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Sample records for extensively hydrodesulfurized middle

  1. Deep Desulfurization of Extensively Hydrodesulfurized Middle Distillate Oil by Rhodococcus sp. Strain ECRD-1

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Minak-Bernero, V.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    2001-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

  2. Deep desulfurization of extensively hydrodesulfurized middle distillate oil by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M J; Lee, M K; Prince, R C; Minak-Bernero, V; George, G N; Pickering, I J

    2001-04-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

  3. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  4. Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

  5. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  6. Hydrodesulfurization catalysis by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Kevin F.; Schrader, Glenn L.

    1985-12-24

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M.sub.x Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts. The most active catalysts were the "large" cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the "small" cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  7. Climatic conditions governing extensive Azolla bloom during the Middle Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Rolande; Speelman, Eveline N.; Barke, Judith; Konijnendijk, Tiuri; Sinninge Damste, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    Enormous amounts of intact mega- and microspores from the free floating aquatic fern Azolla were found in sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program expedition 302, indicating that Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. In general, the Early/Middle Eocene is characterized by enhanced greenhouse conditions with elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Arctic (~10°C), while tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were only a little warmer than today (with a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 32-34 °C) (Pearson et al., 2007). The consequently reduced temperature gradient between the equator and the poles and the presence of freshwater at the North Pole as indicated by the presence of the freshwater fern Azolla (Brinkhuis et al., 2006) provide important boundary conditions for understanding the hydrological cycle and latent heat transport during this interval. Here we reconstruct variations in SST and mean annual air temperature using the TEX86 and MBT temperature proxies for the Azolla interval. Sediments from around the Arctic Basin have been analyzed, including samples from Alaska, the Mackenzie Basin, Greenland (IODP core 913b), and Denmark. Furthermore, a high resolution sea surface temperature record for the Azolla interval has been constructed from sediment samples from the Lomonosov Ridge, showing a cyclic signal. Model experiments have shown that the here confirmed low equator-to-pole temperature gradient modulated the hydrological cycle. Since the growth of Azolla is restricted to low salinity conditions, changes in the hydrological cycle are proposed to coincide with the cyclic occurrence of Azolla throughout the interval. To confirm the overlapping presence of high quantities of Azolla and increased precipitation, changes in the hydrogen cycle are reconstructed by creating a high resolution hydrogen isotope record throughout the interval. By performing compound specific analyses (δD) on terrestrial derived

  8. Naturally constrained stress profiles through the middle crust during extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, W. M.; Platt, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    We present a method in which paleopiezometry (using electron backscatter diffraction), thermobarometry (using TitaniQ, chlorite-phengite, and Raman spectroscopy), and 2-D thermal modeling can be used to construct naturally constrained profiles of crustal stress in areas of exhumed mid-crustal rocks. As examples, we focus on two metamorphic core complexes, —the Whipple mountains (WMCC) in eastern California, and the Sierra Alhamilla (SAMCC) in southern Spain. Rapid exhumation in both complexes initially occurred in the middle Miocene by distributed ductile shear under high temperature (T) -- low stress (σ ) conditions, evolved toward more localized ductile shear under lower T -- higher σ conditions during cooling, and culminated in cataclasis and discrete brittle fracture as the rocks approached the brittle-ductile transition. The increasing localization and cooling during exhumation allowed earlier microstructures to be preserved, so that rocks in the footwalls of these core complexes represent several points in σ -T space, and by inference σ -depth space. The field- and micro-scale expression of the σ -T distribution varies between the two localities. The WMCC consists of deformed granitoids, and early extensional fabrics form a >2-km-thick zone of gently-dipping mylonite, whereas late fabrics include cross-cutting, more steeply dipping ductile shear zones near the Whipple detachment. Steady-state differential stresses in the WMCC (using the Stipp & Tullis piezometer) range from ˜15 MPa at 550oC in the early mylonites to ˜130 MPa peak stress at the BDT at 300oC in the late shear zones. In the SAMCC, a >1-km-thick belt of mylonitized quartzites and metapelites exhibits two cross-cutting, discrete zones of ultramylonite, themselves overprinted by local folding near the detachment. Stresses range from ˜50 MPa at >500oC to 250 MPa at ˜350oC. Each complex also records transient, strain-rate-dependent interaction between brittle and ductile deformation. In

  9. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  10. Relation of peralkaline magmatism to heterogeneous extension during the Middle Miocene, southeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Volcanism migrated southward in the northern Basin and Range province in the Oligocene and early Miocene to produce voluminous calcalkaline silicic ash flow tuffs. Alkaline volcanism became dominant by middle Miocene (17-14 Ma) as smaller volumes of rhyolite-trachyte-basalt suites were erupted from the relatively small Kane Springs Wash caldera complex in southeastern Nevada. Only minor extension affected the Kane Wash area before the end of calcalkaline activity, but extension expressed by rate of progressive stratal tilt peaked (15-13.5 Ma) with peralkaline magmatism (14.7-14.4 Ma). Variations in distribution, degree, style, and timing of deformation demonstrate heterogeneous extension in the Kane Wash area. Only minor extension and tilting persisted post-middle Miocene (<12 Ma). All major eruptive sources overlap domains of rapid extension. -from Authors

  11. Changes in composition of atmospheric resid upon hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilenko, G.V.; Belan, G.B.; Muchinskii, Y.D.; Polyakova, A.A.

    1984-03-01

    This article examines an atmospheric resid from Romashkino crude before and after hydrodesulfurization in order to show how high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) can be applied to high-molecular-weight organic sulfur compounds and aromatic compounds. The original atmospheric resid and a hydrodesulfurized boiler fuel were subjected to adsorptive separation into fractions. Results are presented from an investigation of the fractions that are the most complex in composition, the ''heavy aromatic'' concentrates, the yields of which before and after hydrodesulfurization were 35% and 25.8% by weight on the original atmospheric resid. The data indicate that in the process of hydrodesulfurization, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings is followed by the splitting of the naphthenic rings. The homologue composition was determined along with the group composition. The distribution curves were investigated for the alkyl ions C /SUB n/ H/sup +/ /SUB 2n+1/ in the singlet monoisotope mass spectra. The number of alkyl substituents on the ring from the structure of the mass spectrum in the region of pseudomolecular ions is calculated. It is concluded that in the hydrodesulfurization of an atmospheric resid from Romashkino crude, hydroaromatic hydrocarbons and polythiaalkanes are removed, and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives of pyrene, chrysene, benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene are accumulated.

  12. Effects of solvents on deep hydrodesulfurization of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Itoh, Tetsuro; Hino, Takuo; Nomura, Masatoshi; Pingyen Qi; Kabe, Toshiaki )

    1993-03-01

    Solvent effects on hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) catalyzed by Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] were investigated under deep hydrodesulfurization conditions. Data for BT and DBT are arranged by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation. Activation energies of HDS of BT and DBT were approximately 21 and 24 kcal/mol respectively, in every solvent. Heats of adsorption of BT and DBT are both estimated to be 22 kcal/mol. Significant solvent effects were found under deep desulfurization conditions, and the values of heat of adsorption for various solvents were estimated from the K[sub sol] obtained. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Middle Tertiary contractile deformation, uplift, extension, and rotation in the San Emigdio Range, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.A.; Carroll, A.R. ); Decelles, P.G. ); Goodman, E.D. )

    1990-05-01

    New data from the San Emigdio Range of southern California provide evidence of major tectonism during the middle Tertiary, including uplift of the adjacent Mojave region, disruption of marine basins, and rotation of the southern tail of the Sierra Nevada. The San Emigdio Range was the site of the southernmost marine deposition in the San Joaquin basin from the earliest through the middle Eocene, overlapping deeply eroded midcrustal granitic rocks. These marine rocks were associated with a northtrending, west-facing shoreline. To the north, the coast probably was embayed to the east as far as the Goler basin of southeastern California. This marine embayment was disrupted and the record of stratigraphic continuity between San Joaquin and Goler basins was destroyed as the result of uplift in the latest Eocene and Oligocene. Conglomerates of the uppermost Eocene and Oligocene nonmarine Tecuya Formation of the San Emigdios comprise an unroofing sequence whose provenance suggests marked uplift and erosion of the Mojave region. Geohistory analysis of the coeval marine Pleito Fm. suggests that the uplift and unroofing was related to contractile deformation. By about 22 Ma, extension replaced contractile deformation in the San Emigdios, as indicated by normal faulting and basaltic volcanism and synchronous extension reported for the adjacent Mojave region. The authors paleomagnetic data from five sites from Tecuya Creek to Pleito Creek reveal that basalts are rotated 44{degree} (clockwise). This rotation occurred prior to 16 Ma and, perhaps between 18-20 Ma, if comparison with the Mojave region is valid. This episode of rotation accounts for most or all of the southwesterly trend of the southern tail of Sierra Nevada basement rocks.

  14. Fission track evidence for widespread early to Middle miocene extension in the northern Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, T.; Miller, E.; Savage, C. . Geological Dept.); Gans, P. . Geological Science Dept.); Brown, R. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The northern Basin and Range province has experienced multiple periods of extension but the precise timing and relative importance of the various periods is poorly known. Geologic data in many areas suggest inception of extension was closely tied with the southward sweep in earliest magmatism, which is Eocene in southern Idaho, Oligocene in east-central Nevada, and Miocene in southern Nevada. Ar/Ar ages suggest that extension continued into the Early Miocene in areas such as the Raft River, Albion, Ruby, and Snake Range metamorphic core complexes. Youthful topography and recent faulting have been taken as indicating that faulting leading to present physiography is commonly younger than [approximately]10 Ma. New apatite fission track cooling age and track length data, supplemented by other information, point to the Early to Middle Miocene as an additional time of very significant extension-induced uplift and range formation. Many ranges in a 700-km-long north-south corridor from the Utah-Nevada-Idaho border to southernmost Nevada experience extension and major exhumation in Early to Middle Miocene time. Whether extension of Early to Middle Miocene age is restricted to this corridor or is more widespread is unclear due to the paucity of similar data to the east and west. Reconnaissance apatite ages from the Toiyabe Range and environs (NV) are [approximately]15 Ma and geologic data indicate Early to Middle Miocene extension at Yerington NV (Proffet and Dillis, 1984). Thus, it appears from the available data that the Early to Middle Miocene was an important, and previously little recognized, period of major extension over broad areas of the northern Basin and Range.

