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Sample records for extensively hydrodesulfurized middle

  1. Deep Desulfurization of Extensively Hydrodesulfurized Middle Distillate Oil by Rhodococcus sp. Strain ECRD-1

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Minak-Bernero, V.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    2001-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

  2. Deep desulfurization of extensively hydrodesulfurized middle distillate oil by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M J; Lee, M K; Prince, R C; Minak-Bernero, V; George, G N; Pickering, I J

    2001-04-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

  3. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  4. Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

  5. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  6. Hydrodesulfurization catalysis by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Kevin F.; Schrader, Glenn L.

    1985-12-24

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M.sub.x Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts. The most active catalysts were the "large" cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the "small" cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  7. Climatic conditions governing extensive Azolla bloom during the Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Rolande; Speelman, Eveline N.; Barke, Judith; Konijnendijk, Tiuri; Sinninge Damste, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    Enormous amounts of intact mega- and microspores from the free floating aquatic fern Azolla were found in sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program expedition 302, indicating that Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. In general, the Early/Middle Eocene is characterized by enhanced greenhouse conditions with elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Arctic (~10°C), while tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were only a little warmer than today (with a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 32-34 °C) (Pearson et al., 2007). The consequently reduced temperature gradient between the equator and the poles and the presence of freshwater at the North Pole as indicated by the presence of the freshwater fern Azolla (Brinkhuis et al., 2006) provide important boundary conditions for understanding the hydrological cycle and latent heat transport during this interval. Here we reconstruct variations in SST and mean annual air temperature using the TEX86 and MBT temperature proxies for the Azolla interval. Sediments from around the Arctic Basin have been analyzed, including samples from Alaska, the Mackenzie Basin, Greenland (IODP core 913b), and Denmark. Furthermore, a high resolution sea surface temperature record for the Azolla interval has been constructed from sediment samples from the Lomonosov Ridge, showing a cyclic signal. Model experiments have shown that the here confirmed low equator-to-pole temperature gradient modulated the hydrological cycle. Since the growth of Azolla is restricted to low salinity conditions, changes in the hydrological cycle are proposed to coincide with the cyclic occurrence of Azolla throughout the interval. To confirm the overlapping presence of high quantities of Azolla and increased precipitation, changes in the hydrogen cycle are reconstructed by creating a high resolution hydrogen isotope record throughout the interval. By performing compound specific analyses (δD) on terrestrial derived

  8. Naturally constrained stress profiles through the middle crust during extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, W. M.; Platt, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    We present a method in which paleopiezometry (using electron backscatter diffraction), thermobarometry (using TitaniQ, chlorite-phengite, and Raman spectroscopy), and 2-D thermal modeling can be used to construct naturally constrained profiles of crustal stress in areas of exhumed mid-crustal rocks. As examples, we focus on two metamorphic core complexes, —the Whipple mountains (WMCC) in eastern California, and the Sierra Alhamilla (SAMCC) in southern Spain. Rapid exhumation in both complexes initially occurred in the middle Miocene by distributed ductile shear under high temperature (T) -- low stress (σ ) conditions, evolved toward more localized ductile shear under lower T -- higher σ conditions during cooling, and culminated in cataclasis and discrete brittle fracture as the rocks approached the brittle-ductile transition. The increasing localization and cooling during exhumation allowed earlier microstructures to be preserved, so that rocks in the footwalls of these core complexes represent several points in σ -T space, and by inference σ -depth space. The field- and micro-scale expression of the σ -T distribution varies between the two localities. The WMCC consists of deformed granitoids, and early extensional fabrics form a >2-km-thick zone of gently-dipping mylonite, whereas late fabrics include cross-cutting, more steeply dipping ductile shear zones near the Whipple detachment. Steady-state differential stresses in the WMCC (using the Stipp & Tullis piezometer) range from ˜15 MPa at 550oC in the early mylonites to ˜130 MPa peak stress at the BDT at 300oC in the late shear zones. In the SAMCC, a >1-km-thick belt of mylonitized quartzites and metapelites exhibits two cross-cutting, discrete zones of ultramylonite, themselves overprinted by local folding near the detachment. Stresses range from ˜50 MPa at >500oC to 250 MPa at ˜350oC. Each complex also records transient, strain-rate-dependent interaction between brittle and ductile deformation. In

  9. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  10. Relation of peralkaline magmatism to heterogeneous extension during the Middle Miocene, southeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Volcanism migrated southward in the northern Basin and Range province in the Oligocene and early Miocene to produce voluminous calcalkaline silicic ash flow tuffs. Alkaline volcanism became dominant by middle Miocene (17-14 Ma) as smaller volumes of rhyolite-trachyte-basalt suites were erupted from the relatively small Kane Springs Wash caldera complex in southeastern Nevada. Only minor extension affected the Kane Wash area before the end of calcalkaline activity, but extension expressed by rate of progressive stratal tilt peaked (15-13.5 Ma) with peralkaline magmatism (14.7-14.4 Ma). Variations in distribution, degree, style, and timing of deformation demonstrate heterogeneous extension in the Kane Wash area. Only minor extension and tilting persisted post-middle Miocene (<12 Ma). All major eruptive sources overlap domains of rapid extension. -from Authors

  11. Changes in composition of atmospheric resid upon hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilenko, G.V.; Belan, G.B.; Muchinskii, Y.D.; Polyakova, A.A.

    1984-03-01

    This article examines an atmospheric resid from Romashkino crude before and after hydrodesulfurization in order to show how high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) can be applied to high-molecular-weight organic sulfur compounds and aromatic compounds. The original atmospheric resid and a hydrodesulfurized boiler fuel were subjected to adsorptive separation into fractions. Results are presented from an investigation of the fractions that are the most complex in composition, the ''heavy aromatic'' concentrates, the yields of which before and after hydrodesulfurization were 35% and 25.8% by weight on the original atmospheric resid. The data indicate that in the process of hydrodesulfurization, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings is followed by the splitting of the naphthenic rings. The homologue composition was determined along with the group composition. The distribution curves were investigated for the alkyl ions C /SUB n/ H/sup +/ /SUB 2n+1/ in the singlet monoisotope mass spectra. The number of alkyl substituents on the ring from the structure of the mass spectrum in the region of pseudomolecular ions is calculated. It is concluded that in the hydrodesulfurization of an atmospheric resid from Romashkino crude, hydroaromatic hydrocarbons and polythiaalkanes are removed, and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives of pyrene, chrysene, benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene are accumulated.

  12. Effects of solvents on deep hydrodesulfurization of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Itoh, Tetsuro; Hino, Takuo; Nomura, Masatoshi; Pingyen Qi; Kabe, Toshiaki )

    1993-03-01

    Solvent effects on hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) catalyzed by Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] were investigated under deep hydrodesulfurization conditions. Data for BT and DBT are arranged by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation. Activation energies of HDS of BT and DBT were approximately 21 and 24 kcal/mol respectively, in every solvent. Heats of adsorption of BT and DBT are both estimated to be 22 kcal/mol. Significant solvent effects were found under deep desulfurization conditions, and the values of heat of adsorption for various solvents were estimated from the K[sub sol] obtained. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Middle Tertiary contractile deformation, uplift, extension, and rotation in the San Emigdio Range, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.A.; Carroll, A.R. ); Decelles, P.G. ); Goodman, E.D. )

    1990-05-01

    New data from the San Emigdio Range of southern California provide evidence of major tectonism during the middle Tertiary, including uplift of the adjacent Mojave region, disruption of marine basins, and rotation of the southern tail of the Sierra Nevada. The San Emigdio Range was the site of the southernmost marine deposition in the San Joaquin basin from the earliest through the middle Eocene, overlapping deeply eroded midcrustal granitic rocks. These marine rocks were associated with a northtrending, west-facing shoreline. To the north, the coast probably was embayed to the east as far as the Goler basin of southeastern California. This marine embayment was disrupted and the record of stratigraphic continuity between San Joaquin and Goler basins was destroyed as the result of uplift in the latest Eocene and Oligocene. Conglomerates of the uppermost Eocene and Oligocene nonmarine Tecuya Formation of the San Emigdios comprise an unroofing sequence whose provenance suggests marked uplift and erosion of the Mojave region. Geohistory analysis of the coeval marine Pleito Fm. suggests that the uplift and unroofing was related to contractile deformation. By about 22 Ma, extension replaced contractile deformation in the San Emigdios, as indicated by normal faulting and basaltic volcanism and synchronous extension reported for the adjacent Mojave region. The authors paleomagnetic data from five sites from Tecuya Creek to Pleito Creek reveal that basalts are rotated 44{degree} (clockwise). This rotation occurred prior to 16 Ma and, perhaps between 18-20 Ma, if comparison with the Mojave region is valid. This episode of rotation accounts for most or all of the southwesterly trend of the southern tail of Sierra Nevada basement rocks.

  14. Fission track evidence for widespread early to Middle miocene extension in the northern Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, T.; Miller, E.; Savage, C. . Geological Dept.); Gans, P. . Geological Science Dept.); Brown, R. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The northern Basin and Range province has experienced multiple periods of extension but the precise timing and relative importance of the various periods is poorly known. Geologic data in many areas suggest inception of extension was closely tied with the southward sweep in earliest magmatism, which is Eocene in southern Idaho, Oligocene in east-central Nevada, and Miocene in southern Nevada. Ar/Ar ages suggest that extension continued into the Early Miocene in areas such as the Raft River, Albion, Ruby, and Snake Range metamorphic core complexes. Youthful topography and recent faulting have been taken as indicating that faulting leading to present physiography is commonly younger than [approximately]10 Ma. New apatite fission track cooling age and track length data, supplemented by other information, point to the Early to Middle Miocene as an additional time of very significant extension-induced uplift and range formation. Many ranges in a 700-km-long north-south corridor from the Utah-Nevada-Idaho border to southernmost Nevada experience extension and major exhumation in Early to Middle Miocene time. Whether extension of Early to Middle Miocene age is restricted to this corridor or is more widespread is unclear due to the paucity of similar data to the east and west. Reconnaissance apatite ages from the Toiyabe Range and environs (NV) are [approximately]15 Ma and geologic data indicate Early to Middle Miocene extension at Yerington NV (Proffet and Dillis, 1984). Thus, it appears from the available data that the Early to Middle Miocene was an important, and previously little recognized, period of major extension over broad areas of the northern Basin and Range.

  15. Selectivity of molybdenum catalyst in hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodeoxygenation: effect of additives on dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, M.; Kabe, T.

    1983-06-01

    Kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene on a presulfided molybdena-alumina catalyst were carried out in a high-pressure-flow microreactor. The mechanism discussed is based on selective poisoning studies, using various nitrogen, polyaromatic, sulfur, and oxygen compounds. The nitrogen compounds inhibited the hydrogenation of dibenzothiophene because they adsorbed more strongly than did dibenzothiophene at lower temperatures. At higher temperatures, the nitrogen compounds also hinder the desulfurization together with the hydrogenation of dibenzothiophene. The sulfur and the oxygen compounds retarded all reactions of the desulfurization of dibenzothiophene. The reactions of the desulfurization, the denitrogenation, and the deoxygenation proceed on one type of site and the hydrogenation reactions on another site. 10 figures.

  16. Rapid middle Miocene extension and unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Howard, Keith A.; Fleck, Robert J.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in the northern Ruby Mountains were metamorphosed during Mesozoic crustal shortening and Cenozoic magmatism, but equivalent strata in the southern Ruby Mountains were never buried deeper than stratigraphic depths prior to exhumation in the footwall of a west dipping brittle normal fault. In the southern Ruby Mountains, Miocene sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of this fault date from 15.2 to 11.6 Ma and contain abundant detritus from the Paleozoic section. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He samples of the Eocene Harrison Pass pluton record rapid cooling that peaked ca. 17–15 Ma, while apatite fission track data from Jurassic plutons east and west of the southern Ruby Mountains indicate near-surface temperatures (<60°C) since the Cretaceous. We interpret these data to record rapid unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains during slip on the west dipping brittle detachment between 17–16 and 10–12 Ma, followed by minor high-angle faulting. We interpret published Oligocene to early Miocene K-Ar biotite and zircon fission track dates from the Harrison Pass pluton to be partially reset rather than to directly record fault slip. Our new data, together with published data on the distribution and composition of Miocene basin fill, suggest that rapid middle Miocene slip took place on the west dipping brittle detachment that bounds the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range for 150 km along strike. This fault was thus active during a period of rapid extension (ca. 17–15 to 12–10 Ma) documented widely across the northern Basin and Range Province.

  17. Reactivity and Characterization of Solid State Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, James Henry

    1990-01-01

    The identification of the phase responsible for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity has been the subject of extensive research. In this study, model solid state catalysts prepared from elemental starting materials were synthesized, characterized, and then used to desulfurize thiophene at temperatures ranging from 200-400 ^circC and a pressure of one atmosphere. The results of this work indicate that an increased HDS activity can be correlated with the presence of a poorly crystalline molybdenum sulfide-like phase detected by XRD, HREM, or AEM. The formation of this sulfur-deficient, non-stoichiometric phase could be accomplished by either removing sulfur directly from the catalyst synthesis mixture to yield a non-stoichiometric MoS_{ rm 2-x} moiety, or by introducing a transition metal promoter such as Fe, Co, Ni, or Cu into the system. The promoter atoms induced structural changes in the molybdenum sulfide edge planes by effectively scavenging sulfur during catalyst synthesis to form promoter sulfide species, which enhanced the formation of a non-stoichiometric, highly active molybdenum sulfide. This morphological effect was the primary function of the promoter in this system. All model catalysts displayed similar structure in the (0002) basal plane of MoS_2; however, only the catalytically active samples showed a high concentration of defects and disorder in the (1010), (1011), and (1012) edge planes. The HREM images obtained from these edge planes and their correlation with HDS activity dramatically illustrated the importance of the often-discussed edge plane structure of MoS_2 and its significance on HDS catalysis. Normalization of the HDS activities for the solid state models and a commercial catalyst with O_2 or CO chemisorption uptakes suggested that a similarity may exist between the catalytically active sites of these materials. In-situ XPS revealed that increasing promoter atom concentrations resulted in a more complete reduction of the promoter atom; but

  18. Studies of supported hydrodesulfurization catalysts. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hercules, D.M.

    1995-10-26

    This report describes a series of studies on the following: Mo/titania and Mo/alumina catalysts for thiophene hydrodesulfurization; absorption of metal oxyanion on alumina; particle size effects for Co/silica catalyst for CO hydrogenation; correlation of Mo oxidation states with benzene hydrogenation activity; factor analysis for curve fitting Mo ESCA spectra; and quantitative Raman and ESCA characterization of W/titania catalysts. 27 refs.

  19. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide; a survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-06-01

    Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this protypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydrodesulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties. 96 refs.

  20. Kinematics of faulting in Mine Mountain area of southern Nevada: Evidence for pre-middle Miocene extension

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Cole, J.C. )

    1993-04-01

    Structural analysis has revealed widespread extension associated with discontinuous fault segments previously considered to represent a Mesozoic thrust in the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, of southern Nevada. Complex fault and stratigraphic relations characterize allochthonous Ordovician to Devonian dolomite and local quartzite that are in fault contact above less deformed (but anticlinally arched) Mississippian siltstone in this area. Although initial juxtaposition of the older and younger rocks probably occurred during Mesozoic thrusting, most of 714 small faults examined at 25 sites within the upper plate reflect later extension. Normal faults that chiefly accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are earliest and widespread in the upper plate. These faults are concentrated above the basal fault surface and have dominantly top-to-the-southwest slip, except on the east-dipping flank of the keel where top-to-the-northeast slip is indicated. These relations suggest that the upper plate was extended mostly in place after or, permissibly, during development of the lower plate anticline. Faults that accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are unconformably overlain by middle Miocene volcanic rocks; younger faults that accommodated northwest-directed extension are also interpreted to predate middle Miocene volcanism, although a depositional onlap relation is not preserved. Deformation at Mine Mountain may have been coeval with Oligocene to early Miocene extension that is well known in areas farther north and south in the Basin and Range province but poorly documented in southern Nevada. The authors cannot preclude, however, that extension might have occurred within upper structural levels of the Mesozoic Sevier hinterland.

  1. Deep desulfurization of light oil. 3. Effects of solvents on hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Kabe, Toshiaki )

    1993-04-01

    Solvent effects on hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) catalyzed by Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] were investigated under deep hydrodesulfurization conditions. It was found that type of solvent affects HDS of DBT into biphenyl (BP). By contrast, the formation of cyclohexylbenzene (CHB) was scarcely affected by solvent such as xylene, decalin, tetralin, and n-hexadecane. From this result, it was suggested that desulfurization and hydrogenation proceed on different catalytic sites and that cyclohexylbenzene would be formed by hydrodesulfurization of hexahydrodibenzothiophene as well as hydrogenation of biphenyl.

  2. Extensive middle atmosphere (20-120 KM) modification in the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, Dale

    1990-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) is currently available in the 'GRAM-88' version (Justus, et al., 1986; 1988), which includes relatively minor upgrades and changes from the 'MOD-3' version (Justus, et al., 1980). Currently a project is underway to use large amounts of data, mostly collected under the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) to produce a major upgrade of the program planned for release as the GRAM-90 version. The new data and program revisions will particularly affect the 25-90 km height range. Sources of data and preliminary results are described here in the form of cross-sectional plots.

  3. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  4. A Middle School Extension of Pick's Theorem to Areas of Nonsimple Closed Polygonal Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Wilfred E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an extension of Pick's theorem for simple closed polygonal regions to unions of simple closed polygonal regions. Students are guided to discover Pick's theorem from sets of data including numbers of boundary points and numbers of interior points. (Author/MKR)

  5. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide. II. A survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-01-01

    I. Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this prototypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydro desulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low, negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. II. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties.

  6. Paleomagnetism of the Oligocene Kalamazoo Tuff: implications for middle Tertiary extension in east central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Gans, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Oligocene Kalamazoo Tuff (???35 Ma) was sampled for paleomagnetic analysis across a 100-km-wide zone of highly extended crust in east central Nevada to estimate between-site vertical axis rotations and thus the relative importance of strike-slip faulting to the mechanism of extension. The tilt-corrected data, with sources of error reduced or eliminated, exhibit a 28?? ?? 12?? clockwise rotation of the Schell Creek Range relative to the Kern Mountains region. This rotation implies differential extension accommodated by strike-slip faulting or N-S shortening. The paleomagnetic results also suggest that large changes in strike of layered units near faults with presumed strike-slip movement need not be the result of oroclinal bending, but could result from superimposed sets of orthogonal normal faults. -from Authors

  7. Catalyst, method of preparation and use thereof in hydrodesulfurizing cracked naphtha

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolacini, R.J.

    1980-05-20

    Catalyst comprising magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide is prepared by dry blending particulate alumina with a dried composite of magnesia impregnated with hydrogenation metals of group VIB and group VIII; the catalyst is employed in selective hydrodesulfurization of cracked naphtha.

  8. Middle-Miocene counterclockwise rotation of rocks from west-central Nevada; implications for Basin and Range extension

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Drilling and geophysical data from Dixie Valley and Fallon Basin of west-central Nevada have shown that dip-slip normal faults accommodated post-Miocene Basin and Range extension in this area, but the presence of an earlier, less-understood phase of Basin and Range deformation is suggested in the adjacent West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Clan Alpine Ranges where the late-Miocene basalts lie in angular unconformity on Oligocene to early-Miocene ash-flow tuffs. Paleomagnetic components obtained from the tuffs and underlying gabbroic and basaltic rocks of the Jurassic Humboldt Lopolith have declinations that are statistically different and counterclockwise from the expected Oligo-Miocene and Jurassic directions for the area. Paleomagnetic components from the late-Miocene basalts statistically overlap their expected direction. These data imply that the rocks were rotated counterclockwise during middle-Miocene. The common association of such rotations with strike-slip faulting suggests that this earlier phase of Basin and Range extension was largely a strike-slip faulting deformation. If so, the total amount of extension in the area may be significantly larger than estimates based solely on the moderate tilts (<30/sup 0/) of the ranges.

  9. Warming and extensive glacier recession at Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes during Heinrich Stadial 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, A. E.; Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Hall, B. L.; Lowell, T. V.; Porter, C. T.; Barrell, D. J.; Andersen, B. G.; Kaplan, M. R.; Koffman, T.; Lennon, J.; Rowan, A. V.; Finkel, R. C.; Rood, D.; Schwartz, R.; Vandergoes, M.; Plummer, M. A.; Brocklehurst, S. H.; Kelley, S. E.; Ladig, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The termination of the last ice age featured a major reconfiguration of Earth's climate and cryosphere, yet the underlying causes of these massive changes continue to be debated. Documenting the spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric temperature during deglaciation can help discriminate among potential drivers. Here, we present 10Be surface-exposure chronologies and glaciological reconstructions of ice recession following the Last Glacial Maximum in the New Zealand Southern Alps and Patagonian Andes. Our field sites straddle opposite sides of the South Pacific and record climate changes near Southern Ocean fronts. Most of the deglacial warming in the Southern Alps and southern Andes occurred during the early part of the Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) of the North Atlantic region. We attribute southern mid-latitude warming and glacier recession during HS1 to a southward shift of the Subtropical and Subantarctic Fronts. Because these oceanic fronts are associated with the position of the westerly wind belt, our findings support the concept that a southward shift of Earth's wind belts accompanied the early parts of HS1 cooling in the North Atlantic, leading to major warming and deglaciation in southern middle latitudes.

  10. Fission track thermochronologic constraints on the timing and nature of major Middle Tertiary extension, Ruby Mountains - East Humboldt Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dokka, R.K.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Snoke, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Fission Track (FT) apatite, zircon, and sphene ages were determined from both mylonitic and non-mylonitic rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex. The analyzed sample suite included various mylonitic orthogneisses as well as amphibolitic orthogneisses from the non-mylonitic infrastructural core. Porphyritic biotite granodiorite of the Oligocene Harrison Pass pluton was also dated. FT ages are concordant and range in age from 27 - 24 Ma. These dates reflect rapid cooling of the lower plate from temperatures above 250/sup 0/C to below 100/sup 0/C during the early Miocene. The general concordance of the FT dates with /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar biotite and hornblende plateau ages from the same sample suite suggest an even more pronounced cooling history. This rapid cooling history is considered to reflect large-scale tectonic denudation (intracrustal thinning), a manifestation of intense crustal extension. Mylonitic rocks that originally formed along ductile shear zones in the middle crust (10-15 km) were quickly brought near the surface and juxtaposed against brittly distended rocks deformed under upper crustal conditions. FT data firmly establish the upper age limit on the timing of mylonitization during the shear zone deformation. This rapid cooling interval also coincides with the inferred age of extensive landscape disruption and the development of an alluvial fan-lacustrine system which included the periodic emplacement of landslide deposits (megabreccias).

  11. Hydrodesulfurization reactivities of various sulfur compounds in vacuum gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I.

    1996-08-01

    The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of a vacuum gas oil (VGO) was performed at 360 C (6.9 MPa) over a commercial NiMo catalyst to examine the HDS reactivities of various sulfur compounds which exist in the VGO by means of quantitative pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis. Four representative types of aromatic-skeleton sulfur compounds were observed in the VGO: alkylbenzothiophenes (BTs), alkyldibenzothiophenes (DBTs), alkylphenanthro[4,5-b,c,d]thiophenes (PTs), and alkylbenzonaphthothiophenes (BNTs). Among these, alkyl-BTs exhibited the highest HDS reactivity, whereas alkyl-DBTs with alkyl substituents at the 4 and/or 6 positions appeared to have the least reactivity even though their aromatic-skeleton is smaller than those of both alkyl-PTs and -BNTs. Steric hindrance of alkyl groups at specific positions appears to be a major reason for the low reactivity. Quantum chemical calculations on representative sulfur compounds were carried out to compare molecular parameters with their different HDS reactivities.

  12. Hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene over Mo-based dispersed catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Cooke, W.S.; Eckhardt, S.

    1995-12-31

    The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrocracking (HC) activity and selectivity of several Mo-based catalyst precursors have been examined in model compound reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT). Reactions were carried out at 400{degrees}C with 6.9 MN of H{sub 2} for 30 min. A metal loading of 0.5 mol% (based on DBT) in tridecane as solvent resulted in a low conversion rate and only hydrogenation products. Even the addition of sulfur to the catalyst in a 4:1 molar ratio only led to a minor increase in conversion and HDS. However, a change in the molar ratio of solvent to model compound from 1:1 to 19:1 and a metal loading of 33.16 mol% lead to a dramatic increase in conversion, HDS, and HC. Furthermore, the use of higher boiling point solvents such as hexadecane and octadecane had a beneficial effect on both HDS and HC. The addition of sulfur in a 6:1 ratio of S:metal to the higher-metal-loaded runs had varying effects that were dependent upon the catalyst used.

  13. The Identity Status of African Americans in Middle Adolescence: A Replication and Extension of Forbes and Ashton (1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Curtis W.; Boothe, Barrington

    2002-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of the work of Forbes and Ashton (1998). Seventy-seven African American high school students completed the revised version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. Most of the students were found to be in uncommitted identity statuses. Similar results were found in both ideological and…

  14. A middle Miocene benthic foraminiferal stable isotope record from extensively recrystallised carbonate sediments of IODP Site U1336 in the Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, J.; Hathorne, E. C.; Holbourn, A. E.; Frank, M.

    2013-12-01

    The elemental and isotopic composition of foraminifera is widely used for reconstructing oceanic and climatic conditions in the past. However, ancient foraminiferal tests are altered after deposition through replacement of the original biogenic calcite by secondary (inorganic) calcite. Therefore, it is important to quantify changes in the elemental and isotopic composition of recrystallised tests to assess the reliability of proxy data. Here, we present benthic foraminiferal stable isotope data from IODP Site U1336 where the geochemistry of bulk carbonates and associated pore waters suggests extensive recrystallisation resulting from an enhanced thermal gradient. In sediments older than 20.3 Ma the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of bulk carbonates and associated pore waters exhibit lower values than contemporaneous seawater indicating the incorporation of Sr originating from older carbonates recrystallised deeper in the section. Furthermore, the generally lower Sr/Ca ratios of bulk carbonates from Site U1336 also suggest extensive recrystallisation. Despite the extensive recrystallisation at Site U1336, the stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ18O) of benthic foraminifera (C. wuellerstorfi and C. mundulus) from the middle Miocene (13-16 Ma) is in good agreement with existing records (e.g. Holbourn et al. 2007, Tian et al. 2013). The carbon-isotope events of the Monterey Excursion (including CM 3b, CM 4a, CM 5 and CM 6) can clearly be identified. The CM 3b event displays the highest δ13C values with a maximum of 1.78 ‰ at 15.61 Ma which is in accordance with values measured from Sites 1237 (Nazca Ridge off Peru) and U1337 (706 km southeast from U1336) of 1.72 and 1.74 ‰, respectively at 15.60 Ma. The Middle Miocene cooling at 13.91-13.84 Ma marks the onset of ice-sheet expansion over Antarctica and the drastic increase in δ18O (0.86 ‰) at Site U1336 during that cooling event (CM 6) is comparable to that at Site 1237 (0.79 ‰) (Holbourn et al. 2007) and U1337 (1.00

  15. Hydrodesulfurization of Qaiyarah 80-205 sup 0 C naphtha fraction of alumina supported Co-Mo-oxides; Part 2: Using stopped flow gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, L.H.; Sulaiman, S.T.; AlTamer, M.Y. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors report the effective desulfurization of Qaiyarah 80-205{sup 0}C, naphtha fraction on alumina supported Co-Mo oxides, assembled in a GC column using H{sub 2} as a carrier gas and the stopped-flow technique. Over 90% of sulfur was removed from this partially cracked naphtha and a similar result (Ca 90%) was obtained when hydrodesulfurizing an acid-base treated naphtha. /sup 1/H nmr studies on the chromatographically separated hydrodesulfurized fractions revealed interesting structural parameters which leads to suggestions related to the occurrence of a reforming reaction and the liberation of fresh H{sub 2} gases which further promotes hydrodesulfurization.

