enabled food packaging on the market, while others, such as nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium, share less of the current market. In current food packaging, these nanomaterials are primarily used to impart antimicrobial function and to improve barrier properties, thereby extending the shelf life and freshness of packaged food. On the other hand, there is growing concern about the migration of nanomaterials from food contact materials to foodstuffs and its associated potential risks. Indeed, insufficient data about environmental and human safety assessments of migration and exposure of nanomaterials are hindering their market growth. To overcome this barrier, the public believes that legislation from government agencies is critical. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and functions of major nanomaterials that are commonly applied to food packaging, including available and near- future products. Migration research, safety issues, and public concerns are also discussed. PMID:26716190

  3. Extended line defects in BN, GaN, and AlN semiconductor materials: Graphene-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Mojica, Dulce C.; López-Urías, Florentino

    2016-05-01

    The extended line defect (ELD) mimicking grain boundaries in two-dimensional systems is theoretically investigated in BN, GaN, and AlN semiconductor materials with a single layer honeycomb structure. The ELD consists of octagonal-square membered rings. Density functional calculations of the electronic density of states, scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy image simulations are analyzed. Our results revealed that the ELDs are stable in all considered monolayers. In addition, electronic density of states calculations demonstrated that in gap states are emerged when ELD is incorporated into the honeycomb structures. Finally, results on armchair nanoribbons with bare-edges and hydrogenated edges are discussed.

  4. Differential Permeability of Proton Isotopes through Graphene and Graphene Analogue Monolayer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuju; Ju, Minggang; Chen, Liang; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) monolayer nanomaterials can be exploited as the thinnest membrane with distinct differential sieving properties for proton isotopes. Motivated from the experimental evidence of differential sieving proton isotopes through graphene and hexagonal boron nitrate (h-BN) monolayer, we compute the kinetic barrier of isotope H(+) and D(+) permeation through model graphene and h-BN fragments at the MP2/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. On the basis of the ratio of tunneling reaction rate constant, the isotope separation ratio of H(+)/D(+) and H(+)/T(+) is predicted to be ∼12 and 37, respectively. The tunneling reaction rate constant can be estimated from the zero-point-energy computed at the transition state for the proton isotope permeation though the 2D model systems. We show that the presence of Stone-Wales (55-77) defect in the model graphene fragment can significantly lower the proton permeation barrier by 0.55 eV. With the defect, the ratio of tunneling reaction rate constant of H(+)/D(+) is increased to ∼25. In addition to model graphene and h-BN, we have examined proton permeation capability of α-boron monolayer. We compute the tunneling reaction pathway for H(+) through α-boron monolayer using both the climbing nudged elastic band (c-NEB) method and the scanning-path method. Both methods suggest that α-boron monolayer entails a relatively low barrier of ∼0.20 eV for H(+) permeation, much lower than that of the model graphene and h-BN fragments. Our studies provide molecular-level insights into the differential permeation of proton isotopes through 2D materials. The methods can be extended to examine isotope separation capability of other 2D materials as well. PMID:27522866

  5. Recent progress in nanomaterials for gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Keles, Erhan; Song, Yang; Du, Dan; Dong, Wen-Ji; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-16

    Nanotechnology-based gene delivery is the division of nanomedicine concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of nanomaterials to be used in targeted-gene delivery applications. Nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems hold great promise for curing fatal inherited and acquired diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, their use in clinical applications is still controversial. To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any gene delivery system because of the unknown long-term toxicity and the low gene transfection efficiency of nanomaterials in vivo. Compared to viral vectors, nonviral gene delivery vectors are characterized by a low preexisting immunogenicity, which is important for preventing a severe immune response. In addition, nonviral vectors provide higher loading capacity and ease of fabrication. For these reasons, this review article focuses on applications of nonviral gene delivery systems, including those based on lipids, polymers, graphene, and other inorganic nanoparticles, and discusses recent advances in nanomaterials for gene therapy. Methods of synthesizing these nanomaterials are briefly described from a materials science perspective. Also, challenges, critical issues, and concerns about the in vivo applications of nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems are discussed. It should be noted that this article is not a comprehensive review of the literature. PMID:27480033

  6. Tunable magnetism in nanomaterials and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wanlin; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2011-03-01

    Tunable magnetism in nanomaterials and systems are especially attractive and hold great promise for applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. Here we show some of our recent findings along this direction. First, we present a novel magnetoelectric effect in graphene nanoribbons settled on silicon substrates whereby the ribbon edge magnetization can be tuned linearly by applied bias voltage (Phys.Rev.Lett, 103, 187204, 2009), and this effect is robust to material and geometry variations (Phys.Rev.B 81, 155428, 2010). We also realize an electrical control of magnetism in ZnO ribbons (ACS Nano 4, 2124, 2010 , and even a tunable magnetic ordering in sandwich nanowires by changing charge states (J.Am.Chem.Soc. 132, 10215, 2010). Contrast to the zero-gap graphene, both hexagon-BN sheets and nanotubes are generally insulating. We provide two efficient recipes to narrow the wide gap of BN: applying external electric fields for nanoribbons and increasing tube curvature for nanotubes. Of more interesting is that ferromagnetic ordering is obtained in BN nanotubes by fluorination and it can be remarkably modulated by applying radial pressure (J.Am.Chem.Soc. 131, 6874, 2009). Our revealed control of magnetism in a wide range of nanomaterials may open up new vistas towards spintronics.

  7. An introduction to the chemistry of graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiluan; Shi, Gaoquan

    2015-11-21

    Pristine graphene and chemically modified graphenes (CMGs, e.g., graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide and their derivatives) can react with a variety of chemical substances. These reactions have been applied to modulate the structures and properties of graphene materials, and to extend their functions and practical applications. This perspective outlines the chemistry of graphene, including functionalization, doping, photochemistry, catalytic chemistry, and supramolecular chemistry. The mechanisms of graphene related reactions will be introduced, and the challenges in controlling the chemical reactions of graphene will be discussed. PMID:26465215

  8. Ab initio study on the noncovalent adsorption of camptothecin anticancer drug onto graphene, defect modified graphene and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Nabanita; Deka, Ramesh C

    2013-09-01

    The application of graphene and related nanomaterials like boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, BN-graphene hybrid nanomaterials, and graphene oxide (GO) for adsorption of anticancer chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CPT) along with the effect on electronic properties prior to functionalization and after functionalization has been reported using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The inclusion of dispersion correction to DFT is instrumental in accounting for van der Waals π-π stacking between CPT and the nanomaterial. The adsorption of CPT exhibits significant strain within the nanosheets and noncovalent adsorption of CPT is thermodynamically favoured onto the nanosheets. In case of GO, surface incorporation of functional groups result in significant crumpling along the basal plane and the interaction is basically mediated by H-bonding rather than π-π stacking. Docking studies predict the plausible binding of CPT, CPT functionalized graphene and GO with topoisomerase I (top 1) signifying that CPT interacts through π stacking with AT and GC base pairs of DNA and in presence of nano support, DNA bases preferentially gets bound to the basal plane of graphene and GO rather than the edges. At a theoretical level of understanding, our studies point out the noncovalent interaction of CPT with graphene based nanomaterials and GO for loading and delivery of anticancer chemotherapeutic along with active binding to Top1 protein. PMID:24132695

  9. Nanomaterials for biosensing applications: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, Michael; Le Goff, Alan; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-08-01

    A biosensor device is defined by its biological, or bioinspired receptor unit with unique specificities towards corresponding analytes. These analytes are often of biological origin like DNAs or proteins from the immune system (antibodies, antigens) of diseases or infections. Such analytes can also be simple molecules like glucose or pollutants when a biological receptor unit with particular specificity is available. One of many other challenges in biosensor development is the efficient signal capture of the biological recognition event (transduction). Such transducers translate the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into electrochemical, electrochemiluminescent, magnetic, gravimetric, or optical signals. In order to increase sensitivities and to lower detection limits down to even individual molecules, nanomaterials are promising candidates due to the possibility to immobilize an enhanced quantity of bioreceptor units at reduced volumes and even to act itself as transduction element. Among such nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles, semi-conductor quantum dots, polymer nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and graphene are intensively studied. Due to the vast evolution of this research field, this review summarizes in a non-exhaustive way the advantages of nanomaterials by focusing on nano-objects which provide further beneficial properties than “just” an enhanced surface area.

  10. Nanomaterials for biosensing applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Michael; Le Goff, Alan; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-01-01

    A biosensor device is defined by its biological, or bioinspired receptor unit with unique specificities toward corresponding analytes. These analytes are often of biological origin like DNAs of bacteria or viruses, or proteins which are generated from the immune system (antibodies, antigens) of infected or contaminated living organisms. Such analytes can also be simple molecules like glucose or pollutants when a biological receptor unit with particular specificity is available. One of many other challenges in biosensor development is the efficient signal capture of the biological recognition event (transduction). Such transducers translate the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into electrochemical, electrochemiluminescent, magnetic, gravimetric, or optical signals. In order to increase sensitivities and to lower detection limits down to even individual molecules, nanomaterials are promising candidates due to the possibility to immobilize an enhanced quantity of bioreceptor units at reduced volumes and even to act itself as transduction element. Among such nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles, semi-conductor quantum dots, polymer nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and graphene are intensively studied. Due to the vast evolution of this research field, this review summarizes in a non-exhaustive way the advantages of nanomaterials by focusing on nano-objects which provide further beneficial properties than "just" an enhanced surface area. PMID:25221775

  11. Nanomaterials for biosensing applications: a review

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Michael; Le Goff, Alan; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-01-01

    A biosensor device is defined by its biological, or bioinspired receptor unit with unique specificities toward corresponding analytes. These analytes are often of biological origin like DNAs of bacteria or viruses, or proteins which are generated from the immune system (antibodies, antigens) of infected or contaminated living organisms. Such analytes can also be simple molecules like glucose or pollutants when a biological receptor unit with particular specificity is available. One of many other challenges in biosensor development is the efficient signal capture of the biological recognition event (transduction). Such transducers translate the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into electrochemical, electrochemiluminescent, magnetic, gravimetric, or optical signals. In order to increase sensitivities and to lower detection limits down to even individual molecules, nanomaterials are promising candidates due to the possibility to immobilize an enhanced quantity of bioreceptor units at reduced volumes and even to act itself as transduction element. Among such nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles, semi-conductor quantum dots, polymer nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and graphene are intensively studied. Due to the vast evolution of this research field, this review summarizes in a non-exhaustive way the advantages of nanomaterials by focusing on nano-objects which provide further beneficial properties than “just” an enhanced surface area. PMID:25221775

  12. Semiquantitative Performance and Mechanism Evaluation of Carbon Nanomaterials as Cathode Coatings for Microbial Fouling Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiaoying; Nghiem, Joanne; Silverberg, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine bacterial attachment and survival on a titanium (Ti) cathode coated with various carbon nanomaterials (CNM): pristine carbon nanotubes (CNT), oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNT), oxidized-annealed carbon nanotubes (OA-CNT), carbon black (CB), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The carbon nanomaterials were dispersed in an isopropyl alcohol-Nafion solution and were then used to dip-coat a Ti substrate. Pseudomonas fluorescens was selected as the representative bacterium for environmental biofouling. Experiments in the absence of an electric potential indicate that increased nanoscale surface roughness and decreased hydrophobicity of the CNM coating decreased bacterial adhesion. The loss of bacterial viability on the noncharged CNM coatings ranged from 22% for CB to 67% for OA-CNT and was dependent on the CNM dimensions and surface chemistry. For electrochemical experiments, the total density and percentage of inactivation of the adherent bacteria were analyzed semiquantitatively as functions of electrode potential, current density, and hydrogen peroxide generation. Electrode potential and hydrogen peroxide generation were the dominant factors with regard to short-term (3-h) bacterial attachment and inactivation, respectively. Extended-time electrochemical experiments (12 h) indicated that in all cases, the density of total deposited bacteria increased almost linearly with time and that the rate of bacterial adhesion was decreased 8- to 10-fold when an electric potential was applied. In summary, this study provides a fundamental rationale for the selection of CNM as cathode coatings and electric potential to reduce microbial fouling. PMID:25956770

  13. Biological applications of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan; Salmankurt, Bahadır

    2016-03-01

    Graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. However, the lower water-solubility and the irreversible aggregation due to the strong π-π stacking hinder the wide application of graphene nanosheets in biomedical field. Thus, graphene oxide (GO), one derivative of graphene, has been used more frequently in the biological system owing to its relatively higher water solubility and biocompatibility. Recently, it has been demonstrated that nanomaterials with different functional groups on the surface can be used to bind the drug molecules with high affinity. GO has different functional groups such as H, OH and O on its surface; it can be a potential candidate as a drug carrier. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene like structures are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles spin polarized calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on DNA/RNA nucleobases on graphene oxide. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene oxide by applied charging.

  14. Graphene-templated directional growth of an inorganic nanowire.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Chul; Kim, Kwanpyo; Park, Jungwon; Koo, Jahyun; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Hoonkyung; Weitz, David A; Zettl, Alex; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-05-01

    Assembling inorganic nanomaterials on graphene is of interest in the development of nanodevices and nanocomposite materials, and the ability to align such inorganic nanomaterials on the graphene surface is expected to lead to improved functionalities, as has previously been demonstrated with organic nanomaterials epitaxially aligned on graphitic surfaces. However, because graphene is chemically inert, it is difficult to precisely assemble inorganic nanomaterials on pristine graphene. Previous techniques based on dangling bonds of damaged graphene, intermediate seed materials and vapour-phase deposition at high temperature(,) have only formed randomly oriented or poorly aligned inorganic nanostructures. Here, we show that inorganic nanowires of gold(I) cyanide can grow directly on pristine graphene, aligning themselves with the zigzag lattice directions of the graphene. The nanowires are synthesized through a self-organized growth process in aqueous solution at room temperature, which indicates that the inorganic material spontaneously binds to the pristine graphene surface. First-principles calculations suggest that this assembly originates from lattice matching and π interaction to gold atoms. Using the synthesized nanowires as templates, we also fabricate nanostructures with controlled crystal orientations such as graphene nanoribbons with zigzag-edged directions. PMID:25799519

  15. Graphene-templated directional growth of an inorganic nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Chul; Kim, Kwanpyo; Park, Jungwon; Koo, Jahyun; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Hoonkyung; Weitz, David A.; Zettl, Alex; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-05-01

    Assembling inorganic nanomaterials on graphene is of interest in the development of nanodevices and nanocomposite materials, and the ability to align such inorganic nanomaterials on the graphene surface is expected to lead to improved functionalities, as has previously been demonstrated with organic nanomaterials epitaxially aligned on graphitic surfaces. However, because graphene is chemically inert, it is difficult to precisely assemble inorganic nanomaterials on pristine graphene. Previous techniques based on dangling bonds of damaged graphene, intermediate seed materials and vapour-phase deposition at high temperature, have only formed randomly oriented or poorly aligned inorganic nanostructures. Here, we show that inorganic nanowires of gold(I) cyanide can grow directly on pristine graphene, aligning themselves with the zigzag lattice directions of the graphene. The nanowires are synthesized through a self-organized growth process in aqueous solution at room temperature, which indicates that the inorganic material spontaneously binds to the pristine graphene surface. First-principles calculations suggest that this assembly originates from lattice matching and π interaction to gold atoms. Using the synthesized nanowires as templates, we also fabricate nanostructures with controlled crystal orientations such as graphene nanoribbons with zigzag-edged directions.

  16. Nanomaterial-Enabled Dry Electrodes for Electrophysiological Sensing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shanshan; Zhu, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Long-term, continuous, and unsupervised tracking of physiological data is becoming increasingly attractive for health/wellness monitoring and ailment treatment. Nanomaterials have recently attracted extensive attention as building blocks for flexible/stretchable conductors and are thus promising candidates for electrophysiological electrodes. Here we provide a review on nanomaterial-enabled dry electrodes for electrophysiological sensing, focusing on electrocardiography (ECG). The dry electrodes can be classified into contact surface electrodes, contact-penetrating electrodes, and noncontact capacitive electrodes. Different types of electrodes including their corresponding equivalent electrode-skin interface models and the sources of the noise are first introduced, followed by a review on recent developments of dry ECG electrodes based on various nanomaterials, including metallic nanowires, metallic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Their fabrication processes and performances in terms of electrode-skin impedance, signal-to-noise ratio, resistance to motion artifacts, skin compatibility, and long-term stability are discussed.

  17. Electrowetting on dielectric experiments using graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xuebin; Zhou, Zhixian; Ming-Cheng Cheng, Mark

    2012-09-01

    We report electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) experiments using graphene; a transparent, flexible and stretchable nanomaterial. Graphene sheets were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, and transferred to various substrates (including glass slides and PET films). Reversible contact angle changes were observed on the Teflon-coated graphene electrode with both AC and DC voltages. Nyquist plots of the EWOD reveal that the graphene electrode has higher capacitive impedance than gold electrodes under otherwise identical conditions, suggesting a lower density of pin-holes and defects in the Teflon/graphene electrode than in the Teflon/gold electrode. Furthermore, we have observed reduced electrolysis of the electrolyte and smaller leakage current in the dielectric layer (Teflon) on graphene electrodes than on Au electrodes at the same Teflon thickness and applied voltage. We expect that the improved EWOD properties using graphene as an electrode material will open the door to various applications, including flexible displays and droplet manipulation in three-dimensional microfluidics.

  18. Graphene based enzymatic bioelectrodes and biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Anahita; Othman, Ali; Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Stanciu, Lia; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-04-01

    The excellent electrical conductivity and ease of functionalization make graphene a promising material for use in enzymatic bioelectrodes and biofuel cells. Enzyme based biofuel cells have attracted substantial interest due to their potential to harvest energy from organic materials. This review provides an overview of the functional properties and applications of graphene in the construction of biofuel cells as alternative power sources. The review covers the current state-of-the-art research in graphene based nanomaterials (physicochemical properties and surface functionalities), the role of these parameters in enhancing electron transfer, the stability and activity of immobilized enzymes, and how enhanced power density can be achieved. Specific examples of enzyme immobilization methods, enzyme loading, stability and function on graphene, functionalized graphene and graphene based nanocomposite materials are discussed along with their advantages and limitations. Finally, a critical evaluation of the performance of graphene based enzymatic biofuel cells, the current status, challenges and future research needs are provided.

  19. Graphene cardboard: From ripples to tunable metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Pekka

    2014-03-01

    Recently, graphene was introduced with tunable ripple texturing, a nanofabric enabled by graphene's remarkable elastic properties. However, one can further envision sandwiching the ripples, thus constructing composite nanomaterial, graphene cardboard. Here, the basic mechanical properties of such structures are investigated computationally. It turns out that graphene cardboard is highly tunable material, for its elastic figures of merit vary orders of magnitude, with Poisson ratio tunable from 10 to -0.5 as one example. These trends set a foundation to guide the design and usage of metamaterials made of rippled van der Waals solids.

  20. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B Jill

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. PMID:26320782

  1. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. PMID:26320782

  2. NONEQUILIBRIUM LASER SYNTHESIS AND REAL-TIME DIAGNOSTICS OF CARBON NANOMATERIAL GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, David B; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Regmi, Murari; Jackson, Jeremy Joseph; Readle, Jason D; More, Karren Leslie; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd J M

    2013-01-01

    Lasers provide unique growth conditions for the synthesis of novel nanomaterials. In addition, they can serve as remote spectroscopic probes of the growth environment. Ultimately, through the process understanding they provide, real-time laser diagnostics that can be used to control the nanomanufacturing of nanomaterials. Here, progress in the laser-based synthesis and investigations of carbon nanomaterial growth kinetics will be reviewed with an emphasis on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs), and graphene. Two synthesis methods will be compared. First, the unique high-temperature growth environment of a laser plasma will be examined using time-resolved imaging and laser spectroscopy to understand how pure carbon can self-assemble rapidly into a variety of forms including SWNHs and graphene flakes, and with catalyst-assistance, SWNTs. Atomic resolution images of SWNTs, SWNHs, and graphene reveals that graphene flakes are likely building blocks for the growth of these materials. Second, lower-temperature, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods suitable for mass production of nanomaterials will be examined. Pulsed-CVD and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are described to investigate the catalyst-assisted growth kinetics of graphene and SWNTs. Time-resolved laser reflectivity and Raman spectroscopy studies show that autocatalytic kinetics imply the existence of intermediates crucial to the efficient nanomanufacturing of these materials for energy applications.

  3. Nanomaterials and bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Xie, Jing; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Shiyu; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has been increasing. Bone is a nanomaterials composed of organic (mainly collagen) and inorganic (mainly nano-hydroxyapatite) components, with a hierarchical structure ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. In consideration of the serious limitation in traditional therapies, nanomaterials provide some new strategy in bone regeneration. Nanostructured scaffolds provide a closer structural support approximation to native bone architecture for the cells and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which results in the formation of functional tissues. In this article, we focused on reviewing the classification and design of nanostructured materials and nanocarrier materials for bone regeneration, their cell interaction properties, and their application in bone tissue engineering and regeneration. Furthermore, some new challenges about the future research on the application of nanomaterials for bone regeneration are described in the conclusion and perspectives part. PMID:26558141

  4. Recent applications of carbon-based nanomaterials in analytical chemistry: critical review.

    PubMed

    Scida, Karen; Stege, Patricia W; Haby, Gabrielle; Messina, Germán A; García, Carlos D

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview of the advantages and limitations of carbon-based nanomaterials with respect to analytical chemistry. Aiming to illustrate the impact of nanomaterials on the development of novel analytical applications, developments reported in the 2005-2010 period have been included and divided into sample preparation, separation, and detection. Within each section, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and composite materials will be addressed specifically. Although only briefly discussed, included is a section highlighting nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties that can be used in the design of future devices for analytical chemistry. PMID:21458626

  5. Recent Applications of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Analytical Chemistry: Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Scida, Karen; Stege, Patricia W.; Haby, Gabrielle; Messina, Germán A.; García, Carlos D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview of the advantages and limitations of carbon-based nanomaterials with respect to analytical chemistry. Aiming to illustrate the impact of nanomaterials on the development of novel analytical applications, developments reported in the 2005–2010 period have been included and divided into sample preparation, separation, and detection. Within each section, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and composite materials will be addressed specifically. Although only briefly discussed, included is a section highlighting nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties that can be used in the design of future devices for analytical chemistry. PMID:21458626

  6. The interplay between carbon nanomaterials and amyloid fibrils in bio-nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoxu; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in bio-nanotechnology have not only rapidly broadened the applications and scope of hybrid nanomaterials in biological fields, but also greatly enriched the examples of ordered materials based on supramolecular self-assembly. Among eminent examples of functional nanostructured materials of undisputed impact in nanotechnology and biological environments, carbon nanomaterials (such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene) and amyloid fibrils have attracted great attention because of their unique architectures and exceptional physical properties. Nonetheless, combination of these two classes of nanomaterials into functional hybrids is far from trivial. For example, the presence of carbon nanomaterials can offer either an inhibitory effect or promotion of amyloid fibrillation, depending on the structural architectures of carbon nanomaterials and the starting amyloid proteins/peptides considered. To date, numerous studies have been devoted to evaluating both the biological toxicity of carbon nanomaterials and their use in developing therapies for amyloidosis. At the same time, hybridization of these two classes of nanomaterials offers new possibilities for combining some of their desirable properties into nanocomposites of possible use in electronics, actuators, sensing, biomedicine and structural materials. This review describes recent developments in the hybridization of carbon nanomaterials and amyloid fibrils and discusses the current state of the art on the application of carbon nanomaterial-amyloid fibril hybrids in bio-nanotechnology.

  7. Nanobiotechnology: protein-nanomaterial interactions.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ravi S; Stroock, Abraham D

    2007-01-01

    We review recent research that involves the interaction of nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, and carbon nanotubes with proteins. We begin with a focus on the fundamentals of the structure and function of proteins on nanomaterials. We then review work in three areas that exploit these interactions: (1) sensing, (2) assembly of nanomaterials by proteins and proteins by nanomaterials, and (3) interactions with cells. We conclude with the identification of challenges and opportunities for the future. PMID:17335286

  8. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  9. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  10. Graphene in turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  11. Intracellular Signal Modulation by Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive Oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can crucially affect the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways can be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future. PMID:24683030

  12. DNA-incorporating nanomaterials in biotechnological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, A.; van der Lelie, D.; Chi, C.; Gang, O.

    2010-02-01

    The recently developed ability to controllably connect biological and inorganic objects on a molecular scale opens a new page in biomimetic methods with potential applications in biodetection, tissue engineering, targeted therapeutics and drug/gene delivery. Particularly in the biodetection arena, a rapid development of new platforms has largely been stimulated by a spectrum of novel nanomaterials with physical properties that offer efficient, sensitive and inexpensive molecular sensing. Recently, DNA-functionalized nano-objects have emerged as a new class of nanomaterials that can be controllably assembled in predesigned structures. Such DNA-based nanoscale structures might provide a new detection paradigm due to their regulated optical, electrical and magnetic responses, chemical heterogeneity and high local biomolecular concentration. The specific biorecognition DNA and its physical-chemical characteristics allows for an exploitation of DNA-functionalized nanomaterials for sensing of nucleic acids, while a broad tunability of DNA interactions permits extending their use for detection of proteins, small molecules and ions. We discuss the progress that was achieved in the last decade in the exploration of new detection methods based on DNA-incorporating nanomaterials as well as their applications to gene delivery. The comparison between various detection platforms, their sensitivity and selectivity, and specific applications are reviewed.

  13. Plasmonic nanomaterials for biodiagnostics.

    PubMed

    Howes, Philip D; Rana, Subinoy; Stevens, Molly M

    2014-06-01

    The application of nanomaterials to detect disease biomarkers is giving rise to ultrasensitive assays, with scientists exploiting the many advantageous physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials. The fundamental basis of such work is to link unique phenomena that arise at the nanoscale to the presence of a specific analyte biomolecule, and to modulate the intensity of such phenomena in a ratiometric fashion, in direct proportion with analyte concentration. Precise engineering of nanomaterial surfaces is of utmost importance here, as the interface between the material and the biological environment is where the key interactions occur. In this tutorial review, we discuss the use of plasmonic nanomaterials in the development of biodiagnostic tools for the detection of a large variety of biomolecular analytes, and how their plasmonic properties give rise to tunable optical characteristics and surface enhanced Raman signals. We put particular focus on studies that have explored the efficacy of the systems using physiological samples in an effort to highlight the clinical potential of such assays. PMID:24323079

  14. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  15. Nanomaterials in Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. Foss; Baun, A.; Michelson, E. S.; Kamper, A.; Borling, P.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. It was found that in 19% of the products the nanomaterial were nanoparticles bound to the surfaces. Nanoparticles suspended in liquids were used in 37% of the products, whereas 13% used nanoparticles suspended in solids. One percent were powders containing free potentially airborne nanoparticles. Based on the location of the nanostructure we were able to further group the products into categories of: (1) Expected to cause exposure; (2) May cause exposure; and (3) No expected exposure to the consumer. Most products fall into the category of expected exposure, but we were not able to complete the quantitative exposure assessment mainly due to the lack of information on the concentration of the nanomaterial in the products — a problem that regulators and industry will have to address if we are to have realistic exposure assessment in the future. To illustrate the workability of our procedure, we applied it to a product scenario — the application of sun lotion — using best estimates available and/or worst case assumptions.

  16. Toxicity of nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Behzadi, Shahed; Laurent, Sophie; Forrest, M. Laird; Stroeve, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There are few studies of the long-term consequences of nanoparticles on human health, but governmental agencies, including the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Japan’s Ministry of Health, have recently raised the question of whether seemingly innocuous materials such as carbon-based nanotubes should be treated with the same caution afforded known carcinogens such as asbestos. Since nanomaterials are increasing a part of everyday consumer products, manufacturing processes, and medical products, it is imperative that both workers and end-users be protected from inhalation of potentially toxic NPs. It also suggests that NPs may need to be sequestered into products so that the NPs are not released into the atmosphere during the product’s life or during recycling. Further, non-inhalation routes of NP absorption, including dermal and medical injectables, must be studied in order to understand possible toxic effects. Fewer studies to date have addressed whether the body can eventually eliminate nanomaterials to prevent particle build-up in tissues or organs. This critical review discusses the biophysicochemical properties of various nanomaterials with emphasis on currently available toxicology data and methodologies for evaluating nanoparticle toxicity. PMID:22170510

  17. Graphene and graphene-like 2D materials for optical biosensing and bioimaging: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands of bioassay and biomedical applications have significantly promoted the rational design and fabrication of a wide range of functional nanomaterials. Coupling these advanced nanomaterials with biomolecule recognition events leads to novel sensing and diagnostic platforms. Because of their unique structures and multifunctionalities, two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and graphene-like materials (e.g., graphitic carbon nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, boron nitride, and transition metal oxides), have stimulated great interest in the field of optical biosensors and imaging because of their innovative mechanical, physicochemical and optical properties. Depending on the different applications, the graphene and graphene-like nanomaterials can be tailored to form either fluorescent emitters or efficient fluorescence quenchers, making them powerful platforms for fabricating a series of optical biosensors to sensitively detect various targets including ions, small biomolecules, DNA/RNA and proteins. This review highlights the recent progress in optical biosensors based on graphene and graphene-like 2D materials and their imaging applications. Finally, the opportunities and some critical challenges in this field are also addressed.

  18. Deformable devices with integrated functional nanomaterials for wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Jongsu; Son, Donghee; Choi, Moon Kee; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-03-01

    As the market and related industry for wearable electronics dramatically expands, there are continuous and strong demands for flexible and stretchable devices to be seamlessly integrated with soft and curvilinear human skin or clothes. However, the mechanical mismatch between the rigid conventional electronics and the soft human body causes many problems. Therefore, various prospective nanomaterials that possess a much lower flexural rigidity than their bulk counterparts have rapidly established themselves as promising electronic materials replacing rigid silicon and/or compound semiconductors in next-generation wearable devices. Many hybrid structures of multiple nanomaterials have been also developed to pursue both high performance and multifunctionality. Here, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art wearable devices based on one- or two-dimensional nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, single-crystal silicon and oxide nanomembranes, organic nanomaterials and their hybrids) in combination with zero-dimensional functional nanomaterials (e.g., metal/oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots). Starting from an introduction of materials strategies, we describe device designs and the roles of individual ones in integrated systems. Detailed application examples of wearable sensors/actuators, memories, energy devices, and displays are also presented.

  19. Organic synthesis on graphene.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Fabian M; Stark, Wendelin J

    2013-10-15

    Graphene is a two-dimensional crystalline carbon allotrope that has fascinated researchers worldwide and has extended the interest in carbon structures such as fullerenes and nanotubes. In this Account, we use electrical characterization tools to study chemistry on supported graphene. These experiments elucidate the way covalently bound phenyl units can change graphene's physical properties. Can we use chemistry to control electronic properties of graphene? What can we learn from well-known carbon allotropes like fullerenes? The surfaces of fullerenes and graphene show distinct differences in reactivity because of the high strain of sp² carbon in fullerenes compared with the complete lack of strain in graphene. Diazonium chemistry provides a versatile tool for attaching phenyl units covalently to carbon to produce advanced materials and electronic components, but diazonium-based carbon chemistry is strongly influenced by strain. Although fullerenes are highly reactive, graphite (stacks of graphene) remains relatively inert. We chemically introduce n- and p-like doping patterns in two-dimensional graphene using photolithography and extend the ability to chemically control doping to the chemical design of conducting and insulating areas. Thereby we can shape graphene surfaces into functional electronic devices. This Account also describes multistep synthesis on graphene-coated nanoparticles and the introduction of various functional groups on graphene surfaces. Only few functional groups can be produced directly via diazonium chemistry. To overcome this issue, we used these functional groups as starting points for more demanding organic reactions. We covalently attached chelating agents, catalysts, or polymers on the carbon surface. These more complex reactions facilitate the design of electronic modifications, intergraphene connections, and anchors for polymer incorporation. Diazonium chemistry forms strong covalent bridges between graphene and other areas of

  20. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junhong

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  1. Wormlike micelle assisted rod coating: a general method for facile fabrication of large-area conductive nanomaterial thin layer onto flexible plastics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingyi; Wang, Huan; Bai, Huadong; Yang, Peng; Shi, Mengxue; Guo, Peng; Wang, Chen; Yang, Wantai; Song, Huaihe

    2012-06-27

    Through combined application of wormlike-micelle and rod-coating technique, a general method was demonstrated for the facile reparation of thin transparent conductive films (TCF) of various nanomaterials and their hybrids on flexible plastics. The cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (CTAOH)/p-toluenesulfonic acid (CTAT) wormlike micelle system was selected for both the dispersion of different nanomaterials and the enhancement of viscosities of the coating fluids. With the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)/wormlike micelle aqueous dispersions as coating fluid, TCFs of SWNTs on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates made by rod-coating method were demonstrated. After doping by immersion into thionyl chloride solution, the sheet resistance of SWNTs thin films, which had a transmittance of about 78%, was as low as 480Ω/sq. This coating method was extended to the preparation of thin films or networks of other materials such as reduced graphene oxide and Ag nanowires. The obtained TCF from Ag nanowire networks has a low sheet resistance of 17Ω/sq, which is comparable to the value of best indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on plastic substrates. Finally, hybrid thin films of different nanomaterials were demonstrated by this method. PMID:22551382

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and biosensing application of novel hybrid nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shun

    Hybrid nanomaterials consisting of nanoparticles (NPs) distributed on the surface of the carbon nanotube (CNT)/graphene represent a new class of materials. These materials could potentially display not only the unique properties of NPs and those of the CNT/graphene, but also additional novel properties due to the interaction between the NP and the CNT/graphene. This thesis entails the synthesis and characterization of NP-CNT/graphene hybrid nanomaterials and the demonstration of their use for biosensors. A simple method that combines an electrospray technique with electrostatic force directed assembly (ESFDA) was developed for successful functionalization of the CNT/thermally-reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) with NPs. Colloidal CdSe NPs, Au NPs, and Au NP-antibody conjugates were electrosprayed and assembled onto random CNTs, vertically-aligned CNT arrays, and TRGO sheets in a controlled manner. CNT and TRGO field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated; and novel electronic protein biosensors based on the CNTFET/TRGO FET and Au NP-antibody conjugates were demonstrated. The electrical detection of the protein binding was accomplished by the introduction of Au NP-antibody conjugates in the CNTFET/TRGO FET, in which the Au-coated CNT/TRGO serves as the electrical conducting channel. Antibody (anti-horseradish peroxidase/anti-Immunoglobulin G) and antigen (horseradish peroxidase/Immunoglobulin G) binding events led to the change in the CNT/TRGO conductivity, which was sensitively detected by FET and direct current (dc) measurements. The CNTFET biosensor had a detection limit of 0.2 mg/ml (˜4.5 microM, horseradish peroxidase) while the TRGO FET biosensor exhibited a detection limit of 2 ng/ml (˜13 pM, Immunoglobulin G), which is among the best of carbon nanomaterial (e.g., CNT, graphene, GO)-based protein sensors. The dependence of the sensor response on the TRGO resistance and the antibody areal density on the TRGO sheet was systematically studied, and the sensor

  3. Chemical modifications and bioconjugate reactions of nanomaterials for sensing, imaging, drug delivery and therapy.

    PubMed

    Biju, Vasudevanpillai

    2014-02-01

    As prepared nanomaterials of metals, semiconductors, polymers and carbon often need surface modifications such as ligand exchange, and chemical and bioconjugate reactions for various biosensor, bioanalytical, bioimaging, drug delivery and therapeutic applications. Such surface modifications help us to control the physico-chemical, toxicological and pharmacological properties of nanomaterials. Furthermore, introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of nanomaterials allows us to conjugate a spectrum of contrast agents, antibodies, peptides, ligands, drugs and genes, and construct multifunctional and hybrid nanomaterials for the targeted imaging and treatment of cancers. This tutorial review is intended to provide an introduction to newcomers about how chemical and bioconjugate reactions transform the surface of nanomaterials such as silica nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, gold quantum clusters, semiconductor quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, fullerene and graphene, and accordingly formulate them for applications such as biosensing, bioimaging, drug and gene delivery, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy. Nonetheless, controversial reports and our growing concerns about toxicity and pharmacokinetics of nanomaterials suggest the need for not only rigorous in vivo experiments in animal models but also novel nanomaterials for practical applications in the clinical settings. Further reading of original and review articles cited herein is necessary to buildup in-depth knowledge about the chemistry, bioconjugate chemistry and biological applications of individual nanomaterials. PMID:24220322

  4. Modification of conductive polyaniline with carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedaghat, Sajjad; Alavijeh, Mahdi Soleimani

    2014-08-01

    The synthesis of polyaniline/single-wall nanotube, polyaniline/multi-wall nanotube and polyaniline/single-wall nanotube/graphen nanosheets nanocomposites by in situ polymerization are reported in this study. The substrates were treated with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid before usage to functionalize with carboxylic and hydroxyl groups. Aniline monomers are adsorbed and polymerized on the surface of these fillers. Structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that nanomaterials dispersed into polymer matrix and made tubular structures with diameters several tens to hundreds nanometers depending on the polyaniline content. These nanocomposites can be used for production of excellent electrode materials applications in high-performance supercapacitors.

  5. Promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-06-01

    densities; fabrication of anodes for lithium ion batteries from crumpled graphene-encapsulated Si nanoparticles; liquid-mediated dense integration of graphene materials for compact capacitive energy storage; scalable fabrication of high-power graphene micro-supercapacitors for flexible and on-chip energy storage; superior micro-supercapacitors based on graphene quantum dots; all-graphene core-sheat microfibres for all-solid-state, stretchable fibriform supercapacitors and wearable electronic textiles; micro-supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance based on three-dimensional graphene-carbon nanotube carpets; macroscopic nitrogen-doped graphene hydrogels for ultrafast capacitors; manufacture of scalable ultra-thin and high power density graphene electrochemical capacitor electrodes by aqueous exfoliation and spray deposition; scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube-graphene fibers for capacitive energy storage; phosphorene-graphene hybrid material as a high-capacity anode material for sodium-ion batteries. Beside above-presented promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures, other less widespread, but perhaps not less important, applications of graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials, are also briefly discussed.

  6. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    BNL

    2008-08-12

    Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

  7. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    ScienceCinema

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    Staff from Brookhaven's new Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) describe how this advanced facility will focus on the development and understanding of nanoscale materials. The CFN provides state-of-the-art capabilities for the fabrication and study of nanoscale materials, with an emphasis on atomic-level tailoring to achieve desired properties and functions. The overarching scientific theme of the CFN is the development and understanding of nanoscale materials that address the Nation's challenges in energy security.

  8. Two- and Three-Dimensional All-Carbon Nanomaterial Assemblies for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Patel, Sunny C; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have gained significant interest in the fields of materials science, electronics and biomedicine due to their interesting physiochemical properties. Typically these carbon nanomaterials have been dispersed in polymeric matrices at low concentrations to improve the functional properties of nanocomposites employed as two-dimensional (2D) substrates or three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. There has been a growing interest in the assembly of these nanomaterials into 2D and 3D architectures without the use of polymeric matrices, surfactants or binders. In this article, we review recent advances in the development of 2D or 3D all-carbon assemblies using carbon nanotubes or graphene as nanoscale building-block biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:27126776

  9. Imaging Local Heating and Thermal Diffusion of Nanomaterials with Plasmonic Thermal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zixuan; Shan, Xiaonan; Guan, Yan; Wang, Shaopeng; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Tao, Nongjian

    2015-12-22

    Measuring local heat generation and dissipation in nanomaterials is critical for understanding the basic properties and developing applications of nanomaterials, including photothermal therapy and joule heating of nanoelectronics. Several technologies have been developed to probe local temperature distributions in nanomaterials, but a sensitive thermal imaging technology with high temporal and spatial resolution is still lacking. Here, we describe plasmonic thermal microscopy (PTM) to image local heat generation and diffusion from nanostructures in biologically relevant aqueous solutions. We demonstrate that PTM can detect local temperature change as small as 6 mK with temporal resolution of 10 μs and spatial resolution of submicrons (diffraction limit). With PTM, we have successfully imaged photothermal generation from single nanoparticles and graphene pieces, studied spatiotemporal distribution of temperature surrounding a heated nanoparticle, and observed heating at defect sites in graphene. We further show that the PTM images are in quantitative agreement with theoretical simulations based on heat transport theories. PMID:26435320

  10. Immobilization Techniques in the Fabrication of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Putzbach, William; Ronkainen, Niina J.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. PMID:23580051

  11. Engineered Carbon-Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Vij, Varun; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-26

    The study of electrochemical behavior of bioactive molecules has become one of the most rapidly developing scientific fields. Biotechnology and biomedical engineering fields have a vested interest in constructing more precise and accurate voltammetric/amperometric biosensors. One rapidly growing area of biosensor design involves incorporation of carbon-based nanomaterials in working electrodes, such as one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional graphene, and graphene oxide. In this review article, we give a brief overview describing the voltammetric techniques and how these techniques are applied in biosensing, as well as the details surrounding important biosensing concepts of sensitivity and limits of detection. Building on these important concepts, we show how the sensitivity and limit of detection can be tuned by including carbon-based nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. The sensing of biomolecules including glucose, dopamine, proteins, enzymes, uric acid, DNA, RNA, and H2O2 traditionally employs enzymes in detection; however, these enzymes denature easily, and as such, enzymeless methods are highly desired. Here we draw an important distinction between enzymeless and enzyme-containing carbon-nanomaterial-based biosensors. The review ends with an outlook of future concepts that can be employed in biosensor fabrication, as well as limitations of already proposed materials and how such sensing can be enhanced. As such, this review can act as a roadmap to guide researchers toward concepts that can be employed in the design of next generation biosensors, while also highlighting the current advancements in the field. PMID:26579616

  12. Metabolomic Analysis of Liver Cells Exposed to Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Oxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other graphenic nanomaterials are being used extensively in industrial, consumer, and mechanical applications based in part on their unique structural, optical and electronic properties. Due to the widespread use of these nanoparticles (NPs), human and...