  15. Selectivity of molybdenum catalyst in hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodeoxygenation: effect of additives on dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, M.; Kabe, T.

    1983-06-01

    Kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene on a presulfided molybdena-alumina catalyst were carried out in a high-pressure-flow microreactor. The mechanism discussed is based on selective poisoning studies, using various nitrogen, polyaromatic, sulfur, and oxygen compounds. The nitrogen compounds inhibited the hydrogenation of dibenzothiophene because they adsorbed more strongly than did dibenzothiophene at lower temperatures. At higher temperatures, the nitrogen compounds also hinder the desulfurization together with the hydrogenation of dibenzothiophene. The sulfur and the oxygen compounds retarded all reactions of the desulfurization of dibenzothiophene. The reactions of the desulfurization, the denitrogenation, and the deoxygenation proceed on one type of site and the hydrogenation reactions on another site. 10 figures.

  16. Rapid middle Miocene extension and unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Howard, Keith A.; Fleck, Robert J.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in the northern Ruby Mountains were metamorphosed during Mesozoic crustal shortening and Cenozoic magmatism, but equivalent strata in the southern Ruby Mountains were never buried deeper than stratigraphic depths prior to exhumation in the footwall of a west dipping brittle normal fault. In the southern Ruby Mountains, Miocene sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of this fault date from 15.2 to 11.6 Ma and contain abundant detritus from the Paleozoic section. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He samples of the Eocene Harrison Pass pluton record rapid cooling that peaked ca. 17–15 Ma, while apatite fission track data from Jurassic plutons east and west of the southern Ruby Mountains indicate near-surface temperatures (<60°C) since the Cretaceous. We interpret these data to record rapid unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains during slip on the west dipping brittle detachment between 17–16 and 10–12 Ma, followed by minor high-angle faulting. We interpret published Oligocene to early Miocene K-Ar biotite and zircon fission track dates from the Harrison Pass pluton to be partially reset rather than to directly record fault slip. Our new data, together with published data on the distribution and composition of Miocene basin fill, suggest that rapid middle Miocene slip took place on the west dipping brittle detachment that bounds the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range for 150 km along strike. This fault was thus active during a period of rapid extension (ca. 17–15 to 12–10 Ma) documented widely across the northern Basin and Range Province.

  17. Reactivity and Characterization of Solid State Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, James Henry

    1990-01-01

    The identification of the phase responsible for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity has been the subject of extensive research. In this study, model solid state catalysts prepared from elemental starting materials were synthesized, characterized, and then used to desulfurize thiophene at temperatures ranging from 200-400 ^circC and a pressure of one atmosphere. The results of this work indicate that an increased HDS activity can be correlated with the presence of a poorly crystalline molybdenum sulfide-like phase detected by XRD, HREM, or AEM. The formation of this sulfur-deficient, non-stoichiometric phase could be accomplished by either removing sulfur directly from the catalyst synthesis mixture to yield a non-stoichiometric MoS_{ rm 2-x} moiety, or by introducing a transition metal promoter such as Fe, Co, Ni, or Cu into the system. The promoter atoms induced structural changes in the molybdenum sulfide edge planes by effectively scavenging sulfur during catalyst synthesis to form promoter sulfide species, which enhanced the formation of a non-stoichiometric, highly active molybdenum sulfide. This morphological effect was the primary function of the promoter in this system. All model catalysts displayed similar structure in the (0002) basal plane of MoS_2; however, only the catalytically active samples showed a high concentration of defects and disorder in the (1010), (1011), and (1012) edge planes. The HREM images obtained from these edge planes and their correlation with HDS activity dramatically illustrated the importance of the often-discussed edge plane structure of MoS_2 and its significance on HDS catalysis. Normalization of the HDS activities for the solid state models and a commercial catalyst with O_2 or CO chemisorption uptakes suggested that a similarity may exist between the catalytically active sites of these materials. In-situ XPS revealed that increasing promoter atom concentrations resulted in a more complete reduction of the promoter atom; but

  18. Studies of supported hydrodesulfurization catalysts. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hercules, D.M.

    1995-10-26

    This report describes a series of studies on the following: Mo/titania and Mo/alumina catalysts for thiophene hydrodesulfurization; absorption of metal oxyanion on alumina; particle size effects for Co/silica catalyst for CO hydrogenation; correlation of Mo oxidation states with benzene hydrogenation activity; factor analysis for curve fitting Mo ESCA spectra; and quantitative Raman and ESCA characterization of W/titania catalysts. 27 refs.

  19. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide; a survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-06-01

    Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this protypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydrodesulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties. 96 refs.

  20. Kinematics of faulting in Mine Mountain area of southern Nevada: Evidence for pre-middle Miocene extension

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Cole, J.C. )

    1993-04-01

    Structural analysis has revealed widespread extension associated with discontinuous fault segments previously considered to represent a Mesozoic thrust in the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, of southern Nevada. Complex fault and stratigraphic relations characterize allochthonous Ordovician to Devonian dolomite and local quartzite that are in fault contact above less deformed (but anticlinally arched) Mississippian siltstone in this area. Although initial juxtaposition of the older and younger rocks probably occurred during Mesozoic thrusting, most of 714 small faults examined at 25 sites within the upper plate reflect later extension. Normal faults that chiefly accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are earliest and widespread in the upper plate. These faults are concentrated above the basal fault surface and have dominantly top-to-the-southwest slip, except on the east-dipping flank of the keel where top-to-the-northeast slip is indicated. These relations suggest that the upper plate was extended mostly in place after or, permissibly, during development of the lower plate anticline. Faults that accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are unconformably overlain by middle Miocene volcanic rocks; younger faults that accommodated northwest-directed extension are also interpreted to predate middle Miocene volcanism, although a depositional onlap relation is not preserved. Deformation at Mine Mountain may have been coeval with Oligocene to early Miocene extension that is well known in areas farther north and south in the Basin and Range province but poorly documented in southern Nevada. The authors cannot preclude, however, that extension might have occurred within upper structural levels of the Mesozoic Sevier hinterland.

  1. Deep desulfurization of light oil. 3. Effects of solvents on hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Kabe, Toshiaki )

    1993-04-01

    Solvent effects on hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) catalyzed by Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] were investigated under deep hydrodesulfurization conditions. It was found that type of solvent affects HDS of DBT into biphenyl (BP). By contrast, the formation of cyclohexylbenzene (CHB) was scarcely affected by solvent such as xylene, decalin, tetralin, and n-hexadecane. From this result, it was suggested that desulfurization and hydrogenation proceed on different catalytic sites and that cyclohexylbenzene would be formed by hydrodesulfurization of hexahydrodibenzothiophene as well as hydrogenation of biphenyl.

  2. Extensive middle atmosphere (20-120 KM) modification in the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, Dale

    1990-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) is currently available in the 'GRAM-88' version (Justus, et al., 1986; 1988), which includes relatively minor upgrades and changes from the 'MOD-3' version (Justus, et al., 1980). Currently a project is underway to use large amounts of data, mostly collected under the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) to produce a major upgrade of the program planned for release as the GRAM-90 version. The new data and program revisions will particularly affect the 25-90 km height range. Sources of data and preliminary results are described here in the form of cross-sectional plots.

  3. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  4. A Middle School Extension of Pick's Theorem to Areas of Nonsimple Closed Polygonal Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Wilfred E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an extension of Pick's theorem for simple closed polygonal regions to unions of simple closed polygonal regions. Students are guided to discover Pick's theorem from sets of data including numbers of boundary points and numbers of interior points. (Author/MKR)

  5. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide. II. A survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-01-01

    I. Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this prototypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydro desulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low, negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. II. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties.

  6. Paleomagnetism of the Oligocene Kalamazoo Tuff: implications for middle Tertiary extension in east central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Gans, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Oligocene Kalamazoo Tuff (???35 Ma) was sampled for paleomagnetic analysis across a 100-km-wide zone of highly extended crust in east central Nevada to estimate between-site vertical axis rotations and thus the relative importance of strike-slip faulting to the mechanism of extension. The tilt-corrected data, with sources of error reduced or eliminated, exhibit a 28?? ?? 12?? clockwise rotation of the Schell Creek Range relative to the Kern Mountains region. This rotation implies differential extension accommodated by strike-slip faulting or N-S shortening. The paleomagnetic results also suggest that large changes in strike of layered units near faults with presumed strike-slip movement need not be the result of oroclinal bending, but could result from superimposed sets of orthogonal normal faults. -from Authors

  7. Catalyst, method of preparation and use thereof in hydrodesulfurizing cracked naphtha

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolacini, R.J.

    1980-05-20

    Catalyst comprising magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide is prepared by dry blending particulate alumina with a dried composite of magnesia impregnated with hydrogenation metals of group VIB and group VIII; the catalyst is employed in selective hydrodesulfurization of cracked naphtha.

  8. Middle-Miocene counterclockwise rotation of rocks from west-central Nevada; implications for Basin and Range extension

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Drilling and geophysical data from Dixie Valley and Fallon Basin of west-central Nevada have shown that dip-slip normal faults accommodated post-Miocene Basin and Range extension in this area, but the presence of an earlier, less-understood phase of Basin and Range deformation is suggested in the adjacent West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Clan Alpine Ranges where the late-Miocene basalts lie in angular unconformity on Oligocene to early-Miocene ash-flow tuffs. Paleomagnetic components obtained from the tuffs and underlying gabbroic and basaltic rocks of the Jurassic Humboldt Lopolith have declinations that are statistically different and counterclockwise from the expected Oligo-Miocene and Jurassic directions for the area. Paleomagnetic components from the late-Miocene basalts statistically overlap their expected direction. These data imply that the rocks were rotated counterclockwise during middle-Miocene. The common association of such rotations with strike-slip faulting suggests that this earlier phase of Basin and Range extension was largely a strike-slip faulting deformation. If so, the total amount of extension in the area may be significantly larger than estimates based solely on the moderate tilts (<30/sup 0/) of the ranges.