  16. Aquatic hazard and biodegradability of light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; Podhasky, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum substances are blended to produce fuels used in transportation and heating. These substances represent the majority by volume of crude oil refined products in the United States. The goal of this research was to develop biodegradability and aquatic toxicity data for four substances; heavy, straight-run naphtha (HSRN), hydro-desulfurized kerosene (HDK), hydro-cracked gas oil (HCGO), and catalytic-cracked gas oil (CCGO). Ready biodegradability tests demonstrated rapid and extensive microbial oxidation of these test substances, indicating a lack of persistence in the aquatic environment. Differences in biodegradation patterns reflected compositional differences in the constituent hydrocarbons. Results of aquatic toxicity tests on alga, cladocera, and fish demonstrated that toxicity was greatest for catalytic-cracked gas oil, which contained a high proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons are more soluble, and hence more bioavailable, resulting in higher toxicity. When expressed on the basis of loading rates, acute toxicity values (LL/EL50) ranged between 0.3 and 5.5 mg L(-1) for all three species, while chronic no-observed-effect loading rates (NOELR) ranged between 0.05 and 0.64 mg L(-1). PETROTOX estimates for acute and chronic toxicity ranged from 0.18 to 2.3 mg L(-1) and 0.06 to 0.14 mg L(-1), respectively, which were generally more conservative than experimental data. PMID:24875905

  17. An approach to preparing porous and hollow metal phosphides with higher hydrodesulfurization activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Limin; Zhang, Shujuan; Wei, Qingwu

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes an effective method for the synthesis of metal phosphides. Bulk and supported Ni 2P, Cu 3P, and CoP were prepared by thermal treatment of metal and the amorphous red phosphorus mixtures. Porous and hollow Ni 2P particles were also synthesized successfully using this method. The structural properties of these products are investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). A rational mechanism was proposed for the selective formation of Ni 2P particles. In experimental conditions, the Ni 2P/SiO 2 catalyst exhibits excellent hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity for dibenzothiophene (DBT).

  18. Mesoporous materials derived from synthetic organo-clays as novel hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Marshall, C.L.; Brenner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Various pore size distributions are found for synthetic organo-clay complexes from which the organic portion has been removed via calcination. The clays are prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice. The organic serves to impart long-range structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. Mesoporous materials are prepared from a host of organic modifiers. For example, pore diameters of 40-50{Angstrom} result from tetraethyl ammonium and celluloses, and polydimethyl diallyl ammonium imparts diameters of about 110{Angstrom} on average. These materials have begun to be explored as hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysts for the mesoporous materials when a model oil feed is used (1% dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). The target application is HDS of an actual heavy crude oil from California.

  19. An approach to preparing porous and hollow metal phosphides with higher hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song Limin; Zhang Shujuan; Wei Qingwu

    2011-06-15

    This paper describes an effective method for the synthesis of metal phosphides. Bulk and supported Ni{sub 2}P, Cu{sub 3}P, and CoP were prepared by thermal treatment of metal and the amorphous red phosphorus mixtures. Porous and hollow Ni{sub 2}P particles were also synthesized successfully using this method. The structural properties of these products are investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). A rational mechanism was proposed for the selective formation of Ni{sub 2}P particles. In experimental conditions, the Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2} catalyst exhibits excellent hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity for dibenzothiophene (DBT). - Graphical abstract: Bulk and supported Ni{sub 2}P, Cu{sub 3}P, and CoP were prepared by thermal treatment of their metal and amorphous red phosphorus mixtures. Porous and hollow Ni{sub 2}P particles were successfully synthesized by this method also. In the experimental condition, a Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2} catalyst exhibits excellent hydrodesulfurization activity for dibenzothiophene. Highlights: > A new synthetic route by heat treating mixtures of metal and red phosphorus in flowing N{sub 2} to prepare corresponding metal phosphides. > Porous and hollow Ni{sub 2}P particles may successfully be obtained using the route. > It is very easy to synthesize other bulk and supported metal phosphides using the mixing of bulk and supported metal and red phosphorus by the method. > The Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2} catalyst synthesized by the route shows a good HDS of dibenzothiophene. > Its operation is simple (only heat treating pure metal and red phosphorus), and the reaction time is short (only 0.5 h).

  20. Extensive Middle Amazonian mantling of debris aprons and plains in Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars: Implications for the record of mid-latitude glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.

    2015-11-01

    The mid-latitudes of Mars are host to a record of recent episodes of accumulations of ice-rich materials. The record includes debris aprons, interpreted to be debris-covered glaciers, that may represent the preserved remnants of a much more extensive ice sheet. We assessed the possibility of former glacial extents by examining debris aprons and the surrounding plains in Deuteronilus Mensae. Geomorphic units and stratigraphic relationships were mapped and documented from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera images, and crater retention ages were estimated from crater size-frequency distributions. Three major units are observed within the study area: debris aprons, lower plains, and upper plains. Debris aprons exhibit characteristics typical for these features documented elsewhere and in previous studies, including integrated flow lineations and patterns, convex-upward profiles, and knobby and brain terrain surface textures. A lower bound on the age for debris aprons is estimated to be 0.9 Ga. Debris aprons are superposed on a lower plains unit having a lower bound age of 3.3-3.5 Ga. A 50-100 m thick upper plains unit superposes both debris apron landforms and lower plains units and has a best-fit minimum age of 0.6 Ga. The upper plains unit exhibits characteristics of atmospherically-emplaced mantle material, including fine-grained nature, sublimation textures, cyclic layering, draping character, and widespread spatial distribution. Fracturing and subsequent sublimation/erosion of upper plains on debris aprons has contributed to many of the surface textures on debris aprons. The upper plains unit has also been eroded from the lower plains and plateaus, evidenced by isolated blocks of upper plains in the interiors of craters and on the walls and tops of plateaus. While no conclusive evidence diagnostic of former cold-based ice sheets are observed in the plains within the study region, such

  1. Mechanistic insights on the hydrodesulfurization of biphenyl-2-thiol with nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres-Nieto, Jorge; Brennessel, William W; Jones, William D; García, Juventino J

    2009-03-25

    The reactivity of the nickel(I) dimer [(dippe)Ni(mu-H)](2) (1) with biphenyl-2-thiol was explored with the aim of clarifying the key step of sulfur extrusion during the hydrodesulfurization process using dibenzothiophene (DBT). These reactions were monitored by variable temperature NMR experiments which allowed the complete characterization and isolation of [(dippe)(2)Ni(2)(mu-H)(mu-S-2-biphenyl)] (3). The latter compound evolves to the terminal nickel-hydride [(dippe)Ni (eta(1)-C-2-biphenyl)(H)] (4) and transient [(dippe)NiS] (5), to ultimately yield [(dippe)(2)Ni(2)(mu-S)] (2) and biphenyl as the resulting HDS products. The reactivity of 1 and biphenyl-2-thiol was examined using different ratios of reactants, which allowed preparation of [(dippe)Ni(eta(1)-S-biphenyl-2-thiolate)(2)] (6) when using an excess of this substrate. The reactivity of 6 with 1 was addressed, yielding compound 2 and an equivalent amount of biphenyl. PMID:19292493

  2. [In situ FTIR and XPS study on selective hydrodesulfurization catalyst of FCC gasoline].

    PubMed

    Qiherima; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Yun-hong; Li, Hui-feng; Xu, Guang-tong

    2011-07-01

    Improvement of the selectivity of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) for hydrogenation (HYD) of olefins is crucial to produce sulfur-free (S < 0.001%) gasoline from fluid catalytic-cracked (FCC) gasoline. A series of sulfided CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts with different metal loading were prepared by pore-filling impregnation. MoS2 and COMoS active phases on the surface of sulfided COMo/Al2O3 catalyst were identified and analyzed quantitatively by XPS and in-situ FTIR of adsorbed CO. The results reveal that the increase in COMoS phase on the catalyst surface improves the HDS activity and selectivity. And the HDS selectivity correlates linearly with the ratio of active site number of CoMoS and MoS2, the higher the ratio of active site number of CoMoS and MoS2, the better the HDS selectivity. In situ variable temperature FTIR analysis shows that CoMoS phase has stronger electron accepting ability than MoS2. The strong electron deficient property of CoMoS active sites is the main reason for its excellent HDS activity and selectivity. PMID:21942017

  3. Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Rhodium Phosphide: Comparison with Rhodium Metal and Sulfide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, John R.; Bowker, Richard H.; Gaudette, Amy F.; Smith, Mica C.; Moak, Cameron E.; Nam, Charles Y.; Pratum, Thomas K.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2010-12-15

    Silica-supported rhodium phosphide (Rh2P/SiO2) catalysts were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and chemisorption measurements. XRD and TEM analysis of a 5 wt.% Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst confirmed the presence of well-dispersed Rh2P crystallites on the silica support having an average crystallite size of 10 nm. NMR spectroscopy showed unsupported and silica-supported Rh2P to be metallic and XPS spectroscopy yielded a surface composition of Rh1.94P1.00 that is similar to that expected from the bulk stoichiometry. The 5 wt.% Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst exhibited a higher dibenzothiophene (DBT) hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity than did Rh/SiO2 and sulfided Rh/SiO2 catalysts having a similar Rh loading and was also more active than a commercial NiAMo/Al2O3 catalyst. The Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst showed excellent stability over a 100 h DBT HDS activity measurement and was more S tolerant than the Rh/SiO2 catalyst. The Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst strongly favored the hydrogenation pathway for DBT HDS, while the Rh/SiO2 and sulfided Rh/SiO2 catalysts favored the direct desulfurization pathway.

  4. Materials derived from synthetic organo-clay complexes as novel hydrodesulfurization catalyst supports.

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K. A.; Marshall, C. L.; Brenner, J. R.; Song, K.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    A series of mesoporous synthetic organo-clay complexes has been prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice, followed by calcination to remove the organics. The organic serves to impart structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. The choice of organic modifier can be used to control the pore structure of the resulting mesoporous materials. Pore size distributions appear in some cases to be related to the type of polymer packing upon clay formation in situ. These materials are being explored as Co Mo hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary HDS results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysis for the mesoporous materials when a model heavy oil feed is used (1 wt% S as dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). Temperature programmed reduction experiments of used catalysts suggest a relationship between HDS activity and ease of reduction of the CoMo/clay catalysts. Reactivity of the CoMo clay also correlates with the percentage of mesopore volume remaining after reaction. Losses in mesopore volume are largely recouped by recalcination, suggesting that reversible coke is formed inside the pore structure of clays faster than inside conventional alumina.

  5. Developing and Evaluating the Impact of an Extension-Based Train-the-Trainer Model for Effectively Disseminating Food Safety Education to Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Pratt, Carrie; Skolits, Gary J.; Burney, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are an understudied, but meaningful, population when it comes to food safety education. With the proliferation of pathogenic microbes and changes in eating habits of Americans, today's youth are more at risk of contracting a foodborne illness than previous generations. Hands On: Real World Lessons for Middle School Classrooms…

  6. Hydrodesulfurization on Transition Metal Catalysts: Elementary Steps of C-S Bond Activation and Consequences of Bifunctional Synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yik, Edwin Shyn-Lo

    The presence of heteroatoms (e.g. S, N) in crude oil poses formidable challenges in petroleum refining processes as a result of their irreversible binding on catalytically active sites at industrially relevant conditions. With increasing pressures from legislation that continues to lower the permissible levels of sulfur content in fuels, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the aptly named reaction for removing heteroatoms from organosulfur compounds, has become an essential feedstock pretreatment step to remove deleterious species from affecting downstream processing. Extensive research in the area has identified the paradigm catalysts for desulfurization; MoSx or WSx, promoted with Co or Ni metal; however, despite the vast library of both empirical and fundamental studies, a clear understanding of site requirements, the elementary steps of C-S hydrogenolysis, and the properties that govern HDS reactivity and selectivity have been elusive. While such a lack of rigorous assessments has not prevented technological advancements in the field of HDS catalysis, fundamental interpretations can inform rational catalyst and process design, particularly in light of new requirements for "deep" desulfurization and in the absence of significant hydrotreatment catalyst developments in recent decades. We report HDS rates of thiophene, which belongs to a class of compounds that are most resistant to sulfur removal (i.e. substituted alkyldibenzothiophenes), over a range of industrially relevant temperatures and pressures, measured at differential conditions and therefore revealing their true kinetic origins. These rates, normalized by the number of exposed metal atoms, on various SiO 2-supported, monometallic transition metals (Re, Ru, Pt), range several orders of magnitude. Under relevant HDS conditions, Pt and Ru catalysts form a layer of chemisorbed sulfur on surfaces of a metallic bulk, challenging reports that assume the latter exists as its pyrite sulfide phase during reaction. While

  7. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: reproductive and developmental effects of hydrodesulfurized kerosine.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; Lapadula, L; White, R; Feuston, M; Krueger, A; Rodriquez, S

    1997-10-24

    Hydrodesulfurized kerosine (HDS kerosine), applied dermally, was tested for reproductive and developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, using a modified OECD Guideline 421, Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Screening Protocol. A preliminary acute dermal irritancy test demonstrated that dilution of HDS kerosine in either a light (100 Saybolt universal seconds, SUS) or moderate viscosity (340 SUS) USP mineral oil reduced irritation of the neat material comparably. Similar dermal absorption was observed in vitro for neat HDS kerosine or diluted in either of the mineral oils. HDS kerosine diluted to 494 (60%), 330 (40%), or 165 (20%) mg/kg/day in Squibb mineral oil (340 SUS) was applied daily at 1 ml/kg to the shaved backs of rats for 7 wk (premating, mating to d 19 of gestation) to females and 8 wk to males. Dams and litters were sacrificed on postpartum d 4 and males were sacrificed within the following week. HDS kerosine produced slight to moderate skin irritation at the highest dose in both sexes but no apparent maternal, reproductive, or developmental toxicity. No clinical signs of toxicity and no effects on body weight, food consumption, or absolute organ weights were observed. Relative kidney weights were heavier in male rats at the high dose. Skin changes were observed microscopically in male rats in all groups and in females at the high dose. No microscopic changes were observed in reproductive organs of parental animals. There were no differences in mean number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, and live pups per litter, and no gross anomalies were observed. Pups born from treated dams showed comparable body weights and weight gains to controls. The viability index on postpartum d 4 was > or = 93%. In conclusion, the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for HDS kerosine for reproductive and developmental toxicity in rats is 494 mg/kg/d. PMID:9316644

  8. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from thermal pre-treatment of waste hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Huang, Hong-Hsin

    2007-09-01

    Despite increasing environmental concerns and stringent limitations on the sulfur content in fuels, many waste hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts containing Co, Mo, Ni and V are generated in the petroleum refining process. To recover valuable metals in the waste HDS catalysts via hydrometallurgy, thermal treatment is usually performed first to remove contaminants (residual oil, carbon and sulfur) present on the surface of catalysts. In this study, the mass partitions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different media (aqueous, particulate and gaseous) were quantified in order to determine the efficiency of three different air pollution control devices, cooling unit, filter and glass cartridge, on PAH removal. An afterburner and two furnace temperatures were used to observe the effect on the PAH contents of the treated residues. Results show that total-PAH content in treated residues decreased with the pyrolysis temperature of the primary furnace, while those generated in flue gases were destroyed by the afterburner at an efficiency of approximately 95%. In addition, the thermal process converts high molecular weight PAHs to low molecular weight PAHs, and the afterburner temperature involved (1200 degrees C) was high enough to prohibit the generation of high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs), leading to the domination of low molecular weight PAHs (LM-PAHs) in flue gases, while treated residues were dominated by HM-PAHs. Finally, information on metal contents and their concentrations in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure in waste HDS catalyst and thermal treated residues are examined as an index of the potential for metal recovery. PMID:17531290

  9. Simultaneous hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation over MoS{sub 2}-based catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Wei, B.; Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    Simultaneous hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrogenolysis (HYC) and hydrogenation (HYG) of model compounds were studied under high pressure with MoS{sub 2}-based catalysts. Such reactions are related to conversion of coal, heavy oil and resid as well as waste materials. Three metal sulfide catalysts have been examined, including dispersed MoS{sub 2} catalyst derived in-situ from ammonium tetrathiomolybdate [ATTM, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4}] and sulfided Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CR-344) and Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CR-424) catalysts from Criterion. In order to investigate the catalytic functions of these catalysts and the influence of co-reactants, five model compounds were examined both as individual reactants and as 5-component mixture in this work, including (1) 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (100%), abbreviated as NMBB, (2) pyrene (99%), (3) dibenzothiophene (98%), abbreviated as DBT, (4) quinoline (99%), and (5) eicosane (99%). The experiments with 5-component mixture showed that the patterns of product distributions strongly depend on the type of catalysts, and the trends do not always parallel with those for single-component tests, indicating the influence of co-reactants. In general, pyrene and eicosane were hardest to convert in the mixtures. The dispersed MoS{sub 2} catalyst (ATTM as precursor) showed higher capabilities on HDN and hydrogenation of pyrene, but lower HDS/conversion of DBT. Compared with the other two catalysts, CR-424 was much more active for NMBB conversion than for pyrene conversion. Overall, CR-424 catalyst appears to be the most effective on HDS, HDN and on hydrogenolysis of C-C bond in NMBB.

  10. A 13-week dermal repeat-dose neurotoxicity study of hydrodesulfurized kerosene in rats.

    PubMed

    Breglia, Rudolph; Bui, Quang; Burnett, Donald; Koschier, Francis; Lapadula, Elizabeth; Podhasky, Paula; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    A 13-week dermal repeat-dose toxicity study was conducted with hydrodesulfurized (HDS) kerosene, a test material that also met the commercial specifications for aviation turbine fuel (jet A). The objectives were to assess the potential for target organ toxicity and neurotoxicity. The HDS kerosene was applied to the shaved backs of Sprague-Dawley CD rats, 12/sex/group, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk in doses of 0 (vehicle control), 165 mg/kg (20% HDS kerosene), 330 mg/kg (40% HDS kerosene), or 495 mg/kg (60% HDS kerosene). Additional rats (12/sex) from the control and the high-dose groups were held without treatment for 4 weeks to assess recovery. Standard parameters of toxicity were investigated during the in-life phase. At necropsy, organs were weighed and selected tissues were processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurobehavioral evaluations included tests of motor activity and functional observations that were conducted pretest, at intervals during the exposure period and after recovery. No test substance-related effects on mortality, clinical observations (except dermal irritation), body weight, or clinical chemistry values were observed. A dose-related increase in skin irritation, confirmed histologically as minimal, was evident at the dosing site. The only statistically significant change considered potentially treatment related was an increase in the neutrophil count in females at 13 weeks. No test article-related effects were observed in the neurobehavioral assessments or gross or microscopic findings in the peripheral or central nervous system tissues in any of the dose groups. Excluding skin irritation, the no observed adverse effect level value for all effects was considered 495 mg/kg/d. PMID:24351872

  11. Catalytic reactor and organometallic model studies of the mechanism of thiophene hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.

    1987-06-01

    The reactivity of transition metal complexes of thiophene (Th) and 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrothiophenes (DHT) and catalytic reactor studies of thiophene and the dihydrothiophenes have been used to examine the mechanism for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. Catalytic deuterium exchange of thiophene over HDS catalysts was modeled by the reaction of ..pi..-thiophene complexes, CpRu(Th)/sup +/ (where Th=thiophene, 2, or 3 methylthiophene or 2,5-dimethylthiophene) in CD/sub 3/OD with OH/sup -/. Reactor studies with thiophene and 2,3- and 2,5-DHT were done at 300/sup 0/ and 400/sup 0/C over a Re/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ HDS catalyst. Deuterodesulfurization studies established that 2,5-DHT directly eliminates butadiene while butadiene formation from 2,3-DHT must involve several surface steps over the catalyst. Several reactions of the dihydrothiophenes over HDS catalysts were modeled using transition metal complexes of 2,3 and 2,5-DHT. The S-bound 2,3-DHT in W(CO)/sub 5/(2,3-DHT) is converted to tetrohydrothiophene upon treatment with HCl. When Fe/sub 2/(CO)/sub 9/ is reacted in THF with 2,3-DHT though, no isolable Fe(CO)/sub 4/(2,3-DHT) complex is obtained, but small amounts of 2,5-DHT are observed by /sup 1/H NMR. Reaction of 2,5-DHT with Fe/sub 2/(CO)/sub 9/ does result in the formation of Fe(CO)/sub 4/(2,5-DHT), which readily eliminates butadiene.

  12. Developing Enzyme and Biomimetic Catalysts for Upgrading Heavy Crudes via Biological Hydrogenation and Hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, A P

    2006-08-22

    The recovery and conversion of heavy oils is limited due to the high viscosity of these crudes and their high heteroatom content. Conventional technology relies on thermochemical hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization to address these problems and is energy intensive due to the high operating temperature and pressure. This project was initiated to explore biological catalysts for adding hydrogen to the heavy oil molecules. Biological enzymes are efficient at hydrogen splitting at very mild conditions such as room temperature and pressure, however, they are very specific in terms of the substrates they hydrogenate. The goal of the project was to investigate how the specificity of these enzymes can be altered to develop catalysts for oil upgrading. Three approaches were used. First was to perform chemical modification of the enzyme surface to improve binding of other non-natural substrates. Second approach was to expose the deeply buried catalytic active site of the enzyme by removal of protein scaffolding to enable better interaction with other substrates. The third approach was based on molecular biology to develop genetically engineered systems for enabling targeted structural changes in the enzyme. The first approach was found to be limited in success due to the non-specificity of the chemical modification and inability to target the region near the active site or the site of substrate binding. The second approach produced a smaller catalyst capable of catalyzing hydrogen splitting, however, further experimentation is needed to address reproducibility and stability issues. The third approach which targeted cloning of hydrogenase in alternate hosts demonstrated progress, although further work is necessary to complete the cloning process. The complex nature of the hydrogenase enzyme structure-function relationship and role of various ligands in the protein require significant more research to better understand the enzyme and to enable success in strategies in

  13. Correct primary structure assessment and extensive glyco-profiling of cetuximab by a combination of intact, middle-up, middle-down and bottom-up ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Daniel; Jabs, Wolfgang; Resemann, Anja; Evers, Waltraud; Evans, Catherine; Main, Laura; Baessmann, Carsten; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Suckau, Detlev; Beck, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency received recently the first marketing authorization application for a biosimilar monoclonal antibody (mAb) and adopted the final guidelines on biosimilar mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins. The agency requires high similarity between biosimilar and reference products for approval. Specifically, the amino acid sequences must be identical. The glycosylation pattern of the antibody is also often considered to be a very important quality attribute due to its strong effect on quality, safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics and potency. Here, we describe a case study of cetuximab, which has been marketed since 2004. Biosimilar versions of the product are now in the pipelines of numerous therapeutic antibody biosimilar developers. We applied a combination of intact, middle-down, middle-up and bottom-up electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques to characterize the amino acid sequence and major post-translational modifications of the marketed cetuximab product, with special emphasis on glycosylation. Our results revealed a sequence error in the reported sequence of the light chain in databases and in publications, thus highlighting the potency of mass spectrometry to establish correct antibody sequences. We were also able to achieve a comprehensive identification of cetuximab's glycoforms and glycosylation profile assessment on both Fab and Fc domains. Taken together, the reported approaches and data form a solid framework for the comparability of antibodies and their biosimilar candidates that could be further applied to routine structural assessments of these and other antibody-based products. PMID:23924801

  14. Correct primary structure assessment and extensive glyco-profiling of cetuximab by a combination of intact, middle-up, middle-down and bottom-up ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Daniel; Jabs, Wolfgang; Resemann, Anja; Evers, Waltraud; Evans, Catherine; Main, Laura; Baessmann, Carsten; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Suckau, Detlev; Beck, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency received recently the first marketing authorization application for a biosimilar monoclonal antibody (mAb) and adopted the final guidelines on biosimilar mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins. The agency requires high similarity between biosimilar and reference products for approval. Specifically, the amino acid sequences must be identical. The glycosylation pattern of the antibody is also often considered to be a very important quality attribute due to its strong effect on quality, safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics and potency. Here, we describe a case study of cetuximab, which has been marketed since 2004. Biosimilar versions of the product are now in the pipelines of numerous therapeutic antibody biosimilar developers. We applied a combination of intact, middle-down, middle-up and bottom-up electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques to characterize the amino acid sequence and major post-translational modifications of the marketed cetuximab product, with special emphasis on glycosylation. Our results revealed a sequence error in the reported sequence of the light chain in databases and in publications, thus highlighting the potency of mass spectrometry to establish correct antibody sequences. We were also able to achieve a comprehensive identification of cetuximab’s glycoforms and glycosylation profile assessment on both Fab and Fc domains. Taken together, the reported approaches and data form a solid framework for the comparability of antibodies and their biosimilar candidates that could be further applied to routine structural assessments of these and other antibody-based products. PMID:23924801

  15. Mössbauer Spectroscopy Investigation and Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Iron–nickel Phosphide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudette, Amy F.; Burns, Autumn W.; Hayes, John R.; Smith, Mica C.; Bowker, Richard H.; Seda, Takele; Bussell, Mark E.

    2010-05-25

    Unsupported and silica-supported FexNi2-xPy catalysts having a range of metal compositions (0 < x 6 2.0) were investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the results correlated with the surface and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) properties of the supported catalysts. Mössbauer spectroscopy permits determination of the relative site occupancy of Fe atoms in tetrahedral (M(1)) and pyramidal (M(2)) sites in the FexNi2-xPy materials. Fe atoms preferentially occupy M(2) sites for materials with significant Fe contents (x > ~0.60), but the Fe site preference reverses as the Fe content decreases (x < ~0.60). Similar occupation trends are observed for the unsupported and silica-supported FexNi2-xPy materials. Thiophene HDS measurements of the FexNi2-xPy/SiO2 catalysts revealed catalysts with high Fe contents (0.80 6 x 6 2.00) to have low activities, while the activities of Ni-rich catalysts increased dramatically with increased Ni content (0.03 6 x 6 0.60). The highest HDS activity was measured for a catalyst having a nominal precursor composition of Fe0.03Ni1.97P2.00/SiO2; this catalyst was 40% more active than a optimized nickel phosphide catalyst prepared from a precursor having a nominal composition of Ni2.00P1.60/SiO2. The 25 wt.% Fe0.03Ni1.97P2.00/SiO2 catalyst also had a dibenzothiophene HDS activity just over 10% higher than that of the 25 wt.% Ni2.00P1.60/SiO2 catalyst at 548 K. The trend of increasing HDS activity for the FexNi2-xPy/ SiO2 catalysts correlates with preferential Fe occupation of M(1) sites (and, therefore, Ni occupation of M(2) sites). Supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and oxygen chemisorption measurements, we conclude that the high activity of Ni-rich FexNi2-xPy/SiO2 catalysts can be traced to a high surface density of Ni in M(2) sites that are resistant to site blockage due to S incorporation.

  16. The age and origin of the Labyrinth, western Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Evidence for extensive middle Miocene subglacial floods and freshwater discharge to the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Adam R.; Marchant, David R.; Kowalewski, Douglas E.; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Webb, Laura E.