  13. Cytotoxicity of halogenated graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Khim Chng, Elaine Lay; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Graphene and its family of derivatives possess unique and remarkable physicochemical properties which make them valuable materials for applications in many areas like electronics, energy storage and biomedicine. In response to the possibility of its large-scale manufacturing as commercial products in the future, an investigation was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity of one particular family of graphene derivatives, the halogenated graphenes, for the first time. Halogenated graphenes were prepared through thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in gaseous chlorine, bromine or iodine atmospheres to yield chlorine- (TRGO-Cl), bromine- (TRGO-Br) and iodine-doped graphene (TRGO-I) respectively. 24 h exposure of human lung carcinoma epithelial cells (A549) to the three halogenated graphenes and subsequent cell viability assessments using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assays revealed that all the halogenated graphenes examined are rather cytotoxic at the concentrations tested (3.125 μg mL-1 to 200 μg mL-1) and the effects are dose-dependent, with TRGO-Cl reducing the cell viability to as low as 25.7% at the maximum concentration of 200 μg mL-1. Their levels of cytotoxicity can be arranged in the order of TRGO-Cl > TRGO-Br > TRGO-I, and it is suggested that the amount of halogen present in the graphene material is the determining factor for the observed trend. Control experiments were carried out to test for possible nanomaterial-induced interference as a consequence of reaction between the halogenated graphenes and the viability markers (MTT/WST-8 reagent) or binding of the formazan products under cell-free conditions. The data obtained eliminate the probability of significant influence by these interferents as the change in the normalized percentage of formazan formed is relatively small and thorough washings were performed prior to the viability assessments to reduce the amount of halogenated

  14. Towards application of one- and two-dimensional nanomaterials for reinforcement of polymeric nanocomposite bone grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrshid, Behzad

    One- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) nanomaterials possess extraordinary physiochemical properties such as large surface area, excellent mechanical properties, high surface energy and good dispersivity in organic and biological solvents, therefore, they have been extensively used as reinforcing agents to improve the mechanical properties of polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have been used as reinforcing agents for biodegradable polymeric scaffolds and composites, however, their short- and long-term in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility is an area of extensive debate. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of addition of low concentrations (0.01-0.2 wt. %) of 1-D and 2-D carbon nanomaterials (graphene oxide nanoplatelets, graphene oxide nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes) and inorganic nanomaterials (boron nitride nanotubes, boron nitride nanoplatelers, tungsten disulfide nanotubes and molybdenum disulfide nanoplatelets) on the mechanical properties, cytocompatibility, and bioactivity of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) nanocomposites towards their potential applications as porous and nonporous implants for bone tissue engineering. Addition of nanomaterials in the PPF matrix improved the compressive and flexural mechanical properties of non-porous crosslinked PPF nanocomposites and porous PPF scaffolds. Our results suggest that in addition to high surface roughness and surface area of the nanomaterials, the presence of functional groups on the surface of nanomaterials leads to an increased nanomaterial-polymer interaction and a uniform dispersion of nanomaterials in polymer matrix which may be the key factors responsible for an improved mechanical reinforcement. The in vitro studies showed an excellent cytocompatibility for both carbon and inorganic nanomaterial reinforced PPF nanocomposites and scaffolds. Protein adsorption studies and in vitro

  15. Tensile properties of a boron/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube–graphene hybrid structure

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Wei, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Summary Doping is an effective approach that allows for the intrinsic modification of the electrical and chemical properties of nanomaterials. Recently, a graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid structure (GNHS) has been reported, which extends the excellent properties of carbon-based materials to three dimensions. In this paper, we carried out a first-time investigation on the tensile properties of the hybrid structures with different dopants. It is found that with the presence of dopants, the hybrid structures usually exhibit lower yield strength, Young’s modulus, and earlier yielding compared to that of a pristine hybrid structure. For dopant concentrations below 2.5% no significant reduction of Young’s modulus or yield strength could be observed. For all considered samples, the failure is found to initiate at the region where the nanotubes and graphene sheets are connected. After failure, monatomic chains are normally observed around the failure region. Dangling graphene layers without the separation of a residual CNT wall are found to adhere to each other after failure with a distance of about 3.4 Å. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the tensile properties of the doped graphene–nanotube hybrid structures, which will benefit the design and also the applications of graphene-based hybrid materials. PMID:24778956

  16. Optical and optoelectronic properties of organic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satapathi, Soumitra

    In this dissertation research, organic nanomaterials, such as semiconducting polymer nanoparticles, graphene nanosheets and organic small molecules were successfully utilized for fabrication of organic solar cells, optical sensors and for high contrast imaging of cancer cells. Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple miniemulsion technique. These size controllable polymeric nanoparticles were proven to be able to optimize the morphologies of the bulk heterojunction solar cells and to provide fundamental insight into the evolution of the nanostructures. Highly sensitive optical sensors were fabricated using these polymeric nanoparticles for efficient detection of nitroaromatic explosives, such as 2,4 dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) in aqueous medium as well as in vapor the phase. Moreover, these water dispersible and fluorescent polymer nanodots were two-photon active and could be internalized by tumor cells as demonstrated by two-photon confocal imaging. In addition to the polymer nanoparticles, the role of the graphene nanosheets in the performance enhancement of dye sensitized solar cells was also investigated. The use of organic small molecules for optical sensing of different nerve gas agents and their potential use in multiphoton imaging of cancer cells were discussed. Controlling material properties at nanoscale for optoelectronics and imaging application as discussed in this dissertation would provide new dimensions in the areas of applied physics and materials science researches.

  17. Carbon nanomaterials-based electrochemical aptasensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zonghua; Yu, Jianbo; Gui, Rijun; Jin, Hui; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-05-15

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have attracted increasing attention due to their unique electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical and chemical properties. CNMs are extensively applied in electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic and sensing devices fields, especially in bioassay technology. These excellent properties significantly depend on not only the functional atomic structures of CNMs, but also the interactions with other materials, such as gold nanoparticles, SiO2, chitosan, etc. This review systematically summarizes applications of CNMs in electrochemical aptasensors (ECASs). Firstly, definition and development of ECASs are introduced. Secondly, different ways of ECASs about working principles, classification and construction of CNMs are illustrated. Thirdly, the applications of different CNMs used in ECASs are discussed. In this review, different types of CNMs are involved such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide, etc. Besides, the newly emerging CNMs and CNMs-based composites are also discoursed. Finally, we demonstrate the future prospects of CNMs-based ECASs, and some suggestions about the near future development of CNMs-based ECASs are highlighted. PMID:26703992

  18. Design and application of carbon nanomaterials for photoactive and charge transport layers in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sunghwan; Jun, Gwang Hoon; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2016-04-01

    Commercialization of organic solar cell (OSC) has faltered due to their low power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to inorganic solar cell. Low electrical conductivity, low charge mobility, and short-range light absorption of most organic materials limit the PCE of OSCs. Carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes, are of great interest for use in OSC applications due to their high electrical conductivity, mobility, and unique optical properties for enhancing the performance of OSCs. In this review, recent progress toward the integration of carbon nanomaterials into OSCs is described. The role of carbon nanomaterials and strategies for their integration into various layers of OSCs, including the photoactive layer and charge transport layer, are discussed. Based on these, we also discuss the prospects of carbon nanomaterials for specific OSC layers to maximize the PCE.

  19. Carbon nanomaterials for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liming; Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom; Lu, Wen

    2012-04-23

    It is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. Comparing to conventional energy materials, carbon nanomaterials possess unique size-/surface-dependent (e.g., morphological, electrical, optical, and mechanical) properties useful for enhancing the energy-conversion and storage performances. During the past 25 years or so, therefore, considerable efforts have been made to utilize the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, as energy materials, and tremendous progress has been achieved in developing high-performance energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) devices. This article reviews progress in the research and development of carbon nanomaterials during the past twenty years or so for advanced energy conversion and storage, along with some discussions on challenges and perspectives in this exciting field. PMID:22383334

  20. Recent advances in superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems.

    PubMed

    Nagappan, Saravanan; Park, Sung Soo; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2014-02-01

    This review describes the recent advances in the field of superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems. The term superhydrophobic is defined from the surface properties when the surface shows the contact angle (CA) higher than 150 degrees. This could be well known from the lotus effect due to the non-stick and self-cleaning properties of the lotus leaf (LL). We briefly introduced the methods of preparing superhydrophobic surfaces using top-down approaches, bottom-up approaches and a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches and various ways to prepare superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems using the bio-inspired materials, polymer nanocomposites, metal nanoparticles graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We also pointed out the recent applications of the superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems in oil-spill capture and separations, self-cleaning and self-healing systems, bio-medicals, anti-icing and anti-corrosive, electronics, catalysis, textile fabrics and papers etc. The review also highlights the visionary outlook for the future development and use of the superhydrophobic nanomaterials and nanoscale systems for a wide variety of applications. PMID:24749434

  1. Electrocatalysis at metal nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lin

    Direct liquid fuel cells, such as direct methanol fuel cells and direct formic acid fuel cells, have attracted much attention in the past decades due to the need of clean and efficient power sources. One of the most critical issues in the development of highly efficient fuel cells is to increase the rates of fuel-cell reactions as a commercial product. As a result, the topic of electrocatalysis plays a significant role in the investigations of fuel cell reactions. For methanol oxidation, platinum based nanomaterials are the most important catalysts. For formic acid oxidation, both platinum and palladium based nanomaterials are widely employed as the catalysts. Recently, shape-control of the nanoparticles has become an imperative task due to the fact that most of the reactions in fuel cells are sensitive to the surface structure of the catalysts. Though numerous studies have been conducted in past to elucidate the catalytic activity on the nanomaterials with different shapes, the results are inconclusive. Herein, systematic comparison of catalytic activity toward methanol and formic acid oxidation on shape-controlled cubic platinum-based alloy nanoparticles with different alloy element are reported in this dissertation. Methanol and formic acid oxidation reactions on spherical and cubic Pt-Cu nanoparticles are also studied. Cu-Pd nanoparticles are synthesized through galvanic redox reactions to provide significantly higher and much more stable formic acid oxidation activities. Interparticle distance effect is investigated on two dimensional nanoparticle array electrodes with controlled particle size, which is ideal model system for exploring the interparticle distance effects on the voltammetric behavior and reaction mechanisms.

  2. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Mao, Xun; Gurung, Anant; Baloda, Meenu; Lin, Yuehe; He, Yuqing

    2010-08-31

    This book chapter summarizes the recent advance in nanomaterials for electrochemical biosensors and bioassays. Biofunctionalization of nanomaterials for biosensors fabrication and their biomedical applications are discussed.

  3. Graphene hybrids: synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Badhulika, Sushmee; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Villarreal, Claudia; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical, and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT), graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM), and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM) hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells. PMID:26176007

  4. Graphene hybrids: Synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badhulika, Sushmee; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Chaves Villarreal, Claudia; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/ metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT), graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM) and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM) hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells.

  5. Graphene hybrids: synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Badhulika, Sushmee; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Villarreal, Claudia; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical, and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT), graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM), and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM) hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells. PMID:26176007

  6. Synthesis and Modification of Carbon Nanomaterials utilizing Microwave Heating.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, Almut M; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2015-07-22

    Microwave-assisted synthesis and processing represents a growing field in materials research and successfully entered the field of carbon nanomaterials during the last decade. Due to the strong interaction of carbon materials with microwave radiation, fast heating rates and localized heating can be achieved. These features enable the acceleration of reaction processes, as well as the formation of nanostructures with special morphologies. A comprehensive overview is provided here on the possibilities and achievements in the field of carbon-nanomaterial research when using microwave-based heating approaches. This includes the synthesis and processing of carbon nanotubes and fibers, graphene materials, carbon nanoparticles, and capsules, as well as porous carbon materials. Additionally, the principles of microwave-heating, in particular of carbon materials, are introduced and important issues, i.e., safety and reproducibility, are discussed. PMID:26087742

  7. Volatile-nanoparticle-assisted optical visualization of individual carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jian, Muqiang; Xie, Huanhuan; Wang, Qi; Xia, Kailun; Yin, Zhe; Zhang, Mingyu; Deng, Ningqin; Wang, Luning; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Yingying

    2016-07-21

    The development of nanomaterials has put forward high requirements for characterization techniques. Optical microscopy (OM), with easy accessibility and open operating spaces as compared to scanning electron microscopy, is a good choice to quickly locate materials and to be integrated with other equipment. However, OM is limited by its low resolution. Herein, we present a facile and non-destructive approach for optical observation of nanomaterials under conventional OMs with the aid of volatile nanoparticles (NPs), which can be deposited and removed in a controlled manner. The NPs deposited on the surface of nanomaterials render strong light scattering to enable the nanomaterials to become optically visible. For example, this approach enables the observation of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with OMs at low magnification or even with the naked eye. Both supported CNTs on various substrates and suspended CNTs can be observed with this approach. Most importantly, the NPs can be completely removed through moderate heat treatment or laser irradiation, avoiding potential influence on the properties or subsequent applications of nanomaterials. Furthermore, we systematically investigate the deposition of various volatile NPs (up to 14 kinds) for the optical observation of nanomaterials. We also demonstrated the application of this approach on other nanomaterials, including nanowires and graphene. We showed that this approach is facile, controllable, non-destructive, and contamination-free, indicating wide potential applications. PMID:27350415

  8. Nanomaterials, Inflammation and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Jagannath

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties that are absent in the bulk material because decreasing material size leads to an exponential increase in surface area, surface area to volume ratio, and effective stiffness, resulting in altered physiochemical properties. Diverse categories of nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanoporous scaffolds, nanopatterned surfaces, nanofibers and carbon nanotubes can be generated using advanced fabrication and processing techniques. These materials are being increasingly incorporated in tissue engineering scaffolds to facilitate the development of biomimetic substitutes to replace damaged tissues and organs. Long term success of nanomaterials in tissue engineering is contingent upon the inflammatory responses they elicit in vivo. This review seeks to summarize the recent developments in our understanding of biochemical and biophysical attributes of nanomaterials and the inflammatory responses they elicit, with a focus on strategies for nanomaterial design in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25421333

  9. Experimental investigation of interactions between proteins and carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Bishwambhar

    The global market for nanomaterials based products is forecasted to reach $1 trillion per annum per annum for 2015. Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exhibit unique physicochemical properties with potential to impact diverse aspects of society through applications in electronics, renewable energy, and medicine. While the research and proposed applications of ENMs continue to grow rapidly, the health and safety of ENMs still remains a major concern to the public as well as to policy makers and funding agencies. It is now widely accepted that focused efforts are needed for identifying the list of physicochemical descriptors of ENM before they can be evaluated for nanotoxicity and biological response. This task is surprisingly challenging, as many physicochemical properties of ENMs are closely inter related and cannot be varied independently (e.g. increasing the size of an ENM can introduce additional defects). For example, varying toxic response may ensue due to different methods of nanomaterial preparation, dissimilar impurities and defects. Furthermore, the inadvertent coating of proteins on ENM surface in any biological milieu results in the formation of the so-called "protein/bio-corona" which can in turn alter the fate of ENMs and their biological response. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide are widely used ENMs. It is now known that defects in CNMs play an important role not only in materials properties but also in the determination of how materials interact at the nano-bio interface. In this regard, this work investigates the influence of defect-induced hydrophilicity on the bio-corona formation using micro Raman, photoluminescence, infrared spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the interaction of proteins (albumin and fibrinogen) with CNMs is strongly influenced by charge transfer between them, inducing protein unfolding which enhances conformational entropy and

  10. Engineering epitaxial graphene with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimouche, Amina; Martin, Sylvain; Winkelmann, Clemens; Fruchart, Olivier; Courtois, Hervé; Coraux, Johann; Hybrid system at low dimension Team

    2013-03-01

    Almost free-standing graphene can be obtained on metals by decoupling graphene from its substrate, for instance by intercalation of atoms beneath graphene, as it was shown with oxygen atoms. We show that the interaction of oxygen with epitaxial graphene on iridium leads to the formation of an ultrathin crystalline oxide extending between graphene and the metallic substrate via the graphene wrinkles. Graphene studied in this work was prepared under ultra-high vacuum by CVD. The samples were studied by combining scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (Raman, STS). The ultrathin oxide forms a decoupling barrier layer between graphene and Ir, yielding truly free-standing graphene whose hybridization and charge transfers with the substrate have been quenched. Our work presents novel types of graphene-based nanostructures, and opens the route to the transfer-free preparation of graphene directly onto an insulating support contacted to the metallic substrate which could serve as a gate electrode. Work supported by the EU-NMP GRENADA project

  11. Terahertz Dynamics in Carbon Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2012-02-01

    This NSF Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) project supports a unique interdisciplinary and international partnership investigating terahertz (THz) dynamics in nanostructures. The 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum is where electrical transport and optical transitions merge, offering exciting opportunities to study a variety of novel physical phenomena in condensed matter. By combining THz technology and nanotechnology, we can advance our understanding of THz physics while improving and developing THz devices. Specifically, this PIRE research explores THz dynamics of electrons in carbon nanomaterials, namely, nanotubes and graphene --- low-dimensional, sp^2-bonded carbon systems with unique finite-frequency properties. Japan and the U.S. are global leaders in both THz research and carbon research, and stimulating cooperation is critical to further advance THz science and to commercialize products developed in the lab. However, obstacles exist for international collaboration --- primarily linguistic and cultural barriers --- and this PIRE project aims to address these barriers through the integration of our research and education programs. Our strong educational portfolio endeavours to cultivate interest in nanotechnology amongst young U.S. undergraduate students and encourage them to pursue graduate study and academic research in the physical sciences, especially those from underrepresented groups. Our award-winning International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program, NanoJapan, provides structured research internships in Japanese university laboratories with Japanese mentors --- recognized as a model international education program for science and engineering students. The project builds the skill sets of nanoscience researchers and students by cultivating international and inter-cultural awareness, research expertise, and specific academic interests in nanotechnology. U.S. project partners include Rice

  12. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaoyin; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-04-01

    Carbon materials on the nanoscale exhibit diverse outstanding properties, rendering them extremely suitable for the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors. Over the past two decades, advances in this area have continuously emerged. In this review, we attempt to survey the recent developments of electrochemical biosensors based on six types of carbon nanomaterials (CNs), i.e., graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon dots, carbon nanofibers, nanodiamonds and buckminsterfullerene. For each material, representative samples are introduced to expound the different roles of the CNs in electrochemical bioanalytical strategies. In addition, remaining challenges and perspectives for future developments are also briefly discussed.

  13. The fast fabrication of flexible electronic devices of graphene composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihu; Wang, Wei; Yu, Lingke; Zhan, Zhan; Sun, Daoheng

    2016-08-01

    The rapid production and accurate deposition of graphene composites are first integrated into one process, due to the strong interaction between the polymer bond with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) and graphene. It is demonstrated that tension-shear exfoliation in high viscosity fluid may get a higher graphene production rate than in N-methyl-pyrrolidone. In addition, the micro-scale patterns of graphene nanomaterials produced by this method show high electrical conductivity and superior sensitivity to pressure due to their porous structure. PMID:27324992

  14. The fast fabrication of flexible electronic devices of graphene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shihu; Wang, Wei; Yu, Lingke; Zhan, Zhan; Sun, Daoheng

    2016-08-01

    The rapid production and accurate deposition of graphene composites are first integrated into one process, due to the strong interaction between the polymer bond with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) and graphene. It is demonstrated that tension-shear exfoliation in high viscosity fluid may get a higher graphene production rate than in N-methyl-pyrrolidone. In addition, the micro-scale patterns of graphene nanomaterials produced by this method show high electrical conductivity and superior sensitivity to pressure due to their porous structure.

  15. Nanomaterials for renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shimou; Li, Liang; Sun, Hanwen; Sun, Jian; Lu, Baowang

    2015-05-19

    With demand for sustainable energy, resource, and environment protection, new material technologies are constantly expanding during the last few couple of decades. An intensive attention has been given by the scientific communities. In particular, nanomaterials are increasingly playing an active role either by increasing the efficiency of the energy storage and conversion processes or by improving the device design and performance. This special issue presents recent research advances in various aspects of energy storage technologies, advanced batteries, fuel cells, solar cell, biofuels, and so on. Design and synthesis of novel materials have demonstrated great impact on the utilization of the sustainable energy, which need to solve the increasing shortage of resource and the issues of environmental pollution.

  16. Biofunctionalization of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2005-11-01

    The new book series 'Nanotechnologies for the Life Sciences' is the first comprehensive source on the topics where materials science and life sciences meet on the nanoscale. Each volume provides a concise overview of the underlying nanotechnologies for the design, creation and characterization of biomedical applications, collating the many articles found in the relevant specialized journals but as yet unseen by those working in other disciplines. Written by international experts describing the various facets of nanofabrication, the ten volumes of this single source of information cover the complete range of synthetic methods, tools and techniques being developed towards medical, biological and cybernetic applications. This volume covers the synthetic and materials aspects of instilling biocompatibility into nanomaterials with properties desirable for advanced medical and biological applications. Essential reading for anyone working in the various related disciplines: from medicine and biology through chemistry, materials science and physics to engineering.

  17. Nanomaterials for renewable energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Shimou; Li, Liang; Sun, Hanwen; Sun, Jian; Lu, Baowang

    2015-05-19

    With demand for sustainable energy, resource, and environment protection, new material technologies are constantly expanding during the last few couple of decades. An intensive attention has been given by the scientific communities. In particular, nanomaterials are increasingly playing an active role either by increasing the efficiency of the energy storage and conversion processes or by improving the device design and performance. This special issue presents recent research advances in various aspects of energy storage technologies, advanced batteries, fuel cells, solar cell, biofuels, and so on. Design and synthesis of novel materials have demonstrated great impact on the utilization of themore » sustainable energy, which need to solve the increasing shortage of resource and the issues of environmental pollution.« less

  18. Characterization Challenges for Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Nurmi, James; Qiang, You; Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Seal, Sudipta; Sharma, Amit M.; Tratnyek, P. G.; Wang, Chong M.

    2008-03-10

    Nanostructured materials are increasingly subject to nearly every type of chemical and physical analysis possible. Because of their small feature size there is a significant focus on tools with high spatial resolution. Because of their high surface area, it is also natural to characterize nanomaterials using tools designed to analyze surfaces. Regardless of the approach, nanostructured materials present a variety of obstacles to adequate, useful and needed analysis. This paper provides short overviews to some of the issues and complications including: particle stability, environmental effects, specimen handling, surface coating, contamination and time. Some specific examples are provided from a our work focused on ceria nanoparticles and iron metal-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles in which we use a combination of tools for routine analysis including XPS, TEM, and XRD and apply other methods as needed to obtain essential information.

  19. Electrical Contacts to Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, P R; Faraby, H; DiBattista, M

    2015-12-01

    The efficient passage of electrical current from an external contact to a nanomaterial is necessary for harnessing characteristics unique to the nanoscale, such as those relevant to energy quantization. However, an intrinsic resistance pertinent to dimensionality crossover and the presence of impurities precludes optimal electrical contact formation. In this review, we first discuss the relevant principles and contact resistance measurement methodologies, with modifications necessary for the nanoscale. Aspects related to the deposition of the contact material are deemed to be crucial. Consequently, the use of focused ion beam (FIB) based deposition, which relies on the ion-induced decomposition of a metallorganic precursor, and which has been frequently utilized for nanoscale contacts is considered in detail. PMID:26682353

  20. Cytotoxicity of graphene oxide and graphene in human erythrocytes and skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ken-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Shen; Macosko, Christopher W; Haynes, Christy L

    2011-07-01

    Two-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials, including graphene oxide and graphene, are potential candidates for biomedical applications such as sensors, cell labeling, bacterial inhibition, and drug delivery. Herein, we explore the biocompatibility of graphene-related materials with controlled physical and chemical properties. The size and extent of exfoliation of graphene oxide sheets was varied by sonication intensity and time. Graphene sheets were obtained from graphene oxide by a simple (hydrazine-free) hydrothermal route. The particle size, morphology, exfoliation extent, oxygen content, and surface charge of graphene oxide and graphene were characterized by wide-angle powder X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta-potential. One method of toxicity assessment was based on measurement of the efflux of hemoglobin from suspended red blood cells. At the smallest size, graphene oxide showed the greatest hemolytic activity, whereas aggregated graphene sheets exhibited the lowest hemolytic activity. Coating graphene oxide with chitosan nearly eliminated hemolytic activity. Together, these results demonstrate that particle size, particulate state, and oxygen content/surface charge of graphene have a strong impact on biological/toxicological responses to red blood cells. In addition, the cytotoxicity of graphene oxide and graphene sheets was investigated by measuring mitochondrial activity in adherent human skin fibroblasts using two assays. The methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, a typical nanotoxicity assay, fails to predict the toxicity of graphene oxide and graphene toxicity because of the spontaneous reduction of MTT by graphene and graphene oxide, resulting in a false positive signal. However, appropriate alternate assessments, using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8), trypan blue exclusion, and reactive oxygen species assay reveal that the compacted graphene

  1. Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management materials, and nanofiltration for water recovery. Additional applications include electrical power/energy storage systems, hybrid systems power generation, advanced proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and air revitalization. The need for nanomaterials and their growth, characterization, processing and space exploration applications is discussed. Data is presented for developing solid-supported amine adsorbents based on carbon nanotube materials and functionalization of nanomaterials is examined.

  2. Biotechnological synthesis of functional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jonathan R; Byrne, James M; Coker, Victoria S

    2011-08-01

    Biological systems, especially those using microorganisms, have the potential to offer cheap, scalable and highly tunable green synthetic routes for the production of the latest generation of nanomaterials. Recent advances in the biotechnological synthesis of functional nano-scale materials are described. These nanomaterials range from catalysts to novel inorganic antimicrobials, nanomagnets, remediation agents and quantum dots for electronic and optical devices. Where possible, the roles of key biological macromolecules in controlling production of the nanomaterials are highlighted, and also technological limitations that must be addressed for widespread implementation are discussed. PMID:21742483

  3. Nanomaterial-based biosensors using dual transducing elements for solution phase detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Su, Xiaodi; Lu, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Biosensors incorporating nanomaterials have demonstrated superior performance compared to their conventional counterparts. Most reported sensors use nanomaterials as a single transducer of signals, while biosensor designs using dual transducing elements have emerged as new approaches to further improve overall sensing performance. This review focuses on recent developments in nanomaterial-based biosensors using dual transducing elements for solution phase detection. The review begins with a brief introduction of the commonly used nanomaterial transducers suitable for designing dual element sensors, including quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles, graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanodots. This is followed by the presentation of the four basic design principles, namely Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), Amplified Fluorescence Polarization (AFP), Bio-barcode Assay (BCA) and Chemiluminescence (CL), involving either two kinds of nanomaterials, or one nanomaterial and an organic luminescent agent (e.g. organic dyes, luminescent polymers) as dual transducers. Biomolecular and chemical analytes or biological interactions are detected by their control of the assembly and disassembly of the two transducing elements that change the distance between them, the size of the fluorophore-containing composite, or the catalytic properties of the nanomaterial transducers, among other property changes. Comparative discussions on their respective design rules and overall performances are presented afterwards. Compared with the single transducer biosensor design, such a dual-transducer configuration exhibits much enhanced flexibility and design versatility, allowing biosensors to be more specifically devised for various purposes. The review ends by highlighting some of the further development opportunities in this field. PMID:25763412

  4. Graphene-plasmon polaritons: From fundamental properties to potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Zhu, Xiaolong; Li, Bo-Hong; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-04-01

    With unique possibilities for controlling light in nanoscale devices, graphene plasmonics has opened new perspectives to the nanophotonics community with potential applications in metamaterials, modulators, photodetectors, and sensors. In this paper, we briefly review the recent exciting progress in graphene plasmonics. We begin with a general description of the optical properties of graphene, particularly focusing on the dispersion of graphene-plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation of graphene-plasmon polaritons of spatially extended graphene is expressed in terms of the local response limit with an intraband contribution. With this theoretical foundation of graphene-plasmon polaritons, we then discuss recent exciting progress, paying specific attention to the following topics: excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons, electron-phonon interactions in graphene on polar substrates, and tunable graphene plasmonics with applications in modulators and sensors. Finally, we address some of the apparent challenges and promising perspectives of graphene plasmonics.

  5. Graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinming; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Talirz, Leopold; Ruffieux, Pascal; Söde, Hajo; Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Berger, Reinhard; Li, Rongjin; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Despite graphene's remarkable electronic properties, the lack of an electronic bandgap severely limits its potential for applications in digital electronics. In contrast to extended films, narrow strips of graphene (called graphene nanoribbons) are semiconductors through quantum confinement, with a bandgap that can be tuned as a function of the nanoribbon width and edge structure. Atomically precise graphene nanoribbons can be obtained via a bottom-up approach based on the surface-assisted assembly of molecular precursors. Here we report the fabrication of graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions and heterostructures by combining pristine hydrocarbon precursors with their nitrogen-substituted equivalents. Using scanning probe methods, we show that the resulting heterostructures consist of seamlessly assembled segments of pristine (undoped) graphene nanoribbons (p-GNRs) and deterministically nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs), and behave similarly to traditional p-n junctions. With a band shift of 0.5 eV and an electric field of 2 × 10(8) V m(-1) at the heterojunction, these materials bear a high potential for applications in photovoltaics and electronics. PMID:25194948

  6. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  7. Thermal oxidation of carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebova, N. V.; Nechitailov, A. A.; Kukushkina, Yu. A.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2011-05-01

    The process of the thermal oxidation of various carbon nanomaterials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon black, nanoporous carbon and graphite) used in the catalytic layers of electrochemical energy converters (electrolyzers, fuel cells) has been studied. The thermal stability of these materials has been determined. Relationships between the structural characteristics of carbon nanomaterials and the parameters of their thermal oxidation in air have determined using the methods of differential thermal analysis and adsorption-structure analysis.

  8. Plasma nanofabrication and nanomaterials safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z. J.; Levchenko, I.; Kumar, S.; Yajadda, M. M. A.; Yick, S.; Seo, D. H.; Martin, P. J.; Peel, S.; Kuncic, Z.; Ostrikov, K.

    2011-05-01

    The fast advances in nanotechnology have raised increasing concerns related to the safety of nanomaterials when exposed to humans, animals and the environment. However, despite several years of research, the nanomaterials safety field is still in its infancy owing to the complexities of structural and surface properties of these nanomaterials and organism-specific responses to them. Recently, plasma-based technology has been demonstrated as a versatile and effective way for nanofabrication, yet its health and environment-benign nature has not been widely recognized. Here we address the environmental and occupational health and safety effects of various zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials and elaborate the advantages of using plasmas as a safe nanofabrication tool. These advantages include but are not limited to the production of substrate-bound nanomaterials, the isolation of humans from harmful nanomaterials, and the effective reforming of toxic and flammable gases. It is concluded that plasma nanofabrication can minimize the hazards in the workplace and represents a safe way for future nanofabrication technologies.

  9. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  10. Gold-based hybrid nanomaterials for biosensing and molecular diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Choi, Ji Hye; Colas, Marion; Kim, Dong Ha; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-06-15

    The properties of gold nanomaterials are particularly of interest to many researchers, since they show unique physiochemical properties such as optical adsorption of specific wavelength of light, high electrical conductance with rich surface electrons, and facile surface modification with sulfhydryl groups. These properties have facilitated the use of gold nanomaterials in the development of various hybrid systems for biosensors and molecular diagnostics. Combined with various synthetic materials such as fluorescence dyes, polymers, oligonucleotides, graphene oxides (GO), and quantum dots (QDs), the gold-based hybrid nanomaterials offer multi-functionalities in molecular detection with high specificity and sensitivity. These two aspects result in the increase of detection speed as well as the lower detection limits, having shown that this diagnosis method is more effective than other conventional ones. In this review, we have highlighted various examples of nanomaterials for biosensing and molecular diagnostics. The gold-based hybrid systems are categorized by three distinct detection approaches, in which include (1) optical, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), RAMAN, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), (2) fluorescence, such as förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and nanomaterial surface energy transfer (NSET), and (3) electrochemical, such as potentiometic, amperometric, and conductometric. Each example provides the detailed mechanism of molecular detection as well as the supporting experimental result with the limit of detection (LOD). Lastly, future perspective on novel development of gold-based hybrid nanomaterials is discussed as well as their challenges. PMID:26894985

  11. Terms of endearment: Bacteria meet graphene nanosurfaces.

    PubMed

    Tegou, Evangelia; Magana, Maria; Katsogridaki, Alexandra Eleni; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Raptis, Vasilios; Jordan, Sheldon; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Chatzandroulis, Stavros; Ornelas, Catia; Tegos, George P

    2016-05-01

    Microbial multidrug resistance poses serious risks in returning the human species into the pre-antibiotic era if it remains unsolved. While conventional research approaches to combat infectious diseases have been inadequate, nanomaterials are a promising alternative for the development of sound antimicrobial countermeasures. Graphene, a two-dimensional ultra-thin nanomaterial, possesses excellent electronic and biocompatibility properties, which position it in the biotechnology forefront for diverse applications in biosensing, therapeutics, diagnostics, drug delivery and device development. Yet, several questions remain unanswered. For instance, the way these nanosurfaces interact with the microbial entities is poorly understood. The mechanistic elucidation of this interface seems critical to determine the feasibility of applications under development. Are graphene derivatives appropriate materials to design potent antimicrobial agents, vehicles or effective diagnostic microsensors? Has the partition of major microbial resistance phenotypic determinants been sufficiently investigated? Can toxicity become a limiting factor? Are we getting closer to clinical implementation? To facilitate research conducive to answer such questions, this review describes the features of the graphene-bacterial interaction. An overview on paradigms of graphene-microbial interactions is expected to shed light on the range of materials available, and identify possible applications, serving the ultimate goal to develop deeper understanding and collective conscience for the true capabilities of this nanomaterial platform. PMID:26946404

  12. Highly energetic compositions based on functionalized carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi-Long; Gozin, Michael; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Cohen, Adva; Pang, Si-Ping

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, research in the field of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), such as fullerenes, expanded graphite (EG), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and graphene oxide (GO), has been widely used in energy storage, electronics, catalysts, and biomaterials, as well as medical applications. Regarding energy storage, one of the most important research directions is the development of CNMs as carriers of energetic components by coating or encapsulation, thus forming safer advanced nanostructures with better performances. Moreover, some CNMs can also be functionalized to become energetic additives. This review article covers updated preparation methods for the aforementioned CNMs, with a more specific orientation towards the use of these nanomaterials in energetic compositions. The effects of these functionalized CNMs on thermal decomposition, ignition, combustion and the reactivity properties of energetic compositions are significant and are discussed in detail. It has been shown that the use of functionalized CNMs in energetic compositions greatly improves their combustion performances, thermal stability and sensitivity. In particular, functionalized fullerenes, CNTs and GO are the most appropriate candidate components in nanothermites, solid propellants and gas generators, due to their superior catalytic properties as well as facile preparation methods. PMID:26880518

  13. Highly energetic compositions based on functionalized carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qi-Long; Gozin, Michael; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Cohen, Adva; Pang, Si-Ping

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, research in the field of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), such as fullerenes, expanded graphite (EG), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and graphene oxide (GO), has been widely used in energy storage, electronics, catalysts, and biomaterials, as well as medical applications. Regarding energy storage, one of the most important research directions is the development of CNMs as carriers of energetic components by coating or encapsulation, thus forming safer advanced nanostructures with better performances. Moreover, some CNMs can also be functionalized to become energetic additives. This review article covers updated preparation methods for the aforementioned CNMs, with a more specific orientation towards the use of these nanomaterials in energetic compositions. The effects of these functionalized CNMs on thermal decomposition, ignition, combustion and the reactivity properties of energetic compositions are significant and are discussed in detail. It has been shown that the use of functionalized CNMs in energetic compositions greatly improves their combustion performances, thermal stability and sensitivity. In particular, functionalized fullerenes, CNTs and GO are the most appropriate candidate components in nanothermites, solid propellants and gas generators, due to their superior catalytic properties as well as facile preparation methods.

  14. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Activation as the Main Mechanisms Underlying Graphene Toxicity against Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Anna; Skoda, Marta; Dudek, Ilona; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to the development of nanotechnology graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted the most attention owing to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Graphene can be applied in many fields among which biomedical applications especially diagnostics, cancer therapy, and drug delivery have been arousing a lot of interest. Therefore it is essential to understand better the graphene-cell interactions, especially toxicity and underlying mechanisms for proper use and development. This review presents the recent knowledge concerning graphene cytotoxicity and influence on different cancer cell lines. PMID:26649139

  15. Vascular Distribution of Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Once considered primarily occupational, novel nanotechnology innovation and application has led to widespread domestic use and intentional biomedical exposures. With these exciting advances, the breadth and depth of toxicological considerations must also be expanded. The vascular system interacts with every tissue in the body, striving to homeostasis. Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have been reported to distribute in many different organs and tissues. However, these observations have tended to use approaches requiring tissue homogenization and/or gross organ analyses. These techniques, while effective in establishing presence, preclude an exact determination of where ENM are deposited within a tissue. It is necessary to identify this exact distribution and deposition of ENM throughout the cardiovascular system, with respect to vascular hemodynamics and in vivo/ in vitro ENM modifications taken into account if nanotechnology is to achieve its full potential. Distinct levels of the vasculature will first be described as individual compartments. Then the vasculature will be considered as a whole. These unique compartments and biophysical conditions will be discussed in terms of their propensity to favor ENM deposition. Understanding levels of the vasculature will also be discussed. Ultimately, future studies must verify the mechanisms speculated on and presented herein. PMID:24777845

  16. Nanomaterials - a Canadian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Peter

    2004-03-01

    I will review nanomaterials research in Canada with a particular emphasis on coordinated initiatives and some experimental highlights, starting with a summary of Canadian initiatives. These range from the National Science and Engineering Research Council's Nano Innovation Platform (www.physics.mcgill.ca/NSERCnanoIP/), provincial initiatives like NanoQuebec (www.NanoQuebec.ca), organizations such as the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research (www.ciar.ca) or the National Institute of Nanotechnology (www.nint.ca) - a joint initiatives between the University of Alberta, the National Research Council (NRC) and the Province of Alberta. University based materials centers such as the Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research in Hamilton, the Institute for Research in Materials in Halifax, the Pacific Center for Advanced Materials and Microstructures in Vancouver or the Strategic Regroupment of University Centers in Advanced Materials in Montreal have strong nano components as has the NRC at various institutes. The 2nd half of the talk will highlight some Canadian research strengths in nano materials, from photonics, energy storage, bio-med to molecular self assembly and paper coatings.

  17. Energetics of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra Navrotsky; Brian Woodfield; Juliana Boerio-Goates; Frances Hellman

    2005-01-28

    This project, "Energetics of Nanomaterials," represents a three-year collaboration among Alexandra Navrotsky (UC Davis), Brian Woodfield and Juliana Boerio-Goates (BYU), and Frances Hellman (UC Berkeley). It's purpose has been to explore the differences between bulk materials, nanoparticles, and thin films in term of their thermodynamic properties, with an emphasis on heat capaacities and entropies, as well as enthalpies. the three groups have brought very different expertise and capabilities to the project. Navrotsky is a solid-state chemist and geochemist, with a unique Thermochemistry Facility emphasizing enthalpy of formation measurements by high temperature oxide melt and room temperatue acid solution calorimetry. Boerio-Goates and Woodfield are calorimetry. Hellman is a physicist with expertise in magnetism and heat capacity measurements using microscale "detector on a chip" calorimetric technology that she pioneered. The overarching question of our work is "How does the free energy play out in nanoparticles?", or "How do differences in free energy affect overall nanoparticle behavior?" Because the free energy represents the temperature-dependent balance between the enthalpy of a system and its entropy, there are two separate, but related, components to the experimental investigations: Solution calorimetric measurements provide the energetics and two types of heat capacity measurements the entropy. We use materials that are well characterized in other ways (structurally, magnetically, and chemically), and samples are shared across the collaboration.

  18. Probing mechanical principles of cell-nanomaterial interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, various types of nanoparticles, nanowires, nanofibers, nanotubes, and atomically thin plates and sheets have emerged as candidates for an ever increasing list of potential applications for next generation electronics, microchips, composites, barrier coatings, biosensors, drug delivery, and energy harvesting and conversion systems. There is now an urgent societal need to understand both beneficial and hazardous effects of nanotechnology which is projected to produce and release thousands of tons of nanomaterials into the environment in the coming decades. This paper aims to present an overview of some recent studies conducted at Brown University on the mechanics of cell-nanomaterial interactions, including the modeling of nanoparticles entering cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of nanoparticles interacting with cell membranes. The discussions will be organized around the following questions: Why and how does cellular uptake of nanoparticles depend on particle size, shape, elasticity and surface structure? In particular, we will discuss the effect of nanoparticle size on receptor-mediated endocytosis, the effect of elastic stiffness on cell-particle interactions, how high aspect ratio nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes enter cells and how different geometrical patterns of ligands on a nanoparticle can be designed to control the rate of particle uptake.