  9. Warming and extensive glacier recession at Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes during Heinrich Stadial 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, A. E.; Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Hall, B. L.; Lowell, T. V.; Porter, C. T.; Barrell, D. J.; Andersen, B. G.; Kaplan, M. R.; Koffman, T.; Lennon, J.; Rowan, A. V.; Finkel, R. C.; Rood, D.; Schwartz, R.; Vandergoes, M.; Plummer, M. A.; Brocklehurst, S. H.; Kelley, S. E.; Ladig, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The termination of the last ice age featured a major reconfiguration of Earth's climate and cryosphere, yet the underlying causes of these massive changes continue to be debated. Documenting the spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric temperature during deglaciation can help discriminate among potential drivers. Here, we present 10Be surface-exposure chronologies and glaciological reconstructions of ice recession following the Last Glacial Maximum in the New Zealand Southern Alps and Patagonian Andes. Our field sites straddle opposite sides of the South Pacific and record climate changes near Southern Ocean fronts. Most of the deglacial warming in the Southern Alps and southern Andes occurred during the early part of the Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) of the North Atlantic region. We attribute southern mid-latitude warming and glacier recession during HS1 to a southward shift of the Subtropical and Subantarctic Fronts. Because these oceanic fronts are associated with the position of the westerly wind belt, our findings support the concept that a southward shift of Earth's wind belts accompanied the early parts of HS1 cooling in the North Atlantic, leading to major warming and deglaciation in southern middle latitudes.

  10. Fission track thermochronologic constraints on the timing and nature of major Middle Tertiary extension, Ruby Mountains - East Humboldt Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dokka, R.K.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Snoke, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Fission Track (FT) apatite, zircon, and sphene ages were determined from both mylonitic and non-mylonitic rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex. The analyzed sample suite included various mylonitic orthogneisses as well as amphibolitic orthogneisses from the non-mylonitic infrastructural core. Porphyritic biotite granodiorite of the Oligocene Harrison Pass pluton was also dated. FT ages are concordant and range in age from 27 - 24 Ma. These dates reflect rapid cooling of the lower plate from temperatures above 250/sup 0/C to below 100/sup 0/C during the early Miocene. The general concordance of the FT dates with /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar biotite and hornblende plateau ages from the same sample suite suggest an even more pronounced cooling history. This rapid cooling history is considered to reflect large-scale tectonic denudation (intracrustal thinning), a manifestation of intense crustal extension. Mylonitic rocks that originally formed along ductile shear zones in the middle crust (10-15 km) were quickly brought near the surface and juxtaposed against brittly distended rocks deformed under upper crustal conditions. FT data firmly establish the upper age limit on the timing of mylonitization during the shear zone deformation. This rapid cooling interval also coincides with the inferred age of extensive landscape disruption and the development of an alluvial fan-lacustrine system which included the periodic emplacement of landslide deposits (megabreccias).

  11. Hydrodesulfurization reactivities of various sulfur compounds in vacuum gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I.

    1996-08-01

    The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of a vacuum gas oil (VGO) was performed at 360 C (6.9 MPa) over a commercial NiMo catalyst to examine the HDS reactivities of various sulfur compounds which exist in the VGO by means of quantitative pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis. Four representative types of aromatic-skeleton sulfur compounds were observed in the VGO: alkylbenzothiophenes (BTs), alkyldibenzothiophenes (DBTs), alkylphenanthro[4,5-b,c,d]thiophenes (PTs), and alkylbenzonaphthothiophenes (BNTs). Among these, alkyl-BTs exhibited the highest HDS reactivity, whereas alkyl-DBTs with alkyl substituents at the 4 and/or 6 positions appeared to have the least reactivity even though their aromatic-skeleton is smaller than those of both alkyl-PTs and -BNTs. Steric hindrance of alkyl groups at specific positions appears to be a major reason for the low reactivity. Quantum chemical calculations on representative sulfur compounds were carried out to compare molecular parameters with their different HDS reactivities.

  12. Hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene over Mo-based dispersed catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Cooke, W.S.; Eckhardt, S.

    1995-12-31

    The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrocracking (HC) activity and selectivity of several Mo-based catalyst precursors have been examined in model compound reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT). Reactions were carried out at 400{degrees}C with 6.9 MN of H{sub 2} for 30 min. A metal loading of 0.5 mol% (based on DBT) in tridecane as solvent resulted in a low conversion rate and only hydrogenation products. Even the addition of sulfur to the catalyst in a 4:1 molar ratio only led to a minor increase in conversion and HDS. However, a change in the molar ratio of solvent to model compound from 1:1 to 19:1 and a metal loading of 33.16 mol% lead to a dramatic increase in conversion, HDS, and HC. Furthermore, the use of higher boiling point solvents such as hexadecane and octadecane had a beneficial effect on both HDS and HC. The addition of sulfur in a 6:1 ratio of S:metal to the higher-metal-loaded runs had varying effects that were dependent upon the catalyst used.

  13. The Identity Status of African Americans in Middle Adolescence: A Replication and Extension of Forbes and Ashton (1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Curtis W.; Boothe, Barrington

    2002-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of the work of Forbes and Ashton (1998). Seventy-seven African American high school students completed the revised version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. Most of the students were found to be in uncommitted identity statuses. Similar results were found in both ideological and…

  14. A middle Miocene benthic foraminiferal stable isotope record from extensively recrystallised carbonate sediments of IODP Site U1336 in the Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, J.; Hathorne, E. C.; Holbourn, A. E.; Frank, M.

    2013-12-01

    The elemental and isotopic composition of foraminifera is widely used for reconstructing oceanic and climatic conditions in the past. However, ancient foraminiferal tests are altered after deposition through replacement of the original biogenic calcite by secondary (inorganic) calcite. Therefore, it is important to quantify changes in the elemental and isotopic composition of recrystallised tests to assess the reliability of proxy data. Here, we present benthic foraminiferal stable isotope data from IODP Site U1336 where the geochemistry of bulk carbonates and associated pore waters suggests extensive recrystallisation resulting from an enhanced thermal gradient. In sediments older than 20.3 Ma the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of bulk carbonates and associated pore waters exhibit lower values than contemporaneous seawater indicating the incorporation of Sr originating from older carbonates recrystallised deeper in the section. Furthermore, the generally lower Sr/Ca ratios of bulk carbonates from Site U1336 also suggest extensive recrystallisation. Despite the extensive recrystallisation at Site U1336, the stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ18O) of benthic foraminifera (C. wuellerstorfi and C. mundulus) from the middle Miocene (13-16 Ma) is in good agreement with existing records (e.g. Holbourn et al. 2007, Tian et al. 2013). The carbon-isotope events of the Monterey Excursion (including CM 3b, CM 4a, CM 5 and CM 6) can clearly be identified. The CM 3b event displays the highest δ13C values with a maximum of 1.78 ‰ at 15.61 Ma which is in accordance with values measured from Sites 1237 (Nazca Ridge off Peru) and U1337 (706 km southeast from U1336) of 1.72 and 1.74 ‰, respectively at 15.60 Ma. The Middle Miocene cooling at 13.91-13.84 Ma marks the onset of ice-sheet expansion over Antarctica and the drastic increase in δ18O (0.86 ‰) at Site U1336 during that cooling event (CM 6) is comparable to that at Site 1237 (0.79 ‰) (Holbourn et al. 2007) and U1337 (1.00

  15. Hydrodesulfurization of Qaiyarah 80-205 sup 0 C naphtha fraction of alumina supported Co-Mo-oxides; Part 2: Using stopped flow gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, L.H.; Sulaiman, S.T.; AlTamer, M.Y. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors report the effective desulfurization of Qaiyarah 80-205{sup 0}C, naphtha fraction on alumina supported Co-Mo oxides, assembled in a GC column using H{sub 2} as a carrier gas and the stopped-flow technique. Over 90% of sulfur was removed from this partially cracked naphtha and a similar result (Ca 90%) was obtained when hydrodesulfurizing an acid-base treated naphtha. /sup 1/H nmr studies on the chromatographically separated hydrodesulfurized fractions revealed interesting structural parameters which leads to suggestions related to the occurrence of a reforming reaction and the liberation of fresh H{sub 2} gases which further promotes hydrodesulfurization.

  16. Aquatic hazard and biodegradability of light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; Podhasky, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum substances are blended to produce fuels used in transportation and heating. These substances represent the majority by volume of crude oil refined products in the United States. The goal of this research was to develop biodegradability and aquatic toxicity data for four substances; heavy, straight-run naphtha (HSRN), hydro-desulfurized kerosene (HDK), hydro-cracked gas oil (HCGO), and catalytic-cracked gas oil (CCGO). Ready biodegradability tests demonstrated rapid and extensive microbial oxidation of these test substances, indicating a lack of persistence in the aquatic environment. Differences in biodegradation patterns reflected compositional differences in the constituent hydrocarbons. Results of aquatic toxicity tests on alga, cladocera, and fish demonstrated that toxicity was greatest for catalytic-cracked gas oil, which contained a high proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons are more soluble, and hence more bioavailable, resulting in higher toxicity. When expressed on the basis of loading rates, acute toxicity values (LL/EL50) ranged between 0.3 and 5.5 mg L(-1) for all three species, while chronic no-observed-effect loading rates (NOELR) ranged between 0.05 and 0.64 mg L(-1). PETROTOX estimates for acute and chronic toxicity ranged from 0.18 to 2.3 mg L(-1) and 0.06 to 0.14 mg L(-1), respectively, which were generally more conservative than experimental data. PMID:24875905

  17. An approach to preparing porous and hollow metal phosphides with higher hydrodesulfurization activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Limin; Zhang, Shujuan; Wei, Qingwu

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes an effective method for the synthesis of metal phosphides. Bulk and supported Ni 2P, Cu 3P, and CoP were prepared by thermal treatment of metal and the amorphous red phosphorus mixtures. Porous and hollow Ni 2P particles were also synthesized successfully using this method. The structural properties of these products are investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). A rational mechanism was proposed for the selective formation of Ni 2P particles. In experimental conditions, the Ni 2P/SiO 2 catalyst exhibits excellent hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity for dibenzothiophene (DBT).