    2006-07-01

    A 50+-km-long network of bedrock channels and scoured terrain occupies the ice-free portion of a major trough that crosses the Transantarctic Mountains in southern Victoria Land. The channels, collectively termed the Labyrinth, emerge from beneath the margin of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (Wright Upper Glacier) and are incised into a 300-m-thick sill of Ferrar Dolerite at the head of Wright Valley. Upper- and intermediate-elevation erosion surfaces of the Labyrinth exhibit striations and molding characteristic of glacial erosion. Channels and canyons on the lower surface are as much as 600 m wide and 250 m deep, have longitudinal profiles with many reverse gradients, and contain potholes >35 m deep at tributary junctions. These characteristics are most consistent with incision from fast-flowing subglacial meltwater; estimated discharge is on the order of 1.6 2.2 × 106 m3s-1. Our 40Ar/39Ar analyses of volcanic tephra from the Labyrinth show that the channels are relict, that major channel incision predates 12.4 Ma, and that the last major subglacial flood occurred sometime between 14.4 Ma and 12.4 Ma. The most plausible origin for the Labyrinth is erosion associated with episodic drainage of subglacial lakes in East Antarctica. One compelling possibility is that discharge of large volumes of subglacial meltwater to the Southern Ocean, and to the Ross Sea in particular, may have coincided with, and contributed to, oscillations in regional and/or global climate during the middle Miocene.

  17. Hydrodesulfurization on Transition Metal Catalysts: Elementary Steps of C-S Bond Activation and Consequences of Bifunctional Synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yik, Edwin Shyn-Lo

    The presence of heteroatoms (e.g. S, N) in crude oil poses formidable challenges in petroleum refining processes as a result of their irreversible binding on catalytically active sites at industrially relevant conditions. With increasing pressures from legislation that continues to lower the permissible levels of sulfur content in fuels, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the aptly named reaction for removing heteroatoms from organosulfur compounds, has become an essential feedstock pretreatment step to remove deleterious species from affecting downstream processing. Extensive research in the area has identified the paradigm catalysts for desulfurization; MoSx or WSx, promoted with Co or Ni metal; however, despite the vast library of both empirical and fundamental studies, a clear understanding of site requirements, the elementary steps of C-S hydrogenolysis, and the properties that govern HDS reactivity and selectivity have been elusive. While such a lack of rigorous assessments has not prevented technological advancements in the field of HDS catalysis, fundamental interpretations can inform rational catalyst and process design, particularly in light of new requirements for "deep" desulfurization and in the absence of significant hydrotreatment catalyst developments in recent decades. We report HDS rates of thiophene, which belongs to a class of compounds that are most resistant to sulfur removal (i.e. substituted alkyldibenzothiophenes), over a range of industrially relevant temperatures and pressures, measured at differential conditions and therefore revealing their true kinetic origins. These rates, normalized by the number of exposed metal atoms, on various SiO 2-supported, monometallic transition metals (Re, Ru, Pt), range several orders of magnitude. Under relevant HDS conditions, Pt and Ru catalysts form a layer of chemisorbed sulfur on surfaces of a metallic bulk, challenging reports that assume the latter exists as its pyrite sulfide phase during reaction. While

  18. MCM-41-supported cobalt-molybdenum catalysts for deep hydrodesulfurization of diesel and jet fuel feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday Tsrpr

    Regulatory issues require new catalysts for the deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of refractory polyaromatic sulfur compounds such as 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) present in diesel and jet fuel. Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2 ) supported on mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 and promoted by cobalt was hypothesized to have superior activity for deep HDS because of MCM-41's (1) high surface area and uniform mesopores and (2) superior acidity as compared to conventional supports such as gamma-alumina (gamma-Al 2O3). This study examines the role of MCM-41 as a support for new cobalt (Co)-molybdenum (Mo) HDS catalysts. At CoO-MoO3 loadings typical of commercially available HDS catalysts, MCM-41-supported catalysts were only slightly better. At higher loadings---27.0% (by weight) MoO3 and 5.8% CoO---MCM-41-supported catalysts were twice more active than the commercial catalyst. This difference in activities is related to the degree of MoS2 stacking. Remarkable increase in the conversion of 4,6-DMDBT was observed over MCM-41-supported catalysts with decreasing SiO2/Al2O 3 ratio. More significantly, the SiO2/Al2O 3 ratio of MCM-41 has a profound effect on product distribution and catalyst selectivity. Irrespective of CoO-MoO3 loading, catalysts using MCM-41 with a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 50 convert more of 4,6-DMDBT through the highly desirable hydrogenolysis pathway. The acidity of these catalysts was measured and correlated to their selectivities for hydrogenolysis and hydrocracking. Co-Mo/MCM-41 continued to demonstrate activities twice that of the commercial catalyst for the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT in petroleum-derived feedstocks such as light cycle oil. However, for a blend of coal- and petroleum-derived feedstocks, nitrogen from the coal-derived liquid inhibited both catalysts for the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT. Basic nitrogen, e.g., quinoline, significantly retards the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT over both catalysts. Non-basic carbazole, on the other hand, inhibited the MCM-41-supported

  19. Extensive investigation of the sap flow of maize plants in an oasis farmland in the middle reach of the Heihe River, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liwen; He, Zhibin; Zhao, Wenzhi; Yang, Qiyue

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of the sap flow characteristics of maize plants is critical for improving irrigation water-use efficiency, especially for regions facing water resource shortages. In this study, sap flow rates, related soil-physics and plant-growth parameters, and meteorological factors, were simultaneously monitored in a maize field in two consecutive years, 2011 and 2012, and the sap flow rates of the maize plants were extensively analyzed based on the monitored data. Seasonal and daily variational characteristics were identified at different growth stages and under different weather conditions, respectively. The analyses on the relationships between sap flow rate and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), as well as several plant-growth parameters, indicate that the irrigation schedule can exert an influence on sap flow, and can consequently affect crop yield. The ranking of the main meteorological factors affecting the sap flow rate was: net radiation > air temperature > vapor pressure deficit > wind speed. For a quick estimation of sap flow rates, an empirical formula based on the two top influencing factors was put forward and verified to be reliable. The sap flow rate appeared to show little response to irrigation when the water content was relatively high, implying that some of the irrigation in recent years may have been wasted. These results may help to reveal the bio-physical processes of maize plants related to plant transpiration, which could be beneficial for establishing an efficient irrigation management system in this region and also for providing a reference for other maize-planting regions. PMID:27262588

  20. A NiMoS flower-like structure with self-assembled nanosheets as high-performance hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Weikun; Chen, Zhou; Zhu, Jianping; Yang, Lefu; Zheng, Jinbao; Yi, Xiaodong; Fang, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Uniform 3D NiMoS nanoflowers with self-assembled nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal growth method using cheap and nontoxic elemental sulfur as sulfur sources. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS analyses, revealing that the NiMoS nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of approximately 6-12 nm. The HRTEM results indicate that the curve/short MoS2 slabs on the nanosheets possess the characteristics of dislocations, distortions and discontinuity, which suggests a defect-rich structure, resulting in the exposure of additional Ni-Mo-S edge sites. The obtained NiMoS nanoflowers exhibited an excellent activity for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene deep HDS due to their high density of active sites. The outstanding HDS performance suggests that these NiMoS composites with a unique flower-like nanostructure could be useful as promising catalysts for deep desulfurization of fuel oils.Uniform 3D NiMoS nanoflowers with self-assembled nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal growth method using cheap and nontoxic elemental sulfur as sulfur sources. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS analyses, revealing that the NiMoS nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of approximately 6-12 nm. The HRTEM results indicate that the curve/short MoS2 slabs on the nanosheets possess the characteristics of dislocations, distortions and discontinuity, which suggests a defect-rich structure, resulting in the exposure of additional Ni-Mo-S edge sites. The obtained NiMoS nanoflowers exhibited an excellent activity for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene deep HDS due to their high density of active sites. The outstanding HDS performance suggests that these NiMoS composites with a unique flower

  1. Extraction of Ni (II) from Spent Hydrodesulfurization HDS Catalyst Through Leaching and Electroless Precipitation of Ni(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sangita R.; Dash, Barsha; Sanjay, Kali; Subbaiah, T.

    2013-04-01

    The extraction of nickel (II) from a spent hydro-desulfurization catalyst containing 11.6 pct Ni was carried out through sulfuric acid leaching. Variations of parameters such as the concentration of acid, temperature, and time, were studied and optimized. Nickel hydroxide was precipitated from the leach liquor via neutralization with 1 M sodium hydroxide up to pH 12 in three different methods: normal neutralization precipitation, and then neutralization precipitation followed by aging at 353 K (80 °C) for 4 hours and neutralization of the leach liquor with 10 pct (v/v) of 0.1 N sodium lauryl sulfate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microanalysis shows a difference in crystallinity with the method of precipitation. The nickel hydroxide contains Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Mn(II) as trace impurities. The discharge capacities of the precipitated nickel hydroxides were 120 mAhg-1, 140.72 mAhg-1, and 145.2 mAhg-1 for aged sample, sample without surfactant, and with surfactant respectively.

  2. A NiMoS flower-like structure with self-assembled nanosheets as high-performance hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lai, Weikun; Chen, Zhou; Zhu, Jianping; Yang, Lefu; Zheng, Jinbao; Yi, Xiaodong; Fang, Weiping

    2016-02-14

    Uniform 3D NiMoS nanoflowers with self-assembled nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal growth method using cheap and nontoxic elemental sulfur as sulfur sources. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS analyses, revealing that the NiMoS nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of approximately 6-12 nm. The HRTEM results indicate that the curve/short MoS2 slabs on the nanosheets possess the characteristics of dislocations, distortions and discontinuity, which suggests a defect-rich structure, resulting in the exposure of additional Ni-Mo-S edge sites. The obtained NiMoS nanoflowers exhibited an excellent activity for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene deep HDS due to their high density of active sites. The outstanding HDS performance suggests that these NiMoS composites with a unique flower-like nanostructure could be useful as promising catalysts for deep desulfurization of fuel oils. PMID:26815736

  3. Probing hydrodesulfurization over bimetallic phosphides using monodisperse Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Samuel J.; Liyanage, D. Ruchira; Hitihami-Mudiyanselage, Asha; Ilic, Boris; Brock, Stephanie L.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Metal phosphide nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica provide a well-defined system for probing the fundamental chemistry of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction over this new class of hydrotreating catalysts. To investigate composition effects in bimetallic phosphides, the HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out over a series of Ni-rich Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 (M = Co, Fe) nanocatalysts (x ≤ 0.50). The Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles (average diameters: 11-13 nm) were prepared by solution-phase arrested precipitation and encapsulated in mesoporous silica, characterized by a range of techniques (XRD, TEM, IR spectroscopy, BET surface area, CO chemisorption) and tested for DBT HDS activity and selectivity. The highest activity was observed for a Ni1.92Co0.08P@mSiO2 nanocatalyst, but the overall trend was a decrease in HDS activity with increasing Co or Fe content. In contrast, the highest turnover frequency (TOF) was observed for the most Co- and Fe-rich compositions based on sites titrated by CO chemisorption. IR spectral studies of adsorbed CO on the Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 catalysts indicate that an increase in electron density occurs on Ni sites as the Co or Fe content is increased, which may be responsible for the increased TOFs of the catalytic sites. The Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 nanocatalysts exhibit a strong preference for the direct desulfurization pathway (DDS) for DBT HDS that changes only slightly with increasing Co or Fe content.

  4. Selective hydrodesulfurization of FCC naphtha with supported MoS{sub 2} catalysts : the role of cobalt.

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C. L.; Kropf, A. J.; Miler, J. T.; Reagan, W. J.; Kaduk, J. A.; Chemical Engineering; BP Amoco Research Center

    2000-07-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and olefin hydrogenation of FCC naphtha have been determined for MoS2 (no Co) catalysts on different supports and for a commercial CoMo/alumina HDS catalyst both with and without the addition of alkali. For MoS2 catalysts, the specific HDS activity is higher on silica than alumina, while addition of Cs resulted in no change in the activity. The differences in activity, however, are relatively small, a factor of less than two. EXAFS and XRD structural analysis indicate that small MoS2 particles are present on all catalysts. The differences in rate are not due to differences in particle size, dispersion, or support physical properties, but are likely due to the modification of catalytic properties by an interaction with the support. While there is a small influence on the rate, the composition of the support, or modification by Cs, has no effect on the HDSlolefin hydrogenation selectivity. The olefin hydrogenation conversion increases linearly with HDS conversion, and at high HDS conversion, few olefins remain in the FCC naphtha. Similar to the effect for Cs promotion of MoS2 on alumina, the addition of K to sulfided CoMo/alumina had little affect on the activity or selectivity for HDS and olefin hydrogenation. Unlike MoS2 catalysts, however, with sulfided CoMo at less than about 85% HDS conversion, the rate of olefin hydrogenation is low, but it increases rapidly as the sulfur in the naphtha drops below about 300 ppm. Selective HDS of FCC naphtha appears to correlate primarily to the formation of the CoMoS phase, rather than to the basic nature of the support. It is proposed that the enhanced olefin hydrogenation selectivity of CoMo catalysts is due to the competitive adsorption of sulfur compounds, which inhibit adsorption and saturation of olefins in the naphtha.

  5. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  6. Theoretical Studies in Heterogenous Catalysis: Towards a Rational Design of Novel Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez,J.A.; Liu, P.

    2008-10-01

    important advantage of the cluster approach is that one can use the whole spectrum of quantum-chemical methods developed for small molecules with relatively minor modifications. On the other hand, the numerical effort involved in cluster calculations increases rather quickly with the size of the cluster. This problem does not exist when using slab models. Due to the explicit incorporation of the periodicity of the crystal lattice through the Bloch theorem, the actual dimension of a slab calculation depends only on the size of the unit cell. In practical terms, the slab approach is mainly useful for investigating the behavior of adsorbates at medium and high coverages. Very large unit cells are required at the limit of low to zero coverage, or when examining the properties and chemical behavior of isolated defect sites in a surface. In these cases, from a computational viewpoint, the cluster approach can be much more cost effective than the slab approach. Slab and cluster calculations can be performed at different levels of sophistication: semi-empirical methods, simple ab initio Hartree-Fock, ab initio post-Hartree-Fock (CI, MP2, etc), and density functional theory. Density-functional (DF) based calculations frequently give adsorption geometries with a high degree of accuracy and predict reliable trends for the energetics of adsorption reactions. This article provides a review of recent theoretical studies that deal with the behavior of novel catalysts used for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions and the production of hydrogen (i.e. catalytic processes employed in the generation of clean fuels). These studies involve a strong coupling of theory and experiment. A significant fraction of the review is focused on the importance of size-effects and correlations between the electronic and chemical properties of catalytic materials. The article begins with a discussion of results for the desulfurization of thiophene on metal carbides and phosphides, systems which have the

  7. Reaction of cationic transition metal complexes with furan, thiophene, and pyrrole. Model studies relevant to hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiar, R.; Jacobson, D.B.

    1995-12-01

    Hydrodesulfurization, denitrogenation, and deoxygenation reactions are important reactions in many research areas such as the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from coal. In this report, reactions of Fe{sup +} and FeL{sup +} (L = O, C{sub 4}H{sub 6}, c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}, c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, C{sub 5}H{sub 4}(=CH{sub 2})) with thiophene, furan, and pyrrole in the gas phase by using Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) are described. Fe{sup +}, Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sup +}, and FeC{sub 6}H{sub 6}{sup +} yield exclusive, rapid adduct formation with thiophene, furan, and pyrrole. The iron-diene complex FeC{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +}, Fe(c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}){sup +}), as well as FeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}(=CH{sub 2}){sup +} and FeO{sup +} are quite reactive. An intriguing reaction is the predominant, direct extrusion of CO from furan by FeC{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +}, Fe(c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}){sup +}, Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 4}(=CH{sub 2}){sup +}. In addition, FeC{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +} and Fe(c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}){sup +} yield minor amounts of HCN extrusion from pyrrole. The absence of CS extrusion from thiophene may be due to the higher energy requirements than that for CO extrusion from furan or HCN extrusion from pyrrole. The dominant reaction channel for reaction of Fe(c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}){sup +} with pyrrole and thiophene is hydrogen atom displacement which implies D{sup 0}(Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}X) > D{sup 0}(Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sup +}-H) = 46 {+-} 5 kcal/mol. D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}S) and D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}C{sub 4}H{sub 5}N) = D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 6}) = 48 {+-} 5 kcal/mol. Finally, D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O) > D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) = 39.9 {+-} 1.4 kcal/mol and D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O) < D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) = 55 {+-} 5 kcal/mol. FeO{sup +} reacts rapidly with thiophene, furan, and pyrrole to yield initial loss of CO followed by additional neutral losses.

  8. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  9. Booktalking Across the Curriculum: The Middle Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Nancy J.

    This book contains booktalks for 170 titles that appeal to middle school readers and relate to middle school curriculum. Approximately 90% of the books are fiction. Each entry includes author, title, publisher, date of publication, suggested interest level, suggested reading level, the booktalk, and learning extension ideas. The selections are…

  10. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  11. Kinetic and reactor models for HDT of middle distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.M.; Filho, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of middle distillates over a commercial Ni-Mo/y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied under wide operating conditions just as 340 to 380{degrees}C and 38 to 98 atm. A Power Law model was presented to each one of those reactions. The parameters of kinetic equations were estimated solving the ordinary differential equations by the 4 order Runge-Kutta-Gill algorithm and Marquardt method for searching of set of kinetic parameters (kinetic constants as well as the orders of reactions). An adiabatic diesel hydrotreating trickle-bed reactor packed with the same catalyst was simulated numerically in order to check up the behavior of this specific reaction system. One dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model was used in this work. For each feed, the mass and energy balance equations were integrated along the length of the catalytic bed using the 4th Runge-Kutta-Gill method. The performance of two industrial reactors was checked. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Middle Years. For Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This supplement offers 10 articles focusing on middle school education. Topics include remembering adolescence, resources and teaching tips, active middle school students, adolescent development, challenges in middle school education, integrated studies, planning middle school special events, a writing-science-consumerism miniunit on popcorn,…

  13. Quasi in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS investigation of the spent NiMo catalyst from ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization of gas oil in a commercial plant.

    PubMed

    Hamabe, Yusuke; Jung, Sungbong; Suzuki, Hikotaro; Koizumi, Naoto; Yamada, Muneyoshi

    2010-07-01

    Ni species on the spent NiMo catalyst from ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization of gas oil in a commercial plant were studied by Ni K-edge EXAFS and TEM measurement without contact of the catalysts with air. The Ni-Mo coordination shell related to the Ni-Mo-S phase was observed in the spent catalyst by quasi in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS measurement with a newly constructed high-pressure chamber. The coordination number of this shell was almost identical to that obtained by in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS measurement of the fresh catalyst sulfided at 1.1 MPa. On the other hand, large agglomerates of Ni(3)S(2) were observed only in the spent catalyst by quasi in situ TEM/EDX measurement. MoS(2)-like slabs were sintered slightly on the spent catalyst, where they were destacked to form monolayer slabs. These results suggest that the Ni-Mo-S phase is preserved on the spent catalyst and Ni(3)S(2) agglomerates are formed by sintering of Ni(3)S(2) species originally present on the fresh catalyst. PMID:20567086

  14. Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dieter Leckel

    2006-10-15

    Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

  15. Ductile extension in alpine Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Dubois, Roland; Fournier, Marc; Goffé, Bruno; Michard, André; Jourdan, Claudie

    1990-10-01

    Ductile deformation in high-pressure (P)-low temperature (T) conditions due to the westward thrusting of oceanic material onto a continental basement in alpine Corsica is overprinted by a late deformation event with a reverse shear sense (eastward) that took place in less severe P-T conditions. We show that the late deformation can be linked to extension during rifting and spreading of the Liguro Provençal basin from late Oligocene to late-middle Miocene time. Major compressive thrust contacts were reactivated as ductile normal faults and, in some units, only a penetrative eastward shear can be observed. This extension following the thickening of the crust brought tectonic units which underwent very different P- T conditions during the earlier stage into close contact. The Balagne nappe, which shows neither significant ductile deformation nor metamorphism, directly overlies the high-P units. The extensional deformation is distributed through the entire thickness of the nappe stack but is more important along the major thrust contacts, which localize the strain. The geometry of the crustal extension is controlled by that of the early compressive thrusts. The latest structures are east-dipping brittle normal faults which bound the early to middle Miocene Saint Florent half graben.

  16. Relation between hydrodesulfurization activity and the state of promoters in precursor calcined Ni-Co-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Agudo, A.L.; Severino, F.; Laine, J.

    1986-01-01

    Two series of NiCo-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts prepared by different procedures were investigated. In each series the Mo loading and the total content of promoters (Co + Ni) were kept constant but the Co/(Co + Ni) atomic ratio was varied from 0 to 1. The two series of catalysts were prepared by a sequential wet impregnation technique. In series I, the impregnations of both Mo and promoters were carried out at the pH of the impregnating aqueous solutions, employing an intermediate calcination; in series II, Mo was impregnated at pH 10, while the promoters were added in aqueous ethanol solutions without intermediate calcination. Catalysts in their calcined state were characterized by reduction in H/sub 2/ at 500/sup 0/C, O/sub 2/ chemisorption, and infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed NO. The HDS activity and the optimum Co/(Co + Ni) atomic ratio were different for the two series, in agreement with the previous studies, HDS activity being generally higher for series II than for series I. Dispersion of Mo (as estimated from O/sub 2/ chemisorption) and NO adsorption on Mo in reduced catalysts (as judged from the intensity of the band at about 1705 cm/sup -1/) were not substantially different for the two series of catalysts and did not correlate with HDS activity. However, adsorbed NO on promoters in oxidized catalysts (bands at about 1880 and 1800 cm/sup -1/) followed roughly the same trend as HDS activity, suggesting that the active sites may be related to the Co and Ni atoms adsorbing NO. Possible reasons for the differences between HDS activity of the two series are considered.

  17. Thinking about Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Jere

    This book on middle school uses a very free-form structure to encourage educators to think about middle school's philosophy and purpose, and about how to create a successful middle school. The preface claims that it is not a book "about" teaming, advisory, interdisciplinary units, intramurals, parent-teacher conferences, and other middle school…

  18. Cenozoic extension and magmatism in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. J.; Spencer, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Basin and Range Province of Arizona was the site of two episodes of Cenozoic extension that can be distinguished on the basis of timing, direction and style of extension, and associated magmatism. The first episode of extension occurred during Oligocene to mid-Miocene time and resulted in the formation of low-angle detachment faults, ductile shear zones (metamorphic core complexes), and regional domains of tilted fault blocks. Evidence for extreme middle Tertiary crustal extension in a NE to SW to SW to ENE to WSW direction has been recognized in various parts of the Basin and Range of Arizona, especially in the Lake Mead area and along the belf of metamorphic core complexes that crosses southern Arizona from Parker to Tucson. New geologic mapping and scrutiny of published geologic maps indicates that significant middle Tertiary extension is more widely distributed than previously thought. The state can be subdivided into regional tilt-block domains in which middle Tertiary rocks dip consistently in one direction. The dip direction in any tilt-block domain is generally toward the breakaway of a low-angle detachment fault that underlies the tilt-block domain; we interpret this an indicating that normal faults in the upper plate of a detechment fault are generally synthetic, rather than antithetic, with respect to the detachment fault.

  19. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  20. Perspectives: Middle School Education, 1964-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John H., Ed.

    This collection of essays provides extensive background information and varied views on the history, philosophy, and curriculum of the middle school as a movement or as an educational design for pre- and early adolescents. After a brief prologue by editor John H. Lounsbury, 14 essays by separate authors are presented: "The Junior High School:…

  1. Explaining English Middle Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kabyong

    2009-01-01

    The current paper attempts to account for the formation of English middle sentences. Discussing a set of previous analyses on the construction under investigation we show, following the assumptions of Oosten(1986) and Iwata(1999), that English middle constructions should be divided into two types: generic middle constructions and non-generic…

  2. Making Middle Schools Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jon W.; Bondi, Joseph W.

    Over the past 20 years, the middle school has been a major innovative movement changing the face of intermediate education. While hard to define exactly, middle schools have different priorities and purposes than junior high schools. The former serve preadolescents (ages 10 to 14) through a balanced, comprehensive program. Middle school programs…

  3. Extensive Tympanic Membrane Cholesteatoma with Marginal Perforation: An Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Sakalli, Erdal; Kaya, Deniz; Celikyurt, Cengiz; Erdurak, Selcuk Cem

    2013-01-01

    The migration of squamous epithelium of external ear through a tympanic membrane perforation into the middle ear forms a cholesteatoma. But it is extremely a rare condition to observe extensive cholesteatoma on the medial surface of tympanic membrane with perforation. This condition is termed tympanic membrane cholesteatoma (TMC). We herein present an exceptional case of extensive TMC with marginal perforation. PMID:23956906

  4. Orbital extension of trigeminal schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Das, Debabrata; Varshney, Rahul; Nandy, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors. Here, we report a 35-year-old female presenting with an axial proptosis of right eyeball with right-sided III, IV and VI cranial nerve palsy. Her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was perception of light absent and in the left eye was 20/20. MRI scan revealed a large right-sided heterogeneous, extra-axial middle cranial fossa mass that extended to the intraconal space of right orbit. A diagnosis of intracranial trigeminal nerve schwannoma with right orbital extension was made. Successful surgical excision of the mass with preservation of the surrounding tissues and orbital exenteration was done. Post-operative period was uneventful. PMID:25552864

  5. Orbital extension of trigeminal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Das, Debabrata; Varshney, Rahul; Nandy, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors. Here, we report a 35-year-old female presenting with an axial proptosis of right eyeball with right-sided III, IV and VI cranial nerve palsy. Her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was perception of light absent and in the left eye was 20/20. MRI scan revealed a large right-sided heterogeneous, extra-axial middle cranial fossa mass that extended to the intraconal space of right orbit. A diagnosis of intracranial trigeminal nerve schwannoma with right orbital extension was made. Successful surgical excision of the mass with preservation of the surrounding tissues and orbital exenteration was done. Post-operative period was uneventful. PMID:25552864

  6. Mechanism of hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene on Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst by the use of radioisotope [sup 35]S tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Kabe, T.; Qian, W.; Ogawa, S.; Ishihara, A. )

    1993-09-01

    In order to estimate the behavior of sulfur on hydrodesulfurization catalyst, the [sup 35]S-labelled dibenzothiophene ([sup 35]S-DBT) was hydrodesulfurized on sulfided Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] in a fixed-bed pressurized flow reactor. During the reaction, the radioactivities of unreacted [sup 35]S-DBT and formed [sup 35]S-H[sub 2]S were monitored. The rate of the release of sulfur on the catalyst was estimated from the rates of an increase and a decrease of the radioactivity in formed [sup 35]S-H[sub 2]S. The activation energies of the release of sulfur were 3.7 and 9.9 kcal/mol for sulfided Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], respectively. The amount of labile sulfur (S[sub 0]), which could be calculated from the maximum amount of [sup 35]S accomodated on the catalyst, increased with increasing temperature. When it was assumed that sulfur in sulfided Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] existed in the form of Co[sub 9]S[sub 8]-MoS[sub 2]/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], the ratio of labile sulfur to total sulfur did not exceed 50%, even under conditions where the rate of DBT HDS is relatively high. On the contrary, the ratio of labile sulfur to total sulfur for Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] exceeded 80%. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Extensive quantities in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannaerts, Sebastiaan H.

    2014-05-01

    A literature survey shows little consistency in the definitions of the term ‘extensive quantity’ (a.k.a. extensive property) as used in thermodynamics. A majority assumes that extensive quantities are those that are proportional to mass. Taking the mathematical meaning of proportional and taking the ‘mass’ to be that of the system or subsystem, it is shown that the proportionality assumption is only correct for a few extensive quantities under condition of constant composition. A large subset of extensive quantities are completely independent of mass; for most systems extensive quantities are not proportional to mass, but mass is the (extensive) constant of proportionality. The definition by IUPAC, based on the additivity of extensive quantities, is the preferred baseline for discussing this subject. It is noted however, that two types of additivity need to be distinguished and that a few intensive quantities are also additive. This paper leaves several interesting questions open to further scrutiny.