  19. PREFACE: Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2013-02-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials—single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene, in particular—have emerged in the last decade as novel low-dimensional systems with extraordinary properties. Because they are direct-bandgap systems, SWCNTs are one of the leading candidates to unify electronic and optical functions in nanoscale circuitry; their diameter-dependent bandgaps can be utilized for multi-wavelength devices. Graphene's ultrahigh carrier mobilities are promising for high-frequency electronic devices, while, at the same time, it is predicted to have ideal properties for terahertz generation and detection due to its unique zero-gap, zero-mass band structure. There have been a large number of basic optical studies on these materials, but most of them were performed in the weak-excitation, quasi-equilibrium regime. In order to probe and assess their performance characteristics as optoelectronic materials under device-operating conditions, it is crucial to strongly drive them and examine their optical properties in highly non-equilibrium situations and with ultrashot time resolution. In this section, the reader will find the latest results in this rapidly growing field of research. We have assembled contributions from some of the leading experts in ultrafast and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of carbon-based nanomaterials. Specific topics featured include: thermalization, cooling, and recombination dynamics of photo-generated carriers; stimulated emission, gain, and amplification; ultrafast photoluminescence; coherent phonon dynamics; exciton-phonon and exciton-plasmon interactions; exciton-exciton annihilation and Auger processes; spontaneous and stimulated emission of terahertz radiation; four-wave mixing and harmonic generation; ultrafast photocurrents; the AC Stark and Franz-Keldysh effects; and non-perturbative light-mater coupling. We would like to express our sincere thanks to those who contributed their latest results to this special section, and the

  20. Graphene in therapeutics delivery: Problems, solutions and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    McCallion, Catriona; Burthem, John; Rees-Unwin, Karen; Golovanov, Alexander; Pluen, Alain

    2016-07-01

    Graphene based nanomaterials are being used experimentally to deliver therapeutic agents to cells or tissues both in vitro and in vivo. However, substantial challenges remain before moving to safe and effective use in humans. In particular, it is recognised that graphene molecules undergo complex interactions with solutes, proteins or cellular systems within the body, and that these interactions impact significantly on the behaviour or toxicity of the molecule. Approaches to overcome these problems include modification of the graphene or its combination with other molecules to accentuate favourable characteristics or modify adverse interactions. This has led to an emerging role for graphene as one part of highly-tailored multifunctional delivery vehicles. This review examines the knowledge that underpins present approaches to exploit graphene in therapeutics delivery, discussing both favourable and unfavourable aspects of graphene behaviour in biological systems and how these may be modified; then considers the present place of the molecule and the challenges for its further development. PMID:27113141

  1. The Molecular Influence of Graphene and Graphene Oxide on the Immune System Under In Vitro and In Vivo Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Ilona; Skoda, Marta; Jarosz, Anna; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide (GO), due to their physicochemical properties and biocompatibility, can be used as an innovative biomedical material in biodetection, drug distribution in the body, treating neoplasms, regenerative medicine, and in implant surgery. Research on the biomedical use of graphene and GO that has been carried out until now is very promising and shows that carbon nanomaterials present high biocompatibility. However, the intolerance of the immune system to graphene nanomaterials, however low, may in consequence make it impossible to use them in medicine. This paper shows the specific mechanism of the molecular influence of graphene and GO on macrophages and lymphocytes under in vitro and in vivo conditions and their practical application in medicine. Under in vitro conditions graphene and GO cause an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, as a result of the activation of Toll-like receptors in macrophages. Graphene activates apoptosis in macrophages through the TGFbr/Smad/Bcl-2 pathway and also through JNK kinases that are stimulated by an increase of ROS in the cell or through a signal received by Smad proteins. Under in vivo conditions, graphene nanomaterials induce the development of the local inflammatory reaction and the development of granulomas in parenchymal organs. However, there is a huge discrepancy between the results obtained by different research groups, which requires a detailed analysis. In this work we decided to collect and analyze existing research and tried to explain the discrepancies. Understanding the precise mechanism of how this nanomaterial influences immune system cells allows estimating the potential influence of grapheme and GO on the human body. PMID:26502273

  2. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄. PMID:27483572

  3. Mass spectrometry imaging reveals the sub-organ distribution of carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suming; Xiong, Caiqiao; Liu, Huihui; Wan, Qiongqiong; Hou, Jian; He, Qing; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham; Nie, Zongxiu

    2015-02-01

    Label and label-free methods to image carbon-based nanomaterials exist. However, label-based approaches are limited by the risk of tag detachment over time, and label-free spectroscopic methods have slow imaging speeds, weak photoluminescence signals and strong backgrounds. Here, we present a label-free mass spectrometry imaging method to detect carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide and carbon nanodots in mice. The large molecular weights of nanoparticles are difficult to detect using conventional mass spectrometers, but our method overcomes this problem by using the intrinsic carbon cluster fingerprint signal of the nanomaterials. We mapped and quantified the sub-organ distribution of the nanomaterials in mice. Our results showed that most carbon nanotubes and nanodots were found in the outer parenchyma of the kidney, and all three materials were seen in the red pulp of the spleen. The highest concentrations of nanotubes in the spleen were found within the marginal zone.

  4. Photoinduced toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip Scott

    Engineered nanomaterials including metal, metal oxide and carbon based nanomaterials are extensively used in a wide variety of applications to the extent that their presence in the environment is expected to increase dramatically over the next century. These nanomaterials may be photodegraded by solar radiation and thereby release metal ions into the environment that can produce cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Photoinduced toxicity experiments are performed exposing human lung epithelial carcinoma cells [H1650] to engineered semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdSe quantum dots and ZnO nanoparticles after exposure to 3, 6, and 9 hours of solar simulated radiation. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the metal ions are evaluated using ZnSO4 and CdCl2 solutions for the MTT assay and Comet assay respectively. The objective of the dissertation is to obtain quantitative information about the environmental transformation of engineered nanomaterials and their mechanism of toxicity. This information is critical for addressing the environmental health and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials to workers, consumers and the environment.

  5. Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body. PMID:23012342

  6. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  7. Editorial: Functional nanomaterials for energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Rupesh S.; Ma, Yuan -Ron; Kim, Jin -Hyeok; Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Ghosh, Kartik C.

    2015-02-16

    In order to leap forward from the energy crisis issues and improve lifestyle, we all are looking positively toward nanomaterials or nanostructures. Thus, the exploration of new features of both typical and novel materials at the nanoscale level is playing important role in the development of innovative and improved energy technologies that have the capability of conserve/convert energy at large extend. By tailoring the surface morphology of materials in its nanoforms, the functional properties can be significantly adapted and specifically combined to produce highly potent multifunctional materials for conversion, storage, and consumption of energy in various forms. The papers selected for this special issue represent a good panel for addressing various energy applications including solar cell, fuel cells, nanofluid twisters, and gas sensors. Of course, the selected topic and the papers are not an exhaustive representation of the utilization of functional nanomaterials for energy applications. Nevertheless, they represent the rich and many-facet knowledge, which we have the pleasure of sharing with the readers.

  8. Editorial: Functional nanomaterials for energy applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Devan, Rupesh S.; Ma, Yuan -Ron; Kim, Jin -Hyeok; Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Ghosh, Kartik C.

    2015-02-16

    In order to leap forward from the energy crisis issues and improve lifestyle, we all are looking positively toward nanomaterials or nanostructures. Thus, the exploration of new features of both typical and novel materials at the nanoscale level is playing important role in the development of innovative and improved energy technologies that have the capability of conserve/convert energy at large extend. By tailoring the surface morphology of materials in its nanoforms, the functional properties can be significantly adapted and specifically combined to produce highly potent multifunctional materials for conversion, storage, and consumption of energy in various forms. The papers selectedmore » for this special issue represent a good panel for addressing various energy applications including solar cell, fuel cells, nanofluid twisters, and gas sensors. Of course, the selected topic and the papers are not an exhaustive representation of the utilization of functional nanomaterials for energy applications. Nevertheless, they represent the rich and many-facet knowledge, which we have the pleasure of sharing with the readers.« less

  9. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  10. Substrate-Sensitive Graphene Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuhua; Yin, Jun; Liu, Xiaofei; Li, Jidong; Zhang, Jiahuan; Guo, Wanlin

    2016-03-01

    The inertness of graphene toward reaction with ambient molecules is essential for realizing durable devices with stable performance. Many device applications require graphene to contact with substrates, but whose impact on the chemical property of graphene has been largely overlooked. Here, we combine comprehensive first-principles analyses with experiments to show that graphene oxidation is highly sensitive to substrates. Graphene remains inert on SiO2 and hexagonal boron nitride but becomes increasingly weak against oxidation on metal substrates because of enhanced charge transfer and chemical interaction between them. In particular, Ni and Co substrates lead to spontaneous oxidation of graphene, while a Cu substrate maximally promotes the oxygen diffusion on graphene, with an estimated diffusivity 13 orders of magnitude higher than that on freestanding graphene. Bilayer graphene is revealed to have high oxidation resistance independent of substrate and thus is a better choice for high-performance nanoelectronics. Our findings should be extendable to a wide spectrum of chemical functionalizations of two-dimensional materials mediated by substrates. PMID:26884318

  11. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Chen, Aicheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics. PMID:26404304

  12. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Chen, Aicheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics. PMID:26404304

  13. Chemically reduced graphene contains inherent metallic impurities present in parent natural and synthetic graphite

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Chua, Chun Kiang; Khezri, Bahareh; Sofer, Zdeněk; Webster, Richard D.; Pumera, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Graphene-related materials are in the forefront of nanomaterial research. One of the most common ways to prepare graphenes is to oxidize graphite (natural or synthetic) to graphite oxide and exfoliate it to graphene oxide with consequent chemical reduction to chemically reduced graphene. Here, we show that both natural and synthetic graphite contain a large amount of metallic impurities that persist in the samples of graphite oxide after the oxidative treatment, and chemically reduced graphene after the chemical reduction. We demonstrate that, despite a substantial elimination during the oxidative treatment of graphite samples, a significant amount of impurities associated to the chemically reduced graphene materials still remain and alter their electrochemical properties dramatically. We propose a method for the purification of graphenes based on thermal treatment at 1,000 °C in chlorine atmosphere to reduce the effect of such impurities on the electrochemical properties. Our findings have important implications on the whole field of graphene research. PMID:22826262

  14. Synthesis and cyto-genotoxicity evaluation of graphene on mice spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Akhavan, Omid; Shamsara, Mehdi; Daliri, Morteza; Dashtizad, Mojtaba; Farmany, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    The present study analyzed the dose-dependent cyto- and genotoxicity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) for the first time. The results showed that graphene oxide significantly increased oxidative stress at concentrations of 100 and 400μg/ml, while low concentrations did not have a significant effect. In addition, according to the MTT assay, the cell number decreased in high-concentration (100 and 400μg/ml) graphene oxide-treated samples compared to untreated cells. However, a reduced graphene-treated sample demonstrated a significant increase in cell number. Moreover, microscopic analysis found high concentrations of graphene nanosheets in cell culture medium that reduced the number of colonies and colony forming cells. We conclude that a high concentration of graphene can be toxic to SSCs. However, such toxicity can be reduced by the surface modification of graphene nanomaterials. PMID:27451364

  15. Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Peter G; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. Future generations of rechargeable lithium batteries are required to power portable electronic devices (cellphones, laptop computers etc.), store electricity from renewable sources, and as a vital component in new hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve the increase in energy and power density essential to meet the future challenges of energy storage, new materials chemistry, and especially new nanomaterials chemistry, is essential. We must find ways of synthesizing new nanomaterials with new properties or combinations of properties, for use as electrodes and electrolytes in lithium batteries. Herein we review some of the recent scientific advances in nanomaterials, and especially in nanostructured materials, for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18338357

  16. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-08-19

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  17. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  18. Cellular Stress Responses Elicited by Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials are being incorporated continuously into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigation of underlying pathwa...

  19. Toxicity of Graphene Shells, Graphene Oxide, and Graphene Oxide Paper Evaluated with Escherichia coli Biotests.

    PubMed

    Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Rakov, Eduard G; Deryabin, Dmitry G

    2015-01-01

    The plate-like graphene shells (GS) produced by an original methane pyrolysis method and their derivatives graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide paper (GO-P) were evaluated with luminescent Escherichia coli biotests and additional bacterial-based assays which together revealed the graphene-family nanomaterials' toxicity and bioactivity mechanisms. Bioluminescence inhibition assay, fluorescent two-component staining to evaluate cell membrane permeability, and atomic force microscopy data showed GO expressed bioactivity in aqueous suspension, whereas GS suspensions and the GO-P surface were assessed as nontoxic materials. The mechanism of toxicity of GO was shown not to be associated with oxidative stress in the targeted soxS::lux and katG::lux reporter cells; also, GO did not lead to significant mechanical disruption of treated bacteria with the release of intracellular DNA contents into the environment. The well-coordinated time- and dose-dependent surface charge neutralization and transport and energetic disorders in the Escherichia coli cells suggest direct membrane interaction, internalization, and perturbation (i.e., "membrane stress") as a clue to graphene oxide's mechanism of toxicity. PMID:26221608

  20. Toxicity of Graphene Shells, Graphene Oxide, and Graphene Oxide Paper Evaluated with Escherichia coli Biotests

    PubMed Central

    Efremova, Ludmila V.; Vasilchenko, Alexey S.; Rakov, Eduard G.; Deryabin, Dmitry G.

    2015-01-01

    The plate-like graphene shells (GS) produced by an original methane pyrolysis method and their derivatives graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide paper (GO-P) were evaluated with luminescent Escherichia coli biotests and additional bacterial-based assays which together revealed the graphene-family nanomaterials' toxicity and bioactivity mechanisms. Bioluminescence inhibition assay, fluorescent two-component staining to evaluate cell membrane permeability, and atomic force microscopy data showed GO expressed bioactivity in aqueous suspension, whereas GS suspensions and the GO-P surface were assessed as nontoxic materials. The mechanism of toxicity of GO was shown not to be associated with oxidative stress in the targeted soxS::lux and katG::lux reporter cells; also, GO did not lead to significant mechanical disruption of treated bacteria with the release of intracellular DNA contents into the environment. The well-coordinated time- and dose-dependent surface charge neutralization and transport and energetic disorders in the Escherichia coli cells suggest direct membrane interaction, internalization, and perturbation (i.e., “membrane stress”) as a clue to graphene oxide's mechanism of toxicity. PMID:26221608

  1. EDITORIAL: Excelling under strain: band engineering in nanomaterials Excelling under strain: band engineering in nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-08-01

    A little stress or strain has been known to improve the performance of athletes, actors and of course nanomaterials alike. In fact strain in silicon is now a major engineering tool for improving the performance of devices, and is ubiquitously used in device design and fabrication. Strain engineering alters a material's band structure, a model of electron behaviour that describes how as atoms come together in a solid, their discrete electron orbitals overlap to ultimately give rise to bands of allowed energy levels. In a strained crystal lattice of silicon or silicon germanium the distance between atoms in the lattice is greater than usual and the bands of allowed energy levels change. This July marks 100 years since Bohr submitted his paper 'On the constitution of atoms and molecules' [1] where he describes the structure of the atom in terms of discrete allowed energy levels. The paper was a seminal contribution to the development of quantum mechanics and laid the initial theoretical precepts for band gap engineering in devices. In this issue Nrauda and a collaboration of researchers in Europe and Australia study the growth of defect-free SiGe islands on pre-patterned silicon [2]. They analyse the strain in the islands and determine at what point lattice dislocations set in with a view to informing implementation of strain engineering in devices. The effects of strain on band structure in silicon and germanium were already studied and reported in the 1950s [3, 4]. Since then the increasing focus on nanoscale materials and the hunger for control of electronic properties has prompted further study of strain effects. The increased surface area to volume ratio in nanostructures changes the strain behaviour with respect to bulk materials, and this can also be exploited for handling and fine tuning strain to manipulate material properties. It is perhaps no surprise that graphene, one of the most high-profile materials in current nanotechnology research, has attracted

  2. Carbon Nanomaterials and DNA: from Molecular Recognition to Applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanjun; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-03-15

    DNA is polymorphic. Increasing evidence has indicated that many biologically important processes are related to DNA's conformational transition and assembly states. In particular, noncanonical DNA structures, such as the right-handed A-form, the left-handed Z-form, the triplex, the G-quadruplex, the i-motif, and so forth, have been specific targets for the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. Meanwhile, they have been widely used in the construction of smart DNA nanomaterials and nanoarchitectures. As rising stars in materials science, the family of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), including two-dimensional graphene, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and zero-dimensional graphene or carbon quantum dots (GQDs or CQDs), interact with DNA and are able to regulate the conformational transitions of DNA. The interaction of DNA with CNMs not only opens new opportunities for specific molecular recognition, but it also expands the promising applications of CNMs from materials science to biotechnology and biomedicine. In this Account, we focus on our contributions to the field of interactions between CNMs and DNA in which we have explored their promising applications in nanodevices, sensing, materials synthesis, and biomedicine. For one-dimensional CNTs, two-dimensional graphene, and zero-dimensional GQDs and CQDs, the basic principles, binding modes, and applications of the interactions between CNMs and DNA are reviewed. We aim to give prominence to the important status of CNMs in the field of molecular recognition for DNA. First, we summarized our discovery of the interactions between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with duplex, triplex, and human telomeric i-motif DNA and their interesting applications. For example, SWNTs are the first chemical agents that can selectively stabilize human telomeric i-motif DNA and induce its formation under physiological conditions. On the basis of this principle, two types of nanodevices were designed. One was used for

  3. Exoelectron Emission of a Carbon Nanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortov, V. S.; Slesarev, A. I.; Tkachev, A. G.

    2008-03-01

    The exoemission properties of a Taunite carbon nanomaterial consisting of nanosized multiwalled nanotubes and nanofibers were investigated by thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE). The TSEE spectra of the carbon nanomaterial differed from the spectra of pressed graphite. It was assumed that defect—adsorbate complexes were emission-active centers on the surface of the nanomaterial

  4. Graphene oxide assisted synthesis of GaN nanostructures for reducing cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jingying; Han, Qiusen; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chao; Yang, Yanlian; Dong, Hongwei; Wang, Chen

    2013-10-01

    We report a general approach for the synthesis of large-scale gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures by the graphene oxide (GO) assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. A modulation effect of GaN nanostructures on cell adhesion has been observed. The morphology of the GaN surface can be controlled by GO concentrations. This approach, which is based on the predictable choice of the ratio of GO to catalysts, can be readily extended to the synthesis of other materials with controllable nanostructures. Cell studies show that GaN nanostructures reduced cell adhesion significantly compared to GaN flat surfaces. The cell-repelling property is related to the nanostructure and surface wettability. These observations of the modulation effect on cell behaviors suggest new opportunities for novel GaN nanomaterial-based biomedical devices. We believe that potential applications will emerge in the biomedical and biotechnological fields.We report a general approach for the synthesis of large-scale gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures by the graphene oxide (GO) assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. A modulation effect of GaN nanostructures on cell adhesion has been observed. The morphology of the GaN surface can be controlled by GO concentrations. This approach, which is based on the predictable choice of the ratio of GO to catalysts, can be readily extended to the synthesis of other materials with controllable nanostructures. Cell studies show that GaN nanostructures reduced cell adhesion significantly compared to GaN flat surfaces. The cell-repelling property is related to the nanostructure and surface wettability. These observations of the modulation effect on cell behaviors suggest new opportunities for novel GaN nanomaterial-based biomedical devices. We believe that potential applications will emerge in the biomedical and biotechnological fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02770h

  5. Graphene aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pauzauskie, Peter J; Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Biener, Juergen

    2015-03-31

    Graphene aerogels with high conductivity and surface areas including a method for making a graphene aerogel, including the following steps: (1) preparing a reaction mixture comprising a graphene oxide suspension and at least one catalyst; (2) curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; (3) drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel; and (4) pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a graphene aerogel. Applications include electrical energy storage including batteries and supercapacitors.

  6. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials. PMID:26743467

  7. Structure of graphene oxide dispersed with ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rishikesh Pandey, Devendra K.; Khare, P. S.

    2014-10-15

    Graphene has been proposed as a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial with outstanding electronic, optical, thermal and mechanical properties for many applications. In present work a process of dispersion of graphene oxide with ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol solution with different pH values, have been studied. Samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, PL, UV-visible spectroscopy and particles size measurement. The results analysis indicates overall improved emission spectrum. It has been observed that the average diameter of RGO (Reduced Graphene Oxide) decreases in presence of ZnO nanoparticles from 3.8μm to 0.41μm.

  8. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials Undergoes Flat Vesiculation and Occurs by Revolution and Self-Rotation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Chen, Pengyu; Liang, Junshi; Guo, Ruohai; Yan, Li-Tang

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and transitional metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, are promising materials for the development of antimicrobial surfaces and the nanocarriers for intracellular therapy. Understanding cell interaction with these emerging materials is an urgently important issue to promoting their wide applications. Experimental studies suggest that two-dimensional nanomaterials enter cells mainly through receptor-mediated endocytosis. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and kinetic pathways of such processes remain unknown. Here, we combine computer simulations and theoretical derivation of the energy within the system to show that the receptor-mediated transport of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene nanosheet across model lipid membrane, experiences a flat vesiculation event governed by the receptor density and membrane tension. The graphene nanosheet is found to undergo revolution relative to the membrane and, particularly, unique self-rotation around its normal during membrane wrapping. We derive explicit expressions for the formation of the flat vesiculation, which reveals that the flat vesiculation event can be fundamentally dominated by a dimensionless parameter and a defined relationship determined by complicated energy contributions. The mechanism offers an essential understanding on the cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of the emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:26741298

  9. Volatile-nanoparticle-assisted optical visualization of individual carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Muqiang; Xie, Huanhuan; Wang, Qi; Xia, Kailun; Yin, Zhe; Zhang, Mingyu; Deng, Ningqin; Wang, Luning; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Yingying

    2016-07-01

    The development of nanomaterials has put forward high requirements for characterization techniques. Optical microscopy (OM), with easy accessibility and open operating spaces as compared to scanning electron microscopy, is a good choice to quickly locate materials and to be integrated with other equipment. However, OM is limited by its low resolution. Herein, we present a facile and non-destructive approach for optical observation of nanomaterials under conventional OMs with the aid of volatile nanoparticles (NPs), which can be deposited and removed in a controlled manner. The NPs deposited on the surface of nanomaterials render strong light scattering to enable the nanomaterials to become optically visible. For example, this approach enables the observation of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with OMs at low magnification or even with the naked eye. Both supported CNTs on various substrates and suspended CNTs can be observed with this approach. Most importantly, the NPs can be completely removed through moderate heat treatment or laser irradiation, avoiding potential influence on the properties or subsequent applications of nanomaterials. Furthermore, we systematically investigate the deposition of various volatile NPs (up to 14 kinds) for the optical observation of nanomaterials. We also demonstrated the application of this approach on other nanomaterials, including nanowires and graphene. We showed that this approach is facile, controllable, non-destructive, and contamination-free, indicating wide potential applications.The development of nanomaterials has put forward high requirements for characterization techniques. Optical microscopy (OM), with easy accessibility and open operating spaces as compared to scanning electron microscopy, is a good choice to quickly locate materials and to be integrated with other equipment. However, OM is limited by its low resolution. Herein, we present a facile and non-destructive approach for optical observation of

  10. Nanomaterials for photohyperthermia: a review.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jonathan; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2013-01-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials have propelled the field of nanomedicine. Nanomaterials have been used as drug delivery, imaging, and photothermal agents for diagnosis and therapy of diseases. Recently, photohyperthermia has attracted great interest from researchers and is actively being investigated as an alternative method of therapy for cancer and even bacteria. Photohyperthermia, or photothermal therapy, is the process of a photothermal agent absorbing light and converting it into heat for the destruction of malignant cells, which is due to elevated temperatures. This technique is non-invasive, can target specific diseased cells for minimal adverse side effects, and can be used in conjunction with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy. In this review, we will discuss different nanomaterials that have been implemented as photothermal agents for the treatment of various cancer and bacterial cells. The review will mainly focus on gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes. However, other nanomaterials, such as semiconductor nanoparticles and polymer composites, will be briefly discussed. In addition, the photothermal mechanism, current developments, dual imaging and therapy, and future perspectives of nanoparticle-based photohyperthermia will be presented. PMID:23621537

  11. Investigation into the enhancement of polycarbonate with conductive nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Via, Michael D., Jr.

    Polymers are typically electrically and thermally insulating materials. The electrical and thermal conductivities of polymers can be increased by the addition conductive fillers such as carbons. Once the polymer composites have been made electrically and thermally conductive, they can be used in applications where these conductivities are desired such as electromagnetic shielding and static dissipation. In this project, three carbon nanomaterials are added to polycarbonate to enhance the electrical and thermal conductivity of the resulting composite. Hyperion Catalysis FIBRILs carbon nanotubes were added to a maximum loading of 8 wt%. Ketjenblack EC-600 JD carbon black was added to a maximum loading of 10 wt%. XG Sciences xGnP(TM) graphene nanoplatelets were added to a maximum loading of 15 wt%. These three materials have drastically different morphologies and will have varying effects on the various properties of polycarbonate composites. It was determined that carbon nanotubes have the largest effect on electrical conductivity with an 8 wt% carbon nanotube in polycarbonate composite having an electrical conductivity of 0.128 S/cm (from a pure polycarbonate value of 10-17 S/cm). Carbon black has the next largest effect with an 8 wt% carbon black in polycarbonate composite having an electrical conductivity of 0.008 S/cm. Graphene nanoplatelets have the least effect with an 8 wt% graphene nanoplatelet in polycarbonate having an electrical conductivity of 2.53 x 10-8 S/cm. Graphene nanoplatelets show a significantly higher effect on increasing thermal conductivity than either carbon nanotubes or carbon black. Mechanically, all three materials have similar effects with graphene nanoplatelets being somewhat more effective at increasing the tensile modulus of the composite than the other fillers. Carbon black and graphene nanoplatelets show standard carbon-filler rheology where the addition of filler increases the viscosity of the resulting composite. Carbon nanotubes

  12. Energetics of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, Frances

    2004-12-13

    This project, ''Energetics of Nanomaterials'', represents a three-year collaboration among Alexandra Navrotsky (University of California at Davis), Brian Woodfield and Juliana Boerio-Goates (Brigham Young University) and Frances Hellman (University of California at San Diego). Its purpose has been to explore the differences between bulk materials, nanoparticles, and thin films in terms of their thermodynamic properties, with an emphasis on heat capacities and entropies, as well as enthalpies. We used our combined experimental techniques to address the following questions: How does energy and entropy depend on particle size and crystal structure? Do entropic differences have their origins in changes in vibrational densities of states or configurational (including surface configuration) effects? Do material preparation and sample geometry, i.e., nanoparticles versus thin films, change these quantities? How do the thermodynamics of magnetic and structural transitions change in nanoparticles and thin films? Are different crystal structures stabilized for a given composition at the nanoscale, and are the responsible factors energetic, entropic, or both? How do adsorption energies (for water and other gases) depend on particle size and crystal structure in the nanoregime? What are the energetics of formation and strain energies in artificially layered thin films? Do the differing structures of grain boundaries in films and nanocomposites alter the energetics of nanoscale materials? Of the several directions we first proposed, we initially concentrated on a few systems: TiO(sub 2), CoO, and CoO-MgO. In these systems, we were able to clearly identify particle size-dependent effects on energy and vibrational entropy, and to separate out the effect of particle size and water content on the enthalpy of formation of the various TiO(sub 2) polymorphs. With CoO, we were able to directly compare nanoparticle films and bulk materials; this comparison is important because films can

  13. High-sensitivity extended-gate field-effect transistors as pH sensors with oxygen-modified reduced graphene oxide films coated on different reverse-pyramid silicon structures as sensing heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Ren; Chang, Shih-hsueh; Chang, Chia-Tsung; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Kai; Yang, Po-Yu; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2016-04-01

    A high-performance extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) as pH sensor with its microstructured sensing head composed of an oxygen-modified reduced graphene oxide film (RGOF) on a reverse-pyramid (RP) Si structure was developed to achieve a high sensitivity of 57.5 mV/pH with an excellent linearity of 0.9929 in a wide pH sensing range of 1-13. These features were ascribed to the large amount of sensing sites and large sensing area. In contrast, the planar Si substrate with the oxygen-plasma-treated RGOF (OPT-RGOF) at the optimal bias power showed a sensitivity of 52.9 mV/pH compared with 45.0 mV/pH for that without plasma treatment. It reveals that oxygen plasma can produce oxygen-containing groups as sensing sites, enhancing proton sensing characteristics. However, oxygen plasma treatment at high bias powers would cause damage to the RGOFs, resulting in poor conducting and sensing properties. On the other hand, the use of the RP structures could increase the effective sensing area and further promote the sensing performance.

  14. New Insights on the Influence of Organic Co-Contaminants on the Aquatic Toxicology of Carbon Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, Josep; Olmos, Mar; Vincent, Phil; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-19

    At present, there is a lack of understanding of the combined ecotoxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials and co-contaminants. In this paper, we report on the toxicity of three carbon nanomaterials (fullerene-soot, multiwall carbon nanotubes, and graphene). Two standardized toxicity bioassays, the immobilization of the invertebrate Daphnia magna and the bioluminescence inhibition of the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, have been used. Synergistic and antagonistic effects of binary mixtures composed of fullerene soot and organic co-contaminants as malathion, glyphosate, diuron, triclosan, and nonylphenol were assessed. The isobologram method was used to evaluate the concentrations producing an effect, in comparison to those effects expected by a simple additive approach. In this study, antagonism was the predominant effect. However, synergism was also observed as in the case of D. magna exposed to mixtures of malathion and fullerene soot. D. magna was shown to be the most sensitive assay when carbon nanomaterials were present. Toxicity to D. magna was as follows: fullerene soot > multiwall carbon nanotubes > graphene. These results were proportional to the size of aggregates, smaller aggregates being the most toxic. The vector function of nanomaterials aggregates and the unexpected release inside living organisms was proven for malathion. These results highlight new insights on the risks associated with the release of carbon nanomaterials into the environment. PMID:26694946

  15. Freestanding aligned carbon nanotube array grown on a large-area single-layered graphene sheet for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Longbin; Wu, Qiong; Yang, Zhibin; Sun, Xuemei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-03-01

    A novel carbon nanomaterial with aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) chemically bonded to a single-layered, large area graphene sheet is designed and fabricated, showing remarkable electronic and electrocatalytic properties. When the carbon nanomaterial is used as a counter electrode, the resulting dye-sensitized solar cell exhibits ≈11% enhancement of energy conversion efficiency than aligned CNT array. PMID:24889384

  16. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  17. Preparation of Graphene Encapsulated Silicon Nanoball.

    PubMed

    Kim, Huijin; So, Deasup; Park, Sungjin; Huh, Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Concerning application of graphene, a lot of efforts have been made to improve performance of nanomaterials in many fields, such as electric and electronic devices. Some examples are preparation of 3-dimension structured nanomaterials like nanoballs by CVD process and hybridizing with silicon. These graphene-based materials are proven to be available for secondary battery, EMI and ACF in electronics. Especially, some research has shown that they were very effective to enhance safety and volumetric capacity when they were used as anode materials of secondary battery. Although graphite and its compound with metal have been used as an anode material due to their high stability and reversibility, it still has lower charge capacity. On the contrary, silicon is known as a material which increases the charge capacity up to four times, compared with carbon-based materials, but it has lower stability and reversibility. For that reason, a few researchers just started to improve the charge capacity by hybridization of carbon-based material with silicon. In this paper, we prepared nanocarbon based material which has a new structure of graphene encapsulated silicon nanoball as an anode material which is applicable to high-capacity secondary battery. In order to form a graphene encapsulated silicon nanoballs, the polystyrene encapsulated silicon nanoballs were prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene monomer with silicon nanoparticles. The resulting nanoballs were immersed in iron chloride solution and then dried. Finally they were treated in high temperature through CVD and etched by hydrogen chloride. Morphology of the graphene encapsulated silicon nanoballs was observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and the field emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM) to search for core-shell structured nanoball. Spherical structure of graphene encapsulated silicon nanoball was investigated by the Raman, the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to

  18. PREFACE: Graphene Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, John; Ferry, David K.

    2009-08-01

    As is now well known, graphene was made in 2004 by the 'simple' expedient of cleaving a single atomic layer from a sample of graphite using a piece of sticky tape [1, 2]. This discovery stimulated a whirlwind of activity; at last, predictions about the unique behaviour of band electrons in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice made as early as the 1940s could be verified experimentally [1, 2]. Perhaps the most influential result has been the confirmation that the charge carriers in graphene behave in many ways as 'Dirac fermions', mimicing the dynamics of hyper-relativistic electrons, but with 1/300th of the velocity. Another important pairing of prediction and result has been the observation of carrier mobilities that have an unusual (in)dependence on impurity concentration, suggesting applications in high-speed ballistic transistors and even the eventual part replacement of silicon by graphene as the devices on chips become ever smaller [1, 2]. As a result of the considerable and rapid activity in this field, reviews of the properties of graphene have appeared; a good introduction to the early work at a level appropriate to students is given in [1], whilst [2] covers more recent progress at a more advanced level. However, the field is progressing so rapidly that even good reviews become dated by the time they appear in print, and new work and studies are appearing daily. In this issue, we have tried to pull together a group of papers which examine some of these new areas of work in graphene; these range from low-temperature physics to high electric field transport at room temperature [3]. Given the postulated future use of graphene in ultra-small devices, it is no surprise that quantum dots and wires feature heavily in the articles by Peres et al [4], Huang et al [5] and Sun and Xie [6]. Moreover, applications will inevitably involve graphene in contact with other materials and chemical systems, resulting in modifications to its electronic properties. For example

  19. Atomic-scale insights into 1D and 2D nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, U.; Pierce, W.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Migliorato, M.; Pan, C.-T.; Harvey, A. J.; Kepatsoglou, D. M.; Ramasse, Q. M.

    2015-10-01

    Atomic resolution imaging and narrow-energy spread spectroscopy in aberration corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopes, in combination with DFT modelling has made it possible to uncover atomic-scale morphology, defect constellations, lattice impurities and ad-atoms in nano-materials, as well as revealing their influence on the surrounding bandstructure. Using atomic-scale imaging, EEL spectroscopy and EFTEM, we address issues beyond the more common investigations of their atomic lattice structure. We focus on the demonstration of (i) ripples in graphene and on effects of (ii) metal ad-atoms as well as of (iii) controllably introduced impurities -via low energy ion implantation- in both, graphene and carbon nanotubes, on the electronic band structure. We demonstrate the creation of a new feature with collective charge carrier behaviour (plasmon) in the UV/vis range in graphene and carbon nanotubes via EEL spectrum imaging and EFTEM, and support this with dielectric theory modelling.

  20. Crown ethers in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-01

    Crown ethers are at their most basic level rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity. Here we present atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures should also extend to their selectivity towards specific metal cations. Crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be systematically tested and modelled. Thus, we expect that our finding will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  1. The structural development of primary cultured hippocampal neurons on a graphene substrate.

    PubMed

    He, Zuhong; Zhang, Shasha; Song, Qin; Li, Wenyan; Liu, Dong; Li, Huawei; Tang, Mingliang; Chai, Renjie

    2016-10-01

    The potential of graphene-based nanomaterials as a neural interfacing material for neural repair and regeneration remains poorly understood. In the present study, the response to the graphene substrate by neurons was determined in a hippocampal culture model. The results revealed the growth and maturation of hippocampal cultures on graphene substrates were significantly improved compared to the commercial control. In details, graphene promoted growth cone growth and microtubule formation inside filopodia 24h after seeding as evidenced by a higher average number of filopodia emerging from growth cones, a longer average length of filopodia, and a larger growth cone area. Graphene also significantly boosted neurite sprouting and outgrowth. The dendritic length, the number of branch points, and the dendritic complex index were significantly improved on the graphene substrate during culture. Moreover, the spine density was enhanced and the maturation of dendritic spines from thin to stubby spines was significantly promoted on graphene at 21 days after seeding. Lastly, graphene significantly elevated the synapse density and synaptic activity in the hippocampal cultures. The present study highlights graphene's potential as a neural interfacing material for neural repair and regeneration and sheds light on the future biomedical applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. PMID:27395037

  2. Graphene Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Shin; Abeysinghe, Don; Nader, Nima; Hendrickson, Joshua; Cleary, Justin; Elhamri, Said

    Plasmon, the collective free charge carrier oscillation, has been a popular research theme recently mostly associated with surface plasmon in metal nanoparticles. After the discovery of graphene, researchers soon began to study plasmonic effects with or within graphene, for instance, decorating graphene with metal nanoparticles to enhance optical processes via plasmonic field enhancement. Following that, people also gained interests in studying the intrinsic plasmon of graphene. Graphene, a tunable semimetal under field effect, demonstrates tunable plasmon resonances at room temperature, which enables new capabilities beyond those of metal-nanoparticle surface plasmons. In this project, we would like to show intrinsic graphene plasmon resonances in that we experimentally demonstrated polarization dependent and gate-bias tunable plasmon-resonance absorption in the mid-infrared regime of 5-14 um by utilizing an array of graphene nanoribbon resonators. By scaling nanoribbon width and charge densities, we probed graphene plasmons with plasmon resonance energy as high as 0.26 meV (2100 cm-1) for 40 nm wide nanoresonators. The result reveals the intriguing nature of graphene plasmon in graphene nanoribbons where the nanoribbon edge plays critical roles by introducing extra doping and damping the graphene plasmon resonance.

  3. Contributions and mechanisms of action of graphite nanomaterials in ultra high performance concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbia, Libya Ahmed

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) reaches high strength and impermeability levels by using a relatively large volume fraction of a dense binder with fine microstructure in combination with high-quality aggregates of relatively small particle size, and reinforcing fibers. The dense microstructure of the cementitions binder is achieved by raising the packing density of the particulate matter, which covers sizes ranging from few hundred nanometers to few millimeters. The fine microstructure of binder in UHPC is realized by effective use of pozzolans to largely eliminate the coarse crystalline particles which exist among cement hydrates. UHPC incorporates (steel) fibers to overcome the brittleness of its dense, finely structured cementitious binder. The main thrust of this research is to evaluate the benefits of nanmaterials in UHPC. The dense, finely structure cementitious binder as well as the large volume fraction of the binder in UHPC benefit the dispersion of nanomaterials, and their interfacial interactions. The relatively close spacing of nanomaterials within the cementitious binder of UHPC enables them to render local reinforcement effects in critically stressed regions such as those in the vicinity of steel reinforcement and prestressing strands as well as fibers. Nanomaterials can also raise the density of the binder in UHPC by extending the particle size distribution down to the few nanometers range. Comprehensive experimental studies supported by theoretical investigations were undertake in order to optimize the use of nanomaterials in UHPC, identity the UHPC (mechanical) properties which benefit from the introduction of nanomaterials, and define the mechanisms of action of nanomaterials in UHPC. Carbon nanofiber was the primary nanomaterial used in this investigation. Some work was also conducted with graphite nanoplates. The key hypotheses of the project were as follows: (i) nanomaterials can make important contributions to the packing density of the

  4. Graphene-enhanced nanorefrigerants.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Serdar; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2013-01-21

    Recent reports that a host liquid's thermal properties can be augmented by dispersal of small quantities of nanoparticles have stimulated intense interest as an intriguing avenue to produce advanced heat transfer fluids. But effects are challenging to exploit in practical settings because it is difficult to prepare refrigerant-based dispersions displaying sufficient long-term stability. Moreover, the most dramatic enhancements in thermal conductivity obtained using anisotropic nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes) are achieved at the expense of a severe viscosity increase. Here we overcome these limitations by introducing a robust surfactant-mediated dispersal method that enables stable suspensions containing a range of nanomaterials to be straightforwardly prepared as additives to ordinary commercial refrigerants. We apply this approach to formulate a new class of nanorefrigerants containing graphene nanosheets that uniquely match the superior thermal conductivity enhancements attained in carbon nanotube suspensions without their accompanying viscosity penalty. These suspensions can be directly substituted for conventional refrigerants to inexpensively achieve increased efficiency in many thermal management applications. PMID:23229852

  5. One-step synthesis of large-scale graphene film doped with gold nanoparticles at liquid-air interface for electrochemistry and Raman detection applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panpan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Siyu; Li, Jingfeng; Wei, Gang; Su, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-29

    We demonstrated a facile one-step synthesis strategy for the preparation of a large-scale reduced graphene oxide multilayered film doped with gold nanoparticles (RGO/AuNP film) and applied this film as functional nanomaterials for electrochemistry and Raman detection applications. The related applications of the fabricated RGO/AuNP film in electrochemical nonenzymatic H2O2 biosensor, electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection were investigated. Electrochemical data indicate that the H2O2 biosensor fabricated by RGO/AuNP film shows a wide linear range, low limitation of detection, high selectivity, and long-term stability. In addition, it was proved that the created RGO/AuNP film also exhibits excellent ORR electrochemical catalysis performance. The created RGO/AuNP film, when serving as SERS biodetection platform, presents outstanding performances in detecting 4-aminothiophenol with an enhancement factor of approximately 5.6 × 10(5) as well as 2-thiouracil sensing with a low concentration to 1 μM. It is expected that this facile strategy for fabricating large-scale graphene film doped with metallic nanoparticles will spark inspirations in preparing functional nanomaterials and further extend their applications in drug delivery, wastewater purification, and bioenergy. PMID:25015184

  6. Weighing graphene with QCM to monitor interfacial mass changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Balci, Osman; Salihoglu, Omer; Hur, Seung Hyun; Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2016-08-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally determined the mass density of graphene using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a mechanical resonator. We developed a transfer printing technique to integrate large area single-layer graphene on QCM. By monitoring the resonant frequency of an oscillating quartz crystal loaded with graphene, we were able to measure the mass density of graphene as ˜118 ng/cm2, which is significantly larger than the ideal graphene (˜76 ng/cm2) mainly due to the presence of wrinkles and organic/inorganic residues on graphene sheets. High sensitivity of the quartz crystal resonator allowed us to determine the number of graphene layers in a particular sample. Additionally, we extended our technique to probe interfacial mass variation during adsorption of biomolecules on graphene surface and plasma-assisted oxidation of graphene.