  18. Mesoporous materials derived from synthetic organo-clays as novel hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Marshall, C.L.; Brenner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Various pore size distributions are found for synthetic organo-clay complexes from which the organic portion has been removed via calcination. The clays are prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice. The organic serves to impart long-range structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. Mesoporous materials are prepared from a host of organic modifiers. For example, pore diameters of 40-50{Angstrom} result from tetraethyl ammonium and celluloses, and polydimethyl diallyl ammonium imparts diameters of about 110{Angstrom} on average. These materials have begun to be explored as hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysts for the mesoporous materials when a model oil feed is used (1% dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). The target application is HDS of an actual heavy crude oil from California.

  19. An approach to preparing porous and hollow metal phosphides with higher hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song Limin; Zhang Shujuan; Wei Qingwu

    2011-06-15

    This paper describes an effective method for the synthesis of metal phosphides. Bulk and supported Ni{sub 2}P, Cu{sub 3}P, and CoP were prepared by thermal treatment of metal and the amorphous red phosphorus mixtures. Porous and hollow Ni{sub 2}P particles were also synthesized successfully using this method. The structural properties of these products are investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). A rational mechanism was proposed for the selective formation of Ni{sub 2}P particles. In experimental conditions, the Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2} catalyst exhibits excellent hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity for dibenzothiophene (DBT). - Graphical abstract: Bulk and supported Ni{sub 2}P, Cu{sub 3}P, and CoP were prepared by thermal treatment of their metal and amorphous red phosphorus mixtures. Porous and hollow Ni{sub 2}P particles were successfully synthesized by this method also. In the experimental condition, a Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2} catalyst exhibits excellent hydrodesulfurization activity for dibenzothiophene. Highlights: > A new synthetic route by heat treating mixtures of metal and red phosphorus in flowing N{sub 2} to prepare corresponding metal phosphides. > Porous and hollow Ni{sub 2}P particles may successfully be obtained using the route. > It is very easy to synthesize other bulk and supported metal phosphides using the mixing of bulk and supported metal and red phosphorus by the method. > The Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2} catalyst synthesized by the route shows a good HDS of dibenzothiophene. > Its operation is simple (only heat treating pure metal and red phosphorus), and the reaction time is short (only 0.5 h).

  20. Extensive Middle Amazonian mantling of debris aprons and plains in Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars: Implications for the record of mid-latitude glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.

    2015-11-01

    The mid-latitudes of Mars are host to a record of recent episodes of accumulations of ice-rich materials. The record includes debris aprons, interpreted to be debris-covered glaciers, that may represent the preserved remnants of a much more extensive ice sheet. We assessed the possibility of former glacial extents by examining debris aprons and the surrounding plains in Deuteronilus Mensae. Geomorphic units and stratigraphic relationships were mapped and documented from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera images, and crater retention ages were estimated from crater size-frequency distributions. Three major units are observed within the study area: debris aprons, lower plains, and upper plains. Debris aprons exhibit characteristics typical for these features documented elsewhere and in previous studies, including integrated flow lineations and patterns, convex-upward profiles, and knobby and brain terrain surface textures. A lower bound on the age for debris aprons is estimated to be 0.9 Ga. Debris aprons are superposed on a lower plains unit having a lower bound age of 3.3-3.5 Ga. A 50-100 m thick upper plains unit superposes both debris apron landforms and lower plains units and has a best-fit minimum age of 0.6 Ga. The upper plains unit exhibits characteristics of atmospherically-emplaced mantle material, including fine-grained nature, sublimation textures, cyclic layering, draping character, and widespread spatial distribution. Fracturing and subsequent sublimation/erosion of upper plains on debris aprons has contributed to many of the surface textures on debris aprons. The upper plains unit has also been eroded from the lower plains and plateaus, evidenced by isolated blocks of upper plains in the interiors of craters and on the walls and tops of plateaus. While no conclusive evidence diagnostic of former cold-based ice sheets are observed in the plains within the study region, such

  1. [In situ FTIR and XPS study on selective hydrodesulfurization catalyst of FCC gasoline].

    PubMed

    Qiherima; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Yun-hong; Li, Hui-feng; Xu, Guang-tong

    2011-07-01

    Improvement of the selectivity of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) for hydrogenation (HYD) of olefins is crucial to produce sulfur-free (S < 0.001%) gasoline from fluid catalytic-cracked (FCC) gasoline. A series of sulfided CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts with different metal loading were prepared by pore-filling impregnation. MoS2 and COMoS active phases on the surface of sulfided COMo/Al2O3 catalyst were identified and analyzed quantitatively by XPS and in-situ FTIR of adsorbed CO. The results reveal that the increase in COMoS phase on the catalyst surface improves the HDS activity and selectivity. And the HDS selectivity correlates linearly with the ratio of active site number of CoMoS and MoS2, the higher the ratio of active site number of CoMoS and MoS2, the better the HDS selectivity. In situ variable temperature FTIR analysis shows that CoMoS phase has stronger electron accepting ability than MoS2. The strong electron deficient property of CoMoS active sites is the main reason for its excellent HDS activity and selectivity. PMID:21942017

  2. Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Rhodium Phosphide: Comparison with Rhodium Metal and Sulfide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, John R.; Bowker, Richard H.; Gaudette, Amy F.; Smith, Mica C.; Moak, Cameron E.; Nam, Charles Y.; Pratum, Thomas K.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2010-12-15

    Silica-supported rhodium phosphide (Rh2P/SiO2) catalysts were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and chemisorption measurements. XRD and TEM analysis of a 5 wt.% Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst confirmed the presence of well-dispersed Rh2P crystallites on the silica support having an average crystallite size of 10 nm. NMR spectroscopy showed unsupported and silica-supported Rh2P to be metallic and XPS spectroscopy yielded a surface composition of Rh1.94P1.00 that is similar to that expected from the bulk stoichiometry. The 5 wt.% Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst exhibited a higher dibenzothiophene (DBT) hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity than did Rh/SiO2 and sulfided Rh/SiO2 catalysts having a similar Rh loading and was also more active than a commercial NiAMo/Al2O3 catalyst. The Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst showed excellent stability over a 100 h DBT HDS activity measurement and was more S tolerant than the Rh/SiO2 catalyst. The Rh2P/SiO2 catalyst strongly favored the hydrogenation pathway for DBT HDS, while the Rh/SiO2 and sulfided Rh/SiO2 catalysts favored the direct desulfurization pathway.

  3. Mechanistic insights on the hydrodesulfurization of biphenyl-2-thiol with nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres-Nieto, Jorge; Brennessel, William W; Jones, William D; García, Juventino J

    2009-03-25

    The reactivity of the nickel(I) dimer [(dippe)Ni(mu-H)](2) (1) with biphenyl-2-thiol was explored with the aim of clarifying the key step of sulfur extrusion during the hydrodesulfurization process using dibenzothiophene (DBT). These reactions were monitored by variable temperature NMR experiments which allowed the complete characterization and isolation of [(dippe)(2)Ni(2)(mu-H)(mu-S-2-biphenyl)] (3). The latter compound evolves to the terminal nickel-hydride [(dippe)Ni (eta(1)-C-2-biphenyl)(H)] (4) and transient [(dippe)NiS] (5), to ultimately yield [(dippe)(2)Ni(2)(mu-S)] (2) and biphenyl as the resulting HDS products. The reactivity of 1 and biphenyl-2-thiol was examined using different ratios of reactants, which allowed preparation of [(dippe)Ni(eta(1)-S-biphenyl-2-thiolate)(2)] (6) when using an excess of this substrate. The reactivity of 6 with 1 was addressed, yielding compound 2 and an equivalent amount of biphenyl. PMID:19292493

  4. Materials derived from synthetic organo-clay complexes as novel hydrodesulfurization catalyst supports.

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K. A.; Marshall, C. L.; Brenner, J. R.; Song, K.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    A series of mesoporous synthetic organo-clay complexes has been prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice, followed by calcination to remove the organics. The organic serves to impart structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. The choice of organic modifier can be used to control the pore structure of the resulting mesoporous materials. Pore size distributions appear in some cases to be related to the type of polymer packing upon clay formation in situ. These materials are being explored as Co Mo hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary HDS results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysis for the mesoporous materials when a model heavy oil feed is used (1 wt% S as dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). Temperature programmed reduction experiments of used catalysts suggest a relationship between HDS activity and ease of reduction of the CoMo/clay catalysts. Reactivity of the CoMo clay also correlates with the percentage of mesopore volume remaining after reaction. Losses in mesopore volume are largely recouped by recalcination, suggesting that reversible coke is formed inside the pore structure of clays faster than inside conventional alumina.