  8. The Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, H. C., Ed.

    Designed to stimulate and support training for Extension work and to orient new employees, this book covers the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) and its methods of operation. It begins by describing the status of rural extension in the United States and abroad; the history of the CES and its antecendents; the legal basis, scope, functions, and…

  9. Preparing Middle School Teachers: What Does a Licensure Program Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    This paper describes the development of a middle childhood level (MCL) teacher preparation program under Ohio licensure requirements. Wright State University developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and middle school field experiences. After graduation, students enter a graduate program…

  10. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  11. Middle Start Snapshots: Improving Middle-Grades Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This publication describes the school-improvement process in three schools participating in Middle Start, a comprehensive school-improvement program for schools with middle grades. Middle Start services, grounded in the Middle Start Principles and Practices, are tailored to a school's specific needs. The schools profiled are Bendle Middle School…

  12. Generativity in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Paula

    The study described in this paper was conducted to delineate the phenomenon of generativity in middle-aged adults in an attempt to identify its major characteristics, attributes, determinants, and situational or circumstantial variables. Three themes emerged from a literature survey of materials on middle adulthood: the theme of the entry…

  13. Mathematics in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

    This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

  14. Middle School Advisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Tricia

    Designed for those teaching an advisement program to middle school students, this book provides a year-long program with suggestions for many activities geared to middle school students. The text is divided into the traditional four-quarter school year but can be adapted to any school year configuration. The activities are designed so that the…

  15. Muddle in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A 1989 Carnegie Corporation report called for major reforms in early adolescent education and sharply criticized the middle school concept. To compound the social displacement problem, middle schools are often created to satisfy budgetary requirements and shifting enrollment trends, not to meet children's needs. Moving fifth graders is ill…

  16. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. PMID:20206101

  17. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  18. Graduating to Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, John

    1993-01-01

    Former middle-school principal's graduation speech to fifth graders and their parents focuses on three areas: students and psychological and physiological changes they will experience; what to expect in middle school (teamwork and advisee-group activities); and secrets for success and happiness. Students and parents are advised to concentrate on…

  19. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Continuing and Online Education About Degree Programs Independent Learning School for Workers UW HELP UW System eCampus Cooperative Extension About Agriculture & Natural Resources Community, Natural Resource & ...

  20. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  1. Mission Middle College (The Middle College Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang-Jolliff, Jennifer

    Fashioned after the LaGuardia model, Mission Middle College Program began in the fall of 2001. It is an educational collaboration between the Santa Clara Unified School District (SCUSD) and Mission Community College in Santa Clara, California. It is a program for students who are highly intellectual and capable but uninspired and outside the high…

  2. Michigan Middle Start Studies of Middle Start School Improvement, Lake Middle School: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalan, Pritha

    This case study documented the collaboration of Lake Middle School (pseudonym for a school in Michigan) with Middle Start, a middle-grades reform model and its progress and struggles implementing the model. Middle Start was coordinated by the Michigan Middle Start Partnership, and alliance that provided technical assistance, professional…

  3. Ozone reference models for the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Young, D. F.

    1990-01-01

    Data on monthly latitudinal variations in middle-atmosphere vertical ozone profiles are presented, based on extensive Nimbus-7, AE-2, and SME satellite measurements from the period 1978-1982. The coverage of the data sets, the characteristics of the sensors, and the analysis techniques applied are described, and the results are compiled in tables and graphs. These ozone data are intended to supplement the models of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere.

  4. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  5. Signature extension studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of specific spectral regions to signature extension is explored. In the recent past, the signature extension task was focused on the development of new techniques. Tested techniques are now used to investigate this spectral aspect of the large area survey. Sets of channels were sought which, for a given technique, were the least affected by several sources of variation over four data sets and yet provided good object class separation on each individual data set. Using sets of channels determined as part of this study, signature extension was accomplished between data sets collected over a six-day period and over a range of about 400 kilometers.

  6. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, demonstrations, activities, and teaching suggestions on topics appropriate for middle school science including a simple electrolysis cell, conversion factors, energy, solubilities of salts, condensers, and a worksheet for studying coppice woodlands. (DC)

  7. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes activities, demonstrations, and materials suitable for middle school science, including investigations on solar energy, surface tension, exploding cottages, worms and light, airplanes, depolarizing simple cells, and the thermal expansion of metals. (JN)

  8. Middle atmospheric electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.

  9. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Provides science activities and teaching hints appropriate for the middle school sciences including making a domino "gunpowder fuse" that detonates a mousetrap "bomb," using fishing rods and bicycles as teaching aids, constructing lead holders, and teaching chromatography. (DC)

  10. Ann Richards Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents photos and basic information about a Texas middle school whose architecture reflects the hybrid culture of the borderlands and "regionalism" in which it is located. A line drawing of the site plan is included. (GR)

  11. Middle School Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Teddy J.; Clements, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    After viewing and discussing slides of Van Gogh's and Munch's paintings and studying the principles of color, middle school students had to execute two drawings, one showing any emotion and the second depicting an expressionistic self-portrait. (RM)

  12. Wirth Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Wirth Middle School, Cahokia, Illinois. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  13. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  14. Biosignatures in Middle Cambrian Paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L. B.; White, T. S.; Kump, L. R.

    2008-12-01

    Before the advent of plants with spores and body structures that are easily preserved in the fossil record, the evidence for terrestrial ecosystems is limited to observations of their effects on the chemistry of weathering surfaces. Seven paleosols and paleosaprolites from southeast South Dakota and northwest and central Iowa have been analyzed to assess the extent of abiotic weathering and the presence of biosignatures in the Midwestern US during the Middle Cambrian. Evidence for extensive weathering exists on a variety of basement material, from the 1800 Ma Harris granite to the 1100 Ma Keweenawan basalts. All of the weathering profiles are overlain by the Middle Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone, placing their most likely time of development shortly before the advent of vascular plants. All weathering horizons show high chemical indices of alteration, typically >85, and considerable leaching of mobile cations, such as Na, Ca, Mg, and Mn, which is consistent with tropical to subtropical weathering conditions expected for central Laurentia during this interval. Organic carbon contents of <0.2 wt% are present in all weathering horizons, indicating the potential presence of a terrestrial biota. Carbon isotope values for this organic matter are ~-25 permil for paleosols in the western portion of the study area, and ~-23 permil for paleosols in the eastern half. These results are consistent with a photosynthetic origin for the organic matter. Organic matter in the overlying sandstone tends to be lighter than the soil organic matter. At most sites, this difference is 1 permil, except at the Elk Point site, where the difference is 27 permil, suggesting methanotrophic influence on this organic matter. A strong biosignature present at most sites is the near-complete loss of P from the surface. P is an important limiting nutrient in the terrestrial environment. Near-complete apatite dissolution at the surface of most of the weathering horizons is best explained by leaching via

  15. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrogenation reactions on noble metal catalysts. 1. Elucidation of the behavior of sulfur on alumina-supported platinum and palladium using the {sub 35}S radioisotope tracer method

    SciTech Connect

    Kabe, Toshiaki; Qian, Weihua; Hirai, Yosiki; Li, Li; Ishihara, Atsushi

    2000-02-15

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions of {sup 35}S-radioisotope-labeled dibensothiophene (DBT) were carried out over a series of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported noble-metal-containing catalysts at 5.00 MPa and at 260 and 280 C. The amount of sulfur (S{sub TOTAL}) accommodated on the catalyst and the amount of labile sulfur (S{sub 0}) participating in the reaction were determined using a direct method, the {sup 35}S radioisotope pulse tracer method, which has recently been developed by the authors. It was observed that both S{sub TOTAL} and S{sub 0} increased linearly with an increase in active metal loading. At the same time, it was found that the sulfided test noble metal catalysts corresponded to a S/Pt (Pd) ratio of 0.25 and that almost all the labile sulfur on these catalysts was mobile in the HDS reaction. Further, the activities of both HDS and hydrogenation reactions over the bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Pd) were higher than those of the monometallic catalysts tested together, whereas the synergetic effects observed on the Pt-Pd catalyst were not as significant as in typical Co-Mo catalyst cases.

  16. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  17. Extensions of Natural Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastelli, G.

    2014-03-01

    Given an n-dimensional natural Hamiltonian L on a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian manifold, we call "extension" of L the n+1 dimensional Hamiltonian H = ½p2u + α(u)L + β(u) with new canonically conjugated coordinates (u,pu). For suitable L, the functions α and β can be chosen depending on any natural number m such that H admits an extra polynomial first integral in the momenta of degree m, explicitly determined in the form of the m-th power of a differential operator applied to a certain function of coordinates and momenta. In particular, if L is maximally superintegrable (MS) then H is MS also. Therefore, the extension procedure allows the creation of new superintegrable systems from old ones. For m=2, the extra first integral generated by the extension procedure determines a second-order symmetry operator of a Laplace-Beltrami quantization of H, modified by taking in account the curvature of the configuration manifold. The extension procedure can be applied to several Hamiltonian systems, including the three-body Calogero and Wolfes systems (without harmonic term), the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system and n-dimensional anisotropic harmonic oscillators. We propose here a short review of the known results of the theory and some previews of new ones.

  18. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  19. Identifying High Extension Communicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.; Pope, LaVern

    1978-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of social science faculty at the University of Missouri-Columbia to find the extent to which they engaged in communicating information to the public through university extension, with implications for changes in the university rewards system. (MF)

  20. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  1. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  2. Extending Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    The April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language" featured a discussion forum on extensive reading (ER). Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice…

  3. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  4. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrations, experiments, and classroom activities/materials for middle school science are presented. These include: additive color mixing demonstration; electricity activity and worksheet; atmospheric pressure "magic" demonstration; homemade microbalance; energy from soap bubbles; and a model used to demonstrate muscle pairs and how they work…

  5. Middle School Health. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Worth Independent School District, TX.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to define a portion of the common core of knowledge and skills that middle school students should know or be able to do to promote health and well-being. It identifies an appropriate score and sequence, and offers suggestions for teaching and learning. It is also intended as a tool for coordinating and…

  6. The Middle Income Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  7. Reconstructive Middle Ear Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, R.R.F.; Ballagh, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss is a common cause of deafness and disability, particularly in children and young adults. This article presents a brief overview of the various methods currently available for reconstructing the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicular chain, including some comments as to their indications and limitations. Schematic diagrams showing these techniques illustrate the various types of repair described. PMID:21221356

  8. Middle Level Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child Laborers in Children's Literature." (MJP)

  9. Middle School Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Kallio, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of primary resources in the teaching of middle school social studies. Describes a lesson in which students were given a copy of the Declaration of Independence, written in everyday language, and were asked to discuss and evaluate it. Suggests another activity based on Thomas Jefferson's writings. (SG)

  10. Making Middle Managers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randlesome, Collin

    1990-01-01

    Thanks to the efforts of Chambers of Industry and Commerce and the immense output of universities and polytechnics, West Germany possesses a healthy balance of managerial talent in that area of companies that is vital for success--lower and middle management. (JOW)

  11. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Discusses indoor rocketry and use of a vivid model of human birth. Also discusses information (momentum/force) indicating how a motorcycle can be driven up around the increasing slope of an elliptical path, a food testing worksheet, and a worksheet on light for upper elementary/lower middle school students. Includes sample worksheets. (Author/JN)

  12. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presented are six activities suitable for middle grades. They include programs for voting, creating Logo patterns, and for selecting a writing topic. Other activities focus on use of the colon and FOR/NEXT loop in BASIC and evaluating programs. (JN)

  13. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  14. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, experiments, and activities useful in middle school science instruction, including demonstrating how strong paper can be, the inclined plane illusion, a simplified diet calculation, a magnetic levitator, science with soap bubbles, a model motor and dynamo, and a pocketed sorter for safety glasses. (SK)

  15. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Activities for middle/junior high school students are presented, including use of string variables, science lesson ideas, computer scavenger hunt, and guidelines for interviewing people who own/use computers. Includes "I'll Write...Just Lead Me to My Computer" by Robert Engberg, discussing word processing instruction. (JN)

  16. Middle School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of 22 middle schools, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and design team, a general building description, and general construction costs and specifications. Also provides a rough site plan and photographs. (EV)

  17. The Middle School Plunge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Schwerdt, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers nationwide continue to wrestle with a basic question: At what grade level should students move to a new school? In the most common grade configuration in American school districts, public school students make two school transitions, entering a middle school in grade 6 or 7 and a high school in grade 9. This pattern reflects the…

  18. Utopia Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  19. The Middle Management Muddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Saul

    1980-01-01

    Clinicans promoted to middle management positions have a good deal of difficulty coping with the use of power and with a variety of other unfamiliar and uncomfortable dilemmas. Among the most difficult of these is their responsibility for supervising the work of the professional staff. (Author)

  20. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Explains some middle school science demonstrations and experiments: included are a simplified circuit board, a scheme for the identification of plastics, a soot-free bunsen burner, science in a packet of cornflakes, and perceptual ambiguities with a "Chinese Compass." (GA)

  1. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  2. Prospects for Middle Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John

    1972-01-01

    This article is concerned with the status of middle management in the community college. Aspects discussed include the dual role of the chairman and alternative models of departmental organization which attempt to reduce separatism within the college. Community Colleges is a monthly supplement to Change magazine. (RN)

  3. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  4. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East ... 2, 2015. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html . Accessed April ...

  5. Instructor Middle Years. September 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robin; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This "Instructor" Supplement on middle school education, presents articles on new research and materials, adolescent development, reasons for teaching middle school, moving toward a middle school curriculum, peer teaching, multimedia software, murder mysteries, ancient China, geometry, teamwork, descriptive writing, literature, problem solving,…

  6. Reading in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The middle school reading/literature instructor needs to determine where each student is in reading achievement and then assist each to achieve as optimally as possible. What might the teacher do to assist students to become good middle school readers? A major problem of middle schoolers is to be able to recognize a certain percent of words…

  7. Agricultural Extension: Who Uses It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Michael; Lasley, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A Missouri study conducted to determine agricultural extension usage patterns found that heavy users of extension publications tended to be younger farmers, those with a relatively large amount of land, and pork producers. Extension meetings were a less frequent source of information than either publications or county extension office visits. (LRA)

  8. Making the Middle Count

    PubMed Central

    Esbenshade, Angie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses three ways in which dramatic improvements in middle flow, or examination-to-disposition time, can be driven by emergency department (ED) nursing leadership. By operationalizing a “results pending” area, low-acuity patients who are unlikely to be admitted can await diagnostic results or be actively monitored by a dedicated nurse, ED rooms and beds may be reserved for higher acuity patients. Monthly operational stakeholder meetings can provide a consistent opportunity to track, monitor, and improve flow while also celebrating successes and identifying needed performance improvements based on objective metrics for shared goals. Internal customer rounding is a process that serves as effective follow-up from the stakeholder meeting to ensure aligned behaviors to meet identified goals. Frequency of rounding is identified during the stakeholder meeting. By using these three tools, ED stakeholders can effectively focus on solutions instead of barriers to improving middle flow. PMID:25569321

  9. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  10. Portable Extensible Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Jay G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Nonuniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to represent geometry and data offers a standard way to facilitate the multidisciplinary analysis and design of aeropropulsion products. Using standard geometry defined by NURBS throughout design, analysis, part definition, manufacture, and test processes saves money and time. The Portable Extensible Viewer (PEV) offers engineers of different disciplines a means to view and manipulate NURBS geometry and associated data. Under the guidance of a team of Lewis, Boeing Company, and Navy personnel, PEV was developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division for Lewis' Interdisciplinary Technology Office. The aeropropulsion industry provided input to the design requirements.

  11. Middle management of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the middle manager in a research organization is discussed. The middle manager serves as a liaison between upper management and researchers to assure that individual research projects manifest the goals of the organization. The author draws on his long experience in this role to describe management practices that have proven successful. A general discussion is presented of the makeup of a research environment, derived from a study of a division involved in aerospace research and development (R and D). The study emphasized the importance of planning and management style in producing an attractive environment. Management practices are described, which include goal setting, planning, staffing, reviewing and evaluating, and rewarding. The importance of selecting and defining an appropriate research area is discussed. It is emphasized that in relating to the staff the middle manager must cultivate the human side of supervision, develop the art of delegating responsibility, judiciously select facilities, and provide recognition and meaningful rewards to develop a productive research staff. The development of the staff is probably the most important and challenging role of the manager.

  12. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23894137

  13. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  14. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  15. Non-extensive radiobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  16. Evaluation of the contribution of chronic skin irritation and selected compositional parameters to the tumorigenicity of petroleum middle distillates in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; McKee, R H

    1993-07-28

    Two-year skin carcinogenicity studies were conducted in C3H mice to assess the effects of irritation and selected compositional parameters on the carcinogenic potential of four petroleum liquids. Three samples (lightly refined paraffinic oil, LRPO; lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil, LHSO; jet fuel, JF) can be generically classified as middle distillates, i.e. distillation occurs between 350 and 700 degrees F (175-370 degrees C). The fourth sample was a Steam Cracked Gas Oil (SCGO) that distilled within the same range. In studies that assess the effects of irritation on tumorigenicity, LRPO was tested undiluted or was diluted to 50% and 25% in either mineral oil (which eliminated irritation of the skin) or toluene (which did not). Undiluted LRPO elicited tumors in 8% of the mice. Both dilution procedures eliminated tumorigenic potential. Thus, it was possible to maintain a visible level of skin irritation equivalent to that elicited by undiluted LRPO without inducing tumors. SCGO elicited a chronic irritant state grossly equivalent to LRPO but was not tumorigenic. Jet Fuel A (JF) was tested undiluted using both a standard skin painting protocol and an intermittent dosing schedule in which treatment was suspended periodically to allow skin irritation to resolve. The standard treatment protocol of JF resulted in both marked skin irritation and tumors in 44% of the mice. However, using the intermittent schedule, the tumor yield was reduced to 2%. Collectively these data demonstrate that tumor formation is not a necessary sequelae to chronic skin irritation. Conversely, prevention of a marked chronic irritant state was accompanied by decreased tumor yield. These data suggest that the chronic irritant state may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for tumor formation. In studies to assess the effects of compositional parameters, a lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil (LHSO) similar to LRPO but refined to have negligible levels of sulfur compounds (3 ppm

  17. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit while in high…

  18. The middle manager role in energy company environmental efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhoff, Maya E.

    2005-12-01

    This research examines the internal organizational processes determining corporate environmental action. Corporations have a tremendous environmental impact, yet relatively little is known about how employees within them view and work on these issues. The research focused on middle managers, a level of the company whose value is often questioned. Interviews were conducted with 70 middle managers at two energy companies (comprising utilities and unregulated businesses). Interviews examined the shape and significance of middle manager involvement in environmental issues, looking specifically at what issues middle managers deal with, what goals they pursue, and what approaches they use. The research finds middle managers' roles with respect to environmental issues to be far-reaching and complex. Much of their effort is focused on meeting regulatory requirements ("complying"). They are committed to compliance, in part for ethical reasons, but often find regulations frustrating and costly. Compliance is more challenging than commonly thought; it demands time, knowledge, and substantial creativity. In pursuing it, interviewees work with employees throughout the organization. This research shows middle managers interacting with those hierarchically above and below them in ways that greatly modify earlier portrayals of middle managers. Earlier portrayals often emphasized struggles for power within the organization. Here, middle managers work in ways best characterized as collaborative and supportive. Middle managers also have extensive involvement laterally within the company and with groups outside the company. These links have received modest attention in literature, yet are found to be terribly important. Middle managers' lateral efforts inside the company, often on teams, allow diverse expertise (e.g., from people in different functions) to be applied to environmental issues. Documenting middle managers' involvement externally, with governmental officials and sectors

  19. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  20. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential. PMID:26049252

  1. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  2. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  3. Toxicology for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ruth N.; Parrish, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment that demonstrates that common substances, whether or not the students think of them as medicines, drugs of abuse, or foods, have toxic effects on Daphnia. Combines an inexpensive hands-on experiment with extensive discussion to help the students think about chemical concentration, potency, and the difference between harmful…

  4. ISS Update: Guillen Middle School

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries and Operations Support Officer Cassandra Rodriquez answer questions from Guillen Middle School students in El Paso, TX. Rodriquez also discusses her role...

  5. The Logical Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The same software controlling autonomous and crew-assisted operations for the International Space Station (ISS) is enabling commercial enterprises to integrate and automate manual operations, also known as decision logic, in real time across complex and disparate networked applications, databases, servers, and other devices, all with quantifiable business benefits. Auspice Corporation, of Framingham, Massachusetts, developed the Auspice TLX (The Logical Extension) software platform to effectively mimic the human decision-making process. Auspice TLX automates operations across extended enterprise systems, where any given infrastructure can include thousands of computers, servers, switches, and modems that are connected, and therefore, dependent upon each other. The concept behind the Auspice software spawned from a computer program originally developed in 1981 by Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory for simulating tasks performed by astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle. At the time, the Space Shuttle Program was dependent upon paper-based procedures for its manned space missions, which typically averaged 2 weeks in duration. As the Shuttle Program progressed, NASA began increasing the length of manned missions in preparation for a more permanent space habitat. Acknowledging the need to relinquish paper-based procedures in favor of an electronic processing format to properly monitor and manage the complexities of these longer missions, NASA realized that Draper's task simulation software could be applied to its vision of year-round space occupancy. In 1992, Draper was awarded a NASA contract to build User Interface Language software to enable autonomous operations of a multitude of functions on Space Station Freedom (the station was redesigned in 1993 and converted into the international venture known today as the ISS)

  6. Nothing in the Middle: What Middle Schoolers Are Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traw, Rick

    A study examined what kinds of books middle schoolers will read when given the freedom to choose. Subjects were 55 children of middle-class parents enrolled in 2 sections of eighth-grade English at a university laboratory school. Of the original population of 55 students, 7 elected not to have data from their reading included, and records were not…

  7. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  8. The dynamics of continental extension and divergent margin formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, D.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Continental breakup is a highly variable process. Differences occur in the relative timing and extent of volcanism, uplift, and graben formation as well as in the mode and amount of continental extension before breakup. The authors propose a model that reconciles this variability with the previously recognized tendency for breakup to occur along preexisting weak trends. Continental lithosphere is viewed as a composite material composed of two strong layers, one in the upper mantle and one in the middle crust. Finite element simulation indicates that extensional failure at weaknesses in the mantle causes concentrated extension in the mantle and diffuse extension in the crust. This leads to early melt segregation and volcanism, margin uplift during the late stages of the extension process, and relatively narrow symmetrical extended margins. In contrast, failure at weaknesses in the crustal strong zone causes focused extension in the crust and diffuse extension in the mantle. This produces initial graben formation, cooling in the lower crust and upper mantle, and broad asymmetrical extended margins. Volcanism only occurs late in the process. Failure at laterally offset weaknesses within both strong layers, perhaps the most common case, leads to a deformation pattern dominated by simple shear. Thus, differences in the prerift configuration of the continental lithosphere can control the overall style of continental breakup. They find that certain features of the evolution of the US Atlantic margin, particularly the formation of the hinge zone and the distribution and timing of extension may be better explained using these models.

  9. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  10. Movin' up to the Middle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The middle years are crucial to high school success, when students develop skills for navigating the larger world, and discover the direction they want their lives to take. So why, asks noted middle school educator Rick Wormeli, would anyone leave the transition into this phase to chance? Five mind-sets can help educators guide their students on…

  11. Mining the Middle School Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawter, David

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students are walking dichotomies. They can talk about world peace and then hit the kid next to them. They can recycle to ease global warming only to leave the cafeteria a mess. Why? Well, scientifically, it is because their brains do not work. When people look at middle school students, they can plainly see evidence of physical…

  12. Middle School Organization and Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Nancy J.

    The major purpose of this report is to present information about the organization of middle schools in the school district of Philadelphia. The report includes: (1) summary information on rostering/scheduling practices; and (2) comparisons of promotion/retention rates, average daily attendance, and suspension rates in middle schools with different…

  13. Middle Grades Reform. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have pointed to the lagging scores of eighth graders on international, national, and state assessments as evidence that students are not prepared to meet high academic standards and that middle grades reform is needed. In response to these concerns, educators have introduced reforms designed to provide middle-level…

  14. Calculus in the Middle School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  15. Key Characteristics of Middle School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Nyman, Terri R.

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined student performance in middle schools with a grade configuration of six through eight. Schools were categorized into two groups: high-performing middle schools--middle schools making adequate yearly progress for two consecutive school years, and low-performing middle schools--middle schools not making adequate yearly…

  16. 34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWARAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1909, SHEET NO. 11. Aperture card 6498-11. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1908, SHEET NO. 7. Aperture card 6498-7. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  19. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  20. Exploring Middle School Girls' Science Identities: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions of Scientists when Working "Side-by-Side" with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland-Smith, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This article is the culmination of an extensive inquiry-focused interactive experience involving female middle school students and five university scientists, which demonstrated that middle school girls' perception of science and scientists can be successfully improved. The study exposed students to adult professional scientists over a period of a…

  1. Shuttle-derived densities in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, Joe D.; Findlay, John T.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Space Shuttle flights have furnished a basis for the derivation of middle-atmosphere densities with unprecedented vertical resolution; an archival data base is now available that furnishes extensive information for the evaluation of existing model estimates for latitudinal and seasonal effects, as well as the improvement of mean monthly predictions. The High Resolution Accelerometry Package results yield extensive large-amplitude, low-frequency density variations throughout the thermosphere. The Inertial Measurement Unit results show abrupt density shifts at all latitudes, with visible shears being observed that can be correlated to summer activity.

  2. Venus Middle Atmosphere Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, F. P.; Sundaram, M.; Slanger, T. G.; Allen, M.; Yung, Y. L.

    2005-08-01

    Venus is the most similar planet to Earth, and years of research have sought to understand their similarities and differences. Yet, it is still not clear what chemical processes maintain the long-term stability of Venus' primarily CO2 atmosphere. CO2 dissociates into CO and O after absorbing photons at wavelengths < 210 nm. These O atoms should combine to form O2, and observations of intense airglow confirm rapid production of O2 on both day and night sides. CO and O2 are sufficiently stable that an initially pure CO2 atmosphere would rapidly evolve to have 7-8% CO and 3.5-4% O2 [1]. The observed upper limit on O2 (0.3 ppm [2]), however, indicates catalytic mechanisms [3], rapidly convert CO and oxygen into CO2. The current understanding of Venus middle atmosphere chemistry, the state of lab data, and prospects for advances based on Venus Express will be reviewed. Recent work evaluating newly proposed mechanisms for producing CO2, which could be important depending on the rates of poorly constrained reactions, will be described. This research was supported by funding from NASA's Planetary Atmospheres program and the Australian Research Council. Part of this work was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. [1] Nair, et al., Icarus 111, 124 (1994), [2] Trauger and Lunine, Icarus 55, 272 (1983), [3] Pernice, et al., PNAS 101, 14007 (2004)

  3. Simultaneous dislocation of both interphalangeal joints in the middle finger.

    PubMed

    Hester, Thomas; Mahmood, Shoib; Morar, Yateen; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous dorsal dislocation of both interphalangeal joints (IPJs) in one finger is an uncommon injury. This injury usually occurs on the ulnar side of the hand involving ring and little fingers. We report a case of simultaneous dislocation of both IPJs in the middle finger. Closed reduction and splinting with the IPJs in extension provided a good result with full range of motion at the patient's final follow-up. PMID:25979959

  4. The Middle of the Muddle--in the Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vito, Alfred

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for creation, and the characteristics of, middle schools. Investigates the problems of science curriculum materials and preparation of science teachers for the 6-8 grade level. (CP)

  5. Why Do Extension Agents Resign?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Linda Nunes; van Es, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Past and current Illinois extension agents were surveyed via mail questionnaires as to reasons for staying or leaving extension programs. Reasons for leaving included family changes, family moves, opportunity to advance, better salary/benefits, dissatisfaction with administration, and too much time away from family. (CT)

  6. GNU Fortran Cray Pointer Extension

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-07-27

    The gfortran compiler is a Fortran front end to the GNU Compiler Collection. The Cray Pointer extension adds to this existing compiler support for Cray-style integer pointers. This non-standard but widely used extension adds the functionality of C-like pointers to the Fortran language.