  7. Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kono, Junichiro

    2013-02-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials—single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene, in particular—have emerged in the last decade as novel low-dimensional systems with extraordinary properties. Because they are direct-bandgap systems, SWCNTs are one of the leading candidates to unify electronic and optical functions in nanoscale circuitry; their diameter-dependent bandgaps can be utilized for multi-wavelength devices. Graphene's ultrahigh carrier mobilities are promising for high-frequency electronic devices, while, at the same time, it is predicted to have ideal properties for terahertz generation and detection due to its unique zero-gap, zero-mass band structure. There have been a large number of basic optical studies on these materials, but most of them were performed in the weak-excitation, quasi-equilibrium regime. In order to probe and assess their performance characteristics as optoelectronic materials under device-operating conditions, it is crucial to strongly drive them and examine their optical properties in highly non-equilibrium situations and with ultrashot time resolution. In this section, the reader will find the latest results in this rapidly growing field of research. We have assembled contributions from some of the leading experts in ultrafast and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of carbon-based nanomaterials. Specific topics featured include: thermalization, cooling, and recombination dynamics of photo-generated carriers; stimulated emission, gain, and amplification; ultrafast photoluminescence; coherent phonon dynamics; exciton–phonon and exciton–plasmon interactions; exciton–exciton annihilation and Auger processes; spontaneous and stimulated emission of terahertz radiation; four-wave mixing and harmonic generation; ultrafast photocurrents; the AC Stark and Franz–Keldysh effects; and non-perturbative light–mater coupling. We would like to express our sincere thanks to those who contributed their latest results to this special section

  8. Developments and Applications of Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Sensors Based on Micro- and Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hazelton, Sandra G.; Zheng, Xingwang; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun; Pierce, David T.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of recent developments and applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) for sensors are described. While tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)-ruthenium(II) and luminol have dominated and continue to pervade the field of ECL-based sensors, recent work has focused on use of these lumophores with micro- and nanomaterials. It has also extended to inherently luminescent nanomaterials, such as quantum dots. Sensor configurations including microelectrode arrays and microfluidics are reviewed and, with the recent trend toward increased use of nanomaterials, special attention has been given to sensors which include thin films, nanoparticles and nanotubes. Applications of ECL labels and examples of label-free sensing that incorporate nanomaterials are also discussed.

  9. Nanomaterial-based biosensors for food toxin detection.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Bansi D; Srivastava, Saurabh; Ali, Md Azahar; Singh, Chandan

    2014-10-01

    There is an increased interest toward the development of bioelectronic devices for food toxin (mycotoxins) detection. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi like Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium that are frequently found in crops or during storage of food including cereals, nuts, fruits, etc. The contamination of food by mycotoxins has become a matter of increasing concern. High levels of mycotoxins in the diet can cause adverse, acute, and chronic effects on human health and a variety of animal species. Side effects may particularly affect the liver, kidney, nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system. Among 300 mycotoxins known till date, there are a few that are considered to play an important part in food safety, and for these, a range of analytical methods have been developed. Some of the important mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, citreoviridin, patulin, citrinin, and zearalenon. The conventional methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally require sophisticated instrumentation, e.g., liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. Hence, new analysis tools are necessary to attain more sensitive, specific, rapid, and reliable information about the desired toxin. For the last about two decades, the research and development of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has aroused much interest due to their simplicity and sensitivity. The nanomaterials have recently had a great impact on the development of biosensors. The functionalized nanomaterials are used as catalytic tools, immobilization platforms, or as optical or electroactive labels to improve the biosensing performance to obtain higher sensitivity, stability, and selectivity. Nanomaterials, such as carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and graphene), metal nanoparticles, nanowires, nanocomposites, and nanostructured metal oxide nanoparticles

  10. A biophysical understanding of the applications and implications of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geitner, Nicholas K.

    The last few decades have seen an explosion in the study and application of nanomaterials that continues to grow at a dizzying pace. Despite exciting applications in nano-enabled electronics, materials, medicine, and environmental remediation, an understanding of the interactions of these materials with natural materials and systems and the resulting implications lags severely behind. The purpose of this dissertation is to illuminate these interactions as well as develop novel environmental applications from a biophysical perspective. Following an introduction and literature review in Chapter 1, Chapters 2-4 will explore the application of dendritic polymers as novel and biocompatible oil dispersants for more environmentally conscious response to catastrophic oil spills. Chapter 2 will serve as a proof-of-concept, exploring the interactions between two model dendritic polymers and two model oil hydrocarbons. Next, the biocompatibility of these nanoscale dispersing agents is addressed in Chapter 3, using a soil amoeba as the primary model organism with emphasis on the mechanisms of any observed toxicity. Finally, in an effort to minimize cationic charge-induced cytotoxicity, the cationic terminal functional groups of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are replaced with either anionic or neutral functional groups. The resulting changes in structure and oil-dispersing function of the original and modified dendrimers are then investigated. Chapter 5 details a study of the applications and implications of graphene derivatives. Specifically, the environmental persistence of graphene and graphene oxide are assessed by studying their interactions with natural amphiphiles using synergistic experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. The application of graphene oxide for the removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from aquatic systems is also investigated and compared to the efficacy of PAMAM dendrimers in the same application. Finally, Chapter 6 explores the interactions

  11. Schematics and Energetics of Bucky Shuttle Memory on Graphene Nanoribbon Array.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Won; Lee, Kang Whan

    2016-03-01

    Conjugated carbon nanomaterials such as fullerene-nanotube, fullerene-graphene, and nanotube-graphene hybrids have great potential for various applications. This paper presents the schematics and energetics of a nonvolatile nanomemory element based on a fullerene-nanotube-graphene hybrid. The system proposed was composed of C60 fullerene and a nanotube placed on two graphene-nanoribbons with a gap. The C60 fullerene encapsulated in the nanotube can shuttle between two graphene-nanoribbons along the nanotube under the alternatively applied force fields. When the encapsulated C60 fullerene settles on the graphene-nanoribbons, the local energy minima are achieved from the attractive van der Waals potential energies. Since the C60 fullerene retains its position on the graphene-nanoribbon without external force fields, the proposed system can then operate a nonvolatile memory device. PMID:27455728

  12. A review of plasma-liquid interactions for nanomaterial synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; Li, Yongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Over the past few decades, a new branch of plasma research, nanomaterial (NM) synthesis through plasma-liquid interactions (PLIs), has been developing rapidly, mainly due to the various, recently developed plasma sources operating at low and atmospheric pressures. PLIs provide novel plasma-liquid interfaces where many physical and chemical processes take place. By exploiting these physical and chemical processes, various NMs ranging from noble metal nanoparticles to graphene nanosheets can easily be synthesized. The currently rapid development and increasingly wide utilization of the PLI method has naturally lead to an urgent need for the presentation of a general review. This paper reviews the current status of research on PLIs for NM synthesis. The focus is on a comprehensive understanding of the synthesis process and perceptive opinions on current issues and future challenges in this field.

  13. Carbon-based smart nanomaterials in biomedicine and neuroengineering

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Antonina M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The search for advanced biomimetic materials that are capable of offering a scaffold for biological tissues during regeneration or of electrically connecting artificial devices with cellular structures to restore damaged brain functions is at the forefront of interdisciplinary research in materials science. Bioactive nanoparticles for drug delivery, substrates for nerve regeneration and active guidance, as well as supramolecular architectures mimicking the extracellular environment to reduce inflammatory responses in brain implants, are within reach thanks to the advancements in nanotechnology. In particular, carbon-based nanostructured materials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs), have demonstrated to be highly promising materials for designing and fabricating nanoelectrodes and substrates for cell growth, by virtue of their peerless optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this review we discuss the state-of-the-art in the applications of nanomaterials in biological and biomedical fields, with a particular emphasis on neuroengineering. PMID:25383297

  14. Nanomaterial-based advanced immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weihua; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-01-01

    Immunoassay has been the main stream in clinic diagnostics and still attracts extensive research interest in recent years to develop reliable, fast, sensitive, and specific detection methods and platforms to expand its applications in various areas including proteomics, drug discovery, homeland security, food safety, environmental monitoring, and health care. With the dramatic progress in material science, nanotechnology, and bioconjugation techniques, a great diversity of nanomaterials with desirable superior properties have been designed, synthesized, and tailored to facilitate high-performance detections for advanced immunoassays. This paper comprehensively reviews recent advances in nanomaterial-based immunoassay technologies and particularly highlights newly developed strategies associated with interdisciplinary areas for performance enhancement and related mechanisms. The future perspectives of immunosensing technologies are also discussed. PMID:25363746

  15. Exposure monitoring of graphene nanoplatelets manufacturing workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Boowook; Bello, Dhimiter; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Gun Ho; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Ahn, Kangho; Faustman, Elaine M; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    Graphenes have emerged as a highly promising, two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial that can possibly substitute carbon nanotubes. They are being explored in numerous R&D and industrial applications in laboratories across the globe, leading to possible human and environmental exposures to them. Yet, there are no published data on graphene exposures in occupational settings and no readily available methods for their detection and quantitation exist. This study investigates for the first time the potential exposure of workers and research personnel to graphenes in two research facilities and evaluates the status of the control measures. One facility manufactures graphene using graphite exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), while the other facility grows graphene on a copper plate using CVD, which is then transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. Graphene exposures and process emissions were investigated for three tasks - CVD growth, exfoliation, and transfer - using a multi-metric approach, which utilizes several direct reading instruments, integrated sampling, and chemical and morphological analysis. Real-time instruments included a dust monitor, condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor, scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aethalometer. Morphologically, graphenes and other nanostructures released from the work process were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Graphenes were quantified in airborne respirable samples as elemental carbon via thermo-optical analysis. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate at Workplaces A and B were very low, and elemental carbon concentrations were mostly below the detection limit, indicating very low exposure to graphene or any other particles. The real-time monitoring, especially the aethalometer, showed a good response to the released black carbon, providing a signature of the graphene released during the opening of the CVD reactor

  16. New nanomaterials for photonic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Le Quoc; Anh, Tran Kim; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Mien, Vu Doan

    2012-06-01

    A brief survey of the development of new nanomaterials for photonic application will be presented. Based on the photoresponsive sol gel nanohybrid of polymethamethyl acrylate, silica, and zirconia (ASZ) or titania (AST) have been fabricated some planar light guiding structures and devices. The lanthanide containing nanosphere with core/shell structures have been synthesized in using a modified solgel process. The opal like photonic crystal structures have been fabricated by self assembling technique.

  17. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  18. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  19. Transfer matrix theory of monolayer graphene/bilayer graphene heterostructure superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu

    2014-10-28

    We have formulated a transfer matrix method to investigate electronic properties of graphene heterostructure consisting of monolayer graphene and bilayer counterpart. By evaluating transmission, conductance, and band dispersion, we show that, irrespective of the different carrier chiralities in monolayer graphene and bilayer graphene, superlattice consisting of biased bilayer graphene barrier and monolayer graphene well can mimic the electronic properties of conventional semiconductor superlattice, displaying the extended subbands in the quantum tunneling regime and producing anisotropic minigaps for the classically allowed transport. Due to the lateral confinement, the lowest mode has shifted away from the charge neutral point of monolayer graphene component, opening a sizeable gap in concerned structure. Following the gate-field and geometry modulation, all electronic states and gaps between them can be externally engineered in an electric-controllable strategy.

  20. Fabrication and Cytocompatibility of In Situ Crosslinked Carbon Nanomaterial Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sunny C.; Lalwani, Gaurav; Grover, Kartikey; Qin, Yi-Xian; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-05-01

    Assembly of carbon nanomaterials into two-dimensional (2D) coatings and films that harness their unique physiochemical properties may lead to high impact energy capture/storage, sensors, and biomedical applications. For potential biomedical applications, the suitability of current techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, spray and dip coating, and vacuum filtration, employed to fabricate macroscopic 2D all carbon coatings or films still requires thorough examination. Each of these methods presents challenges with regards to scalability, suitability for a large variety of substrates, mechanical stability of coatings or films, or biocompatibility. Herein we report a coating process that allow for rapid, in situ chemical crosslinking of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into macroscopic all carbon coatings. The resultant coatings were found to be continuous, electrically conductive, significantly more robust, and cytocompatible to human adipose derived stem cells. The results lay groundwork for 3D layer-on-layer nanomaterial assemblies (including various forms of graphene) and also opens avenues to further explore the potential of MWCNT films as a novel class of nano-fibrous mats for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  1. Exploring Carbon Nanomaterial Diversity for Nucleation of Protein Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Govada, Lata; Leese, Hannah S.; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Kassen, Sean; Chain, Benny; Khurshid, Sahir; Menzel, Robert; Hu, Sheng; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Chayen, Naomi E.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling crystal nucleation is a crucial step in obtaining high quality protein crystals for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) including carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and carbon black provide a range of surface topographies, porosities and length scales; functionalisation with two different approaches, gas phase radical grafting and liquid phase reductive grafting, provide routes to a range of oligomer functionalised products. These grafted materials, combined with a range of controls, were used in a large-scale assessment of the effectiveness for protein crystal nucleation of 20 different carbon nanomaterials on five proteins. This study has allowed a direct comparison of the key characteristics of carbon-based nucleants: appropriate surface chemistry, porosity and/or roughness are required. The most effective solid system tested in this study, carbon black nanoparticles functionalised with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether of mean molecular weight 5000, provides a novel highly effective nucleant, that was able to induce crystal nucleation of four out of the five proteins tested at metastable conditions. PMID:26843366

  2. Fabrication and cytocompatibility of in situ crosslinked carbon nanomaterial films.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunny C; Lalwani, Gaurav; Grover, Kartikey; Qin, Yi-Xian; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of carbon nanomaterials into two-dimensional (2D) coatings and films that harness their unique physiochemical properties may lead to high impact energy capture/storage, sensors, and biomedical applications. For potential biomedical applications, the suitability of current techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, spray and dip coating, and vacuum filtration, employed to fabricate macroscopic 2D all carbon coatings or films still requires thorough examination. Each of these methods presents challenges with regards to scalability, suitability for a large variety of substrates, mechanical stability of coatings or films, or biocompatibility. Herein we report a coating process that allow for rapid, in situ chemical crosslinking of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into macroscopic all carbon coatings. The resultant coatings were found to be continuous, electrically conductive, significantly more robust, and cytocompatible to human adipose derived stem cells. The results lay groundwork for 3D layer-on-layer nanomaterial assemblies (including various forms of graphene) and also opens avenues to further explore the potential of MWCNT films as a novel class of nano-fibrous mats for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26018775

  3. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y

    2015-05-26

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung. PMID:25929264

  4. Exploring Carbon Nanomaterial Diversity for Nucleation of Protein Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govada, Lata; Leese, Hannah S.; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Kassen, Sean; Chain, Benny; Khurshid, Sahir; Menzel, Robert; Hu, Sheng; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Chayen, Naomi E.

    2016-02-01

    Controlling crystal nucleation is a crucial step in obtaining high quality protein crystals for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) including carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and carbon black provide a range of surface topographies, porosities and length scales; functionalisation with two different approaches, gas phase radical grafting and liquid phase reductive grafting, provide routes to a range of oligomer functionalised products. These grafted materials, combined with a range of controls, were used in a large-scale assessment of the effectiveness for protein crystal nucleation of 20 different carbon nanomaterials on five proteins. This study has allowed a direct comparison of the key characteristics of carbon-based nucleants: appropriate surface chemistry, porosity and/or roughness are required. The most effective solid system tested in this study, carbon black nanoparticles functionalised with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether of mean molecular weight 5000, provides a novel highly effective nucleant, that was able to induce crystal nucleation of four out of the five proteins tested at metastable conditions.

  5. Exploring Carbon Nanomaterial Diversity for Nucleation of Protein Crystals.

    PubMed

    Govada, Lata; Leese, Hannah S; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Kassen, Sean; Chain, Benny; Khurshid, Sahir; Menzel, Robert; Hu, Sheng; Shaffer, Milo S P; Chayen, Naomi E

    2016-01-01

    Controlling crystal nucleation is a crucial step in obtaining high quality protein crystals for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) including carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and carbon black provide a range of surface topographies, porosities and length scales; functionalisation with two different approaches, gas phase radical grafting and liquid phase reductive grafting, provide routes to a range of oligomer functionalised products. These grafted materials, combined with a range of controls, were used in a large-scale assessment of the effectiveness for protein crystal nucleation of 20 different carbon nanomaterials on five proteins. This study has allowed a direct comparison of the key characteristics of carbon-based nucleants: appropriate surface chemistry, porosity and/or roughness are required. The most effective solid system tested in this study, carbon black nanoparticles functionalised with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether of mean molecular weight 5000, provides a novel highly effective nucleant, that was able to induce crystal nucleation of four out of the five proteins tested at metastable conditions. PMID:26843366

  6. Carbon nanomaterials combined with metal nanoparticles for theranostic applications

    PubMed Central

    Modugno, Gloria; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Among targeted delivery systems, platforms with nanosize dimensions, such as carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) and metal nanoparticles (NPs), have shown great potential in biomedical applications. They have received considerable interest in recent years, especially with respect to their potential utilization in the field of cancer diagnosis and therapy. The many functions of nanomaterials provide opportunities to use them as multimodal agents for theranostics, a combination of therapy and diagnosis. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are some of the most widely used CNMs because of their unique structural and physicochemical properties. Their high specific surface area allows for efficient drug loading and the possibility of functionalization with various bioactive molecules. In addition, CNMs are ideal platforms for the attachment of NPs. In the biomedical field, NPs have also shown tremendous potential for use in drug delivery, non-invasive tumour imaging and early detection due to their optical and magnetic properties. NP/CNM hybrids not only combine the unique properties of the NPs and CNMs but they also exhibit new properties arising from interactions between the two entities. In this review, the preparation of CNMs conjugated to different types of metal NPs and their applications in diagnosis, imaging, therapy and theranostics are presented. PMID:25323135

  7. Fabrication and Cytocompatibility of In Situ Crosslinked Carbon Nanomaterial Films

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sunny C.; Lalwani, Gaurav; Grover, Kartikey; Qin, Yi-Xian; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of carbon nanomaterials into two-dimensional (2D) coatings and films that harness their unique physiochemical properties may lead to high impact energy capture/storage, sensors, and biomedical applications. For potential biomedical applications, the suitability of current techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, spray and dip coating, and vacuum filtration, employed to fabricate macroscopic 2D all carbon coatings or films still requires thorough examination. Each of these methods presents challenges with regards to scalability, suitability for a large variety of substrates, mechanical stability of coatings or films, or biocompatibility. Herein we report a coating process that allow for rapid, in situ chemical crosslinking of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into macroscopic all carbon coatings. The resultant coatings were found to be continuous, electrically conductive, significantly more robust, and cytocompatible to human adipose derived stem cells. The results lay groundwork for 3D layer-on-layer nanomaterial assemblies (including various forms of graphene) and also opens avenues to further explore the potential of MWCNT films as a novel class of nano-fibrous mats for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26018775

  8. Hydrodynamic phonon transport in suspended graphene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyeop; Broido, David; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of thermal transport in nanomaterials have demonstrated the breakdown of Fourier's law through observations of ballistic transport. Despite its unique features, another instance of the breakdown of Fourier's law, hydrodynamic phonon transport, has drawn less attention because it has been observed only at extremely low temperatures and narrow temperature ranges in bulk materials. Here, we predict on the basis of first-principles calculations that the hydrodynamic phonon transport can occur in suspended graphene at significantly higher temperatures and wider temperature ranges than in bulk materials. The hydrodynamic transport is demonstrated through drift motion of phonons, phonon Poiseuille flow and second sound. The significant hydrodynamic phonon transport in graphene is associated with graphene's two-dimensional features. This work opens a new avenue for understanding and manipulating heat flow in two-dimensional materials. PMID:25693180

  9. Toxicity of nanomaterials; an undermined issue.

    PubMed

    Mogharabi, Mehdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are employed in extensive variety of commercial products such as electronic components, cosmetics, food, sports equipment, biomedical applications, and medicine. With the increasing utilization of engineered nanomaterials, the potential exposure of human to nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Nowadays when new nanomaterials with new applications are introduced, mostly good and positive effects are mentioned whereas possible hazards arising from nanosize of the compounds are undermined. Toxicology studies of nanomaterials demonstrate some adverse effects in some human organs such as central nerve system, immune system, and lung. There is lack of complete information about human toxicity and environmental waste of nanomaterials. We aimed to highlight current toxicological concerns of potentially useful nanomaterials which are now used in pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. PMID:25123555

  10. Directed Nanoscale Assembly of Graphene Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Ouk

    Graphene based materials, including fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, are two-dimensional polymeric materials consisting of sp2 hybrid carbons. Those carbon materials have attracted enormous research attention for their outstanding material properties along with molecular scale dimension. The optimized utilization of those materials in various application fields inevitably requires the subtle controllability of their structures and properties. In this presentation, our research achievements associated to directed nanoscale assembly of B- or N-doped graphene based materials will be introduced. Graphene based materials can be efficiently processed into various three-dimensional structures via self-assembly principles. Those carbon assembled structures with extremely large surface and high electro-conductivity are potentially useful for energy and environmental applications. Aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide shows liquid crystalline phase, whose spontaneous molecular ordering is useful for display or fiber spinning. Along with the structure control by directed nanoscale assembly, substitutional doping of graphene based materials with B- or N- can be attained via various chemical treatment methods. The resultant chemically modified carbon materials with tunable workfunction, charge carrier density and enhanced surface activity could be employed for various nanomaterials and nanodevices for improved functionalities and performances.

  11. Aromatic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  12. Stable graphene-polyoxometalate nanomaterials for application in hybrid supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Guevara, Jullieth; Ruiz, Vanesa; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2014-10-14

    We report the synthesis of hybrid supercapacitor electrodes by a novel reduction of GO with simultaneous incorporation of polyoxometalate. These hybrids show a 30% increase in specific capacitance and excellent stability after 10,000 cycles. PMID:25164153

  13. Scalable Synthesis of Freestanding Sandwich-structured Graphene/Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Paper for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-01-01

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm−1), light weight (1 mg cm−2) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics. PMID:25797022

  14. Graphene and its derivatives for cell biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Yao, Jun; Duan, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    Every few years, a novel material with salient and often unique properties emerges and attracts both academic and industrial interest from the scientific community. The latest blockbuster is graphene, an increasingly important nanomaterial with atomically thin sheets of carbon, which has become a shining star and has shown great promise in the field of material science and nanotechnology. In recent years, it has changed from being the exclusive domain of physicists to the new passion of chemists and biologists. Graphene and its derivatives are now at the forefront of nearly every rapidly developing field of science and engineering, including biochemistry, biomedicine and certain cutting-edge interdisciplines that have intense popularity. The aim of this review is, firstly, to provide readers with a comprehensive, systematic and in-depth prospective of graphene's band structure and properties, and secondly, to concentrate on the recent progress in producing graphene-based nanomaterials, including mechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, chemical reduction of graphene oxide, total organic synthesis, electrochemical synthesis and other fabrication strategies widely accepted by research scientists. At the same time, important definitions related to graphene are also introduced. The focus of this Tutorial Review is to emphasize the current situation and significance of using this new kind of two-dimensional material in the hot and emerging fields that are closely related to human life quality, for instance, cell biochemistry, bioimaging along with other frontier areas. Finally, the latest developments and possible impact that affect the heart of the whole scientific community have been discussed. In addition, the future trends along with potential challenges of this rapidly rising layered carbon have been pointed out in this paper. PMID:23115773

  15. Enhanced Neural Cell Adhesion and Neurite Outgrowth on Graphene-Based Biomimetic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Ho; Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Eun Young; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Lee, Mi Hee; Park, Jong-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth were examined on graphene-based biomimetic substrates. The biocompatibility of carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), that is, single-walled and multiwalled CNTs, against pheochromocytoma-derived PC-12 neural cells was also evaluated by quantifying metabolic activity (with WST-8 assay), intracellular oxidative stress (with ROS assay), and membrane integrity (with LDH assay). Graphene films were grown by using chemical vapor deposition and were then coated onto glass coverslips by using the scooping method. Graphene sheets were patterned on SiO2/Si substrates by using photolithography and were then covered with serum for a neural cell culture. Both types of CNTs induced significant dose-dependent decreases in the viability of PC-12 cells, whereas graphene exerted adverse effects on the neural cells just at over 62.5 ppm. This result implies that graphene and CNTs, even though they were the same carbon-based nanomaterials, show differential influences on neural cells. Furthermore, graphene-coated or graphene-patterned substrates were shown to substantially enhance the adhesion and neurite outgrowth of PC-12 cells. These results suggest that graphene-based substrates as biomimetic cues have good biocompatibility as well as a unique surface property that can enhance the neural cells, which would open up enormous opportunities in neural regeneration and nanomedicine. PMID:24592382

  16. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  17. Graphene nanoribbons without cutting graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paes Lima, Matheus; Reily Rocha, Alexandre; da Silva, Antônio J. R.; Fazzio, Adalberto

    2010-03-01

    We show that the 2D periodic graphene deposited on Silicon Carbide surface with a trench mimics a grapheme nanoribbon. Our study is carried out with calculations based on Density Functional Theory. In our work, the graphene is deposited at the [0001] and the [0001 = ] surfaces. We investigate the influence of the charge transfer between the graphene and the substrate, the local magnetic moment, as well as the direction of the trench on the electronic properties of such systems. Our results suggest that at the [0001] surface the charge transfer is large resulting in a large change in the Fermi energy. As a consequence, the mimicked armchair graphene nanoribbons turn out to be metallic and the mimicked zigzag graphene nanoribbons are nonmagnetic. These properties are distinct from the corresponding free standing graphene nanoribbons. On the other hand, at the [0001 = ] surface, the charge transfer is small, and the properties of the mimicked ribbons are very similar to the free standing ones.

  18. Graphene nanosheets as novel adsorbents in adsorption, preconcentration and removal of gases, organic compounds and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Yu, Lin-Yan; Yang, Hua; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Jiao, Fei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high adsorption capacities, carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, activated carbons, fullerene and graphene are widely used as the currently most promising functional materials. Since its discovery in 2004, graphene has exhibited great potential in many technological fields, such as energy storage materials, supercapacitors, resonators, quantum dots, solar cells, electronics, and sensors. The large theoretical specific surface area of graphene nanosheets (2630 m(2)·g(-1)) makes them excellent candidates for adsorption technologies. Further, graphene nanosheets could be used as substrates for decorating the surfaces of nanoparticles, and the corresponding nanocomposites could be applied as novel adsorbents for the removal of low concentrated contaminants from aqueous solutions. Therefore, graphene nanosheets will challenge the current existing adsorbents, including other types of carbon-based nanomaterials. PMID:25244035

  19. Carbon Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Kiseleva, Raisa; Vertegel, Alexey; Ray, Swapan K

    2015-08-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most exciting disciplines and it incorporates physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. It can be applied to design cancer medicines with improved therapeutic indices. At the basic level, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are sp2 carbon nanomaterials. Their unique physical and chemical properties make them interesting candidates of research in a wide range of areas including biological systems and different diseases. Recent research has been focused on exploring the potential of the CNTs as a carrier or vehicle for intracellular transport of drugs, proteins, and targeted genes in vitro and in vivo. Several research groups are actively involved to find out a functional CNT carrier capable of transporting targeted drug molecules in animal models with least toxicity. Current investigations are also focused on graphene, an allotrope of carbon, which appears to be a promising agent for successful delivery of biomolecules in various animal models. But potential clinical implementations of CNTs are still hampered by distinctive barriers such as poor bioavailability and intrinsic toxicity, which pose difficulties in tumor targeting and penetration as well as in improving therapeutic outcome. This article presents recent progresses in the design and evaluation of closely related CNTs for experimental cancer therapy and explores their implications in bringing nanomedicines into the clinics. PMID:26369109

  20. Functionalized carbon nanomaterials as nanocarriers for loading and delivery of a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Bao, Hongqian; Pan, Yongzheng; Pal, Mintu; Kakran, Mitali; Cheng, Henry Kuo Feng; Li, Lin; Tan, Lay Poh

    2011-05-14

    Carbon nanomaterials such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) have been functionalized by highly hydrophilic and biocompatible poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for loading and delivery of an anticancer drug, camptothecin (CPT). For the first time, CPT was loaded onto MWCNT-PVA and GO-PVA through π-π interactions and its capability to kill human breast and skin cancer cells was investigated. PMID:21451845

  1. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage

    PubMed Central

    Notarianni, Marco; Liu, Jinzhang; Vernon, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    Summary The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage – the key to the portable electronics of the future. PMID:26925363

  2. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage.

    PubMed

    Notarianni, Marco; Liu, Jinzhang; Vernon, Kristy; Motta, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage - the key to the portable electronics of the future. PMID:26925363

  3. EDITORIAL: Epitaxial graphene Epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire

    2012-04-01

    Graphene is widely regarded as an important new electronic material with interesting two-dimensional electron gas properties. Not only that, but graphene is widely considered to be an important new material for large-scale integrated electronic devices that may eventually even succeed silicon. In fact, there are countless publications that demonstrate the amazing applications potential of graphene. In order to realize graphene electronics, a platform is required that is compatible with large-scale electronics processing methods. It was clear from the outset that graphene grown epitaxially on silicon carbide substrates was exceptionally well suited as a platform for graphene-based electronics, not only because the graphene sheets are grown directly on electronics-grade silicon carbide (an important semiconductor in its own right), but also because these sheets are oriented with respect to the semiconductor. Moreover, the extremely high temperatures involved in production assure essentially defect-free and contamination-free materials with well-defined interfaces. Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide is not a unique material, but actually a class of materials. It is a complex structure consisting of a reconstructed silicon carbide surface, which, for planar hexagonal silicon carbide, is either the silicon- or the carbon-terminated face, an interfacial carbon rich layer, followed by one or more graphene layers. Consequently, the structure of graphene films on silicon carbide turns out to be a rich surface-science puzzle that has been intensively studied and systematically unravelled with a wide variety of surface science probes. Moreover, the graphene films produced on the carbon-terminated face turn out to be rotationally stacked, resulting in unique and important structural and electronic properties. Finally, in contrast to essentially all other graphene production methods, epitaxial graphene can be grown on structured silicon carbide surfaces to produce graphene

  4. Epitaxial graphene: the material for graphene electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, M.; Soukiassian, P.; de Heer, W.A.; Berger, C.; Conrad, E.H.

    2009-12-10

    The search for an ideal graphene sheet has been a quest driving graphene research. While most research has focused on exfoliated graphene, intrinsic substrate interactions and mechanical disorder have precluded the observation of a number of graphene's expected physical properties in this material. The only graphene candidate that has demonstrated all the essential properties of an ideal sheet is multilayer graphene grown on the SiC(000) surface. Its unique stacking allows nearly all the sheets in the stack to behave like isolated graphene, while the weak graphene-graphene interaction prevents any significant doping or distortion in the band near the Fermi level.

  5. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achieve high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.

  6. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achievemore » high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.« less

  7. Current trends in nanomaterial embedded field effect transistor-based biosensor.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Anuj; Pal Singh, Krishna

    2015-12-15

    Recently, as metal-, polymer-, and carbon-based biocompatible nanomaterials have been increasingly incorporated into biosensing applications, with various nanostructures having been used to increase the efficacy and sensitivity of most of the detecting devices, including field effect transistor (FET)-based devices. These nanomaterial-based methods also became the ideal for the amalgamation of biomolecules, especially for the fabrication of ultrasensitive, low-cost, and robust FET-based biosensors; these are categorically very successful at binding the target specified entities in the confined gated micro-region for high functionality. Furthermore, the contemplation of nanomaterial-based FET biosensors to various applications encompasses the desire for detection of many targets with high selectivity, and specificity. We assess how such devices have empowered the achievement of elevated biosensor performance in terms of high sensitivity, selectivity and low detection limits. We review the recent literature here to illustrate the diversity of FET-based biosensors, based on various kinds of nanomaterials in different applications and sum up that graphene or its assisted composite based FET devices are comparatively more efficient and sensitive with highest signal to noise ratio. Lastly, the future prospects and limitations of the field are also discussed. PMID:26210471

  8. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on solution-processed ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and MoS2, hold great promise for electronics and optoelectronics due to their distinctive physical and electronic properties. Recent progress in high-yield, massive production of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials via various solution-based methods allows them to be easily integrated into electronic devices via solution processing techniques. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials have been emerging as promising alternatives for the next-generation data storage devices due to their high flexibility, three-dimensional-stacking capability, simple structure, transparency, easy fabrication and low cost. In this tutorial review, we will summarize the recent progress in the utilization of solution-processed ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for fabrication of non-volatile resistive memory devices. Moreover, we demonstrate how to achieve excellent device performance by engineering the active layers, electrodes and/or device structure of resistive memory devices. On the basis of current status, the discussion is concluded with some personal insights into the challenges and opportunities in future research directions. PMID:25877687

  9. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Rorrer, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts. For example, advances in the production of biogeneic nanomaterials from algal cell cultures, such as crystalline β-chitin nanofibrils and gold and silver nanoparticles, could enable the 'green' production of biomaterials such as tissue-engineering scaffolds or drug carriers, supercapacitors and optoelectric materials. The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. PMID:25445544

  10. Graphene nanomesh

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jingwei; Zhong, Xing; Jiang, Shan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Graphene has significant potential for application in electronics1-5, but cannot be used for effective field-effect transistors operating at room temperature because it is a semimetal with a zero bandgap6,7. Processing graphene sheets into nanoribbons with widths of less than 10nm can open up a bandgap that is large enough for room temperature transistor operation8-19, but nanoribbon devices often have low driving currents or transconductances18,19. Moreover, practical devices and circuits will require the production of dense arrays of ordered nanoribbons, which is of significant challenge20,21. Here we report the production of a new graphene nanostructure - which we call graphene nanomesh - that can open up a band gap in a large sheet of graphene to create a semiconducting thin film. The nanomeshes are prepared with block copolymer lithography and can have variable periodicities and neck widths down to 5 nm. Graphene nanomesh field-effect transistors can support currents nearly 100 times greater than individual graphene nanoribbon devices, and the on-off ratio - which is comparable with the values achieved in individual nanoribbon devices - can be tuned by varying the neck width. The block copolymer lithography approach used to make the nanomesh devices is intrinsically scalable and could allow for the rational design and fabrication of graphene-based devices and circuits with standard semiconductor processing. PMID:20154685

  11. Computational characterizations on the grain-size-dependent properties of polycrystalline nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Sangil; Park, Youngho; Kim, Hyo-tae

    2015-12-01

    The microstructures of real nanomaterials can be quite complex with variety of grain sizes aligned in different crystal orientations and structural defects possibly created in a fabrication process. Material properties of these polycrystalline materials are generally known strongly dependent on the nanoscale morphology. First principle calculations based on the density functional theory need to be employed in these atomic characterizations; however, it may not be suitable for the polycrystalline nanomaterials for which large number of atoms is required in the simulation model. Instead, a mesoscale computer simulation scheme is employed to investigate these morphology-dependent mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials. We demonstrated the Voronoi construction of various polycrystalline atomic models such as two-dimensional graphene and three-dimensional silicon carbide. General behavior of the mechanical characteristics of the bulk nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) was addressed, particularly the contribution of grain sizes. From this study, the optimal grain size was determined near 10 nm under tensile and compressive deformations.

  12. Graphene nanophotonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Alexander Y.; Cubukcu, Ertugrul

    2015-09-01

    Graphene is known to possess a host of remarkable properties such as a zero bandgap at its Dirac point, broadband saturable optical absorption, ballistic carrier transport at room temperature, as well as extremely high stiffness and thermal conductivity. This has in turn made it a material of interest for many applications, ranging from fundamental physics studies to electronic devices. From a photonics perspective, graphene’s ability to support surface plasmon-polaritons with extremely small mode volumes in the infrared spectral regime and beyond renders it an ideal platform for strongly enhanced light-matter interactions at deeply subwavelength size scales. Together with its large bandwidth of operation, as well as intrinsic chemical stability and affinity to organic molecules, graphene serves as a natural candidate for numerous optics-based sensing applications. This article reviews recent works that highlight the various advantages of graphene in an optical sensing context. Specifically, it focuses on how the passive functionalization of graphene can improve the performance of existing optical sensors, and how its use as an active signal transduction element could lead to various novel or hybrid devices that extend the functionalities of traditional sensors.

  13. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  14. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  15. Multi-metal oxide ceramic nanomaterial

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Stephen; Liu, Shuangyi; Huang, Limin

    2016-06-07

    A convenient and versatile method for preparing complex metal oxides is disclosed. The method uses a low temperature, environmentally friendly gel-collection method to form a single phase nanomaterial. In one embodiment, the nanomaterial consists of Ba.sub.AMn.sub.BTi.sub.CO.sub.D in a controlled stoichiometry.

  16. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  17. Nanomaterial Toxicity Screening in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess nanomaterial vertebrate toxicity, a high-content screening assay was created using developing zebrafish, Danio rerio. This included a diverse group of nanomaterials (n=42 total) ranging from metallic (Ag, Au) and metal oxide (CeO2, CuO, TiO2, ZnO) nanoparticles, to non...

  18. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging. PMID:26757620

  19. Core level binding energies of functionalized and defective graphene.

    PubMed

    Susi, Toma; Kaukonen, Markus; Havu, Paula; Ljungberg, Mathias P; Ayala, Paola; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2014-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used tool for studying the chemical composition of materials and it is a standard technique in surface science and technology. XPS is particularly useful for characterizing nanostructures such as carbon nanomaterials due to their reduced dimensionality. In order to assign the measured binding energies to specific bonding environments, reference energy values need to be known. Experimental measurements of the core level signals of the elements present in novel materials such as graphene have often been compared to values measured for molecules, or calculated for finite clusters. Here we have calculated core level binding energies for variously functionalized or defected graphene by delta Kohn-Sham total energy differences in the real-space grid-based projector-augmented wave density functional theory code (GPAW). To accurately model extended systems, we applied periodic boundary conditions in large unit cells to avoid computational artifacts. In select cases, we compared the results to all-electron calculations using an ab initio molecular simulations (FHI-aims) code. We calculated the carbon and oxygen 1s core level binding energies for oxygen and hydrogen functionalities such as graphane-like hydrogenation, and epoxide, hydroxide and carboxylic functional groups. In all cases, we considered binding energy contributions arising from carbon atoms up to the third nearest neighbor from the functional group, and plotted C 1s line shapes by using experimentally realistic broadenings. Furthermore, we simulated the simplest atomic defects, namely single and double vacancies and the Stone-Thrower-Wales defect. Finally, we studied modifications of a reactive single vacancy with O and H functionalities, and compared the calculated values to data found in the literature. PMID:24605278

  20. Core level binding energies of functionalized and defective graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kaukonen, Markus; Havu, Paula; Ljungberg, Mathias P; Ayala, Paola; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2014-01-01

    Summary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used tool for studying the chemical composition of materials and it is a standard technique in surface science and technology. XPS is particularly useful for characterizing nanostructures such as carbon nanomaterials due to their reduced dimensionality. In order to assign the measured binding energies to specific bonding environments, reference energy values need to be known. Experimental measurements of the core level signals of the elements present in novel materials such as graphene have often been compared to values measured for molecules, or calculated for finite clusters. Here we have calculated core level binding energies for variously functionalized or defected graphene by delta Kohn–Sham total energy differences in the real-space grid-based projector-augmented wave density functional theory code (GPAW). To accurately model extended systems, we applied periodic boundary conditions in large unit cells to avoid computational artifacts. In select cases, we compared the results to all-electron calculations using an ab initio molecular simulations (FHI-aims) code. We calculated the carbon and oxygen 1s core level binding energies for oxygen and hydrogen functionalities such as graphane-like hydrogenation, and epoxide, hydroxide and carboxylic functional groups. In all cases, we considered binding energy contributions arising from carbon atoms up to the third nearest neighbor from the functional group, and plotted C 1s line shapes by using experimentally realistic broadenings. Furthermore, we simulated the simplest atomic defects, namely single and double vacancies and the Stone–Thrower–Wales defect. Finally, we studied modifications of a reactive single vacancy with O and H functionalities, and compared the calculated values to data found in the literature. PMID:24605278

  1. Probing Interfacial Processes on Graphene Surface by Mass Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2013-03-01

    In this work we studied the mass density of graphene, probed interfacial processes on graphene surface and examined the formation of graphene oxide by mass detection. The graphene layers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method on copper foils and transfer-printed on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The mass density of single layer graphene was measured by investigating the mechanical resonance of the QCM. Moreover, we extended the developed technique to probe the binding dynamics of proteins on the surface of graphene, were able to obtain nonspecific binding constant of BSA protein of graphene surface in aqueous solution. The time trace of resonance signal showed that the BSA molecules rapidly saturated by filling the available binding sites on graphene surface. Furthermore, we monitored oxidation of graphene surface under oxygen plasma by tracing the changes of interfacial mass of the graphene controlled by the shifts in Raman spectra. Three regimes were observed the formation of graphene oxide which increases the interfacial mass, the release of carbon dioxide and the removal of small graphene/graphene oxide flakes. Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) grant no. 110T304, 109T209, Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (IRG) grant no 256458, Turkish Academy of Science (TUBA-Gebip).

  2. Development of Integrated Microanalysis of Nanomaterials (06-ERI-001)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J P

    2009-10-07

    Comets--small extraterrestrial bodies of ice, dust, and small rocky particles--are considered the oldest, most primitive bodies in the solar system. They were thought to be composed of preserved interstellar particles from 4.6 billion years ago, when the Sun and the planets began to form from a primordial disk of dust and gas. The nonvolatile mineral components of comets are probably natural nanomaterials that include preserved interstellar dust as well as the first solids condensed in the solar system. Thus, comet samples may be considered as forensic 'time capsules' from the presolar molecular cloud and the earliest stages of solar system formation. Cometary material was captured in 2004, when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Stardust spacecraft flew through the coma of comet Wild as it neared the orbit of Mars. As Stardust approached the 4.5-kilometer-diameter comet, the spacecraft briefly extended a collector filled with lightweight aerogel glass foam to capture thousands of tiny particles. On January 15, 2006, the spacecraft ejected its sample return capsule onto the Utah desert southwest of Salt Lake City. Researchers at LLNL supported by this LDRD were part of a collaborative team investigating the mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions of natural cometary nanomaterials from the Stardust mission using the unique array of analytical facilities at Livermore. The studies have provided provide new insight into cosmically primitive materials that will enable a better understanding of the earliest stages of disk accretion around stars. The skills and analysis techniques developed for the characterization of these natural nanomaterials are synergistic with several Livermore programmatic needs in the emerging fields of nanomaterials, nanotechnology and forensics. The Stardust samples are also ideal training materials for a new generation of young scientists using state-of-the-art analytical instruments at the Laboratory.