  5. Developing and Evaluating the Impact of an Extension-Based Train-the-Trainer Model for Effectively Disseminating Food Safety Education to Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Pratt, Carrie; Skolits, Gary J.; Burney, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are an understudied, but meaningful, population when it comes to food safety education. With the proliferation of pathogenic microbes and changes in eating habits of Americans, today's youth are more at risk of contracting a foodborne illness than previous generations. Hands On: Real World Lessons for Middle School Classrooms…

  6. Hydrodesulfurization on Transition Metal Catalysts: Elementary Steps of C-S Bond Activation and Consequences of Bifunctional Synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yik, Edwin Shyn-Lo

    The presence of heteroatoms (e.g. S, N) in crude oil poses formidable challenges in petroleum refining processes as a result of their irreversible binding on catalytically active sites at industrially relevant conditions. With increasing pressures from legislation that continues to lower the permissible levels of sulfur content in fuels, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the aptly named reaction for removing heteroatoms from organosulfur compounds, has become an essential feedstock pretreatment step to remove deleterious species from affecting downstream processing. Extensive research in the area has identified the paradigm catalysts for desulfurization; MoSx or WSx, promoted with Co or Ni metal; however, despite the vast library of both empirical and fundamental studies, a clear understanding of site requirements, the elementary steps of C-S hydrogenolysis, and the properties that govern HDS reactivity and selectivity have been elusive. While such a lack of rigorous assessments has not prevented technological advancements in the field of HDS catalysis, fundamental interpretations can inform rational catalyst and process design, particularly in light of new requirements for "deep" desulfurization and in the absence of significant hydrotreatment catalyst developments in recent decades. We report HDS rates of thiophene, which belongs to a class of compounds that are most resistant to sulfur removal (i.e. substituted alkyldibenzothiophenes), over a range of industrially relevant temperatures and pressures, measured at differential conditions and therefore revealing their true kinetic origins. These rates, normalized by the number of exposed metal atoms, on various SiO 2-supported, monometallic transition metals (Re, Ru, Pt), range several orders of magnitude. Under relevant HDS conditions, Pt and Ru catalysts form a layer of chemisorbed sulfur on surfaces of a metallic bulk, challenging reports that assume the latter exists as its pyrite sulfide phase during reaction. While

  7. Simultaneous hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation over MoS{sub 2}-based catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Wei, B.; Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    Simultaneous hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrogenolysis (HYC) and hydrogenation (HYG) of model compounds were studied under high pressure with MoS{sub 2}-based catalysts. Such reactions are related to conversion of coal, heavy oil and resid as well as waste materials. Three metal sulfide catalysts have been examined, including dispersed MoS{sub 2} catalyst derived in-situ from ammonium tetrathiomolybdate [ATTM, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4}] and sulfided Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CR-344) and Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CR-424) catalysts from Criterion. In order to investigate the catalytic functions of these catalysts and the influence of co-reactants, five model compounds were examined both as individual reactants and as 5-component mixture in this work, including (1) 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (100%), abbreviated as NMBB, (2) pyrene (99%), (3) dibenzothiophene (98%), abbreviated as DBT, (4) quinoline (99%), and (5) eicosane (99%). The experiments with 5-component mixture showed that the patterns of product distributions strongly depend on the type of catalysts, and the trends do not always parallel with those for single-component tests, indicating the influence of co-reactants. In general, pyrene and eicosane were hardest to convert in the mixtures. The dispersed MoS{sub 2} catalyst (ATTM as precursor) showed higher capabilities on HDN and hydrogenation of pyrene, but lower HDS/conversion of DBT. Compared with the other two catalysts, CR-424 was much more active for NMBB conversion than for pyrene conversion. Overall, CR-424 catalyst appears to be the most effective on HDS, HDN and on hydrogenolysis of C-C bond in NMBB.

  8. A 13-week dermal repeat-dose neurotoxicity study of hydrodesulfurized kerosene in rats.

    PubMed

    Breglia, Rudolph; Bui, Quang; Burnett, Donald; Koschier, Francis; Lapadula, Elizabeth; Podhasky, Paula; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    A 13-week dermal repeat-dose toxicity study was conducted with hydrodesulfurized (HDS) kerosene, a test material that also met the commercial specifications for aviation turbine fuel (jet A). The objectives were to assess the potential for target organ toxicity and neurotoxicity. The HDS kerosene was applied to the shaved backs of Sprague-Dawley CD rats, 12/sex/group, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk in doses of 0 (vehicle control), 165 mg/kg (20% HDS kerosene), 330 mg/kg (40% HDS kerosene), or 495 mg/kg (60% HDS kerosene). Additional rats (12/sex) from the control and the high-dose groups were held without treatment for 4 weeks to assess recovery. Standard parameters of toxicity were investigated during the in-life phase. At necropsy, organs were weighed and selected tissues were processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurobehavioral evaluations included tests of motor activity and functional observations that were conducted pretest, at intervals during the exposure period and after recovery. No test substance-related effects on mortality, clinical observations (except dermal irritation), body weight, or clinical chemistry values were observed. A dose-related increase in skin irritation, confirmed histologically as minimal, was evident at the dosing site. The only statistically significant change considered potentially treatment related was an increase in the neutrophil count in females at 13 weeks. No test article-related effects were observed in the neurobehavioral assessments or gross or microscopic findings in the peripheral or central nervous system tissues in any of the dose groups. Excluding skin irritation, the no observed adverse effect level value for all effects was considered 495 mg/kg/d. PMID:24351872

  9. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: reproductive and developmental effects of hydrodesulfurized kerosine.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; Lapadula, L; White, R; Feuston, M; Krueger, A; Rodriquez, S

    1997-10-24

    Hydrodesulfurized kerosine (HDS kerosine), applied dermally, was tested for reproductive and developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, using a modified OECD Guideline 421, Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Screening Protocol. A preliminary acute dermal irritancy test demonstrated that dilution of HDS kerosine in either a light (100 Saybolt universal seconds, SUS) or moderate viscosity (340 SUS) USP mineral oil reduced irritation of the neat material comparably. Similar dermal absorption was observed in vitro for neat HDS kerosine or diluted in either of the mineral oils. HDS kerosine diluted to 494 (60%), 330 (40%), or 165 (20%) mg/kg/day in Squibb mineral oil (340 SUS) was applied daily at 1 ml/kg to the shaved backs of rats for 7 wk (premating, mating to d 19 of gestation) to females and 8 wk to males. Dams and litters were sacrificed on postpartum d 4 and males were sacrificed within the following week. HDS kerosine produced slight to moderate skin irritation at the highest dose in both sexes but no apparent maternal, reproductive, or developmental toxicity. No clinical signs of toxicity and no effects on body weight, food consumption, or absolute organ weights were observed. Relative kidney weights were heavier in male rats at the high dose. Skin changes were observed microscopically in male rats in all groups and in females at the high dose. No microscopic changes were observed in reproductive organs of parental animals. There were no differences in mean number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, and live pups per litter, and no gross anomalies were observed. Pups born from treated dams showed comparable body weights and weight gains to controls. The viability index on postpartum d 4 was > or = 93%. In conclusion, the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for HDS kerosine for reproductive and developmental toxicity in rats is 494 mg/kg/d. PMID:9316644

  10. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from thermal pre-treatment of waste hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Huang, Hong-Hsin

    2007-09-01

    Despite increasing environmental concerns and stringent limitations on the sulfur content in fuels, many waste hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts containing Co, Mo, Ni and V are generated in the petroleum refining process. To recover valuable metals in the waste HDS catalysts via hydrometallurgy, thermal treatment is usually performed first to remove contaminants (residual oil, carbon and sulfur) present on the surface of catalysts. In this study, the mass partitions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different media (aqueous, particulate and gaseous) were quantified in order to determine the efficiency of three different air pollution control devices, cooling unit, filter and glass cartridge, on PAH removal. An afterburner and two furnace temperatures were used to observe the effect on the PAH contents of the treated residues. Results show that total-PAH content in treated residues decreased with the pyrolysis temperature of the primary furnace, while those generated in flue gases were destroyed by the afterburner at an efficiency of approximately 95%. In addition, the thermal process converts high molecular weight PAHs to low molecular weight PAHs, and the afterburner temperature involved (1200 degrees C) was high enough to prohibit the generation of high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs), leading to the domination of low molecular weight PAHs (LM-PAHs) in flue gases, while treated residues were dominated by HM-PAHs. Finally, information on metal contents and their concentrations in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure in waste HDS catalyst and thermal treated residues are examined as an index of the potential for metal recovery. PMID:17531290

  11. Developing Enzyme and Biomimetic Catalysts for Upgrading Heavy Crudes via Biological Hydrogenation and Hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, A P

    2006-08-22

    The recovery and conversion of heavy oils is limited due to the high viscosity of these crudes and their high heteroatom content. Conventional technology relies on thermochemical hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization to address these problems and is energy intensive due to the high operating temperature and pressure. This project was initiated to explore biological catalysts for adding hydrogen to the heavy oil molecules. Biological enzymes are efficient at hydrogen splitting at very mild conditions such as room temperature and pressure, however, they are very specific in terms of the substrates they hydrogenate. The goal of the project was to investigate how the specificity of these enzymes can be altered to develop catalysts for oil upgrading. Three approaches were used. First was to perform chemical modification of the enzyme surface to improve binding of other non-natural substrates. Second approach was to expose the deeply buried catalytic active site of the enzyme by removal of protein scaffolding to enable better interaction with other substrates. The third approach was based on molecular biology to develop genetically engineered systems for enabling targeted structural changes in the enzyme. The first approach was found to be limited in success due to the non-specificity of the chemical modification and inability to target the region near the active site or the site of substrate binding. The second approach produced a smaller catalyst capable of catalyzing hydrogen splitting, however, further experimentation is needed to address reproducibility and stability issues. The third approach which targeted cloning of hydrogenase in alternate hosts demonstrated progress, although further work is necessary to complete the cloning process. The complex nature of the hydrogenase enzyme structure-function relationship and role of various ligands in the protein require significant more research to better understand the enzyme and to enable success in strategies in

  12. Catalytic reactor and organometallic model studies of the mechanism of thiophene hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.