  7. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  8. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  9. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  10. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  11. Middle Archean continent formation by crustal delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, Tanja E.; van Keken, Peter E.

    2001-12-01

    The processes that created the first large cratonic areas such as the Pilbara and the Kaapvaal remain poorly understood. Models based on the uniformitarian extrapolation of present-day arc volcanic processes to a hotter early Earth have not adequately explained the observations in these terranes. Here we propose an alternative mechanism for the formation of the earliest continental crust. The formation of continental crust may be achieved by delamination of the lower eclogitic part of an oceanic plateau like protocrust. Such delamination results in uplift, extension, and the production of tonalite, trondhjemite, and granodiorite (TTG) suites as recorded in Middle Archean cratons. The available geologic and geophysical observations in combination with model calculations permit this scenario as an alternative to subduction-based hypotheses.

  12. Middle atmosphere dynamics and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of the dynamics and composition of that region of the earth atmosphere lying above the tropopause but below 100 km are considered as they relate to processes at middle and high latitudes. The physics of the summer to winter reversal of the direction of the middle atmosphere jet is discussed, along with the effects of planetary waves on the mean zonal flow, which occasionally produce sudden stratosphere warming events. The chemistry of the two middle atmospheric trace constituents ozone and nitric oxide, which play dominant roles in atmospheric radiation balance and lower ionospheric structure, respectively, is then examined, and the importance of transport in determining their distribution is pointed out.

  13. Global middle Pliocene biome reconstruction: A data/model synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Valdes, Paul J.; Francis, Jane E.; Sellwood, Bruce W.

    2002-12-01

    The middle Pliocene warm interval (ca. 3 Ma BP) has been extensively studied. However, our knowledge concerning the global distribution of middle Pliocene biomes remains far from complete. This paper presents the results from a "first attempt" at simulating the distribution of different mid-Pliocene biomes using an advanced numerical general circulation climate model (Hadley Centre Atmospheric Model Version 3) and the BIOME 4 vegetation model. The modeling indicates that during the middle Pliocene the geographical coverage of tundra type biomes may have been significantly reduced compared with the present day in the Northern Hemisphere. High-latitude forests expand in the place of tundra forms of vegetation. Total area covered by forest increases for the Pliocene case compared with the present day. Arid deserts become less prevalent in the Pliocene scenario and are replaced by tropical xerophytic shrublands and savanna-type vegetation. These results compare favorably with geological data in general and with the U.S. Geological Survey's PRISM2 middle Pliocene vegetation reconstruction, although data/model inconsistencies are apparent. Although some of these inconsistencies relate to the weaknesses of the climate and biome model employed, others identify deficiencies in the extant geological data set or the interpretation of this data. This modeled biome reconstruction will serve as a useful vehicle for aiding in future comparisons between geological data on middle Pliocene biomes and model predictions.

  14. Crafts in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, D. I. R.

    1972-01-01

    In the middle years of schooling, size, measurement, shape and form build up a child's mathematical and visual concepts. A restless drive to create, to see what happens in making something, can provide the driving force in crafts. (Editor)

  15. Middle/High School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Highlights middle school/high school construction projects that have won the Learning By Design Awards for 2001. Projects covered involve new school construction; and renovation, additions, and restoration. (GR)

  16. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  17. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the first 2 to 4 years of life for several reasons: Their eustachian tubes are shorter and more horizontal than those of adults, which lets bacteria and viruses find their way into the middle ear more ...

  18. Addressing Violence in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Stephanie M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the successful effort at one middle school in the Virginia Beach city school system to establish a safe school environment by providing successful programs and effective policies, and by relying on a school, family, and community partnership. (SR)

  19. In praise of middle managers.

    PubMed

    Huy, Q N

    2001-09-01

    Middle managers have often been cast as dinosaurs. Has-beens. Mediocre managers and intermediaries who defend the status quo instead of supporting others' attempts to change organizations for the better. An INSEAD professor has examined this interesting breed of manager--in particular, middle managers' roles during periods of radical organizational change. His findings will surprise many. Middle managers, it turns out, make valuable contributions to the realization of radical change at companies--contributions that go largely unrecognized by most senior executives. Quy Nguyen Huy says these contributions occur in four major areas. First, middle managers often have good entrepreneurial ideas that they are able and willing to realize--if only they can get a hearing. Second, they're far better than most senior executives at leveraging the informal networks at companies that make substantive, lasting change. Because they've worked their way up the corporate ladder, middle managers' networks run deep. Third, they stay attuned to employees' emotional needs during organizational change, thereby maintaining the transformation's momentum. And finally, they manage the tension between continuity and change--they keep the organization from falling into extreme inertia or extreme chaos. The author examines each of these strengths, citing real-world examples culled from his research. Of course, not every middle manager in an organization is a paragon of entrepreneurial vigor and energy, Huy acknowledges. But cavalierly dismissing the roles that middle managers play--and carelessly reducing their ranks--will drastically diminish senior managers' chances of realizing radical change at their companies. Indeed, middle managers may be the most effective allies of corner office executives when it's time to make major changes in businesses. PMID:11550632

  20. Putting Extension on a Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, James E.

    1970-01-01

    Between and during television programs from WNBF-TV, Binghamton, New York, the Extension Service is providing public service announcements giving information on nutrition, food stamps, forage pests, outdoor recreation, farm safety, environmental quality, and many other subjects. (EB)

  1. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  2. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  3. New Evidence for the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paul S.; Shewey, Kathy

    Studies done in the 1960s and 1970s which sought to compare middle schools with junior high schools were ineffective. Intended to fill the frequently noted research void in the middle school movement, this monograph summarizes previous research on the effectiveness of middle level schools and presents results of a 1993 study on middle schools…

  4. Model studies of hydrodesulfurization by Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Friend, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of surface modifiers (Co, S) on activity and selectivity of Mo(110) for desulfurization processes were studied. S generally increases the selectivity for desulfurization while decreasing overall reactivity. Co promots C-H activation processes on Mo(110). The Mo(110)-(9x2)-Co surface affects the desulfurization of 2,5- dihydrothiophene and methanethiol. Vibrational spectroscopy is being used for determining molecular orientation; vibrational frequencies were calculated for four labeled 2-propoxide isomers on Mo(110) and found to agree with experiment.

  5. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  6. Basement extension and salt mobility, southern Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, H.R.; Legall, F.

    1986-05-01

    The Grand Banks, an especially wide cratonic segment of the North American Atlantic continental shelf, extended vigorously during Late Triassic-Aptian rift-phase episodes, accompanied by syntectonic basin filling and large-scale structural disruption. Thereafter, the rift-disrupted domain underwent drift-phase subsidence and was buried by a seaward-prograding continental terrace wedge, in which progressively feeble extension is evident. Rift-faulted cratonic basement is perceptible on industry-acquired reflection seismic profiles from the southern Grand Banks. The profiles also show that Carboniferous and Lower Jurassic salt were the main levels of supracrustal detachment during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous extension. Large salt-mobilized structures within the rift-phase succession include fault-zone sheaths, elongate pillows, aligned piercement spires, and immense walls. These elements parallel large extension faults in basement and, in many places, are superposed on the faults. In striking contrast, upper Aptian and younger drift-phase strata are regionally subhorizontal, and are broken to middle and late Tertiary stratigraphic levels by only a few small extension faults and aligned diapirs. The authors interpret the structural/stratigraphic relationships in the southern Grand Banks to indicate that episodic Mesozoic and Cenozoic basement extension was the principal dynamic agent in determining the timing of salt structures, their orientations, and styles of disruption on enclosing strata. This genetic association may be applicable to other parts of the Grand Banks tectonic province, and possibly to other extensional cratonic margin basins.

  7. Extensive balanitis xerotica obliterans of urethrocutaneous fistula presenting as mass in scrotum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Nagappa, Bhubnesh; Ganesamoniv, Raguram

    2010-08-01

    A rare case of extensive lichen sclerosis (balanitis xerotica obliterans) involving the anterior urethra, urethrocutaneous fistula, and scrotum is described in a middle-aged man who presented with a history of obstructive voiding symptoms. He was managed by excision of mass along with the fistulae and staged buccal mucosal urethroplasty. PMID:19913886

  8. Isokinetic Leg Flexion and Extension Strength of Elite Adolescent Female Track and Field Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Adolescent female track-and-field athletes were measured to compare isokinetic strength of leg flexion and extension movements. Throwers, jumpers, middle-distance runners, and sprinters participated in the study. Throwers were found to be stronger in absolute strength, but there were no significant differences in relative strength. Results are…

  9. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Qiuhuan; Gong, Shusheng; Liu, Honggang; Yu, Zilong; Zhang, Luo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009), and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage. PMID:22928138

  10. Security in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.F. Jr.; Bruzonsky, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The full range of U.S. security interests in the Middle East is covered in this volume of original contributions from prominent international scholars. Case studies of key countries emphasize the prospects for peaceful political, economic, and cultural change in the region. The Arab-Israeli conflict is examined with particular attention to the ''Palestine problem,'' U.S. policy and diplomacy, and the peace process. Finally, the involvement of the U.S. and the USSR and the policy options open to them are considered. Includes chapters on oil and its role in Middle-East security issues.

  11. Middle Years. The Magazine for Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hereford, Nancy-Jo; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Special supplement for middle level educators focuses on news from around the country, student environmental action, adolescent development, saying no to drugs, the case against tracking, technology solutions, astronomy, ancient Egypt, the American West, learning with literature, camaraderie, and puzzles for problem solvers. (SM)

  12. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  13. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  14. Effective Public Relations in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Public relations efforts of the Carroll County (Ohio) extension office included periodic reports to legislators, a toll-free number distributed on refrigerator magnets, annual calendar/report to the public, newspaper supplements, and town meetings. Long-term effects were a 116% increase in funding, used to upgrade staff, programs, and…

  15. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  16. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  17. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  18. Carbonate facies and stratigraphic framework of middle Magdalena (middle Pennsylvanian), Hueco Mountains, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.L.; Stanton, R.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The middle Magdalena of the Hueco Mountains, west Texas, is best exposed in the vicinity of Pow Wow Canyon, particularly along the western scarp of the range. It can be divided into two major depositional sequences, the lowermost of which consists predominantly of alternating bank, interbank, and shoal deposits of Atokan age. These banks are low-relief accumulations of Donezella, with coeval slackwater skeletal wackestones and interbedded deposits of foraminiferal sands. A prominent zone of intertonguing Chaetetes biostromes punctuates the middle part of this sequence. The Desmoinesian sequence begins as a series of rubbly limestones in association with abundant silicified plant remains and is interpreted as a set of paleosols. These are overlain by argillaceous, low-diversity wackestones and packstones of lagoonal origin, followed by carbonates of more open-marine circulation with abundant corals and other stenotypic fossils. In turn, these deposits are succeeded by a sequence of phylloid algal banks that increase in resistance upward to where they represent strata of the upper Magdalena. At this locality, however, the upper Magdalena is very thin because it is truncated by the pre-Hueco unconformity which, so prominent at the head of the canyon, can now be traced to the western scarp. These deposits are directly analogous to subsurface reservoir facies of the same age on the opposite side of the Diablo uplift in the Permian basin and thus provide an opportunity to generate reservoir models based on extensive outcrop exposure.

  19. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  20. Integrated Middle School Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use of the TARRGET model (Tasks, Autonomy, Recognition, Resources, Grouping, Evaluation, and Time) in restructuring middle school literacy instruction in urban schools. By changing the scheduling of reading and writing instruction, using literature as a basis for reading instruction, and emphasizing comprehension…

  1. Probability Simulation in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappan, Glenda; Winter, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two simulations designed to teach probability to middle-school age pupils are presented. The first simulates the one-on-one foul shot simulation in basketball; the second deals with collecting a set of six cereal box prizes by buying boxes containing one toy each. (MP)

  2. The Middle School Recipe Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lynnette S., Comp.

    The purpose of this book is to provide activities, forms, and information to aid elementary and middle school counselors in improving services and programs for students. The materials included may also serve as an invaluable tool in assisting newly employed counselors in setting up their programs. This publication is organized in the format of the…

  3. Class Guitar in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Grant

    1996-01-01

    Provides a thorough overview of middle school guitar instruction discussing both private and group lessons. Considers the role of the guitar as both a solo instrument and in ensemble and orchestra. Includes curricular guidelines for a beginning guitar course and a sample list of songs for a final recital. (MJP)

  4. DARE Middle School Program Revamped

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Elizabeth S.

    2006-01-01

    The New DARE middle school program, Take Charge of Your Life, has reinvented DARE as part of a major national research study that promises to help teachers and administrators address the issues of drugs and school violence. Gone is the old-style approach to prevention in which an officer stands behind a podium and lectures students in straight…

  5. Woods Middle School: A Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Elisabeth

    1993-01-01

    Profiles the activities of the School of the Woods in Houston, which in the early 1980s began a Montessori middle school program to complement the already existing elementary instruction. Discusses the physical environment of the school, the activities of the students and teachers, the curriculum, and the contributions of parents. (MDM)

  6. Middle/High School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of two combined middle/high schools, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and design team, a general building description, and general construction costs and specifications. Also provides a rough site plan and photographs. (EV)

  7. AED in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  8. Student Merit Awards: Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    The Student Merit Award Program was designed to motivate, stimulate and reward students for their study and achievement outside the mathematics classroom by providing enrichment material on a variety of mathematical topics. In general, these topics are either not found in the standard middle school curriculum or represent a more in-depth study of…

  9. Sexual Harassment in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Betty; Jackson, Janet

    This paper presents an overview of the affects of sexual harassment on middle schools and discusses what can be done to prevent it. This paper suggests that school personnel must educate students about sexual harassment, and videos can be a particularly effective way to do this. Recent studies have shown that 81 percent of all students, grades 8…

  10. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine…

  11. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  12. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  13. The Evolution of Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paul S.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Florida's 500 middle schools have become more sizeable, racially segregated, and security conscious. Other features include interdisciplinary team organization, warring curricula, block schedules, integrated technology, inclusion, ability grouping, corporate practices, and female and minority principals committed to…

  14. Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

  15. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped. PMID:27134373

  16. Redescription of Protanura papillata Cassagnau & Delamare Deboutteville, 1955 (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae), with new records from Middle East, and with supplemented diagnosis and key to the genus.

    PubMed

    Smolis, Adrian; Skarżyński, Dariusz; Kahrarian, Morteza; Kaprus, Ighor J

    2016-01-01

    The poorly known Neanurini genus Protanura is rediagnosed and briefly compared with Lathriopyga. Protanura papillata Cassagnau & Delamare Deboutteville, 1955, known to date only from Lebanon, is redescribed based on the lectotype and new extensive material from Middle East. PMID:27394457

  17. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  18. Neogene Extension and Exhumation in NW Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advokaat, E. L.; Hall, R.; White, L. T.; Armstrong, R. A.; Kohn, B. P.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The unusual K-shaped island of Sulawesi, located in the convergent zone between the Eurasian, Australian and Pacific plates, has traditionally been interpreted as the consequence of collision and accretion. New data challenge this idea and indicate that crustal extension has played an important role in its Neogene development. In the north of the Sulawesi North Arm are Eocene-Lower Miocene basalts intercalated with radiolarian chert and volcaniclastic sediments, which were deformed during collision of the Sula Spur with the North Arm. Undeformed granitoids derived from lower crustal rocks intrude the sequence and preliminary LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages decrease from 9.44±0.43 Ma in the north to 8.19±0.20 Ma in the south. Structurally beneath all these rocks is the Malino Metamorphic Complex (MMC) which exposes dominantly quartzo-feldspathic muscovite schists to gneisses, with subordinate amphibolites and garnet schists. The MMC is a metamorphic core complex, surrounded by a discontinuous greenschist carapace and shear zones with opposite shear senses on the northern and southern sides of the complex. Metamorphic rocks from the MMC yield SHRIMP U-Pb ages on zircon rims of 15.42±0.62 Ma and 15.36±0.53 Ma. Locally these metamorphic rocks are intruded by undeformed granitoids with SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of 4.85 ± 0.07 to 3.78±0.04 Ma. Late stage exhumation accommodated by high angle oblique normal faults is indicated by apatite (U-Th)/He ages between 3.26±0.23 Ma and 1.43±0.24 Ma, at a rate of 0.27 mm/a based on age-elevation plots. Lower Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene syn-extensional shallow marine siliciclastic and carbonate sediments are crosscut by normal faults. The timing of faulting and lack of metamorphic detritus in these young sediments support rapid and recent regional uplift. We interpret two phases of extension in North Sulawesi, one during the Middle Miocene and another during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene, exhuming the granitic and metamorphic rocks.

  19. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  20. An Overview of Environmental Education in Middle School Natural Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhanbao, Shu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental education in middle school natural science courses is based on integrating environmental knowledge into natural science education. Therefore, environmental education objectives should be set as an extension of the objectives for natural science education. However, in order to reach the objectives laid out for environmental education…

  1. Teachers' Views about Multiple Strategies in Middle and High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive scholarship about the importance of teaching mathematics with multiple strategies in the elementary grades, there has been relatively little discussion of this practice in the middle and high school levels or in the context of introductory algebra. This article begins our exploration of this practice by addressing the following…

  2. Be Your Own Hero: Activities for Middle-Level Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Clarance H.; Steinbrink, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Offers instructional activities (in the form of a three-day lesson plan and extension activities) for middle-level students that allow adolescents to recognize heroic people and actions, and then explore their own characters and behaviors for signs of courage, leadership, and sincerity. Lists resources about heroes. (SR)

  3. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  4. Perception of Competence in Middle School Physical Education: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Silverman, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A…

  5. Weight-Control Practices Reported by Students in a Maine Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majka, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Extension professionals who work with youth are often faced with issues of body weight, diet and/or body image. How we handle these topics has the potential to either help or harm. The goal of the study reported here was to explore the prevalence and types of weight-control methods practiced by middle school students. The majority of students…

  6. Justification as a Teaching and Learning Practice: Its (Potential) Multifacted Role in Middle Grades Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Megan E.; Bartlo, Joanna; Thanheiser, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Justification is a core mathematics practice. Although the purposes of justification in the mathematician community have been studied extensively, we know relatively little about its role in K-12 classrooms. This paper documents the range of purposes identified by 12 middle grades teachers who were working actively to incorporate justification…

  7. Transforming Middle Level Education: Perspectives and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Judith L., Ed.

    This book addresses the critical issues of curriculum and instruction as they pertain to the restructuring of middle-level education. The first part deals with developing a sense of identity both with the middle-school movement and with young adolescents. Chapters include the following: "Perspectives on the Middle School Movement" (John H.…

  8. Promotion to Middle Management: Some Practitioners' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Campbell, Felicity

    2003-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with head teachers, department heads, and middle managers in British primary, secondary, and special schools (4 of each school) regarding teacher promotion to middle management. Head teachers considered excellent practice a promotion requirement. Teachers were interested in middle management in order to influence teaching…

  9. Parents' Rights: Are Middle Schools at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leslie S.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the objections of parents' rights advocates to middle school philosophies and programs. Considers how to address parental concerns about middle level education, including grouping students for learning; integration of curriculum, instruction, and assessment; and school climate. Recommends that middle schools focus on academic achievement,…

  10. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  11. Ready, Set, Go: It's Middle School!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Desha; Gray, Kimberly; Stockdale, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Middle school teachers teach energetic, curious adolescents rigorous content at a time in their lives when many changes are occurring. Those entering the teaching profession as middle school teachers must be prepared for this unique environment. This study examines 16 pre-service middle school teachers' developments as they participate in a…

  12. Middle School Teachers' Theories of Puberty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Gerald

    This study explored middle school teachers' perspectives on and expectations of adolescence and puberty, using observations and interviews of 15 teachers in two Japanese middle schools and two United States (U.S.) middle schools, as well as a survey of teachers in selected schools in both nations. Teachers in the U.S. described puberty as being…

  13. The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Kathleen, Ed.

    This book of readings presents 33 articles that address topics of importance to counselors who serve middle school students. It was written for counselors already working in middle schools and for individuals who are preparing for careers as middle school counselors. The book will also benefit both elementary school counselors who help children…

  14. Middle School: Lessons from the Rand Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Carolyn E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study by the Rand Corporation that concluded that there is cause for middle schools to worry. Commissioned by the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, one of four major philanthropies supporting the middle school movement, the Rand investigation is clear in its assessment: The American middle school leaves adolescents…

  15. Middle School Students' Beliefs about Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakhleh, Mary B.; Samarapungavan, Ala; Saglam, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine middle school students' developing understanding of the nature of matter and to compare middle school students' ideas to those of elementary schools students, as was done by Nakhleh and Samarapungavan ["J Res Sci Teach" 36(7):777-805, 1999]. Nine middle school students were interviewed using a scripted,…

  16. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  17. Recruiting Middle School Students into Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matutina, Robin E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to illustrate the importance of initiating nursing recruitment during the middle school years. Data sources included citations from the years 1989 to 2006. The study focused on middle school students 9 to 13 years of age in Grades 6 to 8. One survey compared middle school students' perceptions of an ideal…

  18. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to...

  19. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to...

  20. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to...

  1. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to...

  2. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to...

  3. Middle Schoolers and the Right To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how the 1990s have seen a geometric increase in the incidences of censorship attempts in middle school materials, choices, and teachers' creative instructional approaches. Discusses expanding the middle school canon, anti-censorship efforts in the 1990s, and censorship activity from 1988 to 1997. Provides resources for middle school…

  4. Woodbridge Middle School: Getting Better Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Woodbridge Middle School, a middle school in Woodbridge, Virginia, which has always celebrated a tradition of excellence. Today's Woodbridge Middle School in no way resembles the school that existed in 2005. Then, the students were mostly White and few qualified for the free and reduced-price meals program; today, there is no…

  5. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2004-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  6. COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS EXTENSION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2005-05-15

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  7. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  8. Listening to Their Voices: Middle Schoolers' Perspectives of Life in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Mary Anne; McCray, Erica D.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines middle schoolers' perspectives on their lives in middle school. Fifteen middle school students from three middle schools in the Southeast region of the United States participated in a basic qualitative study using focus groups at their schools where they were asked the central question, "If you could change one thing at your…

  9. The Middle Fossa Transpetrous Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Paul S.; Hankinson, Hal L.; Horn, Karl L.

    1997-01-01

    Surgical access to lesions of the temporal bone anterior to the internal auditory canal and medial to the petrous carotid artery has concerned surgeons for nearly a century. A variety of approaches have been developed to gain access to this region. We report our experience with the middle fossa transpetrous approach for the treatment of a variety of petroclival and/or prepontine lesions. Tentorial transection and the retrolabyrinthine approach to extend this technique is also discussed. In properly selected cases, the middle fossa transpetrous approach is successful in maintaining hearing, labyrinthine and facial function without compromising surgical exposure. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171001

  10. Resolving Conflicts in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddings, Evyonne

    1992-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan that explains the role of compromise as a method of resolving conflicts for use in a sixth-grade world cultures class. Includes activities, assessment, reteaching activities, and an extension project involving student skits. (DK)

  11. Growing a strong middle class.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An important mission for the country is achieving sustainability while strengthening the middle class. American leadership and innovation can play a critical role in defining the interconnectedness of our economy and environment-and in unlocking, harnessing, and advancing green technologies. The State of Maryland has launched a Green Jobs Initiative focused on attracting green businesses, working with existing businesses to adopt sustainable practices, promoting clean energy research and use, and training the work force for ne, green-collar jobs. PMID:19608500

  12. Mountains and arid climates of middle latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Manabe, S.; Broccoli, A.J. )

    1990-01-12

    Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these areas in the absence of orography. The experiments suggest that these interior regions are dry because general subsidence and relatively infrequent storm development occur upstream of orographically induced stationary wave troughs. Downstream of these troughs, precipitation-bearing storms develop frequently in association with strong jet streams. In contrast, both atmospheric circulation and precipitation were more zonally symmetric in the experiment without mountains. In addition, orography reduces the moisture transport into the continental interiors from nearby oceanic sources. The relative soil wetness of these regions in the experiment without mountains is consistent with paleoclimatic evidence of less aridity during the late Tertiary, before substantial uplift of the Rocky Mountains and Tibetan Plateau is believed to have occurred.

  13. Middle Devonian liverwort herbivory and antiherbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Labandeira, Conrad C; Tremblay, Susan L; Bartowski, Kenneth E; VanAller Hernick, Linda

    2014-04-01

    To test the extent of herbivory in early terrestrial ecosystems, we examined compression-impression specimens of the late Middle Devonian liverwort Metzgeriothallus sharonae, from the Catskill Delta deposit of eastern New York state. Shale fragments of field-collected specimens were processed by applying liquid nitrocellulose on exposed surfaces. After drying, the film coatings were lifted off and mounted on microscope slides for photography. Unprocessed fragments were photographed under cedarwood oil for enhanced contrast. An extensive repertoire of arthropodan-mediated herbivory was documented, representing three functional feeding groups and nine subordinate plant-arthropod damage types (DTs). The herbivory is the earliest occurrence of external foliage-feeding and galling in the terrestrial fossil record. Our evidence indicates that thallus oil body cells, similar to the terpenoid-containing oil bodies of modern liverworts, were probably involved in the chemical defence of M. sharonae against arthropod herbivores. Based on damage patterns of terrestrial plants and an accompanying but sparse body-fossil record, Devonian arthropodan herbivores were significantly smaller compared to those of the later Palaeozoic. These data collectively suggest that a broad spectrum herbivory may have had a more important role in early terrestrial ecosystems than previously thought. PMID:24372344

  14. Neogene Extension of the Central North Arm of Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyawan, A.; Hall, R.; White, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    The peculiar K-shape of Sulawesi has been the subject of geological interest for many years. The east-west trend of the North Arm is commonly considered to have formed by crustal shortening of an intra-oceanic arc built on Eocene ocean crust. However, recent onshore and offshore geological studies suggest an important role for Neogene extension. Field mapping and dating of the pre-Neogene basement indicates that Sulawesi's North Arm constitutes more than a simple oceanic arc. Paleogene granites in this region suggest the basement includes either evolved arc crust or continental crust. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons shows that Paleogene granites have few inherited ages whereas Neogene granites contain Palaeozoic and Proterozoic inherited zircon cores, suggesting melting of Australian continental crust. Biostratigraphic dating of Neogene shallow marine sedimentary rocks on land indicates two distinct periods of sedimentation: Middle Miocene and Late Miocene-Pliocene. Field observations and remote sensing interpretation identify two major fault trends: E-W Neogene basin-bounding faults and young NW-SE strike-slip faults. Offshore seismic surveys show several major sequences separated by regional unconformities in Gorontalo Bay, south of the North Arm, where there was deposition of more than 6 km of sediments. We correlate the thickest package south of the central North Arm, up to 5 sec TWT, with thick marine reworked volcanic ash deposits of Pliocene age mapped on land in the North Arm, on the Togian Islands in Gorontalo Bay, and in the East Arm of Sulawesi. We interpret the land and offshore record to indicate arc-continent collision and underthrusting of Australian crust in the Early Miocene (c.22 Ma). There were several subsequent episodes of extension. A metamorphic core complex formed on land in the Middle Miocene (c.15 Ma), and later renewed extension was linked to initiation of southward subduction of the Celebes Sea in the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene (c.5 Ma).