  3. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice. PMID:27295319

  4. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods. PMID:27319209

  5. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  6. Tiny Medicine: Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo-Heung; Eteshola, Edward; Bhattacharya, Amit; Dong, Zhongyun; Shim, Joon-Sub; Conforti, Laura; Kim, Dogyoon; Schulz, Mark J.; Ahn, Chong H.; Watts, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Tiny medicine refers to the development of small easy to use devices that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Early diagnosis is the key to successfully treating many diseases. Nanomaterial-based biosensors utilize the unique properties of biological and physical nanomaterials to recognize a target molecule and effect transduction of an electronic signal. In general, the advantages of nanomaterial-based biosensors are fast response, small size, high sensitivity, and portability compared to existing large electrodes and sensors. Systems integration is the core technology that enables tiny medicine. Integration of nanomaterials, microfluidics, automatic samplers, and transduction devices on a single chip provides many advantages for point of care devices such as biosensors. Biosensors are also being used as new analytical tools to study medicine. Thus this paper reviews how nanomaterials can be used to build biosensors and how these biosensors can help now and in the future to detect disease and monitor therapies. PMID:22291565

  7. Electronic structure and optical property of boron doped semiconducting graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aqing; Shao, Qingyi; Wang, Li; Deng, Feng

    2011-08-01

    We present a system study on the electronic structure and optical property of boron doped semiconducting graphene nanoribbons using the density functional theory. Energy band structure, density of states, deformation density, Mulliken popular and optical spectra are considered to show the special electronic structure of boron doped semiconducting graphene nanoribbons. The C-B bond form is discussed in detail. From our analysis it is concluded that the Fermi energy of boron doped semiconducting graphene nanoribbons gets lower than that of intrinsic semiconducting graphene nanoribbons. Our results also show that the boron doped semiconducting graphene nanoribbons behave as p-type semiconducting and that the absorption coefficient of boron doped armchair graphene nanoribbons is generally enhanced between 2.0 eV and 3.3 eV. Therefore, our results have a great significance in developing nano-material for fabricating the nano-photovoltaic devices.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of aggregated nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Soto, Karla; Garza, K M; Murr, L E

    2007-05-01

    This study deals with cytotoxicity assays performed on an array of commercially manufactured inorganic nanoparticulate materials, including Ag, TiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), Al(2)O(3), ZrO(2), Si(3)N(4), naturally occurring mineral chrysotile asbestos and carbonaceous nanoparticulate materials such as multiwall carbon nanotube aggregates and black carbon aggregates. The nanomaterials were characterized by TEM, as the primary particles, aggregates or long fiber dimensions ranged from 2nm to 20microm. Cytotoxicological assays of these nanomaterials were performed utilizing a murine alveolar macrophage cell line and human macrophage and epithelial lung cell lines as comparators. The nanoparticulate materials exhibited varying degrees of cytoxicity for all cell lines and the general trends were similar for both the murine and human macrophage cell lines. These findings suggest that representative cytotoxic responses for humans might be obtained by nanoparticulate exposures to simple murine macrophage cell line assays. Moreover, these results illustrate the utility in performing rapid in vitro assays for cytotoxicity assessments of nanoparticulate materials as a general inquiry of potential respiratory health risks in humans. PMID:17275430

  9. Purity of graphene oxide determines its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbolina, I.; Woods, C. R.; Lozano, N.; Kostarelos, K.; Novoselov, K. S.; Roberts, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Nanomaterials based on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are considered to be very promising for various life-science and medical applications, from drug delivery to tissue modification. One of the most suitable materials for these purposes is graphene oxide (GO), thanks to a well-developed methods of production and water solubility. At the same time, its biological effect is still debated. Here we demonstrate that highly purified and thoroughly washed GO neither inhibited nor stimulated the growth of E.coli, ATCC25922; E.coli NCIMB11943 and S.aureus ATCC25923 at concentrations of up to 1 mg ml‑1. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of GO exposed bacteria did not reveal any differences between GO exposed and not exposed populations. In contrast, a suspension of insufficiently purified GO behaved as an antibacterial material due to the presence of soluble acidic impurities, that could be removed by extended purification or neutralisation by alkaline substrates. A standardised protocol is proposed for the generation of clean GO, so it becomes suitable for biological experiments. Our findings emphasise the importance of GO purification status when dealing with biological systems as the true effect of material can be masked by the impact of impurities.

  10. Graphene-Based Environmental Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Silverberg, Gregory; Bowers, Shin; Kim, Sang-Pil; Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek; Hurt, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many environmental technologies rely on containment by engineered barriers that inhibit the release or transport of toxicants. Graphene is a new, atomically thin, two-dimensional sheet material, whose aspect ratio, chemical resistance, flexibility, and impermeability make it a promising candidate for inclusion in a next generation of engineered barriers. Here we show that ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) films can serve as effective barriers for both liquid and vapor permeants. First, GO deposition on porous substrates is shown to block convective flow at much lower mass loadings than other carbon nanomaterials, and can achieve hydraulic conductivities of 5×10−12 cm/s or lower. Second we show that ultrathin GO films of only 20 nm thickness coated on polyethylene films reduce their vapor permeability by 90% using elemental mercury as a model vapor toxicant. The barrier performance of GO in this thin-film configuration is much better than the Nielsen model limit, which describes ideal behavior of flake-like fillers uniformly imbedded in a polymer. The Hg barrier performance of GO films is found to be sensitive to residual water in the films, which is consistent with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that show lateral diffusion of Hg atoms in graphene interlayer spaces that have been expanded by hydration. PMID:22717015

  11. Graphene-based environmental barriers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Silverberg, Gregory; Bowers, Shin; Kim, Sang-Pil; Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek; Hurt, Robert H

    2012-07-17

    Many environmental technologies rely on containment by engineered barriers that inhibit the release or transport of toxicants. Graphene is a new, atomically thin, two-dimensional sheet material, whose aspect ratio, chemical resistance, flexibility, and impermeability make it a promising candidate for inclusion in a next generation of engineered barriers. Here we show that ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) films can serve as effective barriers for both liquid and vapor permeants. First, GO deposition on porous substrates is shown to block convective flow at much lower mass loadings than other carbon nanomaterials, and can achieve hydraulic conductivities of 5 × 10(-12) cm/s or lower. Second we show that ultrathin GO films of only 20-nm thickness coated on polyethylene films reduce their vapor permeability by 90% using elemental mercury as a model vapor toxicant. The barrier performance of GO in this thin-film configuration is much better than the Nielsen model limit, which describes ideal behavior of flake-like fillers uniformly imbedded in a polymer. The Hg barrier performance of GO films is found to be sensitive to residual water in the films, which is consistent with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that show lateral diffusion of Hg atoms in graphene interlayer spaces that have been expanded by hydration. PMID:22717015

  12. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Liao, Honggang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-03-22

    Here we report that poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) acts as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer to prepare soluble graphene nanosheets from graphite oxide. The results of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoeletron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and fourier transform infrared indicated that graphite oxide was successfully reduced to graphene nanosheets which exhibited single-layer structure and high dispersion in various solvents. The reaction mechanism for PDDA-induced reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide was proposed. Furthermore, PDDA facilitated the in-situ growth of highly-dispersed Pt nanoparticles on the surface of graphene nanosheets to form Pt/graphene nanocomposites, which exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards formic acid oxidation. This work presents a facile and environmentally friendly approach to the synthesis of graphene nanosheets, opens up new possibility for preparing graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials for large-scale applications.

  13. Annealing free, clean graphene transfer using alternative polymer scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Joshua D.; Doidge, Gregory P.; Carrion, Enrique A.; Koepke, Justin C.; Kaitz, Joshua A.; Datye, Isha; Behnam, Ashkan; Hewaparakrama, Jayan; Aruin, Basil; Chen, Yaofeng; Dong, Hefei; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph W.; Pop, Eric

    2015-02-01

    We examine the transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with polymer scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPA), and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC). We find that optimally reactive PC scaffolds provide the cleanest graphene transfers without any annealing, after extensive comparison with optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Comparatively, films transferred with PLA, PPA, PMMA/PC, and PMMA have a two-fold higher roughness and a five-fold higher chemical doping. Using PC scaffolds, we demonstrate the clean transfer of CVD multilayer graphene, fluorinated graphene, and hexagonal boron nitride. Our annealing free, PC transfers enable the use of atomically-clean nanomaterials in biomolecule encapsulation and flexible electronic applications.

  14. Nanoscale phase change memory with graphene ribbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnam, Ashkan; Xiong, Feng; Cappelli, Andrea; Wang, Ning C.; Carrion, Enrique A.; Hong, Sungduk; Dai, Yuan; Lyons, Austin S.; Chow, Edmond K.; Piccinini, Enrico; Jacoboni, Carlo; Pop, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Phase change memory (PCM) devices are known to reduce in power consumption as the bit volume and contact area of their electrodes are scaled down. Here, we demonstrate two types of low-power PCM devices with lateral graphene ribbon electrodes: one in which the graphene is patterned into narrow nanoribbons and the other where the phase change material is patterned into nanoribbons. The sharp graphene "edge" contacts enable switching with threshold voltages as low as ˜3 V, low programming currents (<1 μA SET and <10 μA RESET) and OFF/ON resistance ratios >100. Large-scale fabrication with graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition also enables the study of heterogeneous integration and that of variability for such nanomaterials and devices.

  15. The Antibacterial Applications of Graphene and Its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Chen, Jiongrun; Teng, Lijing; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Guanglin; Liu, Sa; Luo, Zhengtang; Shi, Xuetao; Wang, Yingjun; Ren, Li

    2016-08-01

    Graphene materials have unique structures and outstanding thermal, optical, mechanical and electronic properties. In the last decade, these materials have attracted substantial interest in the field of nanomaterials, with applications ranging from biosensors to biomedicine. Among these applications, great advances have been made in the field of antibacterial agents. Here, recent advancements in the use of graphene and its derivatives as antibacterial agents are reviewed. Graphene is used in three forms: the pristine form; mixed with other antibacterial agents, such as Ag and chitosan; or with a base material, such as poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and poly (lactic acid) (PLA). The main mechanisms proposed to explain the antibacterial behaviors of graphene and its derivatives are the membrane stress hypothesis, the oxidative stress hypothesis, the entrapment hypothesis, the electron transfer hypothesis and the photothermal hypothesis. This review describes contributions to improving these promising materials for antibacterial applications. PMID:27389848

  16. Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes: a graphene helix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Kap; Lee, Sohyung; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Min, Bong-Ki; Kim, Yong-Il; Lee, Kyung-Il; An, Kay Hyeok; John, Phillip

    2014-08-27

    Evidence is presented in this paper that certain single-wall carbon nanotubes are not seamless tubes, but rather adopt a graphene helix resulting from the spiral growth of a nano-graphene ribbon. The residual traces of the helices are confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The analysis also shows that the tubular graphene material may exhibit a unique armchair structure and the chirality is not a necessary condition for the growth of carbon nanotubes. The description of the structure of the helical carbon nanomaterials is generalized using the plane indices of hexagonal space groups instead of using chiral vectors. It is also proposed that the growth model, via a graphene helix, results in a ubiquitous structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes. PMID:24838196

  17. Graphite to Graphene via Graphene Oxide: An Overview on Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansora, D. P.; Shimpi, N. G.; Mishra, S.

    2015-12-01

    This work represents a state-of-the-art technique developed for the preparation of graphene from graphite-metal electrodes by the arc-discharge method carried out in a continuous flow of water. Because of continuous arcing of graphite-metal electrodes, the graphene sheets were observed in water with uniformity and little damage. These nanosheets were subjected to various purification steps such as acid treatment, oxidation, water washing, centrifugation, and drying. The pure graphene sheets were analyzed using Raman spectrophotometry, x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). Peaks of Raman spectra were recorded at (1300-1400 cm-1) and (1500-1600 cm-1) for weak D-band and strong G-band, respectively. The XRD pattern showed 85.6% crystallinity of pure graphite, whereas pure graphene was 66.4% crystalline. TEM and FE-SEM micrographs revealed that graphene sheets were overlapped to each other and layer-by-layer formation was also observed. Beside this research work, we also reviewed recent developments of graphene and related nanomaterials along with their preparations, properties, functionalizations, and potential applications.

  18. Rivet Graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlu; Sha, Junwei; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Li, Yilun; Ji, Yongsung; Zhao, Yujie; Tour, James M

    2016-08-23

    Large-area graphene has emerged as a promising material for use in flexible and transparent electronics due to its flexibility and optical and electronic properties. The anchoring of transition metal nanoparticles on large-area single-layer graphene is still a challenge. Here, we report an in situ preparation of carbon nano-onion-encapsulated Fe nanoparticles on rebar graphene, which we term rivet graphene. The hybrid film, which allows for polymer-free transfer and is strong enough to float on water with no added supports, exhibits high optical transparency, excellent electric conductivity, and good hole/electron mobility under certain tensile/compressive strains. The results of contact resistance and transfer length indicate that the current in the rivet graphene transistor does not just flow at the contact edge. Carbon nano-onions encapsulating Fe nanoparticles on the surface enhance the injection of charge between rivet graphene and the metal electrode. The anchoring of Fe nanoparticles encapsulated by carbon nano-onions on rebar graphene will provide additional avenues for applications of nanocarbon-based films in transparent and flexible electronics. PMID:27351673

  19. Graphene Kirigami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blees, Melina; Rose, Peter; Barnard, Arthur; Roberts, Samantha; McEuen, Paul L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a powerful new approach to working with graphene by applying the principles of kirigami, the sculptural art of paper cutting. We have release graphene from the surface, allowing us to treat it like a sheet of atom-thick paper. Working in water, we can pull the graphene along the surface or peel it up entirely. Combining this technique with lithographic patterning, we have created a variety of graphene kirigami devices including three-dimensional structures and resilient, atomically-thin hinges. We have also created soft in-plane springs by patterning a series of cuts into the graphene. The spring constants of these devices depend on the pattern of cuts, so the patterned graphene becomes an adjustable mechanical metamaterial. With possible spring constants ranging from 1 N/m to 10-9 N/m, these springs could be used as sensitive force measurement devices. Such kirigami patterning techniques could also be applied to flexible and stretchable electronics, including soft electrodes for biological experiments. This unusual way of interacting with graphene opens up a world of potential applications that we are just beginning to explore.

  20. Graphene Enhances Cellular Proliferation through Activating the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Sun, Cheng; Liao, Chunyang; Cui, Lin; Li, Haishan; Qu, Guangbo; Yu, Wenlian; Song, Naining; Cui, Yuan; Wang, Zheng; Xie, Wenping; Chen, Huiming; Zhou, Qunfang

    2016-07-27

    Graphene has promising applications in food packaging, water purification, and detective sensors for contamination monitoring. However, the biological effects of graphene are not fully understood. It is necessary to clarify the potential risks of graphene exposure to humans through diverse routes, such as foods. In the present study, graphene, as the model nanomaterial, was used to test its potential effects on the cell proliferation based on multiple representative cell lines, including HepG2, A549, MCF-7, and HeLa cells. Graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, particle size analysis, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The cellular responses to graphene exposure were evaluated using flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and alamarBlue assays. Rat cerebral astrocyte cultures, as the non-cancer cells, were used to assess the potential cytotoxicity of graphene as well. The results showed that graphene stimulation enhanced cell proliferation in all tested cell cultures and the highest elevation in cell growth was up to 60%. A western blot assay showed that the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was upregulated upon graphene treatment. The phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and the downstream proteins, ShC and extracellular regulating kinase (ERK), were remarkably induced, indicating that the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling pathway was triggered. The activation of PI3 kinase p85 and AKT showed that the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was also involved in graphene-induced cell proliferation, causing the increase of cell ratios in the G2/M phase. No influences on cell apoptosis were observed in graphene-treated cells when compared to the negative controls, proving the low cytotoxicity of this emerging nanomaterial. The findings in this study revealed the potential cellular biological effect of graphene, which may give useful hints on its biosafety

  1. Carbon-nanotube-based liquids: a new class of nanomaterials and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Ngoc Minh; Thang Bui, Hung; Nguyen, Manh Hong; Khoi Phan, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Carbon-nanotube-based liquids—a new class of nanomaterials—have shown many interesting properties and distinctive features offering unprecedented potential for many applications. This paper summarizes the recent progress on the study of the preparation, characterization and properties of carbon-nanotube-based liquids including so-called nanofluids, nanolubricants and different kinds of nanosolutions containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/single-walled carbon nanotubes/graphene. A broad range of current and future applications of these nanomaterials in the fields of energy saving, power electronic and optoelectronic devices, biotechnology and agriculture are presented. The paper also identifies challenges and opportunities for future research.

  2. Effect of the morphology of structured carbon nanomaterials on their oxidizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savilov, S. V.; Ivanov, A. S.; Egorov, A. V.; Kirikova, M. N.; Arkhipova, E. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs), nanofibers (CNFs), and few-layer graphite fragments (FLGFs) with a nitric acid solution was studied. The oxygen content in the functionalized derivatives was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The results were correlated with the structural features of the nanomaterials revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The highest content of carboxyl groups was achieved by functionalization of carbon nanotubes with the conical position of graphene layers.

  3. Understanding Mechanical Response of Elastomeric Graphene Networks.

    PubMed

    Ni, Na; Barg, Suelen; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Macul Perez, Felipe; Miranda, Miriam; Lu, Cong; Mattevi, Cecilia; Saiz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-light porous networks based on nano-carbon materials (such as graphene or carbon nanotubes) have attracted increasing interest owing to their applications in wide fields from bioengineering to electrochemical devices. However, it is often difficult to translate the properties of nanomaterials to bulk three-dimensional networks with a control of their mechanical properties. In this work, we constructed elastomeric graphene porous networks with well-defined structures by freeze casting and thermal reduction, and investigated systematically the effect of key microstructural features. The porous networks made of large reduced graphene oxide flakes (>20 μm) are superelastic and exhibit high energy absorption, showing much enhanced mechanical properties than those with small flakes (<2 μm). A better restoration of the graphitic nature also has a considerable effect. In comparison, microstructural differences, such as the foam architecture or the cell size have smaller or negligible effect on the mechanical response. The recoverability and energy adsorption depend on density with the latter exhibiting a minimum due to the interplay between wall fracture and friction during deformation. These findings suggest that an improvement in the mechanical properties of porous graphene networks significantly depend on the engineering of the graphene flake that controls the property of the cell walls. PMID:26348898

  4. Understanding Mechanical Response of Elastomeric Graphene Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Na; Barg, Suelen; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Macul Perez, Felipe; Miranda, Miriam; Lu, Cong; Mattevi, Cecilia; Saiz, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-light porous networks based on nano-carbon materials (such as graphene or carbon nanotubes) have attracted increasing interest owing to their applications in wide fields from bioengineering to electrochemical devices. However, it is often difficult to translate the properties of nanomaterials to bulk three-dimensional networks with a control of their mechanical properties. In this work, we constructed elastomeric graphene porous networks with well-defined structures by freeze casting and thermal reduction, and investigated systematically the effect of key microstructural features. The porous networks made of large reduced graphene oxide flakes (>20 μm) are superelastic and exhibit high energy absorption, showing much enhanced mechanical properties than those with small flakes (<2 μm). A better restoration of the graphitic nature also has a considerable effect. In comparison, microstructural differences, such as the foam architecture or the cell size have smaller or negligible effect on the mechanical response. The recoverability and energy adsorption depend on density with the latter exhibiting a minimum due to the interplay between wall fracture and friction during deformation. These findings suggest that an improvement in the mechanical properties of porous graphene networks significantly depend on the engineering of the graphene flake that controls the property of the cell walls.

  5. Understanding Mechanical Response of Elastomeric Graphene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Na; Barg, Suelen; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Macul Perez, Felipe; Miranda, Miriam; Lu, Cong; Mattevi, Cecilia; Saiz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-light porous networks based on nano-carbon materials (such as graphene or carbon nanotubes) have attracted increasing interest owing to their applications in wide fields from bioengineering to electrochemical devices. However, it is often difficult to translate the properties of nanomaterials to bulk three-dimensional networks with a control of their mechanical properties. In this work, we constructed elastomeric graphene porous networks with well-defined structures by freeze casting and thermal reduction, and investigated systematically the effect of key microstructural features. The porous networks made of large reduced graphene oxide flakes (>20 μm) are superelastic and exhibit high energy absorption, showing much enhanced mechanical properties than those with small flakes (<2 μm). A better restoration of the graphitic nature also has a considerable effect. In comparison, microstructural differences, such as the foam architecture or the cell size have smaller or negligible effect on the mechanical response. The recoverability and energy adsorption depend on density with the latter exhibiting a minimum due to the interplay between wall fracture and friction during deformation. These findings suggest that an improvement in the mechanical properties of porous graphene networks significantly depend on the engineering of the graphene flake that controls the property of the cell walls. PMID:26348898

  6. The graphene/nucleic acid nanobiointerface.

    PubMed

    Tang, Longhua; Wang, Ying; Li, Jinghong

    2015-10-01

    The combination of nanomaterials with biomolecules yields functional nanostructured biointerfaces with synergistic properties and functions. Owing to a unique combination of its crystallographic and electronic structure, graphene and its derivatives exhibit several superior and typical properties, and has emerged as an attractive candidate for the fabrication of novel nanobiointerfaces with different kinds of unique applications. As is known, nucleic acids are stable and can easily handle modification, and can recognize a wide range of targets with high selectivity, specificity, and affinity. The integration of nucleic acids with graphene-based materials has been substantially advanced over the past few years, achieving amazing properties and functions, thereby exhibiting attractive potential applications in biosensing, diagnostics, drug screening and biomedicine. Herein, this review addresses the recent progress on the design and fabrication of graphene/nucleic acid nanostructured biointerfaces, and the fundamental understanding of their interfacial properties, as well as the various nanobiotechnological applications. To begin with, we summarize the basic features of the graphene and nucleic acid-based nanobiointerface, especially the interfacial interaction mechanism and the resulting biological effects. Then, the fabrication and characterization methodology of graphene and nucleic acid-based nanobiointerfaces are discussed. Next, particular emphasis is directed towards the exploration of their biosensing and biomedical applications, including small molecule detection, protein and DNA sensing/sequencing, as well as gene delivery and therapy. Finally, some significant prospects, further opportunities and challenges in this emerging field are also suggested. PMID:26144837

  7. Graphene as cancer theranostic tool: progress and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Orecchioni, Marco; Cabizza, Roberto; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays cancer remains one of the main causes of death in the world. Current diagnostic techniques need to be improved to provide earlier diagnosis and treatment. Traditional therapy approaches to cancer are limited by lack of specificity and systemic toxicity. In this scenario nanomaterials could be good allies to give more specific cancer treatment effectively reducing undesired side effects and giving at the same time accurate diagnosis and successful therapy. In this context, thanks to its unique physical and chemical properties, graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene (rGO) have recently attracted tremendous interest in biomedicine including cancer therapy. Herein we analyzed all studies presented in literature related to cancer fight using graphene and graphene-based conjugates. In this context, we aimed at the full picture of the state of the art providing new inputs for future strategies in the cancer theranostic by using of graphene. We found an impressive increasing interest in the material for cancer therapy and/or diagnosis. The majority of the works (73%) have been carried out on drug and gene delivery applications, following by photothermal therapy (32%), imaging (31%) and photodynamic therapy (10%). A 27% of the studies focused on theranostic applications. Part of the works here discussed contribute to the growth of the theranostic field covering the use of imaging (i.e. ultrasonography, positron electron tomography, and fluorescent imaging) combined to one or more therapeutic modalities. We found that the use of graphene in cancer theranostics is still in an early but rapidly growing stage of investigation. Any technology based on nanomaterials can significantly enhance their possibility to became the real revolution in medicine if combines diagnosis and therapy at the same time. We performed a comprehensive summary of the latest progress of graphene cancer fight and highlighted the future challenges and the innovative possible

  8. Graphene as Cancer Theranostic Tool: Progress and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Orecchioni, Marco; Cabizza, Roberto; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays cancer remains one of the main causes of death in the world. Current diagnostic techniques need to be improved to provide earlier diagnosis and treatment. Traditional therapy approaches to cancer are limited by lack of specificity and systemic toxicity. In this scenario nanomaterials could be good allies to give more specific cancer treatment effectively reducing undesired side effects and giving at the same time accurate diagnosis and successful therapy. In this context, thanks to its unique physical and chemical properties, graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene (rGO) have recently attracted tremendous interest in biomedicine including cancer therapy. Herein we analyzed all studies presented in literature related to cancer fight using graphene and graphene-based conjugates. In this context, we aimed at the full picture of the state of the art providing new inputs for future strategies in the cancer theranostic by using of graphene. We found an impressive increasing interest in the material for cancer therapy and/or diagnosis. The majority of the works (73%) have been carried out on drug and gene delivery applications, following by photothermal therapy (32%), imaging (31%) and photodynamic therapy (10%). A 27% of the studies focused on theranostic applications. Part of the works here discussed contribute to the growth of the theranostic field covering the use of imaging (i.e. ultrasonography, positron electron tomography, and fluorescent imaging) combined to one or more therapeutic modalities. We found that the use of graphene in cancer theranostics is still in an early but rapidly growing stage of investigation. Any technology based on nanomaterials can significantly enhance their possibility to became the real revolution in medicine if combines diagnosis and therapy at the same time. We performed a comprehensive summary of the latest progress of graphene cancer fight and highlighted the future challenges and the innovative possible

  9. The Role of Nanomaterials in Translational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lavik, Erin; von Recum, Horst

    2011-01-01

    There are a range of definitions for nanomaterials and a range of length scales that are considered nano, but one thing is consistent among fields: nanomaterials are small and special. Nanomaterials have the potential to have tremendous impact on medical treatments. In one example, nanomaterials are permitting the tracking of cells via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of cellular therapies. In a second example, nanomaterials are acting as drug-delivery vehicles for the targeted delivery of therapies to increase efficacy and to reduce side effects. However, there are distinct challenges that must be considered in the development and application of these materials, including careful analysis of the distribution and clearance of nanomaterials and their potential off-target effects. By carefully assessing materials early in their development at the bench, one may be able to move successful approaches through to the clinic more rapidly, which is indeed the goal of the field. For far too many conditions and diseases, the tools we have are less than adequate, and nanomaterials have the potential to fill that void. To realize this potential, investigators must be willing to invest time and resources to develop and to translate these technologies to the point where the risk is low enough that they have real, commercial possibilities. Working collaboratively and leveraging resources and experience play important roles in moving technologies through preclinical and clinical testing. It requires incredible dedication of teams of researchers, but the result is new treatments and therapies. PMID:21604811

  10. Graphene/nickel nanoparticles composites from graphenide solutions.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Eduardo G C; Souza, Victor H R; Huang, Kai; Pénicaud, Alain; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2015-09-01

    Nanocomposites between nickel nanoparticles and graphene were obtained starting from nickel cations and graphenide solutions (negatively charged graphene layers) as both reducing agent to nickel cations and graphene source. Different nanomaterials were obtained in two different solvents, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF), with different nickel/graphene ratios. The nanomaterials were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). All the samples consist of large graphene layers highly decorated with crystalline nickel nanoparticles, of size ranging from 2 to 10 nm. Thin films of the samples were deposited on indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates and electrochemically characterized in alkaline medium, leading to Ni(OH)2/NiOOH redox pair, where the increase of the nickel proportion in the nanocomposites resulted in higher peak currents. The samples obtained in NMP showed the best performance with a fivefold increase of the peak currents, consistent with the lower charge transfer resistance as seen by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). PMID:25965429

  11. Response of mechanically strained nanomaterials to irradiation: Insight from atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstroem, E.; Toikka, L.; Nordlund, K.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.

    2010-07-15

    By combining analytical molecular-dynamics with density-functional theory simulations, we study the radiation hardness of mechanically strained low-dimensional nanosystems such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and Si nanowires. We show that the radiation hardness of all these structures decreases with strain but the effect is most pronounced in nanowire due to the bulk structure of its core in contrast with the planar structure of nanotubes and graphene. Our results not only elucidate the microscopic mechanism of irradiation-induced defect production in strained nanomaterials but also provide quantitative information required for assessing the stability of nanocomponents in composite materials subjected to mechanical strain and irradiation, e.g., in space applications.

  12. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors for label-free sensing of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Pankaj; Saucedo, Nuvia M; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Carbon allotropes such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, have been incorporated in electrochemical biosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of various analytes. The superior physical and electrical properties like high carrier mobility, ambipolar electric field effect, high surface area, flexibility and their compatibility with microfabrication techniques makes these carbon nanomaterials easy to integrate in field-effect transistor (FET)/chemiresistor type configuration which is suitable for portable and point-of-use/field-deployable sensors. This review covers the synthesis of carbon nanostructures (graphene and CNTs) and their integration into devices using various fabrication methods. Finally, we discuss the recent reports showing different sensing platforms that incorporate biomolecules like enzymes, antibodies and aptamers as recognition elements for fabrication of simple, low cost, compact biosensors that can be used for on-site, rapid environmental monitoring of environmental pollutants like pathogens, heavy metals, pesticides and explosives. PMID:25956023

  13. Assembly of ordered carbon shells on semiconducting nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2012-10-02

    In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

  14. Assembly of ordered carbon shells on semiconducting nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2010-05-11

    In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

  15. Low Dimensional Nanomaterials for Spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinlong; Xiang, Hongjun

    Moore's Law in microelectronic technology will break down as the size of individual bits approaches the dimension of atoms; this has been called the end of the silicon road map. For this reason and also for enhancing the multifunctionality of devices, the spin degree of freedom of electron is being investigated for magnetoelectronics applications, i.e., spintronics. Spin-based devices are closely connected with the development of nanotechnology. In this chapter, recent developments of the low-dimensional nanomaterials for spintronics are reviewed. In the first section, the main concepts of spintronics including nanospintronics are briefly discussed. Experimental studies on transition-metal-doped nanowires and nanotubes are summarized in the second section. Extensive theoretical works in this field are reviewed in the third section. Finally, an outlook is given in the last section.

  16. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps. PMID:24730288

  17. Acridinium Ester-Functionalized Carbon Nanomaterials: General Synthesis Strategy and Outstanding Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhili; Li, Fang; Shu, Jiangnan; Gao, Lingfeng; Liu, Xiaoying; Cui, Hua

    2016-07-13

    In this work, three different kinds of acridinium ester (AE)-functionalized carbon nanomaterials, including AE-functionalized carbon nanoparticles (AE-CNPs), AE-functionalized graphene oxide (AE-GO), and AE-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AE-MCNTs), were synthesized for the first time via a simple, general, and noncovalent strategy. AE molecules were assembled on the surface of carbon nanomaterials by electrostatic interaction, π-π stacking interaction, and amide bond. The synthesized AE-CNPs, AE-GO, and AE-MCNTs with 5.0 × 10(-8) mol·L(-1) of synthetic AE concentration, which was very low compared with other chemiluminescence (CL) reagents such as luminol, N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol), and lucigenin at the concentration of 3.3 × 10(-4) to 5.0 × 10(-6) mol·L(-1) used for the synthesis of CL-functionalized nanomaterials, exhibited outstanding CL activity and good stability. It was found that carbon nanomaterials as nanosized platforms could efficiently immobilize AE molecules and facilitate the formation of OH(•) and O2(•-), leading to strong light emission. Moreover, the CL intensity of AE-GO was the highest, which was about 8.7 and 3.7 times higher than that of AE-CNPs and AE-MCNTs, respectively. This mainly resulted from a difference in the amount of adsorbed AE molecules on the surface of different carbon nanomaterials. Additionally, the prepared AE-CNPs demonstrated excitation-dependent fluorescence property and good fluorescence stability against photobleaching. On the basis of the excellent CL and special fluorescence properties of AE-CNPs, a dual-mode array strategy has been proposed for the first time and seven kinds of transition-metal ions could be successfully discriminated. PMID:27337413

  18. Nanomaterial Labels in Electrochemical Immunosensors and Immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-12-15

    This article reviews recent advances in nanomaterial labels in electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed, including colloidal gold/silver, semiconductor nanoparticles, and markers loaded nanocarriers (carbon nanotubes, apoferritin, silica nanoparticles, and liposome beads). The enormous signal enhancement associated with the use of nanomaterial labels and with the formation of nanomaterial–antibody-antigen assemblies provides the basis for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of disease-related protein biomarkers, biothreat agents, or infectious agents. In general, all endeavors cited here are geared to achieve one or more of the following goals: signal amplification by several orders of magnitude, lower detection limits, and detecting multiple targets.

  19. Accelerating the Translation of Nanomaterials in Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Mitragotri, Samir; Anderson, Daniel G; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Chow, Edward K; Ho, Dean; Kabanov, Alexander V; Karp, Jeffrey M; Kataoka, Kazunori; Mirkin, Chad A; Petrosko, Sarah Hurst; Shi, Jinjun; Stevens, Molly M; Sun, Shouheng; Teoh, Sweehin; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Xia, Younan; Wang, Shutao; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-07-28

    Due to their size and tailorable physicochemical properties, nanomaterials are an emerging class of structures utilized in biomedical applications. There are now many prominent examples of nanomaterials being used to improve human health, in areas ranging from imaging and diagnostics to therapeutics and regenerative medicine. An overview of these examples reveals several common areas of synergy and future challenges. This Nano Focus discusses the current status and future potential of promising nanomaterials and their translation from the laboratory to the clinic, by highlighting a handful of successful examples. PMID:26115196

  20. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  1. Stretchable and highly sensitive graphene-on-polymer strain sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Rujing; Yu, Wenjian; Wang, Kunlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Zhihong; Cheng, Yao; Zheng, Quanshui; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Zhu, Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials for strain sensors has attracted attention due to their unique electromechanical properties. However, nanomaterials have yet to overcome many technological obstacles and thus are not yet the preferred material for strain sensors. In this work, we investigated graphene woven fabrics (GWFs) for strain sensing. Different than graphene films, GWFs undergo significant changes in their polycrystalline structures along with high-density crack formation and propagation mechanically deformed. The electrical resistance of GWFs increases exponentially with tensile strain with gauge factors of ~103 under 2~6% strains and ~106 under higher strains that are the highest thus far reported, due to its woven mesh configuration and fracture behavior, making it an ideal structure for sensing tensile deformation by changes in strain. The main mechanism is investigated, resulting in a theoretical model that predicts very well the observed behavior. PMID:23162694

  2. Bacterial Cellulose: A Robust Platform for Design of Three Dimensional Carbon-Based Functional Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Hai-Wei; Chen, Li-Feng; Hu, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-19

    Three dimensional (3D) carbon nanomaterials exhibit great application potential in environmental protection, electrochemical energy storage and conversion, catalysis, polymer science, and advanced sensors fields. Current methods for preparing 3D carbon nanomaterials, for example, carbonization of organogels, chemical vapor deposition, and self-assembly of nanocarbon building blocks, inevitably involve some drawbacks, such as expensive and toxic precursors, complex equipment and technological requirements, and low production ability. From the viewpoint of practical application, it is highly desirable to develop a simple, cheap, and environmentally friendly way for fabricating 3D carbon nanomaterials in large scale. On the other hand, in order to extend the application scope and improve the performance of 3D carbon nanomaterials, we should explore efficient strategies to prepare diverse functional nanomaterials based on their 3D carbon structure. Recently, many researchers tend to fabricate high-performance 3D carbon-based nanomaterials from biomass, which is low cost, easy to obtain, and nontoxic to humans. Bacterial cellulose (BC), a typical biomass material, has long been used as the raw material of nata-de-coco (an indigenous dessert food of the Philippines). It consists of a polysaccharide with a β-1,4-glycosidic linkage and has a interconnected 3D porous network structure. Interestingly, the network is made up of a random assembly of cellulose nanofibers, which have a high aspect ratio with a diameter of 20-100 nm. As a result, BC has a high specific surface area. Additionally, BC hydrogels can be produced on an industrial scale via a microbial fermentation process at a very low price. Thus, it can be an ideal platform for design of 3D carbon-based functional nanomaterials. Before our work, no systematic work and summary on this topic had been reported. This Account presents the concepts and strategies of our studies on BC in the past few years, that is

  3. Graphene kirigami.

    PubMed

    Blees, Melina K; Barnard, Arthur W; Rose, Peter A; Roberts, Samantha P; McGill, Kathryn L; Huang, Pinshane Y; Ruyack, Alexander R; Kevek, Joshua W; Kobrin, Bryce; Muller, David A; McEuen, Paul L

    2015-08-13

    For centuries, practitioners of origami ('ori', fold; 'kami', paper) and kirigami ('kiru', cut) have fashioned sheets of paper into beautiful and complex three-dimensional structures. Both techniques are scalable, and scientists and engineers are adapting them to different two-dimensional starting materials to create structures from the macro- to the microscale. Here we show that graphene is well suited for kirigami, allowing us to build robust microscale structures with tunable mechanical properties. The material parameter crucial for kirigami is the Föppl-von Kármán number γ: an indication of the ratio between in-plane stiffness and out-of-plane bending stiffness, with high numbers corresponding to membranes that more easily bend and crumple than they stretch and shear. To determine γ, we measure the bending stiffness of graphene monolayers that are 10-100 micrometres in size and obtain a value that is thousands of times higher than the predicted atomic-scale bending stiffness. Interferometric imaging attributes this finding to ripples in the membrane that stiffen the graphene sheets considerably, to the extent that γ is comparable to that of a standard piece of paper. We may therefore apply ideas from kirigami to graphene sheets to build mechanical metamaterials such as stretchable electrodes, springs, and hinges. These results establish graphene kirigami as a simple yet powerful and customizable approach for fashioning one-atom-thick graphene sheets into resilient and movable parts with microscale dimensions. PMID:26222025

  4. Atomic covalent functionalization of graphene.

    PubMed

    Johns, James E; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-01-15

    -dimensional materials with fundamentally different electronic and physical properties. Specifically, we focus on recent studies of the addition of atomic hydrogen, fluorine, and oxygen to the basal plane of graphene. In each of these reactions, a high energy, activating step initiates the process, breaking the local π structure and distorting the surrounding lattice. Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments reveal that substrate mediated interactions often dominate when the initial binding event occurs. We then compare these substrate effects with the results of theoretical studies that typically assume a vacuum environment. As the surface coverage increases, clusters often form around the initial distortion, and the stoichiometric composition of the saturated end product depends strongly on both the substrate and reactant species. In addition to these chemical and structural observations, we review how covalent modification can extend the range of physical properties that are achievable in two-dimensional materials. PMID:23030800

  5. Stable aqueous colloidal solutions of intact surfactant-free graphene nanoribbons and related graphitic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dimiev, Ayrat M; Gizzatov, Ayrat; Wilson, Lon J; Tour, James M

    2013-04-01

    Here we demonstrate a simple, nondestructive method for the preparation of stable aqueous colloidal solutions of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes. The method includes sonication of carbon nanomaterials in hypophosphorous acid, filtration accompanied by washing the solids with water and dispersion of the solids in a fresh portion of water to form colloidal solutions. PMID:23435853

  6. EDITORIAL: Excelling under strain: band engineering in nanomaterials Excelling under strain: band engineering in nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-08-01

    A little stress or strain has been known to improve the performance of athletes, actors and of course nanomaterials alike. In fact strain in silicon is now a major engineering tool for improving the performance of devices, and is ubiquitously used in device design and fabrication. Strain engineering alters a material's band structure, a model of electron behaviour that describes how as atoms come together in a solid, their discrete electron orbitals overlap to ultimately give rise to bands of allowed energy levels. In a strained crystal lattice of silicon or silicon germanium the distance between atoms in the lattice is greater than usual and the bands of allowed energy levels change. This July marks 100 years since Bohr submitted his paper 'On the constitution of atoms and molecules' [1] where he describes the structure of the atom in terms of discrete allowed energy levels. The paper was a seminal contribution to the development of quantum mechanics and laid the initial theoretical precepts for band gap engineering in devices. In this issue Nrauda and a collaboration of researchers in Europe and Australia study the growth of defect-free SiGe islands on pre-patterned silicon [2]. They analyse the strain in the islands and determine at what point lattice dislocations set in with a view to informing implementation of strain engineering in devices. The effects of strain on band structure in silicon and germanium were already studied and reported in the 1950s [3, 4]. Since then the increasing focus on nanoscale materials and the hunger for control of electronic properties has prompted further study of strain effects. The increased surface area to volume ratio in nanostructures changes the strain behaviour with respect to bulk materials, and this can also be exploited for handling and fine tuning strain to manipulate material properties. It is perhaps no surprise that graphene, one of the most high-profile materials in current nanotechnology research, has attracted

  7. Nanomaterial processing for multifunctional patterned composites for in situ sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, Zachary R.

    The increasing performance demands on composite materials have stimulated the development of new approaches and manufacturing techniques to integrate various system functionalities within the composite structure. Opportunity exists to produce smart, self-sensing composites, by altering the microstructure of the composite where sensors can be patterned for assessing damage locality and severity. Introduction of nanomaterials into continuous fiber-reinforced composites either at the fiber/matrix interface or within the polymer matrix enables further tailoring of mechanical and electrical properties. Carbon nanotubes have been studied extensively for modifying the mechanical and physical properties of fiber composites. Recently graphene has generated scientific and technical interest due to potential lower raw material costs and ease of processing. This work studies graphene nano-platelet processing parameters to determine the suitability of graphene nanocomposites for in situ sensing applications. Processing parameters for optimizing the piezoresistive response of graphene nano-platelet composites for in situ sensing applications are determined and applied in for the development of a patterning media suitable for deposition onto glass fibers. A new approach to selectively modify the electrical properties of composite fibers is employed to selectively deposit carbon nanotube and graphene nano-platelet enhanced patterning media through an adapted screen printing process. These nano-modified depositions create hierarchical patterns of piezoresistive sensors as fully integrated components and form a distributed sensor network at the fiber/matrix interface. New analysis tools for resistance based sensing techniques are applied to nanocomposites and patterned unidirectional hybrid nanocomposites to assess damage onset and accumulation. The sensitivity of the electrical response for the graphene nano-platelet is compared with the electrical response of the carbon nanotube

  8. The Neurotoxic Potential of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expanding development and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have diverse and far-reaching potential benefits in consumer products, food, drugs, medical devices and for enhancing environmental cleanup and remediation. The knowledge of potential implications of ENMs...