    1987-06-01

    The reactivity of transition metal complexes of thiophene (Th) and 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrothiophenes (DHT) and catalytic reactor studies of thiophene and the dihydrothiophenes have been used to examine the mechanism for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. Catalytic deuterium exchange of thiophene over HDS catalysts was modeled by the reaction of ..pi..-thiophene complexes, CpRu(Th)/sup +/ (where Th=thiophene, 2, or 3 methylthiophene or 2,5-dimethylthiophene) in CD/sub 3/OD with OH/sup -/. Reactor studies with thiophene and 2,3- and 2,5-DHT were done at 300/sup 0/ and 400/sup 0/C over a Re/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ HDS catalyst. Deuterodesulfurization studies established that 2,5-DHT directly eliminates butadiene while butadiene formation from 2,3-DHT must involve several surface steps over the catalyst. Several reactions of the dihydrothiophenes over HDS catalysts were modeled using transition metal complexes of 2,3 and 2,5-DHT. The S-bound 2,3-DHT in W(CO)/sub 5/(2,3-DHT) is converted to tetrohydrothiophene upon treatment with HCl. When Fe/sub 2/(CO)/sub 9/ is reacted in THF with 2,3-DHT though, no isolable Fe(CO)/sub 4/(2,3-DHT) complex is obtained, but small amounts of 2,5-DHT are observed by /sup 1/H NMR. Reaction of 2,5-DHT with Fe/sub 2/(CO)/sub 9/ does result in the formation of Fe(CO)/sub 4/(2,5-DHT), which readily eliminates butadiene.

  13. Correct primary structure assessment and extensive glyco-profiling of cetuximab by a combination of intact, middle-up, middle-down and bottom-up ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Daniel; Jabs, Wolfgang; Resemann, Anja; Evers, Waltraud; Evans, Catherine; Main, Laura; Baessmann, Carsten; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Suckau, Detlev; Beck, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency received recently the first marketing authorization application for a biosimilar monoclonal antibody (mAb) and adopted the final guidelines on biosimilar mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins. The agency requires high similarity between biosimilar and reference products for approval. Specifically, the amino acid sequences must be identical. The glycosylation pattern of the antibody is also often considered to be a very important quality attribute due to its strong effect on quality, safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics and potency. Here, we describe a case study of cetuximab, which has been marketed since 2004. Biosimilar versions of the product are now in the pipelines of numerous therapeutic antibody biosimilar developers. We applied a combination of intact, middle-down, middle-up and bottom-up electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques to characterize the amino acid sequence and major post-translational modifications of the marketed cetuximab product, with special emphasis on glycosylation. Our results revealed a sequence error in the reported sequence of the light chain in databases and in publications, thus highlighting the potency of mass spectrometry to establish correct antibody sequences. We were also able to achieve a comprehensive identification of cetuximab’s glycoforms and glycosylation profile assessment on both Fab and Fc domains. Taken together, the reported approaches and data form a solid framework for the comparability of antibodies and their biosimilar candidates that could be further applied to routine structural assessments of these and other antibody-based products. PMID:23924801

  14. Correct primary structure assessment and extensive glyco-profiling of cetuximab by a combination of intact, middle-up, middle-down and bottom-up ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Daniel; Jabs, Wolfgang; Resemann, Anja; Evers, Waltraud; Evans, Catherine; Main, Laura; Baessmann, Carsten; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Suckau, Detlev; Beck, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency received recently the first marketing authorization application for a biosimilar monoclonal antibody (mAb) and adopted the final guidelines on biosimilar mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins. The agency requires high similarity between biosimilar and reference products for approval. Specifically, the amino acid sequences must be identical. The glycosylation pattern of the antibody is also often considered to be a very important quality attribute due to its strong effect on quality, safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics and potency. Here, we describe a case study of cetuximab, which has been marketed since 2004. Biosimilar versions of the product are now in the pipelines of numerous therapeutic antibody biosimilar developers. We applied a combination of intact, middle-down, middle-up and bottom-up electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques to characterize the amino acid sequence and major post-translational modifications of the marketed cetuximab product, with special emphasis on glycosylation. Our results revealed a sequence error in the reported sequence of the light chain in databases and in publications, thus highlighting the potency of mass spectrometry to establish correct antibody sequences. We were also able to achieve a comprehensive identification of cetuximab's glycoforms and glycosylation profile assessment on both Fab and Fc domains. Taken together, the reported approaches and data form a solid framework for the comparability of antibodies and their biosimilar candidates that could be further applied to routine structural assessments of these and other antibody-based products. PMID:23924801

  15. Mössbauer Spectroscopy Investigation and Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Iron–nickel Phosphide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudette, Amy F.; Burns, Autumn W.; Hayes, John R.; Smith, Mica C.; Bowker, Richard H.; Seda, Takele; Bussell, Mark E.

    2010-05-25

    Unsupported and silica-supported FexNi2-xPy catalysts having a range of metal compositions (0 < x 6 2.0) were investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the results correlated with the surface and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) properties of the supported catalysts. Mössbauer spectroscopy permits determination of the relative site occupancy of Fe atoms in tetrahedral (M(1)) and pyramidal (M(2)) sites in the FexNi2-xPy materials. Fe atoms preferentially occupy M(2) sites for materials with significant Fe contents (x > ~0.60), but the Fe site preference reverses as the Fe content decreases (x < ~0.60). Similar occupation trends are observed for the unsupported and silica-supported FexNi2-xPy materials. Thiophene HDS measurements of the FexNi2-xPy/SiO2 catalysts revealed catalysts with high Fe contents (0.80 6 x 6 2.00) to have low activities, while the activities of Ni-rich catalysts increased dramatically with increased Ni content (0.03 6 x 6 0.60). The highest HDS activity was measured for a catalyst having a nominal precursor composition of Fe0.03Ni1.97P2.00/SiO2; this catalyst was 40% more active than a optimized nickel phosphide catalyst prepared from a precursor having a nominal composition of Ni2.00P1.60/SiO2. The 25 wt.% Fe0.03Ni1.97P2.00/SiO2 catalyst also had a dibenzothiophene HDS activity just over 10% higher than that of the 25 wt.% Ni2.00P1.60/SiO2 catalyst at 548 K. The trend of increasing HDS activity for the FexNi2-xPy/ SiO2 catalysts correlates with preferential Fe occupation of M(1) sites (and, therefore, Ni occupation of M(2) sites). Supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and oxygen chemisorption measurements, we conclude that the high activity of Ni-rich FexNi2-xPy/SiO2 catalysts can be traced to a high surface density of Ni in M(2) sites that are resistant to site blockage due to S incorporation.

  16. The age and origin of the Labyrinth, western Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Evidence for extensive middle Miocene subglacial floods and freshwater discharge to the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Adam R.; Marchant, David R.; Kowalewski, Douglas E.; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Webb, Laura E.

    2006-07-01

    A 50+-km-long network of bedrock channels and scoured terrain occupies the ice-free portion of a major trough that crosses the Transantarctic Mountains in southern Victoria Land. The channels, collectively termed the Labyrinth, emerge from beneath the margin of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (Wright Upper Glacier) and are incised into a 300-m-thick sill of Ferrar Dolerite at the head of Wright Valley. Upper- and intermediate-elevation erosion surfaces of the Labyrinth exhibit striations and molding characteristic of glacial erosion. Channels and canyons on the lower surface are as much as 600 m wide and 250 m deep, have longitudinal profiles with many reverse gradients, and contain potholes >35 m deep at tributary junctions. These characteristics are most consistent with incision from fast-flowing subglacial meltwater; estimated discharge is on the order of 1.6 2.2 × 106 m3s-1. Our 40Ar/39Ar analyses of volcanic tephra from the Labyrinth show that the channels are relict, that major channel incision predates 12.4 Ma, and that the last major subglacial flood occurred sometime between 14.4 Ma and 12.4 Ma. The most plausible origin for the Labyrinth is erosion associated with episodic drainage of subglacial lakes in East Antarctica. One compelling possibility is that discharge of large volumes of subglacial meltwater to the Southern Ocean, and to the Ross Sea in particular, may have coincided with, and contributed to, oscillations in regional and/or global climate during the middle Miocene.

  17. Hydrodesulfurization on Transition Metal Catalysts: Elementary Steps of C-S Bond Activation and Consequences of Bifunctional Synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yik, Edwin Shyn-Lo

    The presence of heteroatoms (e.g. S, N) in crude oil poses formidable challenges in petroleum refining processes as a result of their irreversible binding on catalytically active sites at industrially relevant conditions. With increasing pressures from legislation that continues to lower the permissible levels of sulfur content in fuels, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the aptly named reaction for removing heteroatoms from organosulfur compounds, has become an essential feedstock pretreatment step to remove deleterious species from affecting downstream processing. Extensive research in the area has identified the paradigm catalysts for desulfurization; MoSx or WSx, promoted with Co or Ni metal; however, despite the vast library of both empirical and fundamental studies, a clear understanding of site requirements, the elementary steps of C-S hydrogenolysis, and the properties that govern HDS reactivity and selectivity have been elusive. While such a lack of rigorous assessments has not prevented technological advancements in the field of HDS catalysis, fundamental interpretations can inform rational catalyst and process design, particularly in light of new requirements for "deep" desulfurization and in the absence of significant hydrotreatment catalyst developments in recent decades. We report HDS rates of thiophene, which belongs to a class of compounds that are most resistant to sulfur removal (i.e. substituted alkyldibenzothiophenes), over a range of industrially relevant temperatures and pressures, measured at differential conditions and therefore revealing their true kinetic origins. These rates, normalized by the number of exposed metal atoms, on various SiO 2-supported, monometallic transition metals (Re, Ru, Pt), range several orders of magnitude. Under relevant HDS conditions, Pt and Ru catalysts form a layer of chemisorbed sulfur on surfaces of a metallic bulk, challenging reports that assume the latter exists as its pyrite sulfide phase during reaction. While

  18. MCM-41-supported cobalt-molybdenum catalysts for deep hydrodesulfurization of diesel and jet fuel feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday Tsrpr