  15. General University Extension. Bulletin, 1926, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Thomas H.

    1926-01-01

    This report concerns itself with the growth and progress of "general" university extension for the biennial period 1922-1924. By general university extension is meant extension activities of universities and colleges in the fields not covered by agricultural and home economics extension under the Federal subsidy acts through the Federal land-grant…

  16. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...

  17. 10 CFR 903.23 - Rate extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations § 903.23 Rate extensions. (a) The following regulations shall apply to the extension of rates... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rate extensions. 903.23 Section 903.23 Energy...

  18. Spreading the Word about Extension's Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalambokidis, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the idea that Extension can build support for its programs by highlighting how they benefit people who have no contact with the programs has taken root in the Extension system. Providing Extension program teams with resources, training, and leadership can lead to a body of public value messages that can infuse Extension's…

  19. Middle Cretaceous orogenesis in the northern Cordillera: A Mediterranean analog of collision-related extensional tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlis, T.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Recent studies in the northern Cordillera suggest that a significant period of middle Cretaceous extension occurred during the early phases of the collision of the composite Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia (PAW) superterrane. In this paper the author presents a hypothesis that the extension and collision are related in a manner analogous to the modern eastern Mediterranean. In the model, oblique collision of the PAW superterrane led to gravity spreading on North America in advance of the zipper-like closure of the suture. The driving process for the extension appears to be subduction rollback generated by collision-related changes in plate motion, gravity spreading toward the free-face, or both.

  20. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  1. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be

  2. On the extensible viscoelastic beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Claudio; Pata, Vittorino; Vuk, Elena

    2008-04-01

    This work is focused on the equation \\[ \\begin{eqnarray*}\\fl {\\partial_{tt}} u+\\partial_{xxxx}u +\\int_0^\\infty \\mu(s) \\partial_{xxxx}[u(t)-u(t-s)]\\,\\rmd s\\\\ - \\big(\\beta+\\|\\partial_x u\\|_{L^2(0,1)}^2\\big)\\partial_{xx}u= f\\end{eqnarray*} \\] describing the motion of an extensible viscoelastic beam. Under suitable boundary conditions, the related dynamical system in the history space framework is shown to possess a global attractor of optimal regularity. The result is obtained by exploiting an appropriate decomposition of the solution semigroup, together with the existence of a Lyapunov functional.

  3. Chiral Extensions of the Mssm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Karateev, Denis

    2013-03-01

    We present a class of extensions of the MSSM characterized by a fully chiral field content (no μ-terms) and no baryon or lepton number violating term in the superpotential due to an extra U‧(1) gauge symmetry. The minimal model consists of the usual matter sector with family dependent U‧(1) charges, six Higgs weak doublets, and three singlets required to give masses to the Higgsinos and cancel anomalies. We discuss its main features such as the tree level mass spectrum and the constraints on flavor changing processes.

  4. Rhinomaxillary mucormycosis with cerebral extension

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shikha; Palaskar, Sangeeta; Shetty, Vishwa Parkash; Bhushan, Anju

    2009-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by fungus belonging to the order Mucorales. A case of a controlled diabetic male with rhino maxillary mucormycosis, with cerebral extension, is described. The patient presented with hemifacial swelling, a nasal twang in his voice, fever, ocular signs, gross tissue destruction, and was sluggish. Early recognition of mucormycosis is necessary to limit the spread of infection, which can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, health practitioners should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of the disease. PMID:21886991

  5. Middle Miocene tectonic uplift of southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, D.P.; Glazner, A.F.

    1986-08-01

    Calculations of the tectonic component of the subsidence history of California's southern San Joaquin basin indicate 200-400 m of abrupt tectonic uplift during the Relizian, about 15 Ma. This uplift can be explained as an isostatic response to the movement of thin, young lithosphere south of the subducted Mendocino fracture zone to a position under the basin. The calculated uplift cannot be a result of extension and subsidence caused by instability of the Mendocino triple junction, but earlier (early Miocene) subsidence of the basin may have resulted from triple-junction-related extension. Marine strata deposited in the San Joaquin basin during the middle Miocene are rich sources of petroleum, so the inferred uplift and facies shifts may have important implications for exploration. 2 figures, 1 table.

  6. Transdomes sampling of lower and middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, C. P.; Whitney, D. L.; Roger, F.; Rey, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    Migmatite transdomes are formed by lateral and upward flow of partially molten crust in transtension zones (pull-apart structures). In order to understand the flow leading to this type of domes, 3D numerical models were set-up to simulate the general case of an extensional domain located between two strike-slip faults (pull-apart or dilational bridge). Results show that upper crust extension induces flow of the deep, low-viscosity crust, with rapid upward movement of transdome material when extension becomes localized. At this point a rolling hinge detachment allows rapid removal of upper crust. The internal structure of transdomes includes a subvertical high strain zone located beneath the zone of localized upper crust extension; this shear zone separates two elongate subdomes of foliation that show refolded/sheath folds. Lineation tends to be oriented dominantly subhorizontal when the amount of strike-slip motion is greater than the amount of upward flow of dome rocks. Models also predict nearly isothermal decompression of transdome material and rapid transfer of ~50 km deep rocks to the near surface. These model results are compared to the structural and metamorphic history of several transdomes, and in particular the Variscan Montagne Noire dome (French Massif Central) that consists of two domes separated by a complex high strain zone. The Montagne Noire dome contains ~315 Ma eclogite bodies (U-Pb zircon age) that record 1.4 GPa peak pressure. The eclogite bodies are wrapped in highly sheared migmatite that yield 314-310 Ma monazite ages interpreted as the metamorphism and deformation age. Based on these relations we conclude that the Montagne Noire transdome developed a channel of partially molten crust that likely entrained eclogite bodies from the deep crust (~50 km) before ascending to the near-surface. One implication of this work is that the flowing crust was deeply seated in the orogen although it remained a poor recorder of peak pressure of metamorphism

  7. Methods and apparatus for constructing and implementing a universal extension module for processing objects in a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Smith, John R. (Inventor); Chang, Yuan-Chi (Inventor); Jhingran, Anant D. (Inventor); Padmanabhan, Sriram K. (Inventor); Hsiao, Hui-I (Inventor); Choy, David Mun-Hien (Inventor); Lin, Jy-Jine James (Inventor); Fuh, Gene Y. C. (Inventor); Williams, Robin (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for providing a multi-tier object-relational database architecture are disclosed. In one illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a multi-tier database architecture comprises an object-relational database engine as a top tier, one or more domain-specific extension modules as a bottom tier, and one or more universal extension modules as a middle tier. The individual extension modules of the bottom tier operationally connect with the one or more universal extension modules which, themselves, operationally connect with the database engine. The domain-specific extension modules preferably provide such functions as search, index, and retrieval services of images, video, audio, time series, web pages, text, XML, spatial data, etc. The domain-specific extension modules may include one or more IBM DB2 extenders, Oracle data cartridges and/or Informix datablades, although other domain-specific extension modules may be used.

  8. On Harnack's theorem and extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antonio F.; Parlier, Hugo

    Harnack's theorem states that the fixed points of an orientation reversing involution of a compact orientable surface of genus g are a set of k disjoint simple closed geodesic where 0≤ k≤ g+1 . The first goal of this article is to give a purely geometric, complete and self-contained proof of this fact. In the case where the fixed curves of the involution do not separate the surface, we prove an extension of this theorem, by exhibiting the existence of auxiliary invariant curves with interesting properties. Although this type of extension is well known (see, for instance, Comment. Math. Helv. 57(4): 603-626 (1982) and Transl. Math. Monogr., vol. 225, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2004), our method also extends the theorem in the case where the surface has boundary. As a byproduct, we obtain a geometric method on how to obtain these auxiliary curves. As a consequence of these constructions, we obtain results concerning presentations of Non-Euclidean crystallographic groups and a new proof of a result on the set of points corresponding to real algebraic curves in the compactification of the Moduli space of complex curves of genus g , overline{M_{g}} . More concretely, we establish that given two real curves there is a path in overline{M_{g}} which passes through at most two singular curves, a result of M. Seppaelae (Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. (4), 24(5), 519-544 (1991)).

  9. Hemicraniectomy for massive middle cerebral artery infarction: a review.

    PubMed

    Manawadu, Dulka; Quateen, Ahmed; Findlay, J Max

    2008-11-01

    Hemicraniectomy and opening underlying dura mater permits the expansion of infarcted, swollen brain outwards, reversing dangerous intracranial pressure elevations and the risk of fatal transtentorial temporal lobe or diencephalic herniation. Recently published randomized controlled trials have proven this procedure a powerful life-saving measure in the setting of malignant middle cerebral artery infarction and allayed concerns that a reduction in mortality is accompanied by an unacceptable increase in patients suffering severe neurological impairments. Appropriate patients are relatively young, in the first five decades of life, suffering infarction of a majority of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory in either hemisphere, and decompression should be performed prior to progression to coma or two dilated, fixed pupils. Lethargy combined with midline shift and uncal herniation on neuroimaging is an appropriate trigger to consider and discuss surgical intervention. Families and, when possible, patients themselves, should be informed of the certainty of at least moderate to mild permanent deficits, and the possibility of worse. To be successful decompression must be extensive, targeting a bone flap measuring 14 cm from front to back, and extending 1 to 2 cm lateral to the midline sagittal suture to the floor of the middle cranial fossa at the level of the coronal suture. An augmentation duraplasty is mandatory. PMID:19235437

  10. Middle Atmosphere Electrodynamics (MAE). Middle atmospheric electrodynamics during MAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The recent revival and strong motivation for research in middle atmospheric electrodynamics can be attributed, in large part, to the discovery of large (V/m) electric fields within the lower mesosphere during the decade prior to MAP. Subsequent rocket soundings appeared to verify the preliminary findings. During the MAP era, more sophisticated techniques have been employed to obtain measurements which respond positively to criticisms of earlier results, and which provide more insight regarding the character of the fields. The occurrence of mesospheric V/m electric fields now seems to require the presence of aerosols, of local winds and related dynamics, and of an atmospheric electrical conductivity less than 10(-10)S/m. Furthermore, new theoretical ideas describing the origin of the V/m fields are consistent with the measurements. The current status of results regarding V/m fields in the middle atmosphere is reviewed in light of the more widely accepted electric field structure for this region from rocket, balloon and modeling results.

  11. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  12. A middle path for electricity options and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, J.I.; Herring, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    In a landmark article in Foreign Affairs in October 1976, Amory Lovins presented his vision of two vastly different and seemingly irreconcilable paths that energy provision might take into the future. One path was a ``hard`` path, characterized by extensive development of large, capital-intensive centralized electrical generating facilities and their peripherals, designed with little consideration given to the matching of these facilities to the requirements of the end-use needs. The second, ``soft`` path was characterized by energy technologies that are diverse, operate on renewable energy flows, are relatively simple, less capital-intensive, and matched in scale and energy quality to end-use needs. One of the most controversial arguments in the Lovins` paper was that the ``hard`` and ``soft`` paths are culturally and institutionally antagonistic. In retrospect, it seems this argument was self-fulfilling, for the history of the energy debate throughout the developed world since the appearance of the Lovins` article has been marked by an either-or antagonism that has left little room for serious discussion of a ``middle-path.`` In this paper, we argue that ``middle-path,`` paved with elements of both the soft and hard, is especially suited for developing countries, since they do not now carry the burden of an existing and extensive ``hard path`` energy infrastructure.

  13. The Science of Middle Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an "alteration" or "disturbance" to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the "middle nature" proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of "actively transforming nature into culture." It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native species, maximizing

  14. Neutrons in extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Stenkin, Yu. V.; Djappuev, D. D.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    2007-06-15

    The main properties of the so-called neutron bursts produced by the passage of extensive air showers (EASs) through a detector array and the properties of these EASs are considered using the experiments that are being or have been carried out previously with the Carpet-2 array at Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, and at Cosmic-Ray Station of UNAM in Mexico as examples. We show that no exotic processes are required to explain the nature of neutron bursts. Based on a working prototype of the previously proposed MULTICOM array, we also show that this phenomenon can be successfully used in studying the EAS hadronic component and that adding special thermal neutron detectors can improve significantly the capabilities of the array for EAS study.

  15. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  16. Extensibility and limitations of FDDI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Game, David; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently two standards for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB), have emerged as the primary competitors for the MAN arena. Great interest exists in building higher speed networks which support large numbers of node and greater distance, and it is not clear what types of protocols are needed for this type of environment. There is some question as to whether or not these MAN standards can be extended to such environments. The extensibility of FDDI to the Gbps range and a long distance environment is investigated. Specification parameters which affect performance are shown and a measure is provided for predicting utilization of FDDI. A comparison of FDDI at 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps is presented. Some specific problems with FDDI are addressed and modifications which improve the viability of FDDI in such high speed networks are investigated.

  17. Across the Pacific: Climate Evolution in the Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, L. R.; Wade, B.; Holbourn, A. E.; Leng, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first high-resolution (3 kyr) astronomically-tuned record of δ18O and δ13C from planktonic foraminifera for the equatorial Pacific Ocean (16.5-13.5 Myr). Our data provides exciting new information on sea surface temperatures and primary productivity changes at the tropics during the middle Miocene at a resolution not achieved in any previous study, which sheds new light on the middle Miocene climatic transition (MMCT) and associated carbon-isotope excursion. Reliable sea surface temperature estimates are crucial to any reconstruction and modelling of past ocean salinity and density, water column stratification, thermohaline circulation, and ice volume. Despite extensive studies of benthic foraminifera, existing planktonic foraminiferal records of this interval are extremely scarce and of low resolution, with samples representing time intervals of 2x105 and 5x105 years. Previous studies have been hindered by the absence of biogenic carbonate (e.g., Leg 199). Consequently the impact of global warming and cooling on tropical surface waters and the propagation of orbital cycles in the Earth System are unknown. In 2009 Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321 recovered lower-middle Miocene sediments with high sedimentation rates (30m/myr), continuous recovery, and orbital cyclicity from the east equatorial Pacific Ocean. At Site U1338 planktonic foraminifera are abundant and diverse in the lower and middle Miocene sediments and exceptionally well preserved. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed open pore spaces, little evidence of calcitic overgrowth on the wall surface and in many cases preserved spines (Fox and Wade, in press). We compare our data from Site U1338 to Site 1146 in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, to reconstruct bottom and surface water conditions and changes in ocean dynamics across the equatorial Pacific during this highly complex interval of climate history.

  18. Across the Pacific: Climate Evolution in the Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lyndsey; Wade, Bridget; Holbourn, Ann; Leng, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    We present the first high-resolution (3 kyr) astronomically-tuned record of δ18O and δ13C from planktonic foraminifera for the equatorial Pacific Ocean (16.5-13.5 Myr). Our data provides exciting new information on sea surface temperatures and primary productivity changes at the tropics during the middle Miocene at a resolution not achieved in any previous study, which sheds new light on the middle Miocene climatic transition (MMCT) and associated carbon-isotope excursion. Reliable sea surface temperature estimates are crucial to any reconstruction and modelling of past ocean salinity and density, water column stratification, thermohaline circulation, and ice volume. Despite extensive studies of benthic foraminifera, existing planktonic foraminiferal records of this interval are extremely scarce and of low resolution, with samples representing time intervals of 2x105and 5x105 years. Previous studies have been hindered by the absence of biogenic carbonate (e.g., Leg 199). Consequently the impact of global warming and cooling on tropical surface waters and the propagation of orbital cycles in the Earth System are unknown. In 2009 Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321 recovered lower-middle Miocene sediments with high sedimentation rates (30m/myr), continuous recovery, and orbital cyclicity from the east equatorial Pacific Ocean. At Site U1338 planktonic foraminifera are abundant and diverse in the lower and middle Miocene sediments and exceptionally well preserved. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed open pore spaces, little evidence of calcitic overgrowth on the wall surface and in many cases preserved spines (Fox and Wade, 2013). We compare our data from Site U1338 to Site 1146 in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, to reconstruct bottom and surface water conditions and changes in ocean dynamics across the equatorial Pacific during this highly complex interval of climate history.

  19. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  20. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  1. Diagnostic Analysis of Middle Atmosphere Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Cai, M.; Swartz, W. H.; Coy, L.; Yee, J.; Talaat, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    Both the middle atmosphere climate sensitivity associated with the cooling trend and its uncertainty due to a complex system of drivers increase with altitude. Furthermore, the combined effect of middle atmosphere cooling due to long-lived greenhouse gases and ozone is also associated with natural climate variations due to solar activity. To understand and predict climate change from a global perspective, we use the recently developed climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) to identify and isolate the signals from the external forcing and from different feedback processes in the middle atmosphere climate system. By use of the JHU/APL middle atmosphere radiation algorithm, the CFRAM is applied to the model output fields of the high-altitude GEOS-5 climate model in the middle atmosphere to delineate the individual contributions of radiative forcing to middle atmosphere climate sensitivity.

  2. Recurrent angioleiomyoma of the middle turbinate.

    PubMed

    Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Ramaswamy, Balakrishnan; Jaiprakash, Padmapriya; Chidambaranathan, Nithyanand

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged woman with a history of not only progressive nasal obstruction, facial pain, hyposmia and epistaxis, but also excision of the nasal mass diagnosed as a vascular leiomyoma. On examination, a smooth bulge was seen over the middle turbinate. Surgical excision along with histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a diagnosis of recurrent vascular leiomyoma of the middle turbinate. PMID:26240103

  3. Extension of the Bgl Broad Group Cross Section Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, Desislava; Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira

    2009-08-01

    The broad group cross-section libraries BUGLE and BGL are applied for reactor shielding calculation using the DOORS package based on discrete ordinates method and multigroup approximation of the neutron cross-sections. BUGLE and BGL libraries are problem oriented for PWR or VVER type of reactors respectively. They had been generated by collapsing the problem independent fine group library VITAMIN-B6 applying PWR and VVER one-dimensional radial model of the reactor middle plane using the SCALE software package. The surveillance assemblies (SA) of VVER-1000/320 are located on the baffle above the reactor core upper edge in a region where geometry and materials differ from those of the middle plane and the neutron field gradient is very high which would result in a different neutron spectrum. That is why the application of the fore-mentioned libraries for the neutron fluence calculation in the region of SA could lead to an additional inaccuracy. This was the main reason to study the necessity for an extension of the BGL library with cross-sections appropriate for the SA region. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra of the SA region calculated by the VITAMIN-B6 and BGL libraries using the two-dimensional code DORT have been done with purpose to evaluate the BGL applicability for SA calculation.

  4. 78 FR 53135 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... available on the Internet at: http://www.eia.gov/survey/#coal . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This information... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Information collection extension with change,...

  5. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Cultural patterns and characteristics of Middle Eastern students indicate their adaptability ease or difficulty in American society. Manners, paternalistic patterns, religion, and social relationships are discussed. (LBH)

  6. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  7. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Mandeep; Bishai, William R

    2009-01-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is defined as disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, any fluoroquinolone, and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (amikacin, capreomycin, or kanamycin). The definition has applicable clinical value and has allowed for more uniform surveillance in varied international settings. Recent surveillance data have indicated that the prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance has risen to the highest rate ever recorded. The gold standard for drug-susceptibility testing has been the agar proportion method; however, this technique requires several weeks for results to be determined. More sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are still unavailable in resource-limited settings. Clinical manifestations, although variable in different settings and among different strains, have in general shown that XDR tuberculosis is associated with greater morbidity and mortality than non-XDR tuberculosis. The treatment of XDR tuberculosis should include agents to which the organism is susceptible, and should continue for a minimum of 18-24 months. However, treatment continues to be limited in tuberculosis-endemic countries largely because of weaknesses in national tuberculosis health-care models. The ultimate strategy to control drug-resistant tuberculosis is one that implements a comprehensive approach incorporating innovation from the political, social, economic, and scientific realms. PMID:18990610

  8. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  9. Nozzle extension design status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Classen, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty possible concepts of a possible nozzle/nozzle extension interface were originated. Not all of the concepts were considered worthy of analysis time. Six of them were thermally analyzed and three were stress analyzed. These analyses were done to determine which of the concepts would have the best chance of succeeding, that is, they were a screening process which was to allow rating of one concept against another. This was done because adequate material properties to determine absolute stress levels were not available at the time of the analyses. Through all of the concepts still exhibit some areas of negative margin of safety, concept no. 1 shows good promise that, with slight modifications, it could have all positive margins of safety. Another significant question, regarding these designs, has to do with the Grafoil seals and insulators. Some additional data was just recently received on Grafoil properties, but it was too late to incorporate in the analyses. The new data were not significantly different from the properties which were used.

  10. Extensive wetting due to roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.; Michael, J.R.; Eisenmann, E.T. . Center for Solder Science and Technology)

    1995-01-01

    Typically, a small mass of eutectic Sn-Pb solder wets a copper surface and flows radially outward to form a hemispherical shape with a contact angle of approx. 15--20 deg. When a similar mass of solder wets and thick electroless copper coated substrate, rapid radial flow commences and surprising new effects occur. Thick coats of electroless copper have a nodular surface structure and spreading on it does not subside until all solder is consumed. When the nodular structure is wetted by solder a coastline'' with many nearby islands'' are defined. Photos of regions at the wetting front were taken in the backscatter imaging mode of an SEM. These images show that solder wets the valleys between the surface nodules forming a delicate, lacy arrangement. The geometry of this coastal'' solder structure is described as fractal-like having a dimension D = 1.38 making it similar to drying fronts and cloud configurations. The importance of surface roughness in wetting phenomena is discussed in the light of an extensive history on the subject. It is shown that for spontaneous flow, assisted by roughness, the surface geometry must consist of local angles that are larger than the equilibrium contact angle. Kinetics of the wetting process are demonstrated by image analysis of wetted area taken from videotaped experiments. These experimental kinetics are shown to be similar in form to flow in open channel capillaries.

  11. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  12. 20 CFR 655.60 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extensions. 655.60 Section 655.60 Employees...) Post Certification Activities § 655.60 Extensions. An employer may apply for extensions of the period... needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will notify...

  13. 20 CFR 655.60 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extensions. 655.60 Section 655.60 Employees...) Post Certification Activities § 655.60 Extensions. An employer may apply for extensions of the period... needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will notify...

  14. 76 FR 53887 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Legal Collection, OMB...

  15. 77 FR 23469 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Security, OMB Control...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, Secondary, Adult, and Extension Education § 15b.27 Extension education....

  17. 75 FR 37419 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Financial...

  18. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  19. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  20. 77 FR 51791 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... EIA has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of...

  1. 78 FR 38305 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Exchange/Sale Report,...

  2. 76 FR 31598 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Printing and...

  3. 75 FR 4055 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program...

  4. 77 FR 35366 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Historic Preservation...

  5. 78 FR 9901 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program...

  6. 75 FR 54859 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Contractor Legal...

  7. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  8. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  9. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  10. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  11. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather... extension is needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will... the decision. The CO will not grant an extension where the total work contract period under...

  12. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather... extension is needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will... the decision. The CO will not grant an extension where the total work contract period under...

  13. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather... extension is needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will... the decision. The CO will not grant an extension where the total work contract period under...

  14. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather... extension is needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will... the decision. The CO will not grant an extension where the total work contract period under...

  15. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather... extension is needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will... the decision. The CO will not grant an extension where the total work contract period under...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, Secondary, Adult, and Extension Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that...

  17. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  18. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure...

  19. Extension Handbook. Processes and Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about processes and practices in extension education in Canada: "Historical Roots" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Transitions and Directions in Extension" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Applying Learning Theory in Extension Work" (Griffith); "Understanding and Applying Motivation Research" (Griffith); "Pre-Adult…

  20. Rural Extension Services. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jock R.; Feder, Gershon

    This paper analyzes the considerations that lead policy makers to undertake extension investments as a key public responsibility, as well as the complex set of factors and intra-agency incentives that explain variations in performance between different extension systems. The goals of extension include transferring knowledge from researchers to…

  1. Improving the Extension Facilities in C+

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, P F; Scott, B A

    1999-09-24

    CXX is a facility for extending Python using C++. Recently, the authors have substantially revised and improved the way in which you create extension objects and extension modules in C++. The method is now much more natural and has much less overhead, both in the code generated and in the effort needed to create the objects and extensions.

  2. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  3. Reexamining Middle School Effects: A Comparison of Middle Grades Students in Middle Schools and K-8 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Kipnes, Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    The period of the middle grades has seen numerous reforms to improve education for students in early adolescence. However, although several current reforms seek to overhaul middle schools, only a handful of studies have directly compared the effects of different configurations of grades. Our analysis uses district and student data from one of the…

  4. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Cheston B; Opal, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses have traditionally been associated with mild upper respiratory tract infections throughout the world. In the fall of 2002, a new coronavirus emerged in in Asia causing severe viral pneumonia, i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Nearly a decade following the SARS epidemic, a new coronavirus causing severe viral pneumonia has emerged, i.e., middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). Since the initial case of MERS-CoV occurred in June of 2012 in Saudi Arabia there have been 688 confirmed cases and 282 deaths in 20 countries.   Although both SARS and MERS are caused by coronaviruses, SARS was characterized by efficient human transmission and relatively low mortality rate. In contrast, MERS is relatively inefficiently transmitted to humans but has a high mortality rate. Given the potential overlap in presentation and manifestation, it is important to understand the clinical and epidemiologic differences between MERS, SARS and influenza. PMID:25089913

  5. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  6. Dynamics of the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, Guy

    In recent years, much effort has been put in the study of chemical, dynamical, and radiative processes in the middle atmosphere. A great deal of activity has been stimulated by the necessity of estimating the potential effects of several anthropogenic perturbations on the ozone layer and on the earth's climate. For example, the atmospheric response to the emission of chlorofluorocarbons or nitrogen oxides is among the problems to be elucidated. Questions such as this cannot be properly answered without an understanding of the various processes involved in the transport of chemical constituents. The publication of a book. that contains original contributions on a variety of topics, such as internal gravity waves, tides, planetary waves, and stratospheric warmings, and that presents overview articles on the transport of trace species and on general circulation models is particularly useful for both research scientists and graduate students involved in atmospheric science.

  7. Entering the Middle: Key Works for Middle School English Language Arts Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittard, M. Michele

    2003-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of the most recent middle school literature as it relates most directly to English language arts. Consists of only book-length publications published from 1990-2002. Presents annotations of 32 titles categorized into three related sections: general middle school issues; resources for teaching middle school…

  8. Mid South Middle Start: Studies of Three Middle Start Schools in the Mid South Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lea Williams; Cheney, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    These three case studies highlight the implementation and impact of Mid South Middle Start by: (1) contributing toward an in-depth understanding of what it means to be a school implementing Middle Start; (2) describing a holistic portrait of the schools' participation in Mid South Middle Start; and (3) assisting the Academy for Educational…

  9. Teacher Education for the Middle Years of Schooling: Sustaining Quality Middle Level Preparation in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Brenda; Dowden, Tony

    2015-01-01

    The middle years of schooling (Years 5-9) has emerged as a significant field of educational research in the last two decades but investigation of specialised approaches to middle level teacher education has received little attention. The rationale for specialised programs or units is that middle level teachers require specific preparation to be…

  10. A Middle Mosaic: A Celebration of Reading, Writing, and Reflective Practice at the Middle Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ramsey, Katherine D., Ed.

    Offering 16 essays by presenters at the first Middle School Mosaic (held in Detroit, Michigan, in 1997), this book connects the themes of literacy, reflective practice, and the special characteristics of middle level teaching. In the first section, Literature and Literacy at the Middle Level, the authors examine questions of literacy by looking at…

  11. In the Beginning of the Middle: Curriculum Considerations for Middle School General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giebelhausen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Middle school general music is an experience that numerous music educators feel underprepared to teach. Because many undergraduate programs spend little time on this teaching scenario and because the challenges of middle school general music are different from those of elementary general music or middle school ensembles, teachers often lack the…

  12. MIDDLE SCHOOL SURVEY OF NEW YORK STATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIMPSON, GEORGE C.; SMITH, GEORGE J.