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Pu Chun; Qiao, Rui

    2007-09-01

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment.

  10. Toxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials: A Physicochemical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Podila, Ramakrishna; Brown, Jared M.

    2013-01-01

    The global market for nanomaterial-based products was forecasted to reach 100 billion dollars per annum for 2011–2015. Extensive manufacturing and the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have raised concerns regarding their impact on biological response in living organisms, and the environment at large. The fundamental properties of nanomaterials exhibit a complex dependence upon several factors such as their morphology, size, defects, chemical stability, etc. Therefore, it is exceedingly difficult to correlate their biological response with their intricate physicochemical properties. For example, varying toxic response may ensue due to different methods of nanomaterial preparation, dissimilar impurities and defects. In this review, we surveyed the existing literature on the dependence of cytotoxicity on physicochemical properties. We found that ENM size, shape, defect density, physicochemical stability and surface modification to be the main causes that elicit altered physiological response or cytotoxicity. PMID:23129019

  11. Techniques for physicochemical characterization of nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping-Chang; Lin, Stephen; Wang, Paul C.; Sridhar, Rajagopalan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have opened up a new era of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases and traumatic injuries. Nanomaterials, including those with potential for clinical applications, possess novel physicochemical properties that have an impact on their physiological interactions, from the molecular level to the systemic level. There is a lack of standardized methodologies or regulatory protocols for detection or characterization of nanomaterials. This review summarizes the techniques that are commonly used to study the size, shape, surface properties, composition, purity and stability of nanomaterials, along with their advantages and disadvantages. At present there are no FDA guidelines that have been developed specifically for nanomaterial based formulations for diagnostic or therapeutic use. There is an urgent need for standardized protocols and procedures for the characterization of nanoparticles, especially those that are intended for use as theranostics. PMID:24252561

  12. Engineered nanomaterials: Exposures, hazards and risk prevention.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public) are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, understanding of the health and sa...

  13. PEG Branched Polymer for Functionalization of Nanomaterials with Ultralong Blood Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Prencipe, Giuseppe; Tabakman, Scott M.; Welsher, Kevin; Liu, Zhuang; Goodwin, Andrew P.; Zhang, Li; Henry, Joy; Dai, Hongjie

    2010-01-01

    Nanomaterials have been actively pursued for biological and medical applications in recent years. Here, we report the synthesis of several new poly(ethylene glycol) grafted branched polymers for functionalization of various nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles (NPs), and gold nanorods (NRs), affording high aqueous solubility and stability for these materials. We synthesize different surfactant polymers based upon poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γPGA) and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMHC18). We use the abundant free carboxylic acid groups of γPGA for attaching lipophilic species such as pyrene or phospholipid, which bind to nanomaterials via robust physisorption. Additionally, the remaining carboxylic acids on γPGA or the amine-reactive anhydrides of PMHC18 are then PEGylated, providing extended hydrophilic groups, affording polymeric amphiphiles. We show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), Au NPs, and NRs functionalized by the polymers exhibit high stability in aqueous solutions at different pH values, at elevated temperatures, and in serum. Morever, the polymer-coated SWNTs exhibit remarkably long blood circulation (t1/2 = 22.1 h) upon intravenous injection into mice, far exceeding the previous record of 5.4 h. The ultralong blood circulation time suggests greatly delayed clearance of nanomaterials by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of mice, a highly desired property for in vivo applications of nanomaterials, including imaging and drug delivery. PMID:19173646

  14. Electronic structure imperfections and chemical bonding at graphene interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Brian Joseph

    The manifestation of novel phenomena upon scaling to finite size has inspired a paradigm shift in materials science that takes advantage of the distinctive electrical and physical properties of nanomaterials. Remarkably, the simple honeycomb arrangement of carbon atoms in a single atomic layer has become renowned for exhibiting never-before-seen electronic and physical phenomena. This archetypal 2-dimensional nanomaterial is known as graphene, a single layer of graphite. Early reports in the 1950's eluded to graphene-like nanostructures that were evidenced from exfoliation of oxidized graphite followed by chemical reduction, absorbed carbon on transition metals, and thermal decomposition of SiC. Furthermore, the earliest tight binding approximation calculations in the 1950's held clues that a single-layer of graphite would behave drastically different than bulk graphite. Not until 2004, when Giem and Novoselov first synthesized graphene by mechanical exfoliation from highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite did the field of graphene-based research bloom within the scientific community. Since 2004, the availability and relatively straight forward synthesis of single-layer graphene (SLG) enabled the observation of remarkable phenomena including: massless Dirac fermions, extremely high mobilities of its charge carriers, room temperature half-integer quantum Hall effect, the Rashba effect, and the potential for ballistic conduction over macroscopic distances. These enticing electronic properties produce the drive to study graphene for use in truly nanoscale electrical interconnects, integrated circuits, transparent conducting electrodes, ultra-high frequency transistors, and spintronic devices, just to name a few. Yet, for almost all real world applications graphene will need to be interfaced with other materials, metals, dielectrics, organics, or any combination thereof that in turn are constituted from various inorganic and organic components. Interfacing graphene, a

  15. Nanomaterial Induced Immune Responses and Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ashraf; Suhail, Mohd; Mathew, Shilu; Shah, Muhammad Ali; Harakeh, Steve M; Ahmad, Sultan; Kazmi, Zulqarnain; Alhamdan, Mohammed Abdul Rahman; Chaudhary, Adeel; Damanhouri, Ghazi Abdullah; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are utilized in a wide array of end user products such as pharmaceuticals, electronics, clothes and cosmetic products. Due to its size (< 100 nm), nanoparticles have the propensity to enter through the airway and skin, making its path perilous with the potential to cause damages of varying severity. Once within the body, these particles have unconstrained access to different tissues and organs including the brain, liver, and kidney. As a result, nanomaterials may cause the perturbation of the immune system eliciting an inflammatory response and cytotoxicity. This potential role is dependent on many factors such as the characteristics of the nanomaterials, presence or absence of diseases, and genetic predisposition. Cobalt and nickel nanoparticles, for example, were shown to have inflammogenic properties, while silver nanoparticles were shown to reduce allergic inflammation. Just as asbestos fibers, carbon nanotubes were shown to cause lungs damage. Some nanomaterials were shown, based on animal studies, to result in cell damage, leading to the formation of pre-cancerous lesions. This review highlights the impact of nanomaterials on immune system and its effect on human health with toxicity consideration. It recommends the development of suitable animal models to study the toxicity and bio-clearance of nanomaterials and propose safety guidelines. PMID:27398432

  16. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits. It is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will hinge upon further developments in nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes on `design-for-purpose' and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress in rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil-water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid to the chemical concepts related to nanomaterial design throughout the review.

  17. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits. It is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will hinge upon further developments in nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes on 'design-for-purpose' and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress in rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil-water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid to the chemical concepts related to nanomaterial design throughout the review. PMID:26437738

  18. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration. PMID:26945480

  19. Antioxidant Chemistry of Graphene-Based Materials and its Role in Oxidation Protection Technology

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, Zhongying; Owens, Alisa C.E.; Kulaots, Indrek; Chen, Yantao; Kane, Agnes B.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional nanomaterials have potential as a new class of antioxidants that combine physical barrier function with ultrahigh surface area for free radical scavenging. This work presents the first measurements of the chemical reactivities of graphene-based materials toward a set of model free radicals and reactive oxygen species using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and sacrificial dye protection assays. Graphene-based materials are shown to protect a variety of molecular targets from oxidation by these species, and to be highly effective as hydroxyl-radical scavengers. When hydroxyl radical is produced photolytically, the overall antioxidant effect is a combination of preventative antioxidant activity (UV absorption) and ·OH radical scavenging. Few-layer graphene is more active than monolayer graphene oxide, despite its lower surface area, which indicates that the primary scavenging sites are associated with the sp2-carbon network rather than oxygen-containing functional groups. To explain this trend, we propose that GO is a weak hydrogen donor, due to the non-phenolic nature of most OH groups on GO, which reside at basal sp3-carbon sites that do not allow for radical resonance stabilization following hydrogen donation. As an example application of graphene antioxidant behavior, we show that encapsulation of TiO2 nanoparticles in graphene nanosacks reduces undesired photo-oxidative damage to nearby organic target molecules, which suggests graphene encapsulation as a new approach to managing adverse environmental or health impacts of redox-active nanomaterials. PMID:25157875

  20. Isolation of high quality graphene from Ru by solution phase intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, E.; Sutter, E.; Bliznakov, S.; Ivars-Barcelo, F.; Sutter, P.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a method for isolating graphene grown on epitaxial Ru(0001)/α-Al2O3. The strong graphene/Ru(0001) coupling is weakened by electrochemically driven intercalation of hydrogen underpotentially deposited in aqueous KOH solution, which allows the penetration of water molecules at the graphene/Ru(0001) interface. Following these electrochemically driven processes, the graphene can be isolated by electrochemical hydrogen evolution and transferred to arbitrary supports. Raman and transport measurements demonstrate the high quality of the transferred graphene. Our results show that intercalation, typically carried out in vacuum, can be extended to solution environments for graphene processing under ambient conditions.

  1. Tuning strain in flexible graphene nanoelectromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Fen; Kumaravadivel, Piranavan; Averin, Dmitri V.; Du, Xu

    2015-11-01

    The structural flexibility of low dimensional nanomaterials offers unique opportunities for studying the impact of strain on their physical properties and for developing innovative devices utilizing strain engineering. A key towards such goals is a device platform which allows the independent tuning and reliable calibration of the strain. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanoelectromechanical resonators (GNEMRs) on flexible substrates. Combining substrate bending and electrostatic gating, we achieve the independent tuning of the strain and sagging in graphene and explore the nonlinear dynamics over a wide parameter space. Analytical and numerical studies of a continuum mechanics model, including the competing higher order nonlinear terms, reveal a comprehensive nonlinear dynamics phase diagram, which quantitatively explains the complex behaviors of GNEMRs.

  2. Health implications of engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroiusti, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, a growing number of people are expected to be exposed to its products, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Some physico-chemical properties of ENMs, linked to their size in the nanoscale (1-100 nm), make them potentially more reactive, and therefore raise concern about possible adverse effects in humans. In this article, I discuss human diseases which may be predicted after exposure to ENMs, and how their pathogenetic mechanisms may be linked to exposure; in this regard, special emphasis has been given to the triad of oxidative stress/inflammation/genotoxicity and to the interaction of ENMs/proteins in different biological compartments. The analysis of possible adverse effects has been made on an organ-by-organ basis, starting from the skin, respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. These sites are in fact not only those exposed to the highest amounts of ENMs, but are also the portals of entry to internal organs for possible systemic effects. Although the list and the relevance of possible human disorders linked to ENM exposure are at least as impressive as that of their direct or indirect beneficial effects for human health, we must be clear that ENM-linked diseases belong to the realm of possible risk (i.e. cannot be excluded, but are unlikely), whereas ENMs with proven beneficial effects are on the market. Therefore, the mandatory awareness about possible adverse effects of ENMs should in no way be interpreted as a motivation to disregard the great opportunity represented by nanotechnology.

  3. Signal Amplification of Bioassay Using Zinc Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Chad L.

    An emerging trend in the analytical detection sciences is the employment of nanomaterials for bioassay signal transduction to identify analytes critical to public health. These nanomaterials have been specifically investigated for applications which require identification of trace levels of cells, proteins, or other molecules that can have broad ranging impacts to human health in fields such as clinical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food and drink control, and the prevention of bioterrorism. Oftentimes these nanoparticle-based signal transduction or amplification approaches offer distinct advantages over conventional methods such as increased sensitivity, rapidity, or stability. The biological application of nanoparticles however, does suffer from drawbacks that have limited more widespread adoption of these techniques. Some of these drawbacks are, high cost and toxicity, arduous synthesis methods, functionalization and bioconjugation challenges, and laboratory disposal and environmental hazard issues, all of which have impeded the progression of this technology in some way or another. This work aims at developing novel techniques that offer solutions to a number of these hurdles through the development of new nanoparticle-based signal transduction approaches and the description of a previously undescribed nanomaterial. Zinc-based nanomaterials offer the opportunity to overcome some of the limitations that are encountered when other nanomaterials are employed for bioassay signal transduction. On the other hand, the biological application of zinc nanomaterials has been difficult because in general their fluorescence is in the blue range and the reported quantum yields are usually too low for highly sensitive applications. The advantages of using zinc nanomaterials for biological applications, such as reduced toxicity, simple synthesis, low cost, and straightforward functionalization strategies contribute to the research interest in their application as

  4. Hybrid upconversion nanomaterials for optogenetic neuronal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Shreyas; Liu, Jing-Jing; Pasquale, Nicholas; Lai, Jinping; McGowan, Heather; Pang, Zhiping P.; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by embedding upconversion nanomaterials, which can convert NIR light to blue luminescence, into polymeric scaffolds. These hybrid nanomaterial scaffolds allowed for NIR-mediated neuronal stimulation, with comparable efficiency as that of 470 nm blue light. Our platform was optimized for NIR-mediated optogenetic control by balancing multiple physicochemical properties of the nanomaterial (e.g. size, morphology, structure, emission spectra, concentration), thus providing an early demonstration of rationally-designing nanomaterial-based strategies for advanced neural applications.Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by

  5. Redistribution of carbon atoms in Pt substrate for high quality monolayer graphene synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yinying, Li; Xiaoming, Wu; Huaqiang, Wu; He, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional material graphene shows its extraordinary potential in many application fields. As the most effective method to synthesize large-area monolayer graphene, chemical vapor deposition has been well developed; however, it still faces the challenge of a high occurrence of multilayer graphene, which causes the small effective area of monolayer graphene. This phenomenon limits its applications in which only a big size of monolayer graphene is needed. In this paper, by introducing a redistribution stage after the decomposition of carbon source gas to redistribute the carbon atoms dissolved in Pt foils, the number of multilayer flakes on the monolayer graphene decreases. The mean area of monolayer graphene can be extended to about 16 000 μm2, which is eight times larger than that of the graphene grown without the redistribution stage. A Raman spectrograph is used to demonstrate the high quality of the monolayer graphene grown by the improved process.

  6. Graphene as a signal amplifier for preparation of ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Filip, Jaroslav; Kasák, Peter; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnostics of diseases performed with minimal money and time consumption has become achievable due to recent advances in development of biosensors. These devices use biorecognition elements for selective interaction with an analyte and signal readout is obtained via different types of transducers. Operational characteristics of biosensors have been reported to improve substantially, when a diverse range of nanomaterials was employed. This review presents construction of electrochemical biosensors based on graphene, atomically thin 2D carbon crystals, which is currently intensively studied nanomaterial. The most attractive directions of graphene applications in biosensor preparation are discussed here including novel detection and amplification schemes exploiting graphene’s unique electrochemical, physical and chemical properties. The future of graphene-based biosensors is most likely bright, but there is still a lot of work to do to fulfill high expectations. PMID:27242391

  7. Hybrid nanostructures of metal/two-dimensional nanomaterials for plasmon-enhanced applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanhua; Zhu, Jinmeng; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid nanostructures composed of graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and plasmonic metal components have been extensively studied. The unusual properties of 2D materials are associated with their atomically thin thickness and 2D morphology, and many impressive structures enable the metal nanomaterials to establish various interesting hybrid nanostructures with outstanding plasmonic properties. In addition, the hybrid nanostructures display unique optical characteristics that are derived from the close conjunction of plasmonic optical effects and the unique physicochemical properties of 2D materials. More importantly, the hybrid nanostructures show several plasmonic electrical effects including an improved photogeneration rate, efficient carrier transfer, and a plasmon-induced "hot carrier", playing a significant role in enhancing device performance. They have been widely studied for plasmon-enhanced optical signals, photocatalysis, photodetectors (PDs), and solar cells. In this review, the developments in the field of metal/2D hybrid nanostructures are comprehensively described. Preparation of hybrid nanostructures is first presented according to the 2D material type, as well as the metal nanomaterial morphology. The plasmonic properties and the enabled applications of the hybrid nanostructures are then described. Lastly, possible future research in this promising field is discussed. PMID:27048993

  8. A multi-endpoint, high-throughput study of nanomaterial toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Qu, Xiaolei; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Wang, Tianxiao; Riepe, Celeste; Liu, Zheng; Li, Qilin; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The booming nanotech industry has raised public concerns about the environmental health and safety impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). High-throughput assays are needed to obtain toxicity data for the rapidly increasing number of ENMs. Here we present a suite of high-throughput methods to study nanotoxicity in intact animals using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. At the population level, our system measures food consumption of thousands of animals to evaluate population fitness. At the organism level, our automated system analyzes hundreds of individual animals for body length, locomotion speed, and lifespan. To demonstrate the utility of our system, we applied this technology to test the toxicity of 20 nanomaterials under four concentrations. Only fullerene nanoparticles (nC60), fullerol, TiO2, and CeO2 showed little or no toxicity. Various degrees of toxicity were detected from different forms of carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black, Ag, and fumed SiO2 nanoparticles. Aminofullerene and UV irradiated nC60 also showed small but significant toxicity. We further investigated the effects of nanomaterial size, shape, surface chemistry, and exposure conditions on toxicity. Our data are publicly available at the open-access nanotoxicity database www.QuantWorm.org/nano. PMID:25611253

  9. Chemical Functionalization, Self-Assembly, and Applications of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Tifeng; Yan, Xingbin; Balan, Lavinia; Stepanov, Andrey; Chen, Xinqing; Hu, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue addresses the research studies on chemical functionalization, self-assembly, and applications of nanomaterials and nanocomposites. It contains twentyfour articles including two reviews and twenty-two research articles. It is used to create new functional nanomaterials and nanocomposites with a variety of sizes and morphologies such as Zn/Al layered double hydroxide, tin oxide nanowires, FeOOH-modified anion resin, Au nanoclusters silica composite nanospheres, Ti-doped ZnO sol-composite films, TiO2/ZnO composite, graphene oxide nanocomposites, LiFePO4/C nanocomposites, and chitosan nanoparticles. These nanomaterials and nanocomposites have widespread applications in tissue engineering, antitumor, sensors, photoluminescence, electrochemical, and catalytic properties. In addition, this themed issue includes some research articles about self-assembly systems covering organogels and Langmuir films. Furthermore, B. Blasiak et al. performed a literature survey on the recent advances in production, functionalization, toxicity reduction, and application of nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and treatment monitoring. P. Colson et al. performed a literature survey on the recent advances in nanosphere lithography due to its compatibility with wafer-scale processes as well as its potential to manufacture a wide variety of homogeneous one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructures.

  10. Hydroxyapatite grafted carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets: Promising bone implant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyefusi, Adebola; Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Peterson, Deforest; Stone, Julia M.; Williams, Ebonee; Carson, Laura; Regisford, Gloria; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was successfully grafted to carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets. The HA grafted CNTs and HA-graphene nanosheets were characterized using FT-IR, TGA, SEM and X-ray diffraction. The HA grafted CNTs and graphene nanosheets (CNTs-HA and Gr-HA) were further used to examine the proliferation and differentiation rate of temperature-sensitive human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB 1.19). Total protein assays and western blot analysis of osteocalcin expression were used as indicators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Results indicated that hFOB 1.19 cells proliferate and differentiate well in treatment media containing CNTs-HA and graphene-HA. Both CNTs-HA and graphene-HA could be promising nanomaterials for use as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering.

  11. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene as solution-processable, highly conductive electrodes for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Khaled; Li, Rongjin; Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Hernandez, Yenny; Hinkel, Felix; Wang, Suhao; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2013-04-23

    Solution-processable thin layer graphene is an intriguing nanomaterial with tremendous potential for electronic applications. In this work, we demonstrate that electrochemical exfoliation of graphite furnishes graphene sheets of high quality. The electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EG) contains a high yield (>80%) of one- to three-layer graphene flakes with high C/O ratio of 12.3 and low sheet resistance (4.8 kΩ/□ for a single EG sheet). Due to the solution processability of EG, a vacuum filtration method in association with dry transfer is introduced to produce large-area and highly conductive graphene films on various substrates. Moreover, we demonstrate that the patterned EG can serve as high-performance source/drain electrodes for organic field-effect transistors. PMID:23531157

  12. Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chul; Kim, Young-Kwan; Shin, Dolly; Ryoo, Soo-Ryoon; Hong, Byung Hee; Min, Dal-Hee

    2013-10-15

    Graphene has unique mechanical, electronic, and optical properties, which researchers have used to develop novel electronic materials including transparent conductors and ultrafast transistors. Recently, the understanding of various chemical properties of graphene has facilitated its application in high-performance devices that generate and store energy. Graphene is now expanding its territory beyond electronic and chemical applications toward biomedical areas such as precise biosensing through graphene-quenched fluorescence, graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth, and graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization for mass spectrometry. In this Account, we review recent efforts to apply graphene and graphene oxides (GO) to biomedical research and a few different approaches to prepare graphene materials designed for biomedical applications. Because of its excellent aqueous processability, amphiphilicity, surface functionalizability, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and fluorescence quenching ability, GO chemically exfoliated from oxidized graphite is considered a promising material for biological applications. In addition, the hydrophobicity and flexibility of large-area graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allow this material to play an important role in cell growth and differentiation. The lack of acceptable classification standards of graphene derivatives based on chemical and physical properties has hindered the biological application of graphene derivatives. The development of an efficient graphene-based biosensor requires stable biofunctionalization of graphene derivatives under physiological conditions with minimal loss of their unique properties. For the development graphene-based therapeutics, researchers will need to build on the standardization of graphene derivatives and study the biofunctionalization of graphene to clearly understand how cells respond to exposure to graphene derivatives. Although several

  13. Graphene: Calling all chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoff, Rod

    2008-01-01

    Graphene has potentially useful electronic properties but it is difficult to produce and process on large scales. Working with chemically modified forms of graphene - such as graphene oxide - may provide an alternative.

  14. Multifunctional carbon nanomaterial hybrids for magnetic manipulation and targeting.

    PubMed

    Quyen Chau, Ngoc Do; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Kostarelos, Kostas; Bianco, Alberto

    2015-12-18

    Nanosized materials and multifunctional nanoscale platforms have attracted in the last years considerable interest in a variety of different fields including biomedicine. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are some of the most widely used carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) due to their unique morphology and structure and their characteristic physicochemical properties. Their high surface area allows efficient drug loading and bioconjugation and makes them the ideal platforms for decoration with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). In the biomedical area, MNPs are of particular importance due to their broad range of potential applications in drug delivery, non-invasive tumor imaging and early detection based on their optical and magnetic properties. The remarkable characteristics of CNMs and MNPs can be combined leading to CNM/MNP hybrids which offer numerous promising, desirable and strikingly advantageous properties for improved performance in comparison to the use of either material alone. In this minireview, we attempt to comprehensively report the most recent advances made with CNMs conjugated to different types of MNPs for magnetic targeting, magnetic manipulation, capture and separation of cells towards development of magnetic carbon-based devices. PMID:26129773

  15. The Orientation of Luminescent Excitons in Layered Organic Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuller, Jon; Karavelli, Sinan; He, Keliang; Yang, Shyuan; Shan, Jie; Kymissis, John; Zia, Rashid

    2012-02-01

    A fundamental understanding of optoelectronics in organic semiconductors is complicated by the diversity of excitons which can exist within a single material system. Measurements that distinguish between different exciton types are crucial for a complete understanding of organic materials. By fitting experimental curves of angle-, polarization-, and energy-dependent PL to analytical Purcell calculations we quantify the relative dipole moments for in-plane and out-of-plane oriented excitons in organic and inorganic layered nanomaterials. In mono- and bi-layers of Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) and Graphene Oxide the luminescence arises only from in-plane oriented excitons. In the perylene derivative PTCDA, however, we show that PL arises from both in-plane and out-of-plane excitons. We observe a difference in emission frequency between the dipole orientations which indicates the existence of two distinct exciton species: an in-plane oriented Frenkel exciton and an out-of-plane oriented Charge Transfer exciton. Based on these results we devise and implement a method for isolating luminescence from either exciton species. We observe different temporal dynamics for the two distinct excitons, highlighting the power of this technique for fundamental studies of organic materials.

  16. 1-Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanomaterial Growth and Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyung Woo

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known as a conductive material when doped with elements such as indium, gallium and aluminum. The solubility of those dopant elements in ZnO is still debatable; but, it is necessary to find alternative conducting materials when their form is film or nanostructure for display devices. This is a consequence of the ever increasing price of indium. In addition, a new generation solar cell (nanostructured or hybrid photovoltaics) requires compatible materials which are capable of free standing on substrates without seed or buffer layers and have the ability introduce electrons or holes pathway without blocking towards electrodes. The nanostructures for solar cells using inorganic materials such as silicon (Si), titanium oxide (TiO2), and ZnO have been an interesting topic for research in solar cell community in order to overcome the limitation of efficiency for organic solar cells. This dissertation is a study of the rational solution-based synthesis of 1-dimentional ZnO nanomaterial and its solar cell applications. These results have implications in cost effective and uniform nanomanufacturing for the next generation solar cells application by controlling growth condition and by doping transition metal element in solution.

  17. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Yan, Cheng; Azari, Sara; Lee, Sang-Heon; Xu, Yanan; Ma, Jun; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-31

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ~200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs' high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications. PMID:24398819

  18. Environmental implications and applications of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    Recent advances in material science and nanotechnology have given rise to a myriad of developments, while in the meantime call for research into the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade concerning the behavior of nanomaterials in biological systems, such understanding is critically lacking with respect to the fate of nanomaterials in ecosystems. Accordingly, this dissertation addresses the interactions between nanomaterials and algae---the major constituent of the aquatic food chain (Part I, Chapter two), and exploits the physicochemistry of nanoscaled synthetic dendritic polymers for environmental applications, especially for water purification that is a focused theme of the entire dossier (Part II, Chapters two--five). This dissertation is organized as follows. Chapter one presents a general review of the physical/physicochemical properties, characterizations, implications---especially ecological implication, and applications of a host of most produced and studied nanomaterials. In addition, advances in environmental applications of nanomaterials are discussed. Chapter two examines algal responses to two major types of engineered nanomaterials---quantum dots and polystyrene. Inhibited photosynthetic activities of green algae are observed as a result of the physical adsorption of the nanomaterials. Chapter three elucidates the physicochemical properties of poly(amidoamine)-tris(hydroxymethyl)amidomethane- and amine-terminated dendrimers towards their applications in water remediation. Here, the capacities and mechanisms of the dendrimers in hosting cationic copper, anionic nitrate, polyaromatic phenanthrene, and the more heterogeneous humic acids are discussed. Based on the results of Chapter three, Chapter four presents a dendrimer-based novel optical scheme for improving the detection sensitivity and selectivity of environmental pollutants. Specifically, the surface plasmon

  19. Health implications of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Pietroiusti, Antonio

    2012-02-21

    With the development of nanotechnology, a growing number of people are expected to be exposed to its products, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Some physico-chemical properties of ENMs, linked to their size in the nanoscale (1-100 nm), make them potentially more reactive, and therefore raise concern about possible adverse effects in humans. In this article, I discuss human diseases which may be predicted after exposure to ENMs, and how their pathogenetic mechanisms may be linked to exposure; in this regard, special emphasis has been given to the triad of oxidative stress/inflammation/genotoxicity and to the interaction of ENMs/proteins in different biological compartments. The analysis of possible adverse effects has been made on an organ-by-organ basis, starting from the skin, respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. These sites are in fact not only those exposed to the highest amounts of ENMs, but are also the portals of entry to internal organs for possible systemic effects. Although the list and the relevance of possible human disorders linked to ENM exposure are at least as impressive as that of their direct or indirect beneficial effects for human health, we must be clear that ENM-linked diseases belong to the realm of possible risk (i.e. cannot be excluded, but are unlikely), whereas ENMs with proven beneficial effects are on the market. Therefore, the mandatory awareness about possible adverse effects of ENMs should in no way be interpreted as a motivation to disregard the great opportunity represented by nanotechnology. PMID:22278373

  20. Biopharmaceutics and Therapeutic Potential of Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xing-Jie; Chen, Chunying; Zhao, Yuliang; Jia, Lee; Wang, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing nanosciences and are founding an important class of new materials with specific physicochemical properties different from bulk materials with the same compositions. The potential for nanomaterials is rapidly expanding with novel applications constantly being explored in different areas. The unique size-dependent properties of nanomaterials make them very attractive for pharmaceutical applications. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of engineered nanomaterials have yielded valuable information. Cytotoxic effects of certain engineered nanomaterials towards malignant cells form the basis for one aspect of nanomedicine. It is inferred that size, three dimensional shape, hydrophobicity and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization forms a base for exciting developments in therapeutics. This review article addresses the fate of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of engineered nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. It updates the distinctive methodology used for studying the biopharmaceutics of nanoparticles. This review addresses the future potential and safety concerns and genotoxicity of nanoparticle formulations in general. It particularly emphasizes the effects of nanoparticles on metabolic enzymes as well as the parenteral or inhalation administration routes of nanoparticle formulations. This paper illustrates the potential of nanomedicine by discussing biopharmaceutics of fullerene derivatives and their suitability for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Future direction is discussed as well. PMID:18855608

  1. Describing Nanomaterials: A Uniform Description System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, John; Freiman, Steve; Teague, Clayton

    2014-03-01

    Products involving nanomaterials are growing rapidly and nanoparticles also occur naturally. Materials, scientists, engineers, health officials, and regulators have realized they need a common description system. Led by CODATA and VAMAS, a Uniform Description System (UDS) for nanomaterials is being developed to meet the requirements of a broad range of scientific and technical disciplines and different user communities. The goal of the CODATA/VAMAS effort is the creation of a complete set of descriptors that can be used by all communities, e.g., materials, physics, chemistry, agricultural, medical, etc., interested in nanomaterials. The description system must be relevant to researchers, manufacturers of nanomaterials, materials selectors, and regulators. The purpose of the UDS for materials on the nanoscale is twofold: Uniqueness and Equivalency. The first step in the development of the UDS has been the creation of a Framework that will be used by the different communities to guide in the selection of descriptors relevant to their needs. This talk is a brief description of the draft of such a Framework, and how the framework will be translated into a robust description system with input from many scientific communities including physics. A contribution from the CODATA/VAMAS Working Group on the Description of Nanomaterials.

  2. Twisting Graphene into Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kit, Oleg O.; Tallinen, Tuomas; Mahadevan, L.; Timonen, Jussi; Koskinen, Pekka

    2012-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes are usually described as being rolled up from graphene sheets; this process, however, have never been realized experimentally. We showed that graphene can indeed be transformed into nanotube by twisting [1]. Further, we showed that tube formation can be well-explained within classical theory of elasticity---in fact the very mechanism of tube formation can be observed by twisting a strap from one's backpack (try now!). Furthermore, we showed that nanotube chirality may not only be predicted, but can also be controlled externally. The quantum molecular dynamic simulations at T=300K were achieved thanks to the revised periodic boundary conditions (RPBC) approach [2-3]. The structures similar to simulated have been recently observed experimentally [4]. This novel rote for nanotube formation opens new opportunities in nanomaterial manipulation not restricted to carbon alone. In the presentation, I will describe tube formation, as well as outline the easy and efficient technique for distorted nanostructures simulation, the RPBC approach. [4pt] [1] O. O. Kit et al. arXiv:1108.0048[0pt] [2] P. Koskinen & O. O. Kit PRL 105, 106401 (2010)[0pt] [3] O. O. Kit, L. Pastewka, P. Koskinen PRB 84, 155431 (2011)[0pt] [4] A. Chuvilin et al. Nature Materials 10, 687 (2011)

  3. Solutions of negatively charged graphene sheets and ribbons.

    PubMed

    Vallés, Cristina; Drummond, Carlos; Saadaoui, Hassan; Furtado, Clascidia A; He, Maoshuai; Roubeau, Olivier; Ortolani, Luca; Monthioux, Marc; Pénicaud, Alain

    2008-11-26

    Negatively charged graphene layers from a graphite intercalation compound spontaneously dissolve in N-methylpyrrolidone, without the need for any sonication, yielding stable, air-sensitive, solutions of laterally extended atom-thick graphene sheets and ribbons with dimensions over tens of micrometers. These can be deposited on a variety of substrates. Height measurements showing single-atom thickness were performed by STM, AFM, multiple beam interferometry, and optical imaging on Sarfus wafers, demonstrating deposits of graphene flakes and ribbons. AFM height measurements on mica give the actual height of graphene (ca. 0.4 nm). PMID:18975900

  4. Graphene shield enhanced photocathodes and methods for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Moody, Nathan Andrew

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are graphene shield enhanced photocathodes, such as high QE photocathodes. In certain embodiments, a monolayer graphene shield membrane ruggedizes a high quantum efficiency photoemission electron source by protecting a photosensitive film of the photocathode, extending operational lifetime and simplifying its integration in practical electron sources. In certain embodiments of the disclosed graphene shield enhanced photocathodes, the graphene serves as a transparent shield that does not inhibit photon or electron transmission but isolates the photosensitive film of the photocathode from reactive gas species, preventing contamination and yielding longer lifetime.

  5. Sperm exposure to carbon-based nanomaterials causes abnormalities in early development of purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus).

    PubMed

    Mesarič, Tina; Sepčić, Kristina; Drobne, Damjana; Makovec, Darko; Faimali, Marco; Morgana, Silvia; Falugi, Carla; Gambardella, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    We examined egg fertilisation in purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) after sperm exposure to carbon-based nanomaterials, carbon black (CB) and graphene oxide (GO), from 0.0001 mg/L to 1.0mg/L. Gastrula stage embryos were investigated for acetylcholinesterase and propionylcholinesterase activities, and their morphological characteristics. Plutei were analysed for morphological abnormalities, with emphasis on skeletal rod formation. Egg fertilisation was significantly affected by CB, at all concentrations tested. Loss of cell adhesion at the gastrula surface was observed in eggs fertilised with sperm treated with CB. However, concentration-dependent morphological anomalies were observed in the gastrulae and plutei formed after sperm exposure to either CB or GO. The activities of both cholinesterases decreased in the gastrulae, although not in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects appear to arise from physical interactions between these carbon-based nanomaterials and the sperm, whereby nanomaterials attached to the sperm surface interfere with fertilisation, which leads to disturbances in the signalling pathways of early embryonic development. Reduced cholinesterase activity in gastrulae from eggs fertilised with nanomaterial-treated sperm confirms involvement of the cholinergic system in early sea urchin development, including skeletogenesis. PMID:25897690

  6. Ultrahigh mobility in polyolefin-supported graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kuo, Chin-Lun; Hofmann, Mario

    2016-01-01

    polyolefinic substrates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical micrographs of oxidation tests; comparison of different characterization methods; extended characterization of graphene grown using various cap materials; large scale uniformity of graphene characterization of OM after etching. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07122d

  7. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    PubMed

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. PMID:25889088

  8. Biocompatibility of reduced graphene oxide nanoscaffolds following acute spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Palejwala, Ali H.; Fridley, Jared S.; Mata, Javier A.; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Luerssen, Thomas G.; Perlaky, Laszlo; Kent, Thomas A.; Tour, James M.; Jea, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: Graphene has unique electrical, physical, and chemical properties that may have great potential as a bioscaffold for neuronal regeneration after spinal cord injury. These nanoscaffolds have previously been shown to be biocompatible in vitro; in the present study, we wished to evaluate its biocompatibility in an in vivo spinal cord injury model. Methods: Graphene nanoscaffolds were prepared by the mild chemical reduction of graphene oxide. Twenty Wistar rats (19 male and 1 female) underwent hemispinal cord transection at approximately the T2 level. To bridge the lesion, graphene nanoscaffolds with a hydrogel were implanted immediately after spinal cord transection. Control animals were treated with hydrogel matrix alone. Histologic evaluation was performed 3 months after the spinal cord transection to assess in vivo biocompatibility of graphene and to measure the ingrowth of tissue elements adjacent to the graphene nanoscaffold. Results: The graphene nanoscaffolds adhered well to the spinal cord tissue. There was no area of pseudocyst around the scaffolds suggestive of cytotoxicity. Instead, histological evaluation showed an ingrowth of connective tissue elements, blood vessels, neurofilaments, and Schwann cells around the graphene nanoscaffolds. Conclusions: Graphene is a nanomaterial that is biocompatible with neurons and may have significant biomedical application. It may provide a scaffold for the ingrowth of regenerating axons after spinal cord injury. PMID:27625885

  9. Antioxidant Deactivation on Graphenic Nanocarbon Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xinyuan; Sen, Sujat; Liu, Jingyu; Kulaots, Indrek; Geohegan, David B; Kane, Agnes; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; More, Karren Leslie; Palmore, G. Tayhas R.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a direct chemical pathway for antioxidant deactivation on the surfaces of carbon nanomaterials. In the absence of cells, carbon nanotubes are shown to deplete the key physiological antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in a reaction involving dissolved dioxygen that yields the oxidized dimer, GSSG, as the primary product. In both chemical and electrochemical experiments, oxygen is only consumed at a significant steady-state rate in the presence of both nanotubes and GSH. GSH deactivation occurs for single- and multi-walled nanotubes, graphene oxide, nanohorns, and carbon black at varying rates that are characteristic of the material. The GSH depletion rates can be partially unified by surface area normalization, are accelerated by nitrogen doping, and suppressed by defect annealing or addition of proteins or surfactants. It is proposed that dioxygen reacts with active sites on graphenic carbon surfaces to produce surface-bound oxygen intermediates that react heterogeneously with glutathione to restore the carbon surface and complete a catalytic cycle. The direct catalytic reaction between nanomaterial surfaces and antioxidants may contribute to oxidative stress pathways in nanotoxicity, and the dependence on surface area and structural defects suggest strategies for safe material design.

  10. Antioxidant deactivation on graphenic nanocarbon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyuan; Sen, Sujat; Liu, Jingyu; Kulaots, Indrek; Geohegan, David; Kane, Agnes; Puretzky, Alex A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; More, Karren L.; Palmore, G. Tayhas R.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a direct chemical pathway for antioxidant deactivation on the surfaces of carbon nanomaterials. In the absence of cells, carbon nanotubes are shown to deplete the key physiological antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in a reaction involving dissolved dioxygen that yields the oxidized dimer, GSSG, as the primary product. In both chemical and electrochemical experiments, oxygen is only consumed at a significant steady-state rate in the presence of both nanotubes and GSH. GSH deactivation occurs for single- and multi-walled nanotubes, graphene oxide, nanohorns, and carbon black at varying rates that are characteristic of the material. The GSH depletion rates can be partially unified by surface area normalization, are accelerated by nitrogen doping, and suppressed by defect annealing or addition of proteins or surfactants. We propose that dioxygen reacts with active sites on graphenic carbon surfaces to produce surface-bound oxygen intermediates that react heterogeneously with glutathione to restore the carbon surface and complete a catalytic cycle. The direct catalytic reaction between nanomaterial surfaces and antioxidants may contribute to oxidative stress pathways in nanotoxicity, and the dependence on surface area and structural defects suggest strategies for safe material design. PMID:21818846

  11. Graphene-Dielectric Integration for Graphene Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lei; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Graphene is emerging as an interesting electronic material for future electronics due to its exceptionally high carrier mobility and single-atomic thickness. Graphene-dielectric integration is of critical importance for the development of graphene transistors and a new generation of graphene based electronics. Deposition of dielectric materials onto graphene is of significant challenge due to the intrinsic material incompatibility between pristine graphene and dielectric oxide materials. Here we review various strategies being researched for graphene-dielectric integration. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) can be used to directly deposit dielectric materials on graphene, but often introduces significant defects into the monolayer of carbon lattice; Atomic layer deposition (ALD) process has also been explored to to deposit high-κ dielectrics on graphene, which however requires functionalization of graphene surface with reactive groups, inevitably leading to a significant degradation in carrier mobilities; Using naturally oxidized thin aluminum or polymer as buffer layer for dielectric deposition can mitigate the damages to graphene lattice and improve the carrier mobility of the resulted top-gated transistors; Lastly, a physical assembly approach has recently been explored to integrate dielectric nanostructures with graphene without introducing any appreciable defects, and enabled top-gated graphene transistors with the highest carrier mobility reported to date. We will conclude with a brief summary and perspective on future opportunities. PMID:21278913

  12. Atomic Covalent Functionalization of Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Johns, James E.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    -dimensional materials with fundamentally different electronic and physical properties. Specifically, we focus on recent studies of the addition of atomic hydrogen, fluorine, and oxygen to the basal plane of graphene. In each of these reactions a high energy, activating step initiates the process, breaking the local π structure and distorting the surrounding lattice. Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments reveal that substrate mediated interactions often dominate when the initial binding event occurs. We then compare these substrate effects with the results of theoretical studies that typically assume a vacuum environment. As the surface coverage increases, clusters often form around the initial distortion, and the stoichiometric composition of the saturated end product depends strongly on both the substrate and reactant species. In addition to these chemical and structural observations, we review how covalent modification can extend the range of physical properties that are achievable in two-dimensional materials. PMID:23030800

  13. Hierarchically Structured Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Trogadas, Panagiotis; Ramani, Vijay; Strasser, Peter; Fuller, Thomas F; Coppens, Marc-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical nanomaterials are highly suitable as electrocatalysts and electrocatalyst supports in electrochemical energy conversion devices. The intrinsic kinetics of an electrocatalyst are associated with the nanostructure of the active phase and the support, while the overall properties are also affected by the mesostructure. Therefore, both structures need to be controlled. A comparative state-of-the-art review of catalysts and supports is provided along with detailed synthesis methods. To further improve the design of these hierarchical nanomaterials, in-depth research on the effect of materials architecture on reaction and transport kinetics is necessary. Inspiration can be derived from nature, which is full of very effective hierarchical structures. Developing fundamental understanding of how desired properties of biological systems are related to their hierarchical architecture can guide the development of novel catalytic nanomaterials and nature-inspired electrochemical devices. PMID:26549054

  14. Toxicity of inorganic nanomaterials in biomedical imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxia; Chang, Xueling; Chen, Xiaoxia; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhao, Feng; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles have shown promising potentials as novel biomedical imaging agents with high sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolution. To translate the laboratory innovations into clinical applications, their potential toxicities are highly concerned and have to be evaluated comprehensively both in vitro and in vivo before their clinical applications. In this review, we first summarized the in vivo and in vitro toxicities of the representative inorganic nanoparticles used in biomedical imagings. Then we further discuss the origin of nanotoxicity of inorganic nanomaterials, including ROS generation and oxidative stress, chemical instability, chemical composition, the surface modification, dissolution of nanoparticles to release excess free ions of metals, metal redox state, and left-over chemicals from synthesis, etc. We intend to provide the readers a better understanding of the toxicology aspects of inorganic nanomaterials and knowledge for achieving optimized designs of safer inorganic nanomaterials for clinical applications. PMID:24389087

  15. Nanomaterials as Analytical Tools for Genosensors

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Salah, Khalid M.; Alrokyan, Salman A.; Khan, Muhammad Naziruddin; Ansari, Anees Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Nanomaterials are being increasingly used for the development of electrochemical DNA biosensors, due to the unique electrocatalytic properties found in nanoscale materials. They offer excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events with electronic signal transduction and for designing a new generation of bioelectronic devices exhibiting novel functions. In particular, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Pt), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots and metal oxide nanoparticles have been actively investigated for their applications in DNA biosensors, which have become a new interdisciplinary frontier between biological detection and material science. In this article, we address some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, discussing the issues and challenges with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing nanomaterial-based biosensors and improving their applications in disease diagnosis and food safety examination. PMID:22315580

  16. Development of solution-gated graphene transistor model for biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Hediyeh; Yusof, Rubiyah; Rahmani, Rasoul; Hosseinpour, Hoda; Ahmadi, Mohammad T.