    Regulatory issues require new catalysts for the deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of refractory polyaromatic sulfur compounds such as 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) present in diesel and jet fuel. Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2 ) supported on mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 and promoted by cobalt was hypothesized to have superior activity for deep HDS because of MCM-41's (1) high surface area and uniform mesopores and (2) superior acidity as compared to conventional supports such as gamma-alumina (gamma-Al 2O3). This study examines the role of MCM-41 as a support for new cobalt (Co)-molybdenum (Mo) HDS catalysts. At CoO-MoO3 loadings typical of commercially available HDS catalysts, MCM-41-supported catalysts were only slightly better. At higher loadings---27.0% (by weight) MoO3 and 5.8% CoO---MCM-41-supported catalysts were twice more active than the commercial catalyst. This difference in activities is related to the degree of MoS2 stacking. Remarkable increase in the conversion of 4,6-DMDBT was observed over MCM-41-supported catalysts with decreasing SiO2/Al2O 3 ratio. More significantly, the SiO2/Al2O 3 ratio of MCM-41 has a profound effect on product distribution and catalyst selectivity. Irrespective of CoO-MoO3 loading, catalysts using MCM-41 with a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 50 convert more of 4,6-DMDBT through the highly desirable hydrogenolysis pathway. The acidity of these catalysts was measured and correlated to their selectivities for hydrogenolysis and hydrocracking. Co-Mo/MCM-41 continued to demonstrate activities twice that of the commercial catalyst for the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT in petroleum-derived feedstocks such as light cycle oil. However, for a blend of coal- and petroleum-derived feedstocks, nitrogen from the coal-derived liquid inhibited both catalysts for the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT. Basic nitrogen, e.g., quinoline, significantly retards the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT over both catalysts. Non-basic carbazole, on the other hand, inhibited the MCM-41-supported

  19. Extensive investigation of the sap flow of maize plants in an oasis farmland in the middle reach of the Heihe River, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liwen; He, Zhibin; Zhao, Wenzhi; Yang, Qiyue

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of the sap flow characteristics of maize plants is critical for improving irrigation water-use efficiency, especially for regions facing water resource shortages. In this study, sap flow rates, related soil-physics and plant-growth parameters, and meteorological factors, were simultaneously monitored in a maize field in two consecutive years, 2011 and 2012, and the sap flow rates of the maize plants were extensively analyzed based on the monitored data. Seasonal and daily variational characteristics were identified at different growth stages and under different weather conditions, respectively. The analyses on the relationships between sap flow rate and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), as well as several plant-growth parameters, indicate that the irrigation schedule can exert an influence on sap flow, and can consequently affect crop yield. The ranking of the main meteorological factors affecting the sap flow rate was: net radiation > air temperature > vapor pressure deficit > wind speed. For a quick estimation of sap flow rates, an empirical formula based on the two top influencing factors was put forward and verified to be reliable. The sap flow rate appeared to show little response to irrigation when the water content was relatively high, implying that some of the irrigation in recent years may have been wasted. These results may help to reveal the bio-physical processes of maize plants related to plant transpiration, which could be beneficial for establishing an efficient irrigation management system in this region and also for providing a reference for other maize-planting regions. PMID:27262588

  20. A NiMoS flower-like structure with self-assembled nanosheets as high-performance hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Weikun; Chen, Zhou; Zhu, Jianping; Yang, Lefu; Zheng, Jinbao; Yi, Xiaodong; Fang, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Uniform 3D NiMoS nanoflowers with self-assembled nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal growth method using cheap and nontoxic elemental sulfur as sulfur sources. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS analyses, revealing that the NiMoS nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of approximately 6-12 nm. The HRTEM results indicate that the curve/short MoS2 slabs on the nanosheets possess the characteristics of dislocations, distortions and discontinuity, which suggests a defect-rich structure, resulting in the exposure of additional Ni-Mo-S edge sites. The obtained NiMoS nanoflowers exhibited an excellent activity for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene deep HDS due to their high density of active sites. The outstanding HDS performance suggests that these NiMoS composites with a unique flower-like nanostructure could be useful as promising catalysts for deep desulfurization of fuel oils.Uniform 3D NiMoS nanoflowers with self-assembled nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal growth method using cheap and nontoxic elemental sulfur as sulfur sources. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS analyses, revealing that the NiMoS nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of approximately 6-12 nm. The HRTEM results indicate that the curve/short MoS2 slabs on the nanosheets possess the characteristics of dislocations, distortions and discontinuity, which suggests a defect-rich structure, resulting in the exposure of additional Ni-Mo-S edge sites. The obtained NiMoS nanoflowers exhibited an excellent activity for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene deep HDS due to their high density of active sites. The outstanding HDS performance suggests that these NiMoS composites with a unique flower

  1. A NiMoS flower-like structure with self-assembled nanosheets as high-performance hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lai, Weikun; Chen, Zhou; Zhu, Jianping; Yang, Lefu; Zheng, Jinbao; Yi, Xiaodong; Fang, Weiping

    2016-02-14

    Uniform 3D NiMoS nanoflowers with self-assembled nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal growth method using cheap and nontoxic elemental sulfur as sulfur sources. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS analyses, revealing that the NiMoS nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of approximately 6-12 nm. The HRTEM results indicate that the curve/short MoS2 slabs on the nanosheets possess the characteristics of dislocations, distortions and discontinuity, which suggests a defect-rich structure, resulting in the exposure of additional Ni-Mo-S edge sites. The obtained NiMoS nanoflowers exhibited an excellent activity for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene deep HDS due to their high density of active sites. The outstanding HDS performance suggests that these NiMoS composites with a unique flower-like nanostructure could be useful as promising catalysts for deep desulfurization of fuel oils. PMID:26815736

  2. Extraction of Ni (II) from Spent Hydrodesulfurization HDS Catalyst Through Leaching and Electroless Precipitation of Ni(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sangita R.; Dash, Barsha; Sanjay, Kali; Subbaiah, T.

    2013-04-01

    The extraction of nickel (II) from a spent hydro-desulfurization catalyst containing 11.6 pct Ni was carried out through sulfuric acid leaching. Variations of parameters such as the concentration of acid, temperature, and time, were studied and optimized. Nickel hydroxide was precipitated from the leach liquor via neutralization with 1 M sodium hydroxide up to pH 12 in three different methods: normal neutralization precipitation, and then neutralization precipitation followed by aging at 353 K (80 °C) for 4 hours and neutralization of the leach liquor with 10 pct (v/v) of 0.1 N sodium lauryl sulfate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microanalysis shows a difference in crystallinity with the method of precipitation. The nickel hydroxide contains Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Mn(II) as trace impurities. The discharge capacities of the precipitated nickel hydroxides were 120 mAhg-1, 140.72 mAhg-1, and 145.2 mAhg-1 for aged sample, sample without surfactant, and with surfactant respectively.

  3. Probing hydrodesulfurization over bimetallic phosphides using monodisperse Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Samuel J.; Liyanage, D. Ruchira; Hitihami-Mudiyanselage, Asha; Ilic, Boris; Brock, Stephanie L.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Metal phosphide nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica provide a well-defined system for probing the fundamental chemistry of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction over this new class of hydrotreating catalysts. To investigate composition effects in bimetallic phosphides, the HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out over a series of Ni-rich Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 (M = Co, Fe) nanocatalysts (x ≤ 0.50). The Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles (average diameters: 11-13 nm) were prepared by solution-phase arrested precipitation and encapsulated in mesoporous silica, characterized by a range of techniques (XRD, TEM, IR spectroscopy, BET surface area, CO chemisorption) and tested for DBT HDS activity and selectivity. The highest activity was observed for a Ni1.92Co0.08P@mSiO2 nanocatalyst, but the overall trend was a decrease in HDS activity with increasing Co or Fe content. In contrast, the highest turnover frequency (TOF) was observed for the most Co- and Fe-rich compositions based on sites titrated by CO chemisorption. IR spectral studies of adsorbed CO on the Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 catalysts indicate that an increase in electron density occurs on Ni sites as the Co or Fe content is increased, which may be responsible for the increased TOFs of the catalytic sites. The Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 nanocatalysts exhibit a strong preference for the direct desulfurization pathway (DDS) for DBT HDS that changes only slightly with increasing Co or Fe content.

  4. Selective hydrodesulfurization of FCC naphtha with supported MoS{sub 2} catalysts : the role of cobalt.

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C. L.; Kropf, A. J.; Miler, J. T.; Reagan, W. J.; Kaduk, J. A.; Chemical Engineering; BP Amoco Research Center

    2000-07-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and olefin hydrogenation of FCC naphtha have been determined for MoS2 (no Co) catalysts on different supports and for a commercial CoMo/alumina HDS catalyst both with and without the addition of alkali. For MoS2 catalysts, the specific HDS activity is higher on silica than alumina, while addition of Cs resulted in no change in the activity. The differences in activity, however, are relatively small, a factor of less than two. EXAFS and XRD structural analysis indicate that small MoS2 particles are present on all catalysts. The differences in rate are not due to differences in particle size, dispersion, or support physical properties, but are likely due to the modification of catalytic properties by an interaction with the support. While there is a small influence on the rate, the composition of the support, or modification by Cs, has no effect on the HDSlolefin hydrogenation selectivity. The olefin hydrogenation conversion increases linearly with HDS conversion, and at high HDS conversion, few olefins remain in the FCC naphtha. Similar to the effect for Cs promotion of MoS2 on alumina, the addition of K to sulfided CoMo/alumina had little affect on the activity or selectivity for HDS and olefin hydrogenation. Unlike MoS2 catalysts, however, with sulfided CoMo at less than about 85% HDS conversion, the rate of olefin hydrogenation is low, but it increases rapidly as the sulfur in the naphtha drops below about 300 ppm. Selective HDS of FCC naphtha appears to correlate primarily to the formation of the CoMoS phase, rather than to the basic nature of the support. It is proposed that the enhanced olefin hydrogenation selectivity of CoMo catalysts is due to the competitive adsorption of sulfur compounds, which inhibit adsorption and saturation of olefins in the naphtha.