    TO GATHER INFORMATION ON THE CONCEPT OF THE MIDDLE SCHOOL, A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 648 SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN NEW YORK STATE, 510 OF WHOM RESPONDED. IT WAS FOUND THAT (1) 60 SCHOOL DISTRICTS HAD A MIDDLE SCHOOL IN OPERATION, (2) 170 SCHOOL DISTRICTS WERE STUDYING REORGANIZATION TO INCLUDE IT, (3) 35 DISTRICTS HAD CONSIDERED AND REJECTED IT, (4)…

  13. Syllable Cut Prosody in Early Middle English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Approaches Middle English quantity changes as the consequence of the phonologization of a syllable cut prosody and provides new evidence for the relevance of syllable cut to the diachronic phonology of English. Evidence comes from partial reconstruction of Ihe phonological system of the early Middle English dialect presented in the "Ormulum,"…

  14. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  15. Wiki Technology for Middle Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Debra Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to determine the pedagogical value of Wiki technology-enhanced instruction for middle grade students. The sample consisted of three Wiki projects representative of work from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade middle school students. The examination of the data collected from the three samples of Wiki…

  16. Exploratory Programs in Alabama Middle Grades Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.; Allen, Michael G.; McKenna, Beverly

    Many educators believe that middle grades schools have a responsibility to capitalize on the natural curiosity of young adolescents through the use of an exploratory curriculum to help students understand the world in which they live. This study examined the status of middle grades exploratory programs in Alabama. A 22-item questionnaire was sent…

  17. The Growing Need for Middle School Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, William M.

    A review of the goals and issues in the development and evaluation of the middle school concept is presented. Although there has been a great increase in the number of middle schools, many seem to be organized without careful planning of goals, programs and evaluation strategies. A review of the problems involved led to the formation of fifteen…

  18. Guided Investigations in Middle School Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroth, Stephen T.; Helfer, Jason A.

    2008-01-01

    Gifted middle school mathematics students often exhibit boundless energy, a desire to exert some degree of control over their learning, and an ability to think logically and abstractly in ways that astound their parents and teachers. Middle school math curriculum that combines guided investigations of real-life problems with product-based…

  19. Motivating Middle Schoolers Grades 5-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    What motivates middle school students? Hormones and success! There is not much that teachers can do about the hormones, but they sure can affect the success. "Teaching Information and Communication Technology Skills: The Big6 in Middle Schools," a new book from Linworth Publishing, offers classroom teachers and teacher librarians new strategies…

  20. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  1. Size variation in Middle Pleistocene humans.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Martínez, I; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    1997-08-22

    It has been suggested that European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals, and prehistoric modern humans had a greater sexual dimorphism than modern humans. Analysis of body size variation and cranial capacity variation in the large sample from the Sima de los Huesos site in Spain showed instead that the sexual dimorphism is comparable in Middle Pleistocene and modern populations. PMID:9262474

  2. Children in the Muslim Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock, Ed.

    The Middle East has been undergoing vast social and economic change, but in all reports available today, little attention has been paid to the situation of children. The purpose of this book is to help readers better understand the children of the Middle East to give a sense of their lives today and a sense of attitudes toward children and their…

  3. Agriscience Education for the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This curriculum guide, which is intended for middle school agriculture teachers in Virginia, outlines a three-course competency-based agriscience program to give middle school students an understanding of basic science concepts through agriculture. The guide begins with a program description that includes descriptions of the program's three…

  4. The Big Read: Middle School Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Christine

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she helped organize the Middle School Community Read project, a community reading project for middle school students in her school district. The project aimed to reverse the trend of a community experiencing loss of male readers as they become teens. First, the author and her group formed a small committee…

  5. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  6. Dramatic Experiences for Future Middle Level Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weilbacher, Gary; LeMasters, Julie; Gill, Lana; Wisniewski, Jessica; Arnold, Christine

    2005-01-01

    During the last three years, Lincoln Middle School has been the site of a Professional Development School partnership in conjunction with the Illinois State University Middle School Department. With more than 90% of its 400-plus students receiving free or reduced price lunches, Lincoln is an eight-year-old, "Title I" building whose students come…

  7. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  8. Middle Level Students' Goal Orientations and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Emmanuel; Atta, George

    2015-01-01

    The study used a phenomenological lens to explore middle level classroom goal perceptions and classroom experiences that were pivotal in motivating students to achieve their learning goals. A total of 46 participants (31 students and 15 teachers) from two middle schools in a Midwestern city participated in focus group discussions and one-on-one…

  9. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross

    The man-in-the-middle defence is all about rehabilitating Charlie. For 20 years we’ve worried about this guy in the middle, Charlie, who’s forever intercalating himself into the communications between Alice and Bob, and people have been very judgemental about poor Charlie, saying that Charlie is a wicked person. Well, we’re not entirely convinced.

  10. Middle Level Learning, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Intended for middle school social studies classrooms, this publication features articles that spotlight diverse and innovative learning activities. This document includes the three issues of the "Middle Level Learning" supplement published in 1999 and the three that were published in 2000. Articles and classroom activities highlighted in this…

  11. Meeting the Challenge of Middle School Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that successful middle school music teachers are those who are liked by students and who expect good behavior and reasonable effort. Discusses drug abuse, intellectual underdevelopment, and other problems faced by today's adolescent students. Recommends restructuring middle schools to address student needs, improving teacher education,…

  12. Clarence Edwards Middle School: Success through Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts 2020, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Just a few years ago, Boston's Clarence Edwards Middle School was on the verge of being shut down. By 2009, a renaissance at the Edwards made it one of the highest performing and most desired middle schools in Boston, dramatically narrowing and even eliminating academic achievement gaps while delivering a far more well-rounded education to its…

  13. Play and Social Interaction in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Doris; Fromberg, Doris Pronin

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses traditional and contemporary definitions of middle childhood play, the value of such play for children's development and learning, the implications of home, school, and societal practices that have resulted in changing the play scenario of middle childhood, and suggestions for assuring that play's value will be maintained…

  14. Motivation and Middle School Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Lynley Hicks; Midgley, Carol

    Research has shown a decline in motivation and performance for many children as they move from elementary school into middle school; however, research has also shown that the nature of motivational change on entry to middle school depends on characteristics of the learning environment in which students find themselves. This Digest outlines some…

  15. Doing Good Science In Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf; Cleveland, Jackie; Vanosdall, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Just as middle schoolers are "wired" to learn in active, hands-on ways, this book is wired to help teachers spark a vital connection to these students to keep them tuned-in to science. "Doing Good Science in Middle School" combines practical insights about adolescent learners with what master teachers know about how to shift from passive,…

  16. The Making of the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sharon M.

    1983-01-01

    Examines Black occupational mobility and factors that have influenced the growth of the Black middle class since the 1960s. Argues that the Black middle class occupies a fragile market position because Black mobility depends on fluctuating government policy rather than on free market factors. (Author/MJL)

  17. Counseling Survey: Crook County Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachow, Kathleen; Carter, Gary

    This paper reports the results of a counseling survey completed by 523 middle school students at Crook County Middle School, Prineville, Oregon, to provide data regarding student concerns in the areas of health and growth, personality, school, home and family, friends, and the future. Results are reported for each of the six categories by grade…

  18. White Middle Class Identities and Urban Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Dympna; Savage, Mike; Ingram, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The authors review "White middle class identities and urban schooling," by D. Reay, G. Crozier and D. James. This book focuses on the perspectives of white middle-class parents who make "against"-the-grain school choices for their children in urban England. It provides key insights into the dynamics of class practising that are played out in these…

  19. Lesher Middle School: Commitment by Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Lesher Middle School, a school of choice, as are all of the schools in the Poudre School District in Ft. Collins, Colorado. In 2004, it was a traditional junior high school with a declining enrollment that housed an application-based International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (IB MYP) that resulted in tracking…

  20. Instructional Coaching in One Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Cheryl Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines a model of instructional coaching in a middle school using interviews and observations of both teachers and their coaches. During the 2012-2013 school year, Creekside Middle School implemented a new model of instructional coaching that differed from the traditional model of coaching; it focused on student learning…

  1. Making the Grade in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Ruth; Dyrness, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The middle school years are among the most formidable, as students transition from youth to adulthood. Self-esteem, consequently, is a significant attribute in developing the strong character necessary to successfully navigate middle school. Because a student's grades can influence how the student feels about his or her ability to learn, teachers…

  2. Middle Grades Assessment Program. User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Gayle

    This manual is for educators, parents, and policymakers who wish to evaluate the responsiveness of middle schools to the developmental needs of twelve to fourteen-year-old students (young adolescents). A leader's manual and a slide-tape presentation complete the training needed to use this Middle Grades Assessment Program. A preliminary discussion…

  3. Survey of Middle Grades Reading Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Jack W.

    2009-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that schools with strong reading programs have successful students. But building strong reading skills is a complex task, particularly by the time students reach the middle grades. A survey was conducted that involved all Indiana middle grades schools in May 2009. Two types of data analysis were utilized in preparing the…

  4. Promoting Healthy Body Image in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akos, Patrick; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2002-01-01

    Provides advice for school counselors on promoting healthy body image among middle school students. Interventions for the promotion of healthy body image at individual, group, and systemic levels can offer students a protective factor for common disruptions associated with puberty and the transition into middle school. Outlines issues for…

  5. The Critical Middle: A Reason for Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The middle grades are a time of change for adolescent learners. Middle schoolers are in the process of refining their social skills and their self-concept. They begin taking responsibility for their education and making decisions about their own learning. They start planning for college and careers, understanding for the first time how their…

  6. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  7. Critical Media Literacy in Our Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    By the time children reach middle school, they already have a well-established relationship with the media. Ignoring the significance of media in the lives of adolescents creates a gap between their in-school and out-of-school worlds. Middle school curricula needs to be relevant to students. Therefore, educators should make time to address the…

  8. Middle School String Ensembles: Steps to Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Deliece

    1998-01-01

    Explains that orchestra teachers who teach middle school students should focus on their students' social and psychological needs by creating chamber music groups. Describes the benefits of middle school students playing in groups, how to create chamber music groups, and opportunities for performance. Provides a list of chamber music literature.…

  9. Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Providing a gateway into the real literature emerging from the Middle East, this book shows teachers how to make the topic authentic, powerful, and relevant. "Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East": (1) Introduces teachers to this literature and how to teach it; (2) Brings to the reader a tremendous diversity of teachable texts and…

  10. The Middle East Content Priority Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    Variations of a social studies unit on Middle Eastern culture, history, and geography are presented to aid secondary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement Middle Eastern area studies educational programs. The guide is presented in four parts, each of which represents one version of the unit. Teachers are directed to select the…

  11. Predictors of Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    There is increasing acceptance of the premise that growth and development continue throughout adult life and, as life expectancy has lengthened, there is a much expanded mid-life period. Yet, middle adulthood has been neglected as an area of theoretical and empirical examination. Adults (N=251) in middle adulthood (age 35-55) completed instruments…

  12. Learning Leadership Skills in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    For middle school students, the essence of 21st-century leadership development is being "in influence" versus being "in control." A core student leadership skill involves listening intently to others, framing others' concerns, and advancing the other person's interests. Creating contexts in which middle school…

  13. Leading in Middle Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Coral; Giles, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the experiences of academics who occupy middle-level leadership roles in higher education. We use the term middle management to describe personnel occupying positions below the level of dean and often referred to as associate deans or heads of school. Practitioners rarely turn their attention to their own organizations,…

  14. Map showing high-purity silica sand of Middle Ordovician age in the Midwestern states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketner, Keith B.

    1979-01-01

    Certain quartz sands of Middle Ordovician age in the Midwestern States are well known for their purity and are exploited for a wide variety of industrial uses. The principal Middle Ordovician formations containing high-purity sands are the St. Peter Sandstone which crops out extensively from Minnesota to Arkansas; the Everton Formation principally of Arkansas; and the Oil Creek, McLish, and Tulip Creek Formations (all of the Simpson Group) of Oklahoma. The St. Peter and sandy beds in the other formations are commonly called "sandstones," but a more appropriate term is "sands" for in most fresh exposures they are completely uncemented or very weakly cemented. On exposure to air, uncemented sands usually become "case hardened" where evaporating ground water precipitates mineral matter at the surface; but this is a surficial effect. This report summarizes the available information on the extent of exposures, range of grain size, and chemical composition of the Middle Ordovician sands.

  15. Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: New bone formation in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gaurav; Andreou, Zenon; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Owa, Anthony

    2014-09-16

    The objective of this study is to increase awareness of the rare presentation, diagnostic difficulties and management of glomus tympanicum of the middle ear. A 49 years old male, with a background of hypertension and epilepsy, presented with a two month history of left sided conductive hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus and headache. Clinically and radiologically a diagnosis of glomus tympanicum was made. Intraoperatively, extensive osteogenesis of the middle ear resulting in ossicular fixation and erosion was found. This patient required a two stage operation for full clearance of disease. A stapedectomy drill was used to drill off the bony overgrowth surrounding the ossicles resulting in improved hearing thresholds and full clearance of the disease at two year follow up. Glomus tympanicum can result in new bone formation in the middle ear with resultant ossicular fixation and conductive hearing loss. This can be effectively treated surgically with restoration of hearing. PMID:25232551

  16. Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: New bone formation in the middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gaurav; Andreou, Zenon; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Owa, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to increase awareness of the rare presentation, diagnostic difficulties and management of glomus tympanicum of the middle ear. A 49 years old male, with a background of hypertension and epilepsy, presented with a two month history of left sided conductive hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus and headache. Clinically and radiologically a diagnosis of glomus tympanicum was made. Intraoperatively, extensive osteogenesis of the middle ear resulting in ossicular fixation and erosion was found. This patient required a two stage operation for full clearance of disease. A stapedectomy drill was used to drill off the bony overgrowth surrounding the ossicles resulting in improved hearing thresholds and full clearance of the disease at two year follow up. Glomus tympanicum can result in new bone formation in the middle ear with resultant ossicular fixation and conductive hearing loss. This can be effectively treated surgically with restoration of hearing. PMID:25232551

  17. Timing, distribution, amount, and style of Cenozoic extension in the northern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Christopher D.; McGrew, Allen J.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Snoke, Arthur W.; Brueseke, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    This field trip examines contrasting lines of evidence bearing on the timing and structural style of Cenozoic (and perhaps late Mesozoic) extensional deformation in northeastern Nevada. Studies of metamorphic core complexes in this region report extension beginning in the early Cenozoic or even Late Cretaceous, peaking in the Eocene and Oligocene, and being largely over before the onset of “modern” Basin and Range extension in the middle Miocene. In contrast, studies based on low-temperature thermochronology and geologic mapping of Eocene and Miocene volcanic and sedimentary deposits report only minor, localized extension in the Eocene, no extension at all in the Oligocene and early Miocene, and major, regional extension in the middle Miocene. A wealth of thermochronologic and thermobarometric data indicate that the Ruby Mountains–East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex (RMEH) underwent ~170 °C of cooling and 4 kbar of decompression between ca. 85 and ca. 50 Ma, and another 450 °C cooling and 4–5 kbar decompression between ca. 50 and ca. 21 Ma. These data require ~30 km of exhumation in at least two episodes, accommodated at least in part by Eocene to early Miocene displacement on the major west-dipping mylonitic zone and detachment fault bounding the RMEH on the west (the mylonitic zone may also have been active during an earlier phase of crustal extension). Meanwhile, Eocene paleovalleys containing 45–40 Ma ash-flow tuffs drained eastward from northern Nevada to the Uinta Basin in Utah, and continuity of these paleovalleys and infilling tuffs across the region indicate little, if any deformation by faults during their deposition. Pre–45 Ma deformation is less constrained, but the absence of Cenozoic sedimentary deposits and mappable normal faults older than 45 Ma is also consistent with only minor (if any) brittle deformation. The presence of ≤1 km of late Eocene sedimentary—especially lacustrine—deposits and a low-angle angular

  18. Geochronological and lead-isotope evidences for rapid crust formation in middle-proterozoic time: The Labrador example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaerer, Urs

    1988-01-01

    Extensive U-Pb geochronological studies in the Grenville and Makkovik provinces have shown that eastern Labrador is underlain by two distinct crustal blocks. In order to substantiate the juvenile character of the middle-Proterozoic crustal block, the isotopic compositon of lead in leached k-feldspars from the same rocks were analyzed. The results of the analysis are briefly discussed.

  19. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  20. Population, Ecology, and the American Indian: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveling, Ronald R.

    As one of the units on Native Americans developed by public school teachers enrolled in a University of Minnesota extension course on American Indian education, this middle- and high-school unit has as its overall objective to illustrate 2 concepts: (1) the need for careful population planning and (2) how the American Indian--a model of…

  1. At-Risk Programs for Middle School and High School: Essential Components and Recommendations for Administrators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Susan; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper provides an extensive literature review concerning at-risk students and their needs, identifies the essential components necessary for effective at-risk programming, and describes successful at-risk programs and recommendations for administrators and teachers at the middle- and high-school levels. The literature review presents research…

  2. A Case of Extensive Pityriasis Alba

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju Hyun; Kim, Sang Hyun; Seo, Jong Keun; Sung, Ho Suk; Hwang, Seon Wook

    2008-01-01

    Pityriasis alba (PA) is a common benign disease, characterized by hypopigmented macules or patches on the face, usually seen in children. However, two uncommon variants exist, a pigmenting type and an extensive type. Extensive PA is rare. The lesions tend to be less scaly, more persistent, more generalized, more symmetrical, and more frequently seen over the trunk and less so over the face. We report a child who had extensive PA lesions. PMID:27303180

  3. Middle atmosphere electrical energy coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    The middle atmosphere (MA) has long been known as an absorber of radio waves, and as a region of nonlinear interactions among waves. The region of highest transverse conductivity near the top of the MA provides a common return for global thunderstorm, auroral Birkeland, and ionospheric dynamo currents, with possibilities for coupling among them. Their associated fields and other transverse fields map to lower altitudes depending on scale size. Evidence now exists for motion-driven aerosol generators, and for charge trapped at the base of magnetic field lines, both capable of producing large MA electric fields. Ionospheric Maxwell currents (curl H) parallel to the magnetic field appear to map to lower altitudes, with rapidly time-varying components appearing as displacement currents in the stratosphere. Lightning couples a (primarily ELF and ULF) current transient to the ionosphere and magnetosphere whose wave shape is largely dependent on the MA conductivity profile. Electrical energy is of direct significance mainly in the upper MA, but electrodynamic transport of minor constituents such as smoke particles or CN may be important at other altitudes.

  4. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Watson, Amelia K; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-06-01

    Since the identification of the first patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, over 1,600 cases have been reported as of February 2016. Most cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia or in other countries on or near the Arabian Peninsula, but travel-associated cases have also been seen in countries outside the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV causes a severe respiratory illness in many patients, with a case fatality rate as high as 40%, although when contacts are investigated, a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic or only have mild symptoms. At this time, no vaccines or treatments are available. Epidemiological and other data suggest that the source of most primary cases is exposure to camels. Person-to-person transmission occurs in household and health care settings, although sustained and efficient person-to-person transmission has not been observed. Strict adherence to infection control recommendations has been associated with control of previous outbreaks. Vigilance is needed because genomic changes in MERS-CoV could result in increased transmissibility, similar to what was seen in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). PMID:27337460

  5. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    PubMed

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding. PMID:11766315

  6. Middle muschelkalk evaporitic deposits in eastern Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Cussey, D.

    Middle Muschelkalk of the eastern Paris Basin is an extension of the large German Basin than an unit by itself. It allows us to study the effects of continental influences on evaporitic sedimentation: fresh water and detrital supplies, and salt dissolution. More or less evaporated sea water flowing into the basin causes a cyclic evolution of salinity throughout the series. The deposit is generally layered and shows millimetric to centimetric primary depositional sequences which prove the complexity of the internal organization of the filling in the basin. They reflect elementary changes in the depositional environment: fresh water supplies carring detrital particles, fresh water and sea water inflow introducing dilution, increasing evaporation rate causing precipitation of carbonates, Ca-sulfate or halite. In fact, the main factors controlling sedimentation which are working at this fine scale and the evolution at a larger sequential scale depends upon which one of these factors becomes dominant. The general evolution results in a typical sedimentary cycle.

  7. Early middle cerebral artery stenosis following stent-assisted thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Süha

    2015-01-01

    Stent-assisted thrombectomy (SAT) is an extensively used endovascular treatment method for stroke in which the thrombectomy stents come into direct contact with the vascular intimal surface and entrap the thrombus causing the arterial occlusion. Although there are a few studies that demonstrate that the vessel wall changes in the arteries where stroke intervention is performed, we observed progressive stenosis in early follow-up imaging studies in a case. We present a middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke patient who had four repetitive stent passes during SAT and developed distal MCA stenosis 2 months after SAT at the control magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Inclusion of early follow-up MRA studies would be helpful in defining the silent vascular changes in patients who have undergone repetitive SAT. PMID:26015531

  8. The Problems and Concerns of Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Stewart, Moira A.

    1984-01-01

    Middle age is not defined solely by chronological age, but is a product of biological, social, and psychological factors. As a period in the life cycle, middle age poses many obstacles, or developmental tasks, to personal growth. Failure to deal successfully with these tasks may have a negative impact on a person's physical and psychological health. The family physician's role should be to learn the middle-aged patient's problems and concerns, to allow him to express such concerns, and to help place problems in perspective. PMID:21278990

  9. Ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. M.

    1958-01-01

    The author gives a comprehensive account of the present status of knowledge regarding the ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Middle East and North Africa. He discusses in detail the types of habitat favoured by this snail, its life-cycle and seasonal variations in its populations, the effect of ecological factors on its distribution and occurrence, and the relationship between its control and its bionomics, stressing the many aspects of these subjects that require further investigation and suggesting lines for future research. In addition, the author outlines briefly the effect of some human activities (for example, extension of irrigation and agriculture), in their relationship to the snail host, on the incidence of bilharziasis haematobia in the Middle East and Africa. He concludes the paper with a summary of the three basic needs in respect of bilharziasis control: ecological research; prevention of pollution of waters with human excrement; and avoidance of human contact with infective water. PMID:13573115

  10. The hybrid energy spectrum of Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and surface array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M. G.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A comparison between the Middle Drum hybrid energy spectrum and scintillator Surface Detector (SD) spectrum is also shown.

  11. Sedimentary dynamics and palaeotectonic structuring during the Toarcian-Aalenian in the southwestern Middle Atlas (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hammichi, Fatima; Tabyaoui, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    The southwestern Middle Atlas (Morocco), which has long been regarded as a southern extension of the Tabular Middle Atlas (Ain Leuh Causse), actually consists of a broad syncline and narrow anticlinal ridges that were folded between the Liassic and Dogger epochs. Using lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and structural analysis, we draw the geometry of structures during the Late Liassic-Early Dogger epoch and reconstruct the various stages of their evolution. This area, which has been considered a coastal border of the tethyan atlasic trough, corresponds to a distinct basin composed of a mosaic of sub-basins tilting to the west (i.e., toward the Atlantic). These sub-basins are attributable to a double-structuring: (1) SW-NE superimposed on existing anticlinal ridges and (2) submeridian which original direction SSW-NNE seems to indicate an influence of the Atlantic coast. Tectonic segmentation preceded the Early Toarcian anoxic crisis, and tectono-eustatic interactions continued during the Late Liassic and Early Dogger epochs. Sub-basins subsequently functioned alternately as depressions in the early Late Toarcian and early- and -middle Aalenian epochs or as depocentres in the Late Toarcian and Late Aalenian epochs. Tectonics and eustasy caused a palaeobiological subdivision during the Early and Middle Aalenian epochs, as indicated by significant SE-NW segregation between ammonite faunas of Tethyan and northwestern European origin. This study indicates that the original palaeogeographic position of the southwestern Middle Atlas was at the crossroads of the Tethyan and Atlantic margins.

  12. Replication of type 5 adenovirus promotes middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the chinchilla model of otitis media.

    PubMed

    Murrah, Kyle A; Turner, Roberta L; Pang, Bing; Perez, Antonia C; Reimche, Jennifer L; King, Lauren B; Wren, John; Gandhi, Uma; Swords, W Edward; Ornelles, David A

    2015-03-01

    Adenoviral infection is a major risk factor for otitis media. We hypothesized that adenovirus promotes bacterial ascension into the middle ear through the disruption of normal function in the Eustachian tubes due to inflammation-induced changes. An intranasal infection model of the chinchilla was used to test the ability of type 5 adenovirus to promote middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The hyperinflammatory adenovirus mutant dl327 and the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP were used to test the role of inflammation and viral replication, respectively, in promotion of pneumococcal middle ear infection. Precedent infection with adenovirus resulted in a significantly greater incidence of middle ear disease by S. pneumoniae as compared to nonadenovirus infected animals. Infection with the adenovirus mutant dl327 induced a comparable degree of bacterial ascension into the middle ear as did infection with the wild-type virus. By contrast, infection with the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP resulted in less extensive middle ear infection compared to the wild-type adenovirus. We conclude that viral replication is necessary for adenoviral-induced pneumococcal middle ear disease. PMID:25251686

  13. Hydrocarbon habitats of the Middle and Upper Magdalena Valleys, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S. )

    1990-05-01

    The Magdalena River flows northward across the Colombian Andes, traversing a series of en echelon, sediment-filled structural depressions. Until the late Miocene, these basins were parts of much more extensive basins: an extensional back-arc basin during the Triassic-Jurassic; a pericratonic trough during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary; the inner margin of a broad east-facing foreland trough during the middle Tertiary; and, more recently, an array of intermontane of successor basins. Exploration activity since 1918 has resulted in the discovery of more than 2.6 billion bbl of oil and 2.7 tcf gas - more than one-half of the total oil and about one-third of the total gas reserves of the country. The abundant hydrocarbon resources of the Magdalena basins are based on the presence of a thick organic-rich limestone and shale succession (La Luna or Villeta) deposited in an extensive periocratonic trough along the northwestern margin of the Guyana shield during the Cretaceous. In the south, nearer the paleogeographic margin of the trough, shallow marine sands (Caballos and Monserrate) bounding the Cretaceous marine megacycle are the prime reservoirs. To the north, nearer the axis of the trough, Cretaceous sand reservoirs are absent and production is almost exclusively from middle Tertiary molasse deposits. A wide variety of structural and stratigraphic traps developed during or prior to peak of maturation of the Cretaceous source beds. Recent discoveries of giant oil accumulations, such as the San Francisco field, were made in large hanging-wall anticlines previously considered breached and unproductive. From the standpoint of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, the Magdalena basins are not yet mature. The potential for additional major discoveries is excellent and with improved production techniques, current estimates of remaining ultimately recoverable reserves will be revised upward.

  14. Middle Miocene Displacement Along the Rand Detachment Fault, Rand Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulaker, D. Z.; Grove, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Laramide flat-slab subduction extinguished Sierra Nevada pluton emplacement in southern California by ca. 85 Ma as trench-derived sediments were underthrust and accreted beneath arc basement. These relationships are well illustrated in the Rand Mountains, situated just south of the Garlock fault in the northwestern Mojave Desert. Here, accreted rocks within the Rand Mountains are referred to as Rand Schist. The Rand Detachment fault juxtaposes Rand Schist beneath 87 Ma Sierran granitoids. New zircon (U-Th)/He age results from schist and basement juxtaposed across the Rand Detachment fault are 15 ± 3 Ma and 30 ± 5 Ma, respectively. When considered within the context of previously reported thermochronology from the Rand Mountains, our data shows that the Rand Detachment fault in the Rand Mountains is a middle Miocene fault that facilitated extension of the northwest Mojave Desert. This timing is in temporal and spatial agreement with regional extension throughout the Mojave triggered by northern migration of the slab window after collision of the Mendocino Triple Junction with the southern California margin. Further evidence of slab-window-related magmatism in the easternmost Rand Mountains is provided by the 19 Ma Yellow Aster pluton and 19 Ma rhyolite porphyry. It is possible that Miocene extension re-activated an older structure within the Rand Mountains. For example, a similar low-angle fault juxtaposing schist and basement present in the San Emigdio Mountains is believed to have accommodated large scale Late Cretaceous displacement, exhuming Rand Schist and overlying deepest Sierran basement to shallow crustal levels by 77 Ma [1]. However, 68-72 Ma phengite cooling ages and other thermochronology from the Rand Mountains indicates that any pre-Miocene extension in this area must postdate that in the San Emigdio Mountains. [1] Chapman et al., 2012. Geosphere, 8, 314-341.