    2014-02-01

    The distinctive properties of graphene, characterized by its high carrier mobility and biocompatibility, have stimulated extreme scientific interest as a promising nanomaterial for future nanoelectronic applications. In particular, graphene-based transistors have been developed rapidly and are considered as an option for DNA sensing applications. Recent findings in the field of DNA biosensors have led to a renewed interest in the identification of genetic risk factors associated with complex human diseases for diagnosis of cancers or hereditary diseases. In this paper, an analytical model of graphene-based solution gated field effect transistors (SGFET) is proposed to constitute an important step towards development of DNA biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. Inspired by this fact, a novel strategy for a DNA sensor model with capability of single-nucleotide polymorphism detection is proposed and extensively explained. First of all, graphene-based DNA sensor model is optimized using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Based on the sensing mechanism of DNA sensors, detective parameters ( I ds and V gmin) are suggested to facilitate the decision making process. Finally, the behaviour of graphene-based SGFET is predicted in the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphism with an accuracy of more than 98% which guarantees the reliability of the optimized model for any application of the graphene-based DNA sensor. It is expected to achieve the rapid, quick and economical detection of DNA hybridization which could speed up the realization of the next generation of the homecare sensor system.

  17. Graphene in the aquatic environment: adsorption, dispersion, toxicity and transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Zhenyu; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) including pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and graphene oxide (GO) offer great application potential, leading to the possibility of their release into aquatic environments. Upon exposure, graphene/rGO and GO exhibit different adsorption properties toward environmental adsorbates, thus the molecular interactions at the GFN-water interface are discussed. After solute adsorption, the dispersion/aggregation behaviors of GFNs can be altered by solution chemistry, as well as by the presence of colloidal particles and biocolloids. GO has different dispersion performance from pristine graphene and rGO, which is further demonstrated from surface properties. Upon exposure in aquatic environments, GFNs have adverse impacts on aquatic organisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, plants, invertebrates, and fish). The mechanisms of GFNs toxicity at the cellular level are reviewed and the remaining unclear points on toxic mechanisms such as membrane damage are presented. Moreover, we highlight the transformation routes of GO to rGO. The degradation of GFNs upon exposure to UV irradiation and/or biota is also reviewed. In view of the unanswered questions, future research should include comprehensive characterization of GFNs, new approaches for explaining GFNs aggregation, environmental behaviors of metastable GO, and the relationship between dispersion of GFNs and the related adsorption properties. PMID:25122195

  18. Development of solution-gated graphene transistor model for biosensors.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hediyeh; Yusof, Rubiyah; Rahmani, Rasoul; Hosseinpour, Hoda; Ahmadi, Mohammad T

    2014-01-01

    : The distinctive properties of graphene, characterized by its high carrier mobility and biocompatibility, have stimulated extreme scientific interest as a promising nanomaterial for future nanoelectronic applications. In particular, graphene-based transistors have been developed rapidly and are considered as an option for DNA sensing applications. Recent findings in the field of DNA biosensors have led to a renewed interest in the identification of genetic risk factors associated with complex human diseases for diagnosis of cancers or hereditary diseases. In this paper, an analytical model of graphene-based solution gated field effect transistors (SGFET) is proposed to constitute an important step towards development of DNA biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. Inspired by this fact, a novel strategy for a DNA sensor model with capability of single-nucleotide polymorphism detection is proposed and extensively explained. First of all, graphene-based DNA sensor model is optimized using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Based on the sensing mechanism of DNA sensors, detective parameters (Ids and Vgmin) are suggested to facilitate the decision making process. Finally, the behaviour of graphene-based SGFET is predicted in the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphism with an accuracy of more than 98% which guarantees the reliability of the optimized model for any application of the graphene-based DNA sensor. It is expected to achieve the rapid, quick and economical detection of DNA hybridization which could speed up the realization of the next generation of the homecare sensor system. PMID:24517158

  19. Development of solution-gated graphene transistor model for biosensors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The distinctive properties of graphene, characterized by its high carrier mobility and biocompatibility, have stimulated extreme scientific interest as a promising nanomaterial for future nanoelectronic applications. In particular, graphene-based transistors have been developed rapidly and are considered as an option for DNA sensing applications. Recent findings in the field of DNA biosensors have led to a renewed interest in the identification of genetic risk factors associated with complex human diseases for diagnosis of cancers or hereditary diseases. In this paper, an analytical model of graphene-based solution gated field effect transistors (SGFET) is proposed to constitute an important step towards development of DNA biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. Inspired by this fact, a novel strategy for a DNA sensor model with capability of single-nucleotide polymorphism detection is proposed and extensively explained. First of all, graphene-based DNA sensor model is optimized using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Based on the sensing mechanism of DNA sensors, detective parameters (Ids and Vgmin) are suggested to facilitate the decision making process. Finally, the behaviour of graphene-based SGFET is predicted in the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphism with an accuracy of more than 98% which guarantees the reliability of the optimized model for any application of the graphene-based DNA sensor. It is expected to achieve the rapid, quick and economical detection of DNA hybridization which could speed up the realization of the next generation of the homecare sensor system. PMID:24517158

  20. Development and In Vitro Bioactivity Profiling of Alternative Sustainable Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable, environmentally benign nanomaterials (NMs) are being designed as alternatives based on functionality to conventional metal-based nanomaterials (NMs) in order to minimize potential risk to human health and the environment. Development of rapid methods to evaluate the ...

  1. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanomaterials in Murine Macrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanomaterials are increasingly used as antimicrobial agents in a variety of products. Although there is considerable potential for human exposure to these nanomaterials, little is known about the health risks associated with their use. Macrophages are prominent immune cell...

  2. Assessing the Implications of Modified Nanomaterials in Bioassay Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology advances to product development, filling environmental health and safety knowledge gaps is critical. Nanotoxicology is over-generalized, provided the permutations of nanomaterial variants created by the classes of nanomaterials (carbonaceous, metals, quantum dot...

  3. Mapping the Surface Adsorption Forces of Nanomaterials in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xin R.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Mathur, Sanjay; Song, Xuefeng; Xiao, Lisong; Oldenberg, Steven J.; Fadeel, Bengt; Riviere, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    The biological surface adsorption index (BSAI) is a novel approach to characterize surface adsorption energy of nanomaterials that is the primary force behind nanoparticle aggregation, protein corona formation, and other complex interactions of nanomaterials within biological systems. Five quantitative nanodescriptors were obtained to represent the surface adsorption forces (hydrophobicity, hydrogen bond, polarity/polarizability, and lone-pair electrons) of the nanomaterial interaction with biological components. We have mapped the surface adsorption forces over 16 different nanomaterials. When the five-dimensional information of the nanodescriptors was reduced to two dimensions, the 16 nanomaterials were classified into distinct clusters according their surface adsorption properties. BSAI nanodescriptors are intrinsic properties of nanomaterials useful for quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model development. This is the first success in quantitative characterization of the surface adsorption forces of nanomaterials in biological conditions, which could open a quantitative avenue in predictive nanomedicine development, risk assessment, and safety evaluation of nanomaterials. PMID:21999618

  4. Development and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Alternative Sustainable Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel nanomaterial types are rapidly being developed for the value they may add to consumer products without sufficient evaluation of implications for human health, toxicity, environmental impact and long-term sustainability. Nanomaterials made of metals, semiconductors and vario...

  5. Overview of Risk Management for Engineered Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Hodson, L. L.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Kuempel, E. D.; Murashov, V.; Martinez, K. F.; Heidel, D. S.

    2013-04-01

    Occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is considered a new and challenging occurrence. Preliminary information from laboratory studies indicates that workers exposed to some kinds of ENMs could be at risk of adverse health effects. To protect the nanomaterial workforce, a precautionary risk management approach is warranted and given the newness of ENMs and emergence of nanotechnology, a naturalistic view of risk management is useful. Employers have the primary responsibility for providing a safe and healthy workplace. This is achieved by identifying and managing risks which include recognition of hazards, assessing exposures, characterizing actual risk, and implementing measures to control those risks. Following traditional risk management models for nanomaterials is challenging because of uncertainties about the nature of hazards, issues in exposure assessment, questions about appropriate control methods, and lack of occupational exposure limits (OELs) or nano-specific regulations. In the absence of OELs specific for nanomaterials, a precautionary approach has been recommended in many countries. The precautionary approach entails minimizing exposures by using engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). Generally, risk management utilizes the hierarchy of controls. Ideally, risk management for nanomaterials should be part of an enterprise-wide risk management program or system and this should include both risk control and a medical surveillance program that assesses the frequency of adverse effects among groups of workers exposed to nanomaterials. In some cases, the medical surveillance could include medical screening of individual workers to detect early signs of work-related illnesses. All medical surveillance should be used to assess the effectiveness of risk management; however, medical surveillance should be considered as a second line of defense to ensure that implemented risk management practices are effective.

  6. A Photochemical Route to Metal Chalcogenide Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, P. C. Temple

    Semiconducting nanoscale metal chaicogenides are an important class of materials used in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and thermoelectric applications. The properties of nanomaterials are directly influenced by their size and shape. Because of this a great deal of research has been focused on the size-controllable synthesis of these materials. Metal chalcogenide nanomaterial:; have been synthesized using solvothermal, sonochemical, pyrolysis, and microwave heating methods, which require high temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the reactants, solvents, and reaction conditions are highly specific for each method as well as the desired nanomaterial. We have developed a unique photochemical method for the generalized synthesis of metal chalcogenide nanomateri GIs. The photolysis is conducted at 20° C, which is substantially lower than current solution based methods. Furthermore, the low temperature allows conventional solvents to be used. We have synthesized Culn2, InS, SbSe, and E2S3 (where E = Sb and Bi) nanopz,rticles with sizes ranging from 5 - 100 nm by photolysis of photoreactive single source precursors (SSPs). The SSPs are designed to photochemically decompose to yield the desired material with the proper stoichiometry. Our SSPs contain photoactive benzyl-X ligands (where X = S or Se), which are known to undergo bond homolysis at the benzyl-X bond. The results indicate that the reactions proceed by bond homolysis to produce reactive radicals species that self-assemble to yield the desired nanomaterials. Furthermore, we have used the same photochemical method as a route to functiorialize a Si surface with bismuth sulfide. We have also investigated the photochemistry of Ph2PBn (where Bn = CH2Ph). Upon photolysis, the P-Bn bond cleaves and yields tetraphenyl diphosphine (Ph4P2) and bibenzyl (PhCH2CH2Ph). These results support the observations made during the photochemical metal chalcogenide nanomaterials synthesis.

  7. Lateral graphene p-n junctions formed by the graphene/MoS2 hybrid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jie; Song, Hua-Ding; Li, Cai-Zhen; Jin, Yibo; Tang, Lei; Liu, Dameng; Liao, Zhi-Min; Xiu, Faxian; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-07-01

    Graphene/two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to possess many advantages for electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, there are few reports about the utilization of a 2D semiconductor monolayer to tune the properties of graphene. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene p-n junctions based on graphene/MoS2 hybrid interfaces. Monolayered graphene across the monolayered MoS2 boundary is divided into n-type regions on the MoS2 and p-type regions on the SiO2 substrate. Such van der Waals heterostructure based graphene p-n junctions show good photoelectric properties. The photocurrent modulation of such devices by a single back gate is also demonstrated for the first time, which shows that the graphene on and off MoS2 regions have different responses to the gate voltage. Our results suggest that the atomic thin hybrid structure can remarkably extend the device applications.Graphene/two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to possess many advantages for electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, there are few reports about the utilization of a 2D semiconductor monolayer to tune the properties of graphene. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene p-n junctions based on graphene/MoS2 hybrid interfaces. Monolayered graphene across the monolayered MoS2 boundary is divided into n-type regions on the MoS2 and p-type regions on the SiO2 substrate. Such van der Waals heterostructure based graphene p-n junctions show good photoelectric properties. The photocurrent modulation of such devices by a single back gate is also demonstrated for the first time, which shows that the graphene on and off MoS2 regions have different responses to the gate voltage. Our results suggest that the atomic thin hybrid structure can remarkably extend the device applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More details on device fabrication, control

  8. The un-symmetric hybridization of graphene surface plasmons incorporating graphene sheets and nano-ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Zheng, Zheng; Cheng, Jiangtao; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Shuna

    2013-12-01

    Un-symmetric hybridization of graphene surface plasmons (GSPs) in waveguides incorporating graphene nano-ribbons and an underlying graphene sheet is theoretically studied. By tuning the chemical potential of the sheet, the characteristics of the hybrid modes can be shifted from sheet-like toward ribbon-like. The performance of hybrid modes reaches the maximum when phase match is satisfied. Superior to symmetric ribbon pairs, the favorable hybrid modes can be tuned at their best states, while the other modes are suppressed. The hybrid waveguide GSPs mode supported by this structure could extend the propagation distance by 46% over that of the modes for ribbon pairs.

  9. Proximity induced Superconductivity in Epitaxial Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natterer, Fabian D.; Ha, Jeonghoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Zhang, Duming; Cullen, William; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.; Kuk, Young; Stroscio, Joseph A.

    The intimate electrical contact of a superconductor with a normal metal leads to an exchange of carriers through their boundary. Cooper pairs leak into the normal metal via Andreev reflection and enable the normal metal to acquire superconducting-like properties. The electron-hole conversion process in graphene is prominent due to relativistic quantum mechanics governing low energy chiral carriers in a multi-valley system. In the present experiment, we reveal spatial measurements of the proximity effect in graphene from a graphene-superconductor interface. Superconducting aluminum films were grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC. The aluminum films were discontinuous with networks of trenches in the film morphology reaching down to the substrate to exposed graphene terraces. Scanning tunneling spectra measured on the graphene terraces show a clear decay of the superconducting gap width with increasing separation from the graphene-aluminum edges. The decay length for the superconducting energy gap extends beyond 400 nm. Subtle deviations in the exponentially decaying energy gap were also observed on a much smaller length scale of tens of nanometers. Funding from SNSF (project 158468), NIST/CNST Grant 70NANB10H193, and KRF-2010-00349.

  10. Functional nanomaterials can optimize the efficacy of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Xu, Yingying; Tian, Yue; Chen, Chunying; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-11-01

    Nanoscale materials can improve the efficacy of vaccines. Herein we review latest developments that use nanomaterials for vaccines. By highlighting the relationships between the nanoscale physicochemical characteristics and working mechanisms of nanomaterials, this paper shows the current status of the developments where researchers employ functional nanomaterials as vector and/or immunoregulators for vaccines. It also provides us some clues for improving the design and application of nanomaterials to optimize the efficacy of vaccines. PMID:25238620

  11. Self-Assembled Three-Dimensional Graphene Macrostructures: Synthesis and Applications in Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuxi; Shi, Gaoquan; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-06-16

    Graphene and its derivatives are versatile building blocks for bottom-up assembly of advanced functional materials. In particular, with exceptionally large specific surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, and superior chemical/electrochemical stability, graphene represents the ideal material for various electrochemical energy storage devices including supercapacitors. However, due to the strong π-π interaction between graphene sheets, the graphene flakes tend to restack to form graphite-like powders when they are processed into practical electrode materials, which can greatly reduce the specific surface area and lead to inefficient utilization of the graphene layers for electrochemical energy storage. The self-assembly of two-dimensional graphene sheets into three-dimensional (3D) framework structures can largely retain the unique properties of individual graphene sheets and has recently garnered intense interest for fundamental investigations and potential applications in diverse technologies. In this Account, we review the recent advances in preparing 3D graphene macrostructures and exploring them as a unique platform for supercapacitor applications. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which reduction of a graphene oxide dispersion above a certain critical concentration can induce the reduced graphene oxide sheets to cross-link with each other via partial π-π stacking interactions to form a 3D interconnected porous macrostructure. Multiple reduction strategies, including hydrothermal/solvothermal reduction, chemical reduction, and electrochemical reduction, have been developed for the preparation of 3D graphene macrostructures. The versatile synthetic strategies allow for easy incorporation of heteroatoms, carbon nanomaterials, functional polymers, and inorganic nanostructures into the macrostructures to yield diverse composites with tailored structures and properties. We then summarize the applications of the 3D graphene macrostructures

  12. Developing Korean Standard for Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is now applied to many industries, resulting in wide range of nanomaterial-containing products, such as electronic components, cosmetic, medicines, vehicles, and home appliances. Nanoparticles can be released throughout the life cycle of nanoproducts, including the manufacture, consumer use, and disposal, thereby involving workers, consumers, and the environment in potential exposure. However, there is no current consensus on the best sampling method for characterizing manufactured-nanoparticle exposure. Therefore, this report aims to provide a standard method for assessing nanoparticle exposure, including the identification of nanoparticle emission, the assessment of worker exposure, and the evaluation of exposure mitigation actions in nanomaterial-handling workplaces or research institutes. PMID:24278552

  13. Nanomaterials and Optical Diagnosis of HIV.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    The investigators had previously shown that the risk of AIDS/HIV-related illness and transmission reduced (by 96%) with early antiretroviral treatment. Nanomaterials could be applied in early diagnosis of HIV by improving the ability to detect serum biomarkers of the blood-borne infectious diseases, with low sample volume, rapidity, and more sensitivity than currently available FDA-approved methods such as ELISA, particle agglutination assay, and Western Blotting assay. We have demonstrated several experimental studies for optical HIV diagnosis based on nanomaterials in three categories (e.g., the fluorescence-, the SPR-, and the SERS- based biosensors), and have explained each assay. PMID:26099718

  14. Recent developments and directions in printed nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyung Woo; Zhou, Tianlei; Singh, Madhusudan; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2015-02-01

    In this review, we survey several recent developments in printing of nanomaterials for contacts, transistors, sensors of various kinds, light-emitting diodes, solar cells, memory devices, and bone and organ implants. The commonly used nanomaterials are classified according to whether they are conductive, semiconducting/insulating or biological in nature. While many printing processes are covered, special attention is paid to inkjet printing and roll-to-roll printing in light of their complexity and popularity. In conclusion, we present our view of the future development of this field.

  15. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation.

    PubMed

    Alattas, M; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-01-01

    A possible approach to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate for technological purpose is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) therefore is investigated using density functional theory, incorporating van der Waals corrections. It is known that direct contact between graphene and Ni(111) perturbs the Dirac states. We find that Cs intercalation restores the linear dispersion characteristic of Dirac fermions, which agrees with experiments, but the Dirac cone is shifted to lower energy, i.e., the graphene sheet is n-doped. Cs intercalation therefore decouples the graphene sheet from the substrate except for a charge transfer. On the other hand, the spin polarization of Ni(111) does not extend through the intercalated atoms to the graphene sheet, for which we find virtually spin-degeneracy. PMID:27225324

  16. Fine tuning of graphene-metal adhesion by surface alloying

    PubMed Central

    Alfè, D.; Pozzo, M.; Miniussi, E.; Günther, S.; Lacovig, P.; Lizzit, S.; Larciprete, R.; Burgos, B. Santos; Menteş, T. O.; Locatelli, A.; Baraldi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We show that bimetallic surface alloying provides a viable route for governing the interaction between graphene and metal through the selective choice of the elemental composition of the surface alloy. This concept is illustrated by an experimental and theoretical characterization of the properties of graphene on a model PtRu surface alloy on Ru(0001), with a concentration of Pt atoms in the first layer between 0 and 50%. The progressive increase of the Pt content determines the gradual detachment of graphene from the substrate, which results from the modification of the carbon orbital hybridization promoted by Pt. Alloying is also found to affect the morphology of graphene, which is strongly corrugated on bare Ru, but becomes flat at a Pt coverage of 50%. The method here proposed can be readily extended to several supports, thus opening the way to the conformal growth of graphene on metals and to a full tunability of the graphene-substrate interaction. PMID:23938361

  17. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattas, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-05-01

    A possible approach to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate for technological purpose is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) therefore is investigated using density functional theory, incorporating van der Waals corrections. It is known that direct contact between graphene and Ni(111) perturbs the Dirac states. We find that Cs intercalation restores the linear dispersion characteristic of Dirac fermions, which agrees with experiments, but the Dirac cone is shifted to lower energy, i.e., the graphene sheet is n-doped. Cs intercalation therefore decouples the graphene sheet from the substrate except for a charge transfer. On the other hand, the spin polarization of Ni(111) does not extend through the intercalated atoms to the graphene sheet, for which we find virtually spin-degeneracy.

  18. Fine tuning of graphene-metal adhesion by surface alloying.

    PubMed

    Alfè, D; Pozzo, M; Miniussi, E; Günther, S; Lacovig, P; Lizzit, S; Larciprete, R; Santos Burgos, B; Menteş, T O; Locatelli, A; Baraldi, A

    2013-01-01

    We show that bimetallic surface alloying provides a viable route for governing the interaction between graphene and metal through the selective choice of the elemental composition of the surface alloy. This concept is illustrated by an experimental and theoretical characterization of the properties of graphene on a model PtRu surface alloy on Ru(0001), with a concentration of Pt atoms in the first layer between 0 and 50%. The progressive increase of the Pt content determines the gradual detachment of graphene from the substrate, which results from the modification of the carbon orbital hybridization promoted by Pt. Alloying is also found to affect the morphology of graphene, which is strongly corrugated on bare Ru, but becomes flat at a Pt coverage of 50%. The method here proposed can be readily extended to several supports, thus opening the way to the conformal growth of graphene on metals and to a full tunability of the graphene-substrate interaction. PMID:23938361

  19. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation

    PubMed Central

    Alattas, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-01-01

    A possible approach to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate for technological purpose is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) therefore is investigated using density functional theory, incorporating van der Waals corrections. It is known that direct contact between graphene and Ni(111) perturbs the Dirac states. We find that Cs intercalation restores the linear dispersion characteristic of Dirac fermions, which agrees with experiments, but the Dirac cone is shifted to lower energy, i.e., the graphene sheet is n-doped. Cs intercalation therefore decouples the graphene sheet from the substrate except for a charge transfer. On the other hand, the spin polarization of Ni(111) does not extend through the intercalated atoms to the graphene sheet, for which we find virtually spin-degeneracy. PMID:27225324

  20. Magnetic graphene-carbon nanotube iron nanocomposites as adsorbents and antibacterial agents for water purification.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; McDonald, Thomas J; Kim, Hyunook; Garg, Vijayendra K

    2015-11-01

    One of the biggest challenges of the 21st century is to provide clean and affordable water through protecting source and purifying polluted waters. This review presents advances made in the synthesis of carbon- and iron-based nanomaterials, graphene-carbon nanotubes-iron oxides, which can remove pollutants and inactivate virus and bacteria efficiently in water. The three-dimensional graphene and graphene oxide based nanostructures exhibit large surface area and sorption sites that provide higher adsorption capacity to remove pollutants than two-dimensional graphene-based adsorbents and other conventional adsorbents. Examples are presented to demonstrate removal of metals (e.g., Cu, Pb, Cr(VI), and As) and organics (e.g., dyes and oil) by grapheme-based nanostructures. Inactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species (e.g., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) is also shown. A mechanism involving the interaction of adsorbents and pollutants is briefly discussed. Magnetic graphene-based nanomaterials can easily be separated from the treated water using an external magnet; however, there are challenges in implementing the graphene-based nanotechnology in treating real water. PMID:26498500

  1. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Waseem; Shafiee, Hadi; Velasco, Vanessa; Sah, Vasu R.; Guo, Shirui; El Assal, Rami; Inci, Fatih; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Jahangir, Muntasir; Anchan, Raymond M.; Mutter, George L.; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1–25 μg/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25 μg/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure. PMID:27538480

  2. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Waseem; Shafiee, Hadi; Velasco, Vanessa; Sah, Vasu R; Guo, Shirui; El Assal, Rami; Inci, Fatih; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Jahangir, Muntasir; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1-25 μg/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25 μg/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure. PMID:27538480

  3. Aggregation and Stability of Reduced Graphene Oxide: Complex Roles of Divalent Cations, pH, and Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aggregation and stability of graphene oxide (GO) and three successively reduced GO (rGO) nanomaterials were investigated. Reduced GO species were partially reduced GO (rGO-1h), intermediately reduced GO (rGO-2h), and fully reduced GO (rGO-5h). Specifically, influence of pH, i...

  4. Simulating the fate and transport of nanomaterials in surface waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unique properties of nanomaterials have resulted in their increased production. However, it is unclear how nanomaterials will move and react once released to the environment One approach for addressing possible exposure of nanomaterials in surface waters is by using numerical...

  5. Engineering carbon nanomaterials for future applications: energy and bio-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Santanu; Lahiri, Indranil; Kang, Chiwon; Choi, Wonbong

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents our recent results on carbon nanomaterials for applications in energy storage and bio-sensor. More specifically: (i) A novel binder-free carbon nanotubes (CNTs) structure as anode in Li-ion batteries. The interfacecontrolled CNT structure, synthesized through a two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and directly grown on copper current collector, showed very high specific capacity - almost three times as that of graphite, excellent rate capability. (ii) A large scale graphene film was grown on Cu foil by thermal chemical vapor deposition and transferred to various substrates including PET, glass and silicon by using hot press lamination and etching process. The graphene/PET film shows high quality, flexible transparent conductive structure with unique electrical-mechanical properties; ~88.80 % light transmittance and ~ 100 Ω/sq sheet resistance. We demonstrate application of graphene/PET film as flexible and transparent electrode for field emission displays. (iii) Application of individual carbon nanotube as nanoelectrode for high sensitivity electrochemical sensor and device miniaturization. An individual CNT is split into a pair of nanoelectrodes with a gap between them. Single molecular-level detection of DNA hybridization was studied. Hybridization of the probe with its complementary strand results in an appreciable change in the electrical output signal.

  6. FTIR spectroscopy as a tool for nano-material characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudot, Charles; Tan, Cher Ming; Kong, Jeng Chien

    2010-11-01

    Covalently grafting functional molecules to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is an important step to leverage the excellent properties of that nano-fiber in order to exploit its potential in improving the mechanical and thermal properties of a composite material. While Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy can display the various chemical bonding in a material, we found that the existing database in FTIR library does not cover all the bonding information present in functionalized CNTs because the bond between the grafted molecule and the CNT is new in the FTIR study. In order to extend the applicability of FTIR to nano-material, we present a theoretical method to derive FTIR spectroscopy and compare it with our experimental results. In particular, we illustrate a method for the identification of functional molecules grafted on CNTs, and we are able to confirm that the functional molecules are indeed covalently grafted on the CNTs without any alterations to its functional groups.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and optical applications of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fen

    Nanomaterials have been studied extensively due to their potential application in electronics, photonics and nanodevices. There are a wide variety of methods developed to create the nano-scale materials. Chemical colloidal synthesis is the way most used since it is reproducible and high efficiency. Nanoparticles lie at the heart of nanoscience for their novel electronic, magnetic and optical properties. In this dissertation, there are two parts where researches have been performed based on the synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. In part I, Semiconductor type-II core-shell quantum dots (QDs) ZnO-CdS have been synthesized by chemical colloidal method which was carried out in a two-step process. We initially synthesized ZnO core nanoparticles and overcoat them with CdS shell. UV-Visible spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL), high resolution TEM images and X-ray microanalysis for composition studies of the core-shell nanoparticles were characterized. PL lifetime measurements showed this type-II ZnO-CdS core-shell QDs presented extended exciton lifetime due to the spatial separation of electrons and holes between the core and the shell, which opens various useful applications in biosensors and photovoltaic devices. In part II, normal Raman (NR) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) have been measured. The SERS spectra were obtained both on a Ag electrode surface and on Ag colloidal nanoparticles. The experimental results support the DFT geometry calculations, which show that an adatom site at the vertex of Ag20 cluster binding with the 3-HF molecular plane tilted at an angle of about 53° to the surface is a low-energy structure. This is consistent with the enhancement of in-plane vibrational modes. Furthermore, the effect of fluence level on the discoloration of marble surfaces after the removal of the encrustation by 355 nm laser pulses was comparatively studied. Considering the thermochemical reaction

  8. Rapidly Probing Antibacterial Activity of Graphene Oxide by Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolite Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Hou, Jian; Chen, Suming; Xiong, Caiqiao; Liu, Huihui; Jin, Yulong; Wang, Jianing; He, Qing; Zhao, Rui; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials as anti-bacteria agents has aroused great attention. To investigate the antibacterial activity and antibacterial mechanism of nanomaterials from a molecular perspective is important for efficient developing of nanomaterial antibiotics. In the current work, a new mass spectrometry-based method was established to investigate the bacterial cytotoxicity of graphene oxide (GO) by the metabolite fingerprinting of microbes. The mass spectra of extracted metabolites from two strains DH5α and ATCC25922 were obtained before and after the incubation with nanomaterials respectively. Then principal component analysis (PCA) of these spectra was performed to reveal the relationship between the metabolism disorder of microbes and bactericidal activity of GO. A parameter “D” obtained from PCA scores was proposed that is capable to quantitatively evaluate the antibacterial activity of GO in concentration and time-dependent experiments. Further annotation of the fingerprinting spectra shows the variabilities of important metabolites such as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and glutathione. This metabolic perturbation of E. coli indicates cell membrane destruction and oxidative stress mechanisms for anti-bacteria activity of graphene oxide. It is anticipated that this mass spectrometry-based metabolite fingerprinting method will be applicable to other antibacterial nanomaterials and provide more clues as to their antibacterial mechanism at molecular level. PMID:27306507

  9. Rapidly Probing Antibacterial Activity of Graphene Oxide by Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolite Fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Hou, Jian; Chen, Suming; Xiong, Caiqiao; Liu, Huihui; Jin, Yulong; Wang, Jianing; He, Qing; Zhao, Rui; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials as anti-bacteria agents has aroused great attention. To investigate the antibacterial activity and antibacterial mechanism of nanomaterials from a molecular perspective is important for efficient developing of nanomaterial antibiotics. In the current work, a new mass spectrometry-based method was established to investigate the bacterial cytotoxicity of graphene oxide (GO) by the metabolite fingerprinting of microbes. The mass spectra of extracted metabolites from two strains DH5α and ATCC25922 were obtained before and after the incubation with nanomaterials respectively. Then principal component analysis (PCA) of these spectra was performed to reveal the relationship between the metabolism disorder of microbes and bactericidal activity of GO. A parameter "D" obtained from PCA scores was proposed that is capable to quantitatively evaluate the antibacterial activity of GO in concentration and time-dependent experiments. Further annotation of the fingerprinting spectra shows the variabilities of important metabolites such as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and glutathione. This metabolic perturbation of E. coli indicates cell membrane destruction and oxidative stress mechanisms for anti-bacteria activity of graphene oxide. It is anticipated that this mass spectrometry-based metabolite fingerprinting method will be applicable to other antibacterial nanomaterials and provide more clues as to their antibacterial mechanism at molecular level. PMID:27306507

  10. Synthesis and Integration of Nanostructured Carbon: Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposites and Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulotty, Richard Stephen

    Nanostructured carbon, in the form of tubes or sheets, exhibits exceptional thermal and electrical properties. Graphene, a single atomic sheet of hexagonal sp2 bonded carbon, posesses a thermal conductivity higher than diamond, with an extremely high electron mobility. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), which are tubes composed of one or more graphene sheets, also posess high thermal conductivity and electron mobility. One of the major problems facing the application of nanomaterials is integration into already existing material systems. A second challenge is controlled synthesis of nanomaterials. In this dissertation research novel methods were investigated for coupling carbon nanotubes to polymer matrices, as well as new approaches for controlling the synthesis of graphene and reduced graphene oxide like carbon (R-GOC) on copper (Cu) foils via chemical vapor deposition. It was determined that carboxylic functionalization of carbon nanotubes was effective in improving the coupling of CNTs to polymer matrices, affecting the thermal transport of the resulting CNT-polymer nanocomposites. From the CVD studies it was established that the cooling phase gases flowed after deposition influence the growth mechanics of graphene on Cu foil. Further CVD studies showed that methane may be decomposed directly onto quartz to form reduced graphene oxide like carbon thin films. The obtained thermal characterization results are important for development of CNTs as fillers for composite pastes with high thermal conductivity, and the results of the CVD studies are important for developing further understanding of growth mechanics of bilayer graphene and other nanostructured carbon. In addition to the fundamental study of CVD synthesis of graphene and R-GOC, this dissertation work includes engineering of graphene and R-GOC to various applications, including the development of the thinnest flexible transistor with active materials made from all-2D materials, as well as large-scale electron

  11. Carbon nanomaterials in silica aerogel matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Christopher E; Chavez, Manuel E; Duque, Juan G; Gupta, Gautam; Doorn, Stephen K; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Obrey, Kimberly A D

    2010-01-01

    Silica aerogels are ultra low-density, high surface area materials that are extremely good thermal insulators and have numerous technical applications. However, their mechanical properties are not ideal, as they are brittle and prone to shattering. Conversely, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene-based materials, such as graphene oxide, have extremely high tensile strength and possess novel electronic properties. By introducing SWCNTs or graphene-based materials into aerogel matrices, it is possible to produce composites with the desirable properties of both constituents. We have successfully dispersed SWCNTs and graphene-based materials into silica gels. Subsequent supercritical drying results in monolithic low-density composites having improved mechanical properties. These nanocomposite aerogels have great potential for use in a wide range of applications.

  12. Designing nanomaterials with desired mechanical properties by constraining the evolution of their grain shapes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Grain shapes are acknowledged to impact nanomaterials' overall properties. Research works on this issue include grain-elongation and grain-strain measurements and their impacts on nanomaterials' mechanical properties. This paper proposes a stochastic model for grain strain undergoing severe plastic deformation. Most models deal with equivalent radii assuming that nanomaterials' grains are spherical. These models neglect true grain shapes. This paper also proposes a theoretical approach of extending existing models by considering grain shape distribution during stochastic design and modelling of nanomaterials' constituent structures and mechanical properties. This is achieved by introducing grain 'form'. Example 'forms' for 2-D and 3-D grains are proposed. From the definitions of form, strain and Hall-Petch-Relationship to Reversed-Hall-Petch-Relationship, data obtained for nanomaterials' grain size and conventional materials' properties are sufficient for analysis. Proposed extended models are solved simultaneously and tested with grain growth data. It is shown that the nature of form evolution depends on form choice and dimensional space. Long-run results reveal that grain boundary migration process causes grains to become spherical, grain rotation coalescence makes them deviate away from becoming spherical and they initially deviate away from becoming spherical before converging into spherical ones due to the TOTAL process. Percentage deviations from spherical grains depend on dimensional space and form: 0% minimum and 100% maximum deviations were observed. It is shown that the plots for grain shape functions lie above the spherical (control) value of 1 in 2-D grains for all considered grain growth mechanisms. Some plots lie above the spherical value, and others approach the spherical value before deviating below it when dealing with 3-D grains. The physical interpretations of these variations are explained from elementary principles about the different grain

  13. Designing nanomaterials with desired mechanical properties by constraining the evolution of their grain shapes.

    PubMed

    Tengen, Thomas Bobga

    2011-01-01

    Grain shapes are acknowledged to impact nanomaterials' overall properties. Research works on this issue include grain-elongation and grain-strain measurements and their impacts on nanomaterials' mechanical properties. This paper proposes a stochastic model for grain strain undergoing severe plastic deformation. Most models deal with equivalent radii assuming that nanomaterials' grains are spherical. These models neglect true grain shapes. This paper also proposes a theoretical approach of extending existing models by considering grain shape distribution during stochastic design and modelling of nanomaterials' constituent structures and mechanical properties. This is achieved by introducing grain 'form'. Example 'forms' for 2-D and 3-D grains are proposed. From the definitions of form, strain and Hall-Petch-Relationship to Reversed-Hall-Petch-Relationship, data obtained for nanomaterials' grain size and conventional materials' properties are sufficient for analysis. Proposed extended models are solved simultaneously and tested with grain growth data. It is shown that the nature of form evolution depends on form choice and dimensional space. Long-run results reveal that grain boundary migration process causes grains to become spherical, grain rotation coalescence makes them deviate away from becoming spherical and they initially deviate away from becoming spherical before converging into spherical ones due to the TOTAL process. Percentage deviations from spherical grains depend on dimensional space and form: 0% minimum and 100% maximum deviations were observed. It is shown that the plots for grain shape functions lie above the spherical (control) value of 1 in 2-D grains for all considered grain growth mechanisms. Some plots lie above the spherical value, and others approach the spherical value before deviating below it when dealing with 3-D grains. The physical interpretations of these variations are explained from elementary principles about the different grain

  14. Graphene film growth on polycrystalline metals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rebecca S; Coleman, Karl S

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a true wonder material, is the newest member of the nanocarbon family. The continuous network of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms gives rise to exceptional electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which could result in the application of graphene in next generation electronic components, energy-storage materials such as capacitors and batteries, polymer nanocomposites, transparent conducting electrodes, and mechanical resonators. With one particularly attractive application, optically transparent conducting electrodes or films, graphene has the potential to rival indium tin oxide (ITO) and become a material for producing next generation displays, solar cells, and sensors. Typically, graphene has been produced from graphite using a variety of methods, but these techniques are not suitable for growing large-area graphene films. Therefore researchers have focused much effort on the development of methodology to grow graphene films across extended surfaces. This Account describes current progress in the formation and control of graphene films on polycrystalline metal surfaces. Researchers can grow graphene films on a variety of polycrystalline metal substrates using a range of experimental conditions. In particular, group 8 metals (iron and ruthenium), group 9 metals (cobalt, rhodium, and iridium), group 10 metals (nickel and platinum), and group 11 metals (copper and gold) can support the growth of these films. Stainless steel and other commercial copper-nickel alloys can also serve as substrates for graphene film growth. The use of copper and nickel currently predominates, and these metals produce large-area films that have been efficiently transferred and tested in many electronic devices. Researchers have grown graphene sheets more than 30 in. wide and transferred them onto display plastic ready for incorporation into next generation displays. The further development of graphene films in commercial applications will require high

  15. Folded graphene nanochannels via pulsed patterning of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, Rodrigo G.; Silvestre, Ive; Barnard, Arthur W.; Roberts, Samantha P.; McEuen, Paul

    We present a resist-free patterning technique to form electrically contacted graphene nanochannels via localized burning by a pulsed white light source. The technique uses end-point detection to stop the burning process at a fixed resistance. By this method folded graphene nanochannels down to 30 nm in width with controllable resistance ranging from 10 k Ω to 100 k Ω is achieved. Folding of the graphene sheet takes place during patterning, which provides very straight edges (zigzag/armchair) as identified by AFM, SEM and TEM. Electrical transport measurements for the nanochannels show a non-linear behavior of the current vs source-drain voltage as the resistance goes above 20 k Ω indicating conduction tunneling effects. The method described can be interesting not only for fundamental studies correlating edge folded structures with electrical transport but also as a promising path for fabricating graphene devices in situ. This method might also be extended to create nanochannels in other 2D materials Acknowledgments: Fapemig, CAPES, CNPQ, NSF, Cornell/CNF.

  16. In vitro and in vivo effects of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Sławomir; Sawosz, Ewa; Kutwin, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Hinzmann, Mateusz; Grodzik, Marta; Winnicka, Anna; Lipińska, Ludwika; Włodyga, Karolina; Chwalibog, Andrè

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and its related counterparts are considered the future of advanced nanomaterials owing to their exemplary properties. However, information about their toxicity and biocompatibility is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) platelets, using U87 and U118 glioma cell lines for an in vitro model and U87 tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane for an in vivo model. The in vitro investigation consisted of structural analysis of GO and rGO platelets using transmission elec tron microscopy, evaluation of cell morphology and ultrastructure, assessment of cell viability by XTT assay, and investigation of cell proliferation by BrdU assay. Toxicity in U87 glioma tumors was evaluated by calculation of weight and volume of tumors and analyses of ultrastructure, histology, and protein expression. The in vitro results indicate that GO and rGO enter glioma cells and have different cytotoxicity. Both types of platelets reduced cell viability and proliferation with increasing doses, but rGO was more toxic than GO. The mass and volume of tumors were reduced in vivo after injection of GO and rGO. Moreover, the level of apoptotic markers increased in rGO-treated tumors. We show that rGO induces cell death mostly through apoptosis, indicating the potential applicability of graphene in cancer therapy. PMID:25759581

  17. Workplace exposure at nanomaterial production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhlmann, Carsten; Welter, Johannes; Klenke, Martin; Sander, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Typical nanomaterial production processes from daily practice had been performed in order to determine simultaneously the exposure to nanoparticles. They involve mixing of ZnO powder into a liquid, filling and emptying an oven with indium tin oxide (ITO), spraying a suspension of nanoparticles, flame spraying of silanes, and an outside location as comparison.

  18. Sustainable Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our recent activity in MW-assisted synthesis of nanomaterials under benign conditions. Shape-controlled aqueous synthesis of noble nanostructures via MW-assisted spontaneous reduction of noble metal salts using -D-glucose, sucrose, and maltose will be...

  19. Tools for Assessing Ecological Nanomaterial Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly defined as being commercial products with at least one dimension in the size range of 1 nm to 100 nm that also possess unique properties as the result of their size. Anecdotal evidence suggests that at least 600 MN products a...

  20. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions

    PubMed Central

    Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; Samal, Akshaya K.; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications. PMID:22110867

  1. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  2. The insurability of nanomaterial production risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Martin; Murphy, Finbarr; Baublyte, Lijana; McAlea, Eamonn M.; Tofail, Syed A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Without insurance the long-term sustainability of nanotechnology is questionable, but insurance companies are encumbered by their institutional memory of losses from the asbestos crisis and the absence of suitable actuarial models to measure the potential risks of nanotechnology. Here we propose a framework that supports the transfer of nanomaterial production risk to the insurance sector.

  3. Production of quasi-2D graphene nanosheets through the solvent exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Youngju; Lee, Mi Yeon; Kim, Sang Youl; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Byoungnam; In, Insik

    2015-09-18

    Stable dispersion of quasi-2D graphene sheets with a concentration up to 1.27 mg mL(-1) was prepared by sonication-assisted solvent exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber in N-methyl pyrrolidone with the mass yield of 2.32%. Prepared quasi-2D graphene sheets have multi-layered 2D plate-like morphology with rich inclusions of graphitic carbons, a low number of structural defects, and high dispersion stability in aprotic polar solvents, and facilitate the utilization of quasi-2D graphene sheets prepared from pitch-based carbon fiber for various electronic and structural applications. Thin films of quasi-2D graphene sheets prepared by vacuum filtration of the dispersion of quasi-2D graphene sheets demonstrated electrical conductivity up to 1.14 × 10(4) Ω/□ even without thermal treatment, which shows that pitch-based carbon fiber might be useful as the source of graphene-related nanomaterials. Because pitch-based carbon fiber could be prepared from petroleum pitch, a very cheap structural material for the pavement of asphalt roads, our approach might be promising for the mass production of quasi-2D graphene nanomaterials. PMID:26313887

  4. Production of quasi-2D graphene nanosheets through the solvent exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeon, Youngju; Lee, Mi Yeon; Kim, Sang Youl; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Byoungnam; In, Insik

    2015-09-01

    Stable dispersion of quasi-2D graphene sheets with a concentration up to 1.27 mg mL-1 was prepared by sonication-assisted solvent exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber in N-methyl pyrrolidone with the mass yield of 2.32%. Prepared quasi-2D graphene sheets have multi-layered 2D plate-like morphology with rich inclusions of graphitic carbons, a low number of structural defects, and high dispersion stability in aprotic polar solvents, and facilitate the utilization of quasi-2D graphene sheets prepared from pitch-based carbon fiber for various electronic and structural applications. Thin films of quasi-2D graphene sheets prepared by vacuum filtration of the dispersion of quasi-2D graphene sheets demonstrated electrical conductivity up to 1.14 × 104 Ω/□ even without thermal treatment, which shows that pitch-based carbon fiber might be useful as the source of graphene-related nanomaterials. Because pitch-based carbon fiber could be prepared from petroleum pitch, a very cheap structural material for the pavement of asphalt roads, our approach might be promising for the mass production of quasi-2D graphene nanomaterials.

  5. Graphene on Pt(111): Growth and Substrate interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, P.; Sadowski, J.T.; Sutter, E.

    2009-12-01

    In situ low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) of graphene growth combined with measurements of the graphene structure and electronic band structure has been used to study graphene on Pt(111). Growth by carbon segregation produces macroscopic monolayer graphene domains extending continuously across Pt(111) substrate steps and bounded by strongly faceted edges. LEEM during cooling from the growth temperature shows the propagation of wrinkles in the graphene sheet, driven by thermal stress. The lattice mismatch between graphene and Pt(111) is accommodated by moire structures with a large number of different rotational variants, without a clear preference for a particular interface geometry. Fast and slow growing graphene domains exhibit moire structures with small [e.g., (3 x 3){sub G}, ({radical}6 x {radical}6)R2{sub G}, and (2 x 2)R4{sub G}] and large unit cells [e.g., ({radical}44 x {radical}44)R15{sub G}, ({radical}52 x {radical}52)R14{sub G}, and (8 x 8){sub G}], respectively. A weak substrate coupling, suggested by the growth and structural properties of monolayer graphene on Pt(111), is confirmed by maps of the band structure, which is close to that of isolated graphene aside from minimal hole doping due to charge transfer from the metal. Finally, the decoupled graphene monolayer on Pt(111) appears impenetrable to carbon diffusion, which self-limits the graphene growth at monolayer thickness. Thicker graphene domains, which can form at boundaries between monolayer domains, have been used to characterize the properties of few-layer graphene on Pt(111).

  6. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chao-Min; Chia-Wen Wu, Kevin

    2013-08-01

    Traditional boundaries between materials science and engineering and life sciences are rapidly disintegrating as interdisciplinary research teams develop new materials-science-based tools for exploring fundamental issues in both medicine and biology. With recent technological advances in multiple research fields such as materials science, cell and molecular biology and micro-/nano-technology, much attention is shifting toward evaluating the functional advantages of nanomaterials and nanofabrication, at the cellular and molecular levels, for specific, biomedically relevant applications. The pursuit of this direction enhances the understanding of the mechanisms of, and therapeutic potentials for, some of the most lethal diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, organ fibrosis and cancers. This interdisciplinary approach has generated great interest among researchers working in a wide variety of communities including industry, universities and research laboratories. The purpose of this focus issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is to bridge nanotechnology and biology with medicine, focusing more on the applications of nanomaterials and nanofabrication in biomedically relevant issues. This focus issue, we believe, will provide a more comprehensive understanding of (i) the preparation of nanomaterials and the underlying mechanisms of nanofabrication, and (ii) the linkage of nanomaterials and nanofabrication with biomedical applications. The multidisciplinary focus issue that we have attempted to organize is of interest to various research fields including biomaterials and tissue engineering, bioengineering, nanotechnology and nanomaterials, i.e. chemistry, physics and engineering. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication topics addressed in this focus issue include sensing and diagnosis (e.g. immunosensing and diagnostic devices for diseases), cellular and molecular biology (e.g. probing cellular behaviors and stem cell differentiation) and drug delivery

  7. Biological Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials: Needs for the Next Decade.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Catherine J; Vartanian, Ariane M; Geiger, Franz M; Hamers, Robert J; Pedersen, Joel; Cui, Qiang; Haynes, Christy L; Carlson, Erin E; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Klaper, Rebecca D; Orr, Galya; Rosenzweig, Ze'ev

    2015-06-24

    The interaction of nanomaterials with biomolecules, cells, and organisms is an enormously vital area of current research, with applications in nanoenabled diagnostics, imaging agents, therapeutics, and contaminant removal technologies. Yet the potential for adverse biological and environmental impacts of nanomaterial exposure is considerable and needs to be addressed to ensure sustainable development of nanomaterials. In this Outlook four research needs for the next decade are outlined: (i) measurement of the chemical nature of nanomaterials in dynamic, complex aqueous environments; (ii) real-time measurements of nanomaterial-biological interactions with chemical specificity; (iii) delineation of molecular modes of action for nanomaterial effects on living systems as functions of nanomaterial properties; and (iv) an integrated systems approach that includes computation and simulation across orders of magnitude in time and space. PMID:27162961

  8. Biological responses to engineered nanomaterials: Needs for the next decade

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Catherine J.; Vartanian, Ariane M.; Geiger, Franz M.; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Cui, Qiang; Haynes, Christy L.; Carlson, Erin E.; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Klaper, Rebecca D.; Orr, Galya; Rosenzweig, Ze'ev

    2015-06-09

    In this study, the interaction of nanomaterials with biomolecules, cells, and organisms is an enormously vital area of current research, with applications in nanoenabled diagnostics, imaging agents, therapeutics, and contaminant removal technologies. Yet the potential for adverse biological and environmental impacts of nanomaterial exposure is considerable and needs to be addressed to ensure sustainable development of nanomaterials. In this Outlook four research needs for the next decade are outlined: (i) measurement of the chemical nature of nanomaterials in dynamic, complex aqueous environments; (ii) real-time measurements of nanomaterial-biological interactions with chemical specificity; (iii) delineation of molecular modes of action for nanomaterial effects on living systems as functions of nanomaterial properties; and (iv) an integrated systems approach that includes computation and simulation across orders of magnitude in time and space.

  9. Indium- and Platinum-Free Counter Electrode for Green Mesoscopic Photovoltaics through Graphene Electrode and Graphene Composite Catalysts: Interfacial Compatibility.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Zhou, Huawei; Liu, Zhicheng; Nie, Zhonghao; Li, Yinhao; Qi, Xuan; Chen, Baoli; Zhang, Yingtian; Zhang, Xianxi

    2016-03-01

    The scarcity and noble indium and platinum (Pt) are important elements in photoelectric nanomaterials. Therefore, development of low cost alternative materials to meet different practical applications is an urgent need. Two-dimensional (2D) layered graphene (GE) with unique physical, mechanical, and electrical properties has recently drawn a great deal of attention in various optoelectronic fields. Herein, the large scale (21 cm × 15 cm) high-quality single layer graphene (SLG) and multilayer graphene on a flexible plastic substrate PET were controllably prepared through layer-by-layer (LBL) transfer using the thermal release adhesive transfer method (TRA-TM). Transmission and antibending performance based on PET/GE were superior to traditional PET/ITO. The square resistance of a nine-layer graphene electrode reached approximately 58 Ω. Combined with our newly developed and highly effective Fe3O4@RGO (reduced graphene oxide) catalyst, the power conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) using flexible PET/GE conductive substrate was comparable to that of the DSC using the PET/ITO substrate. The desirable performance of PET/GE/Fe3O4@RGO counter electrodes (low-cost indium- and platinum-free counter electrodes) is attributed to the interfacial compatibility between 2D graphene composite catalyst (Fe3O4@RGO) and 2D PET/GE conductive substrate. In addition, DSCs that use only PET/GE (without Fe3O4@RGO catalyst) as counter electrodes can also achieve a photocurrent density of 6.30 mA cm(-2). This work is beneficial for fundamental research and practical applications of graphene and graphene composite in photovoltaics, photocatalytic water splitting, supercapacitors. PMID:26838272

  10. Optoacoustic response from graphene-based solutions embedded in optical phantoms by using 905-nm high-power diode-laser assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Gawali, Sandeep Babu; Dadrasnia, Ehsan; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; González, Marta; Carpintero, Guillermo; Osiński, Marek; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-03-01

    During the last two decades, optoacoustic imaging has been developed as a novel biomedical imaging technique based on the generation of ultrasound waves by means of laser light. In this work, we investigate the optoacoustic response from graphene-based solutions by using a compact and cost-effective system based on an assembly of several 905-nm pulsed high-power diode lasers coupled to a bundle of 200-μm diameter- core optical fibers. The coupled light is conveyed into a lens system and focused on an absorber consisting of graphene-based nanomaterials (graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and reduced graphene-oxide/gold-nanoparticle hybrid, respectively) diluted in ethanol and hosted in slightly scattering optical phantoms. The high absorption of these graphene-based solutions suggests their potential future use in optoacoustic applications as contrast agents.

  11. Nanomaterial cytotoxicity is composition, size, and cell type dependent

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite intensive research efforts, reports of cellular responses to nanomaterials are often inconsistent and even contradictory. Additionally, relationships between the responding cell type and nanomaterial properties are not well understood. Using three model cell lines representing different physiological compartments and nanomaterials of different compositions and sizes, we have systematically investigated the influence of nanomaterial properties on the degrees and pathways of cytotoxicity. In this study, we selected nanomaterials of different compositions (TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles, and multi-wall carbon nanotubes [MWCNTs]) with differing size (MWCNTs of different diameters < 8 nm, 20-30 nm, > 50 nm; but same length 0.5-2 μm) to analyze the effects of composition and size on toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts, RAW 264.7 macrophages, and telomerase-immortalized (hT) bronchiolar epithelial cells. Results Following characterization of nanomaterial properties in PBS and serum containing solutions, cells were exposed to nanomaterials of differing compositions and sizes, with cytotoxicity monitored through reduction in mitochondrial activity. In addition to cytotoxicity, the cellular response to nanomaterials was characterized by quantifying generation of reactive oxygen species, lysosomal membrane destabilization and mitochondrial permeability. The effect of these responses on cellular fate - apoptosis or necrosis - was then analyzed. Nanomaterial toxicity was variable based on exposed cell type and dependent on nanomaterial composition and size. In addition, nanomaterial exposure led to cell type dependent intracellular responses resulting in unique breakdown of cellular functions for each nanomaterial: cell combination. Conclusions Nanomaterials induce cell specific responses resulting in variable toxicity and subsequent cell fate based on the type of exposed cell. Our results indicate that the composition and size of nanomaterials as well as the target

  12. Properties of strained structures and topological defects in graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiong; Bao, Yang; Su, Chen Liang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2013-10-22

    Strain and defect engineering of graphene can modify the topological features of electronic states, leading to novel properties such as pseudomagnetism in bubbles and metallicity in extended topological defects. A consequence of graphene being a soft membrane is that it can be strain-engineered to become highly corrugated by modifying its adhesion to the substrate. Extended grain boundaries in graphene can be constructed from periodic combinations of nonhexagonal rings (5-7 pairs). However, a controlled method of producing these defects is not currently available. In this Perspective, we discuss some of the recent advances in studying the properties and formation mechanisms of strained structures and defects in graphene, extending across both physics and chemistry. PMID:24143926

  13. Biological and ecological responses to carbon-based nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.

    This dissertation examines the biological and ecological responses to carbon nanoparticles, a major class of nanomaterials which have been mass produced and extensively studied for their rich physical properties and commercial values. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review on the structures, properties, applications, and implications of carbon nanomaterials, especially related to the perspectives of biological and ecosystems. Given that there are many types of carbon nanomaterials available, this chapter is focused on three major types of carbon-based nanomaterials only, namely, fullerenes, single walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. On the whole organism level, specifically, Chapter II presents a first study on the fate of fullerenes and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in rice plants, which was facilitated by the self assembly of these nanomaterials with NOM. The aspects of fullerene uptake, translocation, biodistribution, and generational transfer in the plants were examined and quantified using bright field and electron microscopy, FT-Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy. The uptake and transport of fullerene in the plant vascular system were attributed to water transpiration, convection, capillary force, and the fullerene concentration gradient from the roots to the leaves of the plants. On the cellular level, Chapter III documents the differential uptake of hydrophilic C60(OH)20 vs. amphiphilic C70-NOM complex in Allium cepa plant cells and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. This study was conducted using a plant cell viability assay, and complemented by bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy imaging. In particular, C60(OH)20 and C70-NOM showed contrasting uptake in both the plant and mammalian cells, due to their significant differences in physicochemistry and the presence of an extra hydrophobic plant cell wall in the plant cells. Consequently, C60(OH)20 was found to induce toxicity in Allium cepa cells but not in HT-29 cells, while C70

  14. National Survey of Workplaces Handling and Manufacturing Nanomaterials, Exposure to and Health Effects of Nanomaterials, and Evaluation of Nanomaterial Safety Data Sheets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongho; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    A national survey on workplace environment nanomaterial handling and manufacturing was conducted in 2014. Workplaces relevant to nanomaterials were in the order of TiO2 (91), SiO2 (88), carbon black (84), Ag (35), Al2O3 (35), ZnO (34), Pb (33), and CeO2 (31). The survey results indicated that the number of workplaces handling or manufacturing nanomaterials was 340 (0.27% of total 126,846) workplaces. The number of nanomaterials used and products was 546 (1.60 per company) and 583 (1.71 per company), respectively. For most workplaces, the results on exposure to hazardous particulate materials, including nanomaterials, were below current OELs, yet a few workplaces were above the action level. As regards the health status of workers, 9 workers were diagnosed with a suspected respiratory occupational disease, where 7 were recommended for regular follow-up health monitoring. 125 safety data sheets (SDSs) were collected from the nanomaterial-relevant workplaces and evaluated for their completeness and reliability. Only 4 CNT SDSs (3.2%) included the term nanomaterial, while most nanomaterial SDSs were not regularly updated and lacked hazard information. When taken together, the current analysis provides valuable national-level information on the exposure and health status of workers that can guide the next policy steps for nanomaterial management in the workplace. PMID:27556041

  15. National Survey of Workplaces Handling and Manufacturing Nanomaterials, Exposure to and Health Effects of Nanomaterials, and Evaluation of Nanomaterial Safety Data Sheets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A national survey on workplace environment nanomaterial handling and manufacturing was conducted in 2014. Workplaces relevant to nanomaterials were in the order of TiO2 (91), SiO2 (88), carbon black (84), Ag (35), Al2O3 (35), ZnO (34), Pb (33), and CeO2 (31). The survey results indicated that the number of workplaces handling or manufacturing nanomaterials was 340 (0.27% of total 126,846) workplaces. The number of nanomaterials used and products was 546 (1.60 per company) and 583 (1.71 per company), respectively. For most workplaces, the results on exposure to hazardous particulate materials, including nanomaterials, were below current OELs, yet a few workplaces were above the action level. As regards the health status of workers, 9 workers were diagnosed with a suspected respiratory occupational disease, where 7 were recommended for regular follow-up health monitoring. 125 safety data sheets (SDSs) were collected from the nanomaterial-relevant workplaces and evaluated for their completeness and reliability. Only 4 CNT SDSs (3.2%) included the term nanomaterial, while most nanomaterial SDSs were not regularly updated and lacked hazard information. When taken together, the current analysis provides valuable national-level information on the exposure and health status of workers that can guide the next policy steps for nanomaterial management in the workplace. PMID:27556041

  16. Graphene Nanocomposites with High Molecular Weight Poly(ε-caprolactone) Grafts: Controlled Synthesis and Accelerated Crystallization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mondal, Titash; Ashkar, Rana; Butler, Paul; Bhowmick, Anil K.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2016-02-08

    Grafting of high molecular weight polymers to graphitic nanoplatelets is a critical step toward the development of high performance graphene nanocomposites. However, designing such a grafting route has remained a major impediment. Herein, we report a "grafting to" synthetic pathway by which high molecular weight polymer, poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), is tethered, at high grafting density, to highly anisotropic graphitic nanoplatelets. The efficacy of this tethering route and the resultant structural arrangements within the composite are confirmed by neutron and X-ray scattering measurements in the melt and solution phase. In the semicrystalline state, Xray analysis indicates that chain tethering onto the graphiticmore » nanoplatelets results in conformational changes of the polymer chains, which enhance the nucleation process and aid formation of PCL crystallites. This is corroborated by the superior thermal properties of the composite, manifested in accelerated crystallization kinetics and a significant increase in the thermal degradation temperature. Lastly, in principle, this synthesis route can be extended to a variety of high molecular weight polymers, which can open new avenues to solution-based processing of graphitic nanomaterials and the fabrication of complex 3D patterned graphitic nanocomposites.« less

  17. Multimedia Environmental Distribution of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoyang Haven

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), which may be released to the environment due to human-related activities, can move across environmental phase boundaries and be found in most media. Given the rapid development and growing applications of nanotechnology, there is concern and thus the need to assess the potential environmental impact associated with ENMs. Accordingly, a modeling platform was developed to enable evaluation of the dynamic multimedia environmental distribution of ENMs (MendNano) and the range of potential exposure concentrations of ENMs. The MendNano was based on a dynamic multimedia compartmental modeling approach that was guided by detailed analysis of the agglomeration of ENMs, life-cycle analysis based estimates of their potential release to the environment, and incorporation of mechanistic sub-models of various intermedia transport processes. Model simulations for various environmental scenarios indicated that ENM accumulation in the sediment increased significantly with increased ENMs attachment to suspended solids in water. Atmospheric dry and wet depositions can be important pathways for ENMs input to the terrestrial environment in the absence of direct and distributed ENM release to soil. Increased ENM concentration in water due to atmospheric deposition (wet and dry) is expected as direct ENM release to water diminishes. However, for soluble ENMs dissolution can be the dominant pathway for suspended ENM removal from water even compared to advective transport. For example, simulations for Los Angeles showed that dry deposition, rain scavenging, and wind dilution can remove 90% of ENMs from the atmospheric airshed in ~100-230 days, ~2-6 hrs, and ~0.5-2 days, respectively. For the evaluated ENMs (metal, metal oxides, carbon nanotubes (CNT), nanoclays), mass accumulation in the multimedia environment was mostly in the soil and sediment. Additionally, simulation results for TiO2 in Los Angeles demonstrates that the ENM concentrations in air and

  18. Multimedia Environmental Distribution of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoyang Haven

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), which may be released to the environment due to human-related activities, can move across environmental phase boundaries and be found in most media. Given the rapid development and growing applications of nanotechnology, there is concern and thus the need to assess the potential environmental impact associated with ENMs. Accordingly, a modeling platform was developed to enable evaluation of the dynamic multimedia environmental distribution of ENMs (MendNano) and the range of potential exposure concentrations of ENMs. The MendNano was based on a dynamic multimedia compartmental modeling approach that was guided by detailed analysis of the agglomeration of ENMs, life-cycle analysis based estimates of their potential release to the environment, and incorporation of mechanistic sub-models of various intermedia transport processes. Model simulations for various environmental scenarios indicated that ENM accumulation in the sediment increased significantly with increased ENMs attachment to suspended solids in water. Atmospheric dry and wet depositions can be important pathways for ENMs input to the terrestrial environment in the absence of direct and distributed ENM release to soil. Increased ENM concentration in water due to atmospheric deposition (wet and dry) is expected as direct ENM release to water diminishes. However, for soluble ENMs dissolution can be the dominant pathway for suspended ENM removal from water even compared to advective transport. For example, simulations for Los Angeles showed that dry deposition, rain scavenging, and wind dilution can remove 90% of ENMs from the atmospheric airshed in ~100-230 days, ~2-6 hrs, and ~0.5-2 days, respectively. For the evaluated ENMs (metal, metal oxides, carbon nanotubes (CNT), nanoclays), mass accumulation in the multimedia environment was mostly in the soil and sediment. Additionally, simulation results for TiO2 in Los Angeles demonstrates that the ENM concentrations in air and

  19. Energy dissipation and transport in carbon nanotubes and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallabhaneni, Ajit Kumar

    The emergence of new carbon-based nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes and graphene, in the past decade has provided new opportunities in many areas of scientific research. Despite their promise, the devices based on these materials are facing several challenges that need to be addressed to reap complete advantage of their extraordinary properties. In the current work, we studied the intrinsic scattering processes among the energy carriers and how it effects the energy dissipation and transport in these devices which would set the upper limit on their performance. In the first half of this work, the energy dissipation in carbon nanotube resonators is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. We studied various ways to calculate the quality factor (Q) which quantifies the efficiency of a resonator from the temporal response. We have also pointed out the drawbacks of the previously proposed methods which lead to incorrect conclusions on the temperature dependence of Q. A new method based on a band-pass filter is proposed which can be used to calculate the Q of any mode within the linear regime. Then, using the same method, the impact of the CNT size (length and diameter) on Q is studied and comparisons are made with classical theoretical models is made wherever applicable. A non-classical dependence on size is clearly observed for both primary axial and transverse mode vibrations emphasizing the significance of nanoscale phenomena like ballistic transport and size effects. Later the impact of higher-order modes on the Q is considered, where it was observed that Q decreases with increasing order of the mode. Finally, the effect of the presence of the defects and the challenges it poses in the design of NEMS devices is discussed. In the second half of the thesis, the energy transport in laser irradiated graphene and the effect of non-equilibrium between energy carriers on thermal conductivity measurements in experiments are discussed We primarily used a first

  20. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Songkil; Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Henry, Mathias; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a method for "direct-write" conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  1. Electrical properties of gas sensors based on graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, Ivan I.; Sokolov, Igor V.; Rusakov, Pavel S.; Rybin, Maxim G.; Barmin, Alexander A.; Rizakhanov, Razhudin N.; Obraztsova, Elena D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present investigation of the influence of different gases (carbon dioxide, ammonia, and iodine vapor) on the sensory properties of graphene and single-wall carbon nanotube films. The gas molecules are adsorbed by carbon films (graphene or nanotubes) and change the film's electrical resistance. In the course of this work, the setup for studying the electrophysical properties of carbon nanomaterials has been designed and constructed in the lab. With this home-made equipment, we have demonstrated a high efficiency of graphene and nanotubes as adsorbents of different gases and a possibility to use these materials as gas sensors. We have also performed a chemical modification of graphene and carbon nanotubes by attaching the nanoparticles of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors.

  2. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  3. Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Kyle L.; Dorgan, Vincent E.; Estrada, David; Wood, Joshua D.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Eres, Gyula; Lyding, Joseph W; King, William P.; Pop, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We directly measure the nanometer-scale temperature rise at wrinkles and grain boundaries (GBs) in functioning graphene devices by scanning Joule expansion microscopy with 50 nm spatial and 0.2K temperature resolution. We observe a small temperature increase at select wrinkles and a large (100 K) temperature increase at GBs between coalesced hexagonal grains. Comparisons of measurements with device simulations estimate the GB resistivity (8 150 X lm) among the lowest reported for graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. An analytical model is developed, showing that GBs can experience highly localized resistive heating and temperature rise, most likely affecting the reliability of graphene devices. Our studies provide an unprecedented view of thermal effects surrounding nanoscale defects in nanomaterials such as graphene.

  4. Two dimensional graphene nanogenerator by coulomb dragging: Moving van der Waals heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Huikai; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Zhijuan; Chen, Hongsheng; Lin, Shisheng

    2015-06-15

    Harvesting energy from environment is the current focus of scientific community. Here, we demonstrate a graphene nanogenerator, which is based on moving van der Waals heterostructure formed between graphene and two dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO). This nanogenerator can convert mechanical energy into electricity with a voltage output of around 10 mV. Systematic experiments reveal the generated electricity originates from the coulomb interaction induced momentum transfer between 2D GO and holes in graphene. 2D boron nitride was also demonstrated to be effective in the framework of moving van der Waals heterostructure nanogenerator. This investigation of nanogenerator based on the interaction between 2D macromolecule materials will be important to understand the origin of the flow-induced potential in nanomaterials and may have great potential in practical applications.

  5. Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Kyle L.; Dorgan, Vincent E.; Estrada, David; Wood, Joshua D.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Eres, Gyula; Lyding, Joseph W.; King, William P.; Pop, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We directly measure the nanometer-scale temperature rise at wrinkles and grain boundaries (GBs) in functioning graphene devices by scanning Joule expansion microscopy with ˜50 nm spatial and ˜0.2 K temperature resolution. We observe a small temperature increase at select wrinkles and a large (˜100 K) temperature increase at GBs between coalesced hexagonal grains. Comparisons of measurements with device simulations estimate the GB resistivity (8-150 Ω μm) among the lowest reported for graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. An analytical model is developed, showing that GBs can experience highly localized resistive heating and temperature rise, most likely affecting the reliability of graphene devices. Our studies provide an unprecedented view of thermal effects surrounding nanoscale defects in nanomaterials such as graphene.

  6. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  7. Broadband tunability of surface plasmon resonance in graphene-coating silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Shi; Yang, Yang; Lin, Gan; Zhi-Yuan, Li

    2016-05-01

    Graphene decorated nanomaterials and nanostructures can potentially be used in military and medical science applications. In this article, we study the optical properties of a graphene wrapping silica core–shell spherical nanoparticle under illumination of external light by using the Mie theory. We find that the nanoparticle can exhibit surface plasmon resonance (SPR) that can be broadly tuned from mid infrared to near infrared via simply changing the geometric parameters. A simplified equivalent dielectric permittivity model is developed to better understand the physics of SPR, and the calculation results agree well qualitatively with the rigorous Mie theory. Both calculations suggest that a small radius of graphene wrapping nanoparticle with high Fermi level could move the SPR wavelength of graphene into the near infrared regime. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204365 and 11434017) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB632704).

  8. Low-Temperature in Situ Growth of Graphene on Metallic Substrates and Its Application in Anticorrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minmin; Du, Zehui; Yin, Zongyou; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Zhengdong; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2016-01-13

    Metal or alloy corrosion brings about huge economic cost annually, which is becoming one area of growing concern in various industries, being in bulk state or nanoscale range. Here, single layer or few layers of graphene are deposited on various metallic substrates directly at a low temperature down to 400 °C. These substrates can be varied from hundreds-micrometer bulk metallic or alloy foils to tens of nanometer nanofibers (NFs). Corrosion analysis reveals that both graphene-grown steel sheets and NFs have reduced the corrosion rate of up to ten times lower than that of their bare corresponding counterparts. Moreover, such low-temperature in situ growth of graphene demonstrates stable and long-lasting anticorrosion after long-term immersion. This new class of graphene coated nanomaterials shows high potentials in anticorrosion applications for submarines, oil tankers/pipelines, and ruggedized electronics. PMID:26683895

  9. Processing and applications of carbon based nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Aiping

    Carbon-based nanomaterials, including single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs, multi-layer graphene), possess exceptional electrical, thermal and mechanical properties coupled with high aspect ratio and high temperature stability. These unique properties have attracted increased attention during the past decade. These materials form the basis of the work presented here, which includes research targeting fabrication, processing and applications in new composites and devices. As-prepared SWNTs are typically contaminated with amorphous carbon as well as metal catalyst and graphitic nanoparticles. We have demonstrated an efficient approach for removing most of these impurities by the combination of nitric acid treatment and both low speed (2000 g) and high speed centrifugation (20,000 g). This approach gives rise to the highest-purified arc-discharge SWNTs which are almost free from impurities, and in addition are left in a low state of aggregation. The new purification process offers a convenient way to obtain different grade of SWNTs and allows the study of the effect purity on the thermal conductivity of SWNT epoxy composite. Purified functionalized SWNTs provide a significantly greater enhancement of the thermal conductivity, whereas AP-SWNTs allow the best electrical properties because of their ability to form efficient percolating network. We found that purified SWNTs provide ˜5 times greater enhancement of the thermal conductivity than the impure SWNT fraction demonstrating the significance of SWNTs quality for thermal management. The introduced GNPs have directed the thermal management project to a new avenue due to the significant improvement of the thermal conductivity of the composites in comparison with that of SWNTs. A novel process was demonstrated to achieve a 4-graphene layer structure referred to GNPs with a thickness of ˜2 nm. This material was embedded in an epoxy resin matrix and the measured thermal conductivity of

  10. Graphene: powder, flakes, ribbons, and sheets.

    PubMed

    James, Dustin K; Tour, James M

    2013-10-15

    Graphene's unique physical and electrical properties (high tensile strength, Young's modulus, electron mobility, and thermal conductivity) have led to its nickname of "super carbon." Graphene research involves the study of several different physical forms of the material: powders, flakes, ribbons, and sheets and others not yet named or imagined. Within those forms, graphene can include a single layer, two layers, or ≤10 sheets of sp² carbon atoms. The chemistry and applications available with graphene depend on both the physical form of the graphene and the number of layers in the material. Therefore the available permutations of graphene are numerous, and we will discuss a subset of this work, covering some of our research on the synthesis and use of many of the different physical and layered forms of graphene. Initially, we worked with commercially available graphite, with which we extended diazonium chemistry developed to functionalize single-walled carbon nanotubes to produce graphitic materials. These structures were soluble in common organic solvents and were better dispersed in composites. We developed an improved synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and explored how the workup protocol for the synthesis of GO can change the electronic structure and chemical functionality of the GO product. We also developed a method to remove graphene layers one-by-one from flakes. These powders and sheets of GO can serve as fluid loss prevention additives in drilling fluids for the oil industry. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) combine small width with long length, producing valuable electronic and physical properties. We developed two complementary syntheses of GNRs from multiwalled carbon nanotubes: one simple oxidative method that produces GNRs with some defects and one reductive method that produces GNRs that are less defective and more electrically conductive. These GNRs can be used in low-loss, high permittivity composites, as conductive reinforcement coatings on Kevlar

  11. Graphene: The running of the constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozmediano, Maria A. H.

    2011-09-01

    To first approximation, the dispersion relation around the Fermi energy of single-layer graphene is linear, making its charge carriers behave like massless relativistic subatomic particles. More careful inspection of its low-energy band structure suggests the picture is more complex, extending the analogy even further.

  12. Lateral graphene p-n junctions formed by the graphene/MoS₂ hybrid interface.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Song, Hua-Ding; Li, Cai-Zhen; Jin, Yibo; Tang, Lei; Liu, Dameng; Liao, Zhi-Min; Xiu, Faxian; Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-07-21

    Graphene/two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to possess many advantages for electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, there are few reports about the utilization of a 2D semiconductor monolayer to tune the properties of graphene. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene p-n junctions based on graphene/MoS2 hybrid interfaces. Monolayered graphene across the monolayered MoS2 boundary is divided into n-type regions on the MoS2 and p-type regions on the SiO2 substrate. Such van der Waals heterostructure based graphene p-n junctions show good photoelectric properties. The photocurrent modulation of such devices by a single back gate is also demonstrated for the first time, which shows that the graphene on and off MoS2 regions have different responses to the gate voltage. Our results suggest that the atomic thin hybrid structure can remarkably extend the device applications. PMID:26090791

  13. Reduced Cytotoxicity of Graphene Nanosheets Mediated by Blood-Protein Coating.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yu; Ge, Cuicui; Yang, Zaixing; Garate, Jose Antonio; Gu, Zonglin; Weber, Jeffrey K; Liu, Jiajia; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-06-23

    The advent and pending wide use of nanoscale materials urges a biosafety assessment and safe design of nanomaterials that demonstrate applicability to human medicine. In biological microenvironment, biomolecules will bind onto nanoparticles forming corona and endow nanoparticles new biological identity. Since blood-circulatory system will most likely be the first interaction organ exposed to these nanomaterials, a deep understanding of the basic interaction mechanisms between serum proteins and foreign nanoparticles may help to better clarify the potential risks of nanomaterials and provide guidance on safe design of nanomaterials. In this study, the adsorption of four high-abundance blood proteins onto the carbon-based nanomaterial graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) were investigated via experimental (AFM, florescence spectroscopy, SPR) and simulation-based (molecular dynamics) approaches. Among the proteins in question, we observe competitive binding to the GO surface that features a mélange of distinct packing modes. Our MD simulations reveal that the protein adsorption is mainly enthalpically driven through strong π-π stacking interactions between GO and aromatic protein residues, in addition to hydrophobic interactions. Overall, these results were in line with previous findings related to adsorption of serum proteins onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), but GO exhibits a dramatic enhancement of adsorption capacity compared to this one-dimensional carbon form. Encouragingly, protein-coated GO resulted in a markedly less cytotoxicity than pristine and protein-coated SWCNTs, suggesting a useful role for this planar nanomaterial in biomedical applications. PMID:26040772

  14. The effects of graphene oxide on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, P F M; Nakabayashi, D; Zucolotto, V

    2015-09-01

    Graphene represents a new class of nanomaterials that has attracted great interest due to its unique electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Once disposed in the environment, graphene can interact with biological systems and is expected to exhibit toxicological effects. The ecotoxicity of graphene and its derivatives, viz.: graphene oxide (GO) depends on their physicochemical properties, including purity, diameter, length, surface charge, functionalization and aggregation state. In this study we evaluated the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. The algae were exposed to different concentrations of GO pre-equilibrated for 24h with oligotrophic freshwater medium (20ml) during incubation in a growth chamber under controlled conditions: 120μEm(-2)s(-1) illumination; 12:12h light dark cycle and constant temperature of 22±2°C. Algal growth was monitored daily for 96h by direct cell counting. Reactive oxygen species level (ROS), membrane damage (cell viability) and autofluorescence (chl-a fluorescence) were evaluated using fluorescent staining and further analyzed by flow cytometry. The toxic effects from GO, as observed in algal density and autofluorescence, started at concentrations from 20 and 10μgmL(-1), respectively. Such toxicity is probably the result of ROS generation and membrane damage (cell viability). The shading effect caused by GO agglomeration in culture medium may also contribute to reduce algal density. The results reported here provide knowledge regarding the GO toxicity on green algae, contributing to a better understanding of its environmental behavior and impacts. PMID:26204245

  15. Growth of carbon nanotubes via twisted graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong En; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Kitaura, Ryo; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Nishimoto, Yoshio; Irle, Stephan; Warner, Jamie H.; Kataura, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have long been described as rolled-up graphene sheets. It is only fairly recently observed that longitudinal cleavage of carbon nanotubes, using chemical, catalytical and electrical approaches, unzips them into thin graphene strips of various widths, the so-called graphene nanoribbons. In contrast, rolling up these flimsy ribbons into tubes in a real experiment has not been possible. Theoretical studies conducted by Kit et al. recently demonstrated the tube formation through twisting of graphene nanoribbon, an idea very different from the rolling-up postulation. Here we report the first experimental evidence of a thermally induced self-intertwining of graphene nanoribbons for the preferential synthesis of (7, 2) and (8, 1) tubes within parent-tube templates. Through the tailoring of ribbon’s width and edge, the present finding adds a radically new aspect to the understanding of carbon nanotube formation, shedding much light on not only the future chirality tuning, but also contemporary nanomaterials engineering. PMID:24091379

  16. Innate Immune Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials During Allergic Airway Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipkowski, Kelly Anne

    The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway

  17. Compression behavior of single-layer graphenes.

    PubMed

    Frank, Otakar; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Parthenios, John; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Riaz, Ibtsam; Jalil, Rashid; Novoselov, Kostya S; Galiotis, Costas

    2010-06-22

    Central to most applications involving monolayer graphenes is its mechanical response under various stress states. To date most of the work reported is of theoretical nature and refers to tension and compression loading of model graphenes. Most of the experimental work is indeed limited to the bending of single flakes in air and the stretching of flakes up to typically approximately 1% using plastic substrates. Recently we have shown that by employing a cantilever beam we can subject single graphenes to various degrees of axial compression. Here we extend this work much further by measuring in detail both stress uptake and compression buckling strain in single flakes of different geometries. In all cases the mechanical response is monitored by simultaneous Raman measurements through the shift of either the G or 2D phonons of graphene. Despite the infinitely small thickness of the monolayers, the results show that graphenes embedded in plastic beams exhibit remarkable compression buckling strains. For large length (l)-to-width (w) ratios (> or =0.2) the buckling strain is of the order of -0.5% to -0.6%. However, for l/w < 0.2 no failure is observed for strains even higher than -1%. Calculations based on classical Euler analysis show that the buckling strain enhancement provided by the polymer lateral support is more than 6 orders of magnitude compared to that of suspended graphene in air. PMID:20496881

  18. Synthesis of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Md. Sajibul Alam; Uddin, Md. Nizam; Islam, Md. Maksudul; Bipasha, Ferdaushi Alam; Hossain, Sayed Shafayat

    2016-02-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional material of sp2 hybridization carbon atoms, has fascinated much attention in recent years owing to its extraordinary electronic, optical, magnetic, thermal, and mechanical properties as well as large specific surface area. For the tremendous application of graphene in nano-electronics, it is essential to fabricate high-quality graphene in large production. There are different methods of generating graphene. This review summarizes the exfoliation of graphene by mechanical, chemical and thermal reduction and chemical vapor deposition and mentions their advantages and disadvantages. This article also indicates recent advances in controllable synthesis of graphene, illuminates the problems, and prospects the future development in this field.

  19. Nanoscale Structure and Interaction of Compact Assemblies of Carbon Nano-Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timsina, Raju; Qiu, Xiangyun

    Carbon-based nano-materials (CNM) are a diverse family of multi-functional materials under research and development world wide. Our work is further motivated by the predictive power of the physical understanding of the underlying structure-interaction-function relationships. Here we present results form recent studies of the condensed phases of several model CNMs in complexation with biologically derived molecules. Specifically, we employ X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine nanoscale structures and use the osmotic stress method to quantify their interactions. The systems under investigation are dsDNA-dispersed carbon nanotubes (dsDNA-CNT), bile-salt-dispersed carbon nanotubes, and surfactant-assisted assemblies of graphene oxides. We found that salt and molecular crowding are both effective in condensing CNMs but the resultant structures show disparate phase behaviors. The molecular interactions driving the condensation/assembly sensitively depend on the nature of CNM complex surface chemistry and range from hydrophobic to electrostatic to entropic forces.

  20. Rapid Stencil Mask Fabrication Enabled One-Step Polymer-Free Graphene Patterning and Direct Transfer for Flexible Graphene Devices.

    PubMed

    Yong, Keong; Ashraf, Ali; Kang, Pilgyu; Nam, SungWoo

    2016-01-01

    We report a one-step polymer-free approach to patterning graphene using a stencil mask and oxygen plasma reactive-ion etching, with a subsequent polymer-free direct transfer for flexible graphene devices. Our stencil mask is fabricated via a subtractive, laser cutting manufacturing technique, followed by lamination of stencil mask onto graphene grown on Cu foil for patterning. Subsequently, micro-sized graphene features of various shapes are patterned via reactive-ion etching. The integrity of our graphene after patterning is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. We further demonstrate the rapid prototyping capability of a stretchable, crumpled graphene strain sensor and patterned graphene condensation channels for potential applications in sensing and heat transfer, respectively. We further demonstrate that the polymer-free approach for both patterning and transfer to flexible substrates allows the realization of cleaner graphene features as confirmed by water contact angle measurements. We believe that our new method promotes rapid, facile fabrication of cleaner graphene devices, and can be extended to other two dimensional materials in the future. PMID:27118249