  15. Modeling middle and final flush effects of urban runoff pollution in an urbanizing catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hua-peng; He, Kang-mao; Fu, Guangtao

    2016-03-01

    In current literature, the first flush effect of urban runoff pollution has been studied and reported extensively. However, the effects of middle and final flushes on pollutant flushing were not given much attention. In addition, few previous studies have discussed the suitability of the widely used exponential wash-off model for describing the middle or final flush processes. In this paper, the Shiyan River catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing catchment in China, is chosen as a study area to analyze the effects of first, middle and final flushes based on monitoring hydrographs and pollutographs. In order to simulate the middle and final flush processes observed in storm events, a new, realistically simple, parsimonious model (named as logistic wash-off model) is developed with the assumption that surface pollutant loads available for wash-off increase with cumulative runoff volume following a logistic curve. The popular exponential wash-off model and the newly developed model are used and compared in simulating the flush processes in storm events. The results indicate that all the three types of pollutant flushing are observed in the experiment; however, the first flush effect is weak, while the middle and final flush effects are substantial. The exponential model has performed well in simulating the first flush process but failed to simulate well the middle and final flush processes. However, the logistic wash-off model has effectively simulated all the three types of pollutant flush, and particularly, it has performed better in simulating the middle and final flush processes than the exponential model.

  16. Middle proterozoic tectonic activity in west Texas and eastern New Mexico and analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The Precambrian history of west Texas and eastern New Mexico is complex, consisting of four events: Early Proterozoic orogenic activity (16309-1800 Ma), formation of the western granite-rhyolite province (WGRP) (1340-1410 Ma), Grenville age tectonics (1116-1232 Ma), and middle Proterozoic extension possibly related to mid-continent rifting (1086-1109 Ma). Pre-Grenville tectonics, Grenville tectonics, and mid-continent rifting are represented in this area by the Abilene gravity minimum (AGM) and bimodal igneous rocks, which are probably younger. We have used gravity modeling and the comparison of gravity and magnetic anomalies with rock types reported from wells penetrating Precambrian basement to study the AGM and middle Proterozoic extension in this area. The AGM is an east-northeast-trending, 600 km long, gravity low, which extends from the Texas-Oklahoma border through the central basin platform (CBP) to the Delaware basin. This feature appears to predate formation of the mafic body in the CBP (1163 Ma) and is most likely related to Pre-Grenville tectonics, possibly representing a continental margin arc batholith. Evidence of middle Proterozoic extension is found in the form of igneous bodies in the CBP, the Van Horn uplift, the Franklin Mountains, and the Sacramento Mountains. Analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies shows that paired gravity and magnetic highs are related to mafic intrusions in the upper crust. Mapping of middle Proterozoic igneous rocks and the paired anomalies outlines a 530 km diameter area of distributed east-west-oriented extension. The Debaca-Swisher terrain of shallow marine and clastic sedimentary rocks is age correlative with middle Proterozoic extension. These rocks may represent the lithology of possible Proterozoic exploration targets. Proterozoic structures were reactivated during the Paleozoic, affecting both the structure and deposition in the Permian basin.

  17. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  18. Extension Specialists: A Self-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, John M.

    1985-01-01

    To document perceived changes in the role of the extension horticulture specialist, a national survey of state horticulture specialists was conducted in 1983. Extension specialists in horticulture appear to be moving away from the traditional activities of farm visits and personal interaction with individual producers. (CT)

  19. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  20. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  1. A New Funding Model for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paul W.; Otto, Daniel M.; Ouart, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional funding model of the Cooperative Extension System has been stretched to its limits by increasing demand for information and programs without concurrent increases in funding by the public sector. As the social, economic, and political environments have evolved and become more complex, extension is often asked to apply the expertise…

  2. 78 FR 57790 - Extension of Time Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Regulation Regarding the Extension of Time Limits, 78 FR 3367 (January 16, 2013) (Proposed Rule). The... Information and Time Limits for Submission of Factual Information, 78 FR 21246 (April 10, 2013). As to the... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-AA94 Extension of Time Limits AGENCY:...

  3. 77 FR 33453 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... public comment on the proposed collection of information involving a three-year extension of the.... Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed extended collection of information is necessary for...

  4. 78 FR 13656 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... Act of 1995, an information collection request to the OMB for a three-year extension, with changes, of... should be sent to the: DOE Desk Officer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office...

  5. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  6. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  7. 78 FR 15034 - Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ....S. Geological Survey Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of an information collection (1028- 0090). SUMMARY: We (the U.S... this information collection to the Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological...

  8. Anticommutative extension of the Adler map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou-Rizos, S.; Mikhailov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    We construct a noncommutative (Grassmann) extension of the well-known Adler Yang–Baxter map. It satisfies the Yang–Baxter equation, it is reversible and birational. Our extension preserves all the properties of the original map except the involutivity.

  9. Colour octet extension of 2HDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, German

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider some aspects of the Manohar-Wise extension of the SM with a colour-octet electroweak-doublet scalar applied to 2HDM. We present theoretical constraints on the parameters of this extension to both the SM and the 2HDM and discuss related phenomenology at LHC.

  10. Extensive Reading: Students' Performance and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez de Morgado, Nelly

    2009-01-01

    Reading is thought to be a crucial skill in the EFL learning process, and Extensive Reading a very useful strategy. However, very few teachers implement it on a regular basis. The process of introducing Extensive Reading (ER) is considered far too expensive, complicated, and time-consuming. One way to encourage its use would be to more deeply…

  11. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  12. 40 CFR 52.1078 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions. 52.1078 Section 52.1078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1078 Extensions. (a) (b) The Administrator hereby extends by six-months...

  13. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Extensions. 1260.23 Section 1260.23.... A copy of the extension must also be forwarded to cognizant Office of Naval Research office. NASA... NASA Grant Officer. Copies are to be forwarded to the cognizant Office of Naval Research office....

  15. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extensions. 1260.23 Section 1260.23.... A copy of the extension must also be forwarded to cognizant Office of Naval Research office. NASA... NASA Grant Officer. Copies are to be forwarded to the cognizant Office of Naval Research office....

  16. Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…

  17. An extension theorem for conformal gauge singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbe, Christian; Tod, Paul

    2009-11-15

    We analyze conformal gauge, or isotropic, singularities in cosmological models in general relativity. Using the calculus of tractors, we find conditions in terms of tractor curvature for a local extension of the conformal structure through a cosmological singularity and prove a local extension theorem along a congruence of timelike conformal geodesics.

  18. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  19. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  20. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  1. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  2. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  3. Developing a Roadmap for Excellence in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kristine S.; Reese, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Trying to figure out the promotion and tenure system is one of the major stressors for new Extension faculty. To help new county-based Extension faculty, their supervisors, committee chairs, and other mentors evaluate progress in the probationary years, a Roadmap with specific guideposts delineating expectations for pre-tenure years was developed.…

  4. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's…

  5. Community Leadership Development: Implications for Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, University Park, PA.

    Designed for extension personnel who are involved in community leadership (CL) programs, this publication summarizes recent national efforts that could be useful in developing and conducting CL programs, and current leadership theory and literature. Part 1 reports the results of the national survey, initiated in April 1985, of extension staff…

  6. Extensive Reading in Enhancing Lexical Chunks Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereyra, Nilsa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the effect of extensive reading and related activities on the acquisition of lexical chunks in EFL students. Seven adult EFL learners with an Intermediate level volunteered to take part in the 16 week project following Extensive Reading principles combined with tasks based on the Lexical…

  7. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  8. 75 FR 4359 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an information collection package to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The package requests a three-year extension of its ``Annual Alternative Fuel Vehicle Acquisition Report for State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets,'' OMB Control Number 1910-5101. This information collection package covers......

  9. Extension Is Unpopular--On the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Heidi B.

    2011-01-01

    The first Extension-authored link in Google Search (2011a) for "how to garden" was ranked an abysmal 82nd. Worse, Internet users selected the top-ranked site significantly more often than they selected the second-ranked one, and they rarely selected any site ranked lower than #10 (Granka, Joachims, & Gay, 2004). An Extension-commissioned poll in…

  10. Bendable Extension For Abrasive-Jet Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Walter

    1989-01-01

    Hard-to-reach places cleaned more easily. Extension for abrasive-jet apparatus bent to provide controlled abrasive cleaning of walls in deep cavities or other hard-to-reach places. Designed for controlled removal of penetrant inspection dyes from inside castings, extension tube also used for such general grit-blasting work as removal of scratches.

  11. Extension Learners' Use of Electronic Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenthner, Joseph F.; Swan, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Extension clientele use electronic technology for entertainment, communication, and business. Educational programs that use electronic technology can enhance learning. To learn more about use of electronic technology among Extension clientele, we surveyed 80 university students and 135 potato farmers. We found that the farmers were likely to use…

  12. 1890 Institutions' Extension Program and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adell, Jr.

    The extension role of Tuskegee Institute and the 16 black land grant colleges established by the Morrill Act of 1890 has been to diffuse among the non-university citizens of America useful and practical information on agriculture, home economics, and related areas. Tuskegee's extension efforts began in 1880 and flourished under the leadership of…

  13. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  14. 75 FR 77663 - Information Collection Extension Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... of the Secretary Information Collection Extension Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... comment on information collection extension request in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995... Information Report--29 CFR part 31 (Title VI of the Civil Rights Act), Nondiscrimination--Disability--29...

  15. Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading…

  16. PERCEPTIONS OF EXTENSION WORK IN MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHENA-GONZALEZ, RODOLFO

    THE STUDY EXPLORED BASIC PATTERNS OF PERCEPTIONS AMONG PROFESSIONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN MEXICO ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF POSSIBLE NEW OBJECTIVES, KINDS OF FUNCTIONS, AND TYPES OF TRAINING FOR ITS EXTENSION AGENTS. DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM 147 EXTENSION AGENTS AND SUPERVISORS, EXPERIMENTALISTS, RESEARCH LEADERS, AND PROFESSORS, BY A MAILED…

  17. Return of the Vampire (Middle School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann; Katz, Claudia Anne

    1996-01-01

    Presents, in the form of a conversation with a vampire, results of a teacher's research on middle school students' reading preferences. Includes a list of favorite books mentioned, favorite authors mentioned, and how students found these favorite books. (SR)

  18. Niskey Lake Middle School. Atlanta, Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Preston, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The proposed Niskey Lake Middle School is designed to have solar heating in half of the building, solar water heating for the entire facility, and solar cooling for the administration area. (Author/MLF)

  19. Middle School PE--Assertiveness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, William H., Jr.; Smith-Fee, Cindy

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a promising approach to the implementation of psycho-social goals in middle school physical education: assertiveness training. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and several assertiveness activities for the curriculum are suggested. (IAH)

  20. Early Adolescence: Active Science for Middle Schoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael; Griffin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Describes activities appropriate for involving middle school students as active participants in the learning process. Topics discussed include archaeology, bulletin boards, dramatizations, physics experiments using the human body, oceanography, and ecology. (CS)

  1. Middle Ear Adenoma: Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Vrugt, B.; Huber, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite modern radiological workup, surgeons can still be surprised by intraoperative findings or by the pathologist's report. Materials & Methods. We describe the case of a 52-year-old male who was referred to our clinic with a single sided conductive hearing loss. He ultimately underwent middle ear exploration and excision of a middle ear tumour followed by second look and ossiculoplasty a year later. Results. Though preoperative CT and MRI scanning were suggestive of a congenital cholesteatoma, the pathologist's report diagnosed a middle ear adenoma. Discussion. Middle ear glandular tumors are extremely rare and, despite numerous histological techniques, continue to defy satisfactory classification. Most surgeons advocate surgical excision though evidence of the tumour's natural course and risk of recurrence is lacking. PMID:25045567

  2. Statistical Content in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…

  3. Whatever Happened to Plowden's Middle Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidd, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The author surveys the brief history of middle schools, from Plowden's recommendation of 12 as the age of transfer, to the present day, and asks if there are now arguments for a review of current arrangements.

  4. Block Copolymer-Based Supramolecular Elastomers with High Extensibility and Large Stress Generation Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noro, Atsushi; Hayashi, Mikihiro

    We prepared block copolymer-based supramolecular elastomers with high extensibility and large stress generation capability. Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerizations were conducted under normal pressure and high pressure to synthesize several large molecular weight polystyrene-b-[poly(butyl acrylate)-co-polyacrylamide]-b-polystyrene (S-Ba-S) block copolymers. Tensile tests revealed that the largest S-Ba-S with middle block molecular weight of 3140k achieved a breaking elongation of over 2000% with a maximum tensile stress of 3.6 MPa and a toughness of 28 MJ/m3 while the reference sample without any middle block hydrogen bonds, polystyrene-b-poly(butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene with almost the same molecular weight, was merely viscous and not self-standing. Hence, incorporation of hydrogen bonds into a long soft middle block was found to be beneficial to attain high extensibility and large stress generation capability probably due to concerted combination of entropic changes and internal potential energy changes originaing from the dissociation of multiple hydrogen bonds by elongation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 13J02357, 24685035, 15K13785, and 23655213 for M.H. and A.N. A.N. also expresses his gratitude for Tanaka Rubber Science & Technology Award by Enokagaku-Shinko Foundation, Japan.

  5. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  6. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  7. Canine hip extension range during gait.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, A M; Stewart, A V; Joubert, K E; Bekker, P

    2008-12-01

    Assessment of canine gait is frequently used by veterinary clinicians to establish the presence of orthopaedic pain. As up to 30% of canine orthopaedic conditions affect the pelvic limb, knowledge of pelvic limb biomechanics during gait is very important. Previous studies have investigated the biomechanics at the tarsus and stifle, but little information is available regarding hip motion during gait. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum hip extension range achieved during the stance phase of gait in normal canines. In addition, this study aimed to determine the difference between maximum passive hip extension and maximum hip extension during gait. Using a sample of 30 morphologically similar normal dogs, mean maximum passive hip extension was measured using a goniometer and mean maximum hip extension range during gait was determined videographically. Inter- and intra-assessor reliability studies performed at the start of the study showed that the measurement tools and techniques used in this study were valid and reliable. The goniometric data showed that mean maximum passive hip extension range was 162.44 degrees (+/-3.94) with no significant difference between the left and the right hind limbs. The videographic data showed that mean maximum hip extension range during gait was 119.9 degrees (+/-9.26) with no significant difference between the left and right hind limbs. The results of this study provided reference values for active and passive hip extension range and showed that the degree of hip extension range required for normal gait is significantly less than maximum passive hip extension range. PMID:19496317

  8. Chronology of polyphase extension in the Windermere Hills, northeast Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, K.J.; Cerveny, P.K.; Perkins, M.E.; Snee, L.W.

    1999-01-01

    Fission-track and 40Ar/39Ar dating and chemical correlation of volcanic strata exposed in the Windermere Hills and northern Pequop Mountains, northeast Nevada, indicate a protracted, polyphase history of Tertiary (late Eocene-late Miocene) extension along the northern margin of a major Cordilleran metamorphic core complex. Early extension is recorded by a west-tilted half graben filled with early Oligocene (34.79 ?? 0.18-39.18 ?? 0.12 Ma) sedimentary rocks in the eastern Windermere Hills above the low-angle Black Mountain detachment fault. The early Oligocene half graben conformably overlies a widespread suite of late Eocene (39.18 ?? 0.12-40.38 ?? 0.06 Ma) calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, reflecting a temporal link between early extension at a high structural level and the end of the ignimbrite flare-up. These strata are cut by east-west-striking normal faults, which are exposed along, and parallel to, the northern margin of the metamorphic complex. Available age data (e.g., between 14.93 ?? 0.08 and 34.79 ?? 0.18 Ma) permit the interpretation that the east-west-striking faults formed at the same time as, or after, large-magnitude unroofing of high-grade rocks. We interpret the east-west-striking faults to accommodate differential uplift of greenschist-grade metamorphic rocks in the upper crust, above a lateral ramp in a west-northwest-directed mylonitic shear zone. Subsequent extension in the Windermere Hills is defined by deep, rapidly filled half grabens of middle Miocene (<7.42 ?? 2.0 to 14.93 ?? 0.08 Ma) age that unconformably overlie older faults and synextensional deposits. These are the youngest half grabens in the region and are inferred to be initiated by extensional stresses imparted to the base of the lithosphere by a laterally spreading mantle plume (e.g., the Yellowstone hotspot) located in southeastern Oregon at this time.

  9. Extension through Partnerships: Research and Education Center Teams with County Extension to Deliver Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullahey, J. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Budget reductions have severely affected resources available to deliver agriculture and natural resource Extension programs in Florida. University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences delivers Extension programming through a unique partnership between research and education centers and county Extension. Science-based information…

  10. Extension Approach for an Effective Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Service in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaran, M.; Vimala, D. Deboral; Chandrasekaran, V. S.; Alagappan, M.; Raja, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Public-funded fisheries extension services have been blamed as poor and responsible for the slow pace of aquaculture development in India. The present investigation aimed to find concrete interventions to streamline the extension service by understanding the research-extension-farmer linkage indirectly in terms of information sources of…

  11. The middle way of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides a critical review of two recent books on evolution: Richard Dawkins’ The Greatest Show on Earth, and Jerry Coyne’s Why Evolution is True, as well as a critique of mainstream evolutionary theory and of natural selection. I also suggest a generalization of sexual selection theory that acknowledges mind as pervasive in nature. Natural selection, as the primary theory of how biological change occurs, must be carefully framed to avoid the long-standing “tautology problem” and must also be modified to more explicitly include the role of mind in evolution. A propensity approach to natural selection, in which “expected fitness” is utilized rather than “fitness,” can save natural selection from tautology. But to be a productive theory, natural selection theory should be placed alongside sexual selection – which is explicitly agentic/intentional – as a twin force, but also placed alongside purely endogenous factors such as genetic drift. This framing is contrary to the normal convention that often groups all of these factors under the rubric of “natural selection.” I suggest some approaches for improving modern evolutionary theory, including a “generalized sexual selection,” a panpsychist extension of Darwin’s theory of sexual selection that explicitly recognizes the role of mind at all levels of nature and which may play the part of a general theory of evolution better than natural selection theory. PMID:23181154

  12. The middle way of evolution.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tam

    2012-09-01

    THIS ESSAY PROVIDES A CRITICAL REVIEW OF TWO RECENT BOOKS ON EVOLUTION: Richard Dawkins' The Greatest Show on Earth, and Jerry Coyne's Why Evolution is True, as well as a critique of mainstream evolutionary theory and of natural selection. I also suggest a generalization of sexual selection theory that acknowledges mind as pervasive in nature. Natural selection, as the primary theory of how biological change occurs, must be carefully framed to avoid the long-standing "tautology problem" and must also be modified to more explicitly include the role of mind in evolution. A propensity approach to natural selection, in which "expected fitness" is utilized rather than "fitness," can save natural selection from tautology. But to be a productive theory, natural selection theory should be placed alongside sexual selection - which is explicitly agentic/intentional - as a twin force, but also placed alongside purely endogenous factors such as genetic drift. This framing is contrary to the normal convention that often groups all of these factors under the rubric of "natural selection." I suggest some approaches for improving modern evolutionary theory, including a "generalized sexual selection," a panpsychist extension of Darwin's theory of sexual selection that explicitly recognizes the role of mind at all levels of nature and which may play the part of a general theory of evolution better than natural selection theory. PMID:23181154

  13. Firefox Extension Framework for News Article Tagging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-08-08

    FEFNAT is a Firefox extension that is used to collect information about user interests when viewing new articles. When a user is reading a news article on a web-page, he can vote whether the article was interesting or not interesting by clicking the appropriate button on the extension's tool-bar. The purpose of this extension is to collet user interests and behavior while viewing new articles so that it can be used in my research formore » predicting how interesting future news article may be for the user.« less

  14. Firefox Extension Framework for News Article Tagging

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, Raymond K.; Buttler, David J.

    2006-08-08

    FEFNAT is a Firefox extension that is used to collect information about user interests when viewing new articles. When a user is reading a news article on a web-page, he can vote whether the article was interesting or not interesting by clicking the appropriate button on the extension's tool-bar. The purpose of this extension is to collet user interests and behavior while viewing new articles so that it can be used in my research for predicting how interesting future news article may be for the user.

  15. A study of FM threshold extension techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Loch, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of three postdetection threshold extension techniques are evaluated with respect to the ability of such techniques to improve the performance of a phase lock loop demodulator. These techniques include impulse-noise elimination, signal correlation for the detection of impulse noise, and delta modulation signal processing. Experimental results from signal to noise ratio data and bit error rate data indicate that a 2- to 3-decibel threshold extension is readily achievable by using the various techniques. This threshold improvement is in addition to the threshold extension that is usually achieved through the use of a phase lock loop demodulator.

  16. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  1. A Primer on a Current Trend. The Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, James J.

    This paper traces the historical development of the middle school from its beginnings in 1893. It presents philosophical background for the middle school concept and compares middle schools and junior high schools. Psychological theories underlying the middle school are discussed, including the theory of the period of "transescence" between…

  2. Classics Reconsidered: Tolstoy in the Middle School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that classic authors can and should still be kept at the center of the literature curricula in the middle school. Uses Leo Tolstoy as an example, describing briefly some of Tolstoy's works that are especially appropriate for early middle school readers, later middle schoolers of average reading ability, and the most able middle school…

  3. The Middle Level Teachers' Handbook. Becoming a Reflective Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Gilbert; Wiseman, Dennis; Bowden, Sandra

    This textbook is designed to help beginning middle level teachers develop teaching philosophies, behaviors, and skills relevant to effective instruction. The eight chapters include the following: (1) Origins and Essential Elements of Middle Level Schools (junior high schools and middle schools); (2) Essential Characteristics of Middle Level…

  4. An Early to Middle Miocene Magnetostratigraphy From the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M.; Perez-Rivares, F. J.; Larrasoana, J. C.; Murelaga, X.; Arenas, C.; Pardo, G.; Cabrera, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Ebro Basin represents the last stage of evolution of the south-pyrenean foreland, which formed since the late Cretaceous as a result of northwards subduction and collision between the Iberian and the European plates. The basin evolved into a land-locked configuration by the latest Eocene when continued compression led to closing of its NW marine gateway. Filling of the basin continued from late Eocene to the late Middle Miocene, leading to the accumulation of a thick sequence of alluvial and lacustrine sediments. In the middle-to-late Miocene the basin opened towards the Mediterranean and river incision cut through the complete Eocene to Miocene sedimentary succession. Nearly undeformed Early to Middle Miocene units crop out extensively in the central parts of the basin and have delivered a long and continuous magnetostratigraphic record. Considering the time resolution achievable with magnetostratigraphy, the numerous studies on the sedimentary sequences of the Ebro Basin provide compelling evidence for stratigraphic completeness and relatively steady sedimentation over the Oligocene-Miocene time interval. The perfect match with the geomagnetic polarity time scale provides a robust and high resolution chronology for the late stages of basin infill, allowing cyclostratigraphic analysis to be made as well as correlation with the various records of regional to global climate change. Noticeably, the Early- Middle Miocene boundary corresponds in the central Ebro Basin with a remarkable and sharp transition from a marly-gypsiferous to a carbonate unit. It represents a significant environmental change from a dry period dominated by a hipersaline water body to a wetter period with rapid installation of an areally extensive carbonate lake. Magnetostratigraphic data indicates that this period of lacustrine expansion is simultaneously recorded in other basins of the Iberian Plate and corresponds to the climatic optimum of the Langhian stage that preceeded the middle

  5. 77 FR 17464 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions...

  6. Extension's Values: A Bridge across Turbulent Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safrit, R. Dale; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Cooperative Extension organizational values systems include personnel values, process values, and product (program) values. The values systems are the basis for making program decisions and a source of professional satisfaction if the values are congruent with beliefs. (SK)

  7. 77 FR 23704 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... Remittance Advice (RA) forms. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information...

  8. 75 FR 4054 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection... of an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). DOE is now is... request, the Recovery Act Reviewer Web site information collection request, covers information...

  9. Two-Way Radio for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoboda, Donald W.

    1970-01-01

    Nebraska has been developing a two-way radio communication system for the Cooperative Extension Service, using the master microwave towers of the statewide emergency communication network. It has increased the efficiency of their limited human and economic resources. (NL)

  10. 77 FR 16022 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... voluntary agreements made through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Better Buildings, Better Plants (BBBP... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office...

  11. Partial ASL extensions for stochastic programming.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-31

    partially completed extensions for stochastic programming to the AMPL/solver interface library (ASL).modeling and experimenting with stochastic recourse problems. This software is not primarily for military applications

  12. 75 FR 38514 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... forms of information technology. DATES: Comments regarding this proposed information collection must...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1672 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1672 Extensions. Pursuant to section 186(a)(4... (until December 31, 1996) the attainment date for the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1672 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1672 Extensions. Pursuant to section 186(a)(4... (until December 31, 1996) the attainment date for the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long...

  15. Mesozoic extension in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, F.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Geophysical data from the southern Appalachians are generally interpreted in terms of Paleozoic collisional tectonics; the later effects of Mesozoic extension are often overlooked or downplayed. This paper reinterprets seismic reflection data from Georgia with the view that Mesozoic extension is responsible for most of the seismic reflection patterns one sees today. The interpretation suggests that geophysical data from a particular area reflect the most recent tectonic event rather than earlier and perhaps more geologically obvious events.

  16. Stuck in the Middle: How and Why Middle Schools Harm Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockoff, Jonah E.; Lockwood, Benjamin B.

    2010-01-01

    Could middle schools be bad for student learning? Could something as simple as changing the grade configuration of schools improve academic outcomes? That's what some educators have come to believe. States and school districts across the country are reevaluating the practice of educating young adolescents in stand-alone middle schools, which…

  17. Improving the Success of Middle Grade Students. Middle School Matters Program No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfanz, Robert; Rodriguez, Gina; Brasiel, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    A student's experience in the middle grades is a selection of classes they go through in a day. If they experience inconsistent expectations across those classes, they and the school will struggle to achieve high outcomes. Middle grade students need to have common behavioral and academic expectations, recognitions, and consequences throughout the…

  18. The Middle School Mess: If You Love Bungee Jumping, You're the Middle School Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Suspended "between childhood and the adult world, pre-teens have been called the toughest to teach." Indeed, one can't touch middle school without hearing about "raging hormones." By all accounts, middle schools are a weak link in the chain of public education. Is it the churn of ill-conceived attempts at reform that's causing all the problems? Is…

  19. Occupational Outlets for Middle Level Training. What Is the Future of Middle Level Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Paul; Cesnich, Janine

    This project intended to determine whether a middle-level employment base existed in manufacturing and service industries in South Australia and to examine current trends and future directions of middle-level (paraprofessional) vocational training. The study used the following methods: literature review; labor market analysis; surveys of…

  20. Middle-Level Reform in High- And Low-Performing Middle Schools: A Question of Implementation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roney, Kathleen; Brown, Kathleen M.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Although reports calling for middle level schooling reform first appeared in the mid-1970s, change has been slow to come. In Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century (1989), the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development outlined eight essential elements of middle level education. Drawing from the Carnegie Council's…