  5. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  6. Reaction of cationic transition metal complexes with furan, thiophene, and pyrrole. Model studies relevant to hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiar, R.; Jacobson, D.B.

    1995-12-01

    Hydrodesulfurization, denitrogenation, and deoxygenation reactions are important reactions in many research areas such as the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from coal. In this report, reactions of Fe{sup +} and FeL{sup +} (L = O, C{sub 4}H{sub 6}, c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}, c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, C{sub 5}H{sub 4}(=CH{sub 2})) with thiophene, furan, and pyrrole in the gas phase by using Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) are described. Fe{sup +}, Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sup +}, and FeC{sub 6}H{sub 6}{sup +} yield exclusive, rapid adduct formation with thiophene, furan, and pyrrole. The iron-diene complex FeC{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +}, Fe(c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}){sup +}), as well as FeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}(=CH{sub 2}){sup +} and FeO{sup +} are quite reactive. An intriguing reaction is the predominant, direct extrusion of CO from furan by FeC{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +}, Fe(c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}){sup +}, Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 4}(=CH{sub 2}){sup +}. In addition, FeC{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +} and Fe(c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}){sup +} yield minor amounts of HCN extrusion from pyrrole. The absence of CS extrusion from thiophene may be due to the higher energy requirements than that for CO extrusion from furan or HCN extrusion from pyrrole. The dominant reaction channel for reaction of Fe(c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6}){sup +} with pyrrole and thiophene is hydrogen atom displacement which implies D{sup 0}(Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}X) > D{sup 0}(Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sup +}-H) = 46 {+-} 5 kcal/mol. D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}S) and D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}C{sub 4}H{sub 5}N) = D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 6}) = 48 {+-} 5 kcal/mol. Finally, D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O) > D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) = 39.9 {+-} 1.4 kcal/mol and D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O) < D{sup 0}(Fe{sup +}-C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) = 55 {+-} 5 kcal/mol. FeO{sup +} reacts rapidly with thiophene, furan, and pyrrole to yield initial loss of CO followed by additional neutral losses.

  7. Theoretical Studies in Heterogenous Catalysis: Towards a Rational Design of Novel Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez,J.A.; Liu, P.

    2008-10-01

    important advantage of the cluster approach is that one can use the whole spectrum of quantum-chemical methods developed for small molecules with relatively minor modifications. On the other hand, the numerical effort involved in cluster calculations increases rather quickly with the size of the cluster. This problem does not exist when using slab models. Due to the explicit incorporation of the periodicity of the crystal lattice through the Bloch theorem, the actual dimension of a slab calculation depends only on the size of the unit cell. In practical terms, the slab approach is mainly useful for investigating the behavior of adsorbates at medium and high coverages. Very large unit cells are required at the limit of low to zero coverage, or when examining the properties and chemical behavior of isolated defect sites in a surface. In these cases, from a computational viewpoint, the cluster approach can be much more cost effective than the slab approach. Slab and cluster calculations can be performed at different levels of sophistication: semi-empirical methods, simple ab initio Hartree-Fock, ab initio post-Hartree-Fock (CI, MP2, etc), and density functional theory. Density-functional (DF) based calculations frequently give adsorption geometries with a high degree of accuracy and predict reliable trends for the energetics of adsorption reactions. This article provides a review of recent theoretical studies that deal with the behavior of novel catalysts used for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions and the production of hydrogen (i.e. catalytic processes employed in the generation of clean fuels). These studies involve a strong coupling of theory and experiment. A significant fraction of the review is focused on the importance of size-effects and correlations between the electronic and chemical properties of catalytic materials. The article begins with a discussion of results for the desulfurization of thiophene on metal carbides and phosphides, systems which have the

  8. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  9. Booktalking Across the Curriculum: The Middle Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Nancy J.

    This book contains booktalks for 170 titles that appeal to middle school readers and relate to middle school curriculum. Approximately 90% of the books are fiction. Each entry includes author, title, publisher, date of publication, suggested interest level, suggested reading level, the booktalk, and learning extension ideas. The selections are…

  10. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  11. Kinetic and reactor models for HDT of middle distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.M.; Filho, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of middle distillates over a commercial Ni-Mo/y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied under wide operating conditions just as 340 to 380{degrees}C and 38 to 98 atm. A Power Law model was presented to each one of those reactions. The parameters of kinetic equations were estimated solving the ordinary differential equations by the 4 order Runge-Kutta-Gill algorithm and Marquardt method for searching of set of kinetic parameters (kinetic constants as well as the orders of reactions). An adiabatic diesel hydrotreating trickle-bed reactor packed with the same catalyst was simulated numerically in order to check up the behavior of this specific reaction system. One dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model was used in this work. For each feed, the mass and energy balance equations were integrated along the length of the catalytic bed using the 4th Runge-Kutta-Gill method. The performance of two industrial reactors was checked. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Middle Years. For Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This supplement offers 10 articles focusing on middle school education. Topics include remembering adolescence, resources and teaching tips, active middle school students, adolescent development, challenges in middle school education, integrated studies, planning middle school special events, a writing-science-consumerism miniunit on popcorn,…

  13. Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dieter Leckel

    2006-10-15

    Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

  14. Quasi in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS investigation of the spent NiMo catalyst from ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization of gas oil in a commercial plant.

    PubMed

    Hamabe, Yusuke; Jung, Sungbong; Suzuki, Hikotaro; Koizumi, Naoto; Yamada, Muneyoshi

    2010-07-01

    Ni species on the spent NiMo catalyst from ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization of gas oil in a commercial plant were studied by Ni K-edge EXAFS and TEM measurement without contact of the catalysts with air. The Ni-Mo coordination shell related to the Ni-Mo-S phase was observed in the spent catalyst by quasi in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS measurement with a newly constructed high-pressure chamber. The coordination number of this shell was almost identical to that obtained by in situ Ni K-edge EXAFS measurement of the fresh catalyst sulfided at 1.1 MPa. On the other hand, large agglomerates of Ni(3)S(2) were observed only in the spent catalyst by quasi in situ TEM/EDX measurement. MoS(2)-like slabs were sintered slightly on the spent catalyst, where they were destacked to form monolayer slabs. These results suggest that the Ni-Mo-S phase is preserved on the spent catalyst and Ni(3)S(2) agglomerates are formed by sintering of Ni(3)S(2) species originally present on the fresh catalyst. PMID:20567086

  15. Ductile extension in alpine Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Dubois, Roland; Fournier, Marc; Goffé, Bruno; Michard, André; Jourdan, Claudie

    1990-10-01

    Ductile deformation in high-pressure (P)-low temperature (T) conditions due to the westward thrusting of oceanic material onto a continental basement in alpine Corsica is overprinted by a late deformation event with a reverse shear sense (eastward) that took place in less severe P-T conditions. We show that the late deformation can be linked to extension during rifting and spreading of the Liguro Provençal basin from late Oligocene to late-middle Miocene time. Major compressive thrust contacts were reactivated as ductile normal faults and, in some units, only a penetrative eastward shear can be observed. This extension following the thickening of the crust brought tectonic units which underwent very different P- T conditions during the earlier stage into close contact. The Balagne nappe, which shows neither significant ductile deformation nor metamorphism, directly overlies the high-P units. The extensional deformation is distributed through the entire thickness of the nappe stack but is more important along the major thrust contacts, which localize the strain. The geometry of the crustal extension is controlled by that of the early compressive thrusts. The latest structures are east-dipping brittle normal faults which bound the early to middle Miocene Saint Florent half graben.

  16. Relation between hydrodesulfurization activity and the state of promoters in precursor calcined Ni-Co-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Agudo, A.L.; Severino, F.; Laine, J.

    1986-01-01

    Two series of NiCo-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts prepared by different procedures were investigated. In each series the Mo loading and the total content of promoters (Co + Ni) were kept constant but the Co/(Co + Ni) atomic ratio was varied from 0 to 1. The two series of catalysts were prepared by a sequential wet impregnation technique. In series I, the impregnations of both Mo and promoters were carried out at the pH of the impregnating aqueous solutions, employing an intermediate calcination; in series II, Mo was impregnated at pH 10, while the promoters were added in aqueous ethanol solutions without intermediate calcination. Catalysts in their calcined state were characterized by reduction in H/sub 2/ at 500/sup 0/C, O/sub 2/ chemisorption, and infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed NO. The HDS activity and the optimum Co/(Co + Ni) atomic ratio were different for the two series, in agreement with the previous studies, HDS activity being generally higher for series II than for series I. Dispersion of Mo (as estimated from O/sub 2/ chemisorption) and NO adsorption on Mo in reduced catalysts (as judged from the intensity of the band at about 1705 cm/sup -1/) were not substantially different for the two series of catalysts and did not correlate with HDS activity. However, adsorbed NO on promoters in oxidized catalysts (bands at about 1880 and 1800 cm/sup -1/) followed roughly the same trend as HDS activity, suggesting that the active sites may be related to the Co and Ni atoms adsorbing NO. Possible reasons for the differences between HDS activity of the two series are considered.

  17. Thinking about Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Jere

    This book on middle school uses a very free-form structure to encourage educators to think about middle school's philosophy and purpose, and about how to create a successful middle school. The preface claims that it is not a book "about" teaming, advisory, interdisciplinary units, intramurals, parent-teacher conferences, and other middle school…

  18. Cenozoic extension and magmatism in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. J.; Spencer, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Basin and Range Province of Arizona was the site of two episodes of Cenozoic extension that can be distinguished on the basis of timing, direction and style of extension, and associated magmatism. The first episode of extension occurred during Oligocene to mid-Miocene time and resulted in the formation of low-angle detachment faults, ductile shear zones (metamorphic core complexes), and regional domains of tilted fault blocks. Evidence for extreme middle Tertiary crustal extension in a NE to SW to SW to ENE to WSW direction has been recognized in various parts of the Basin and Range of Arizona, especially in the Lake Mead area and along the belf of metamorphic core complexes that crosses southern Arizona from Parker to Tucson. New geologic mapping and scrutiny of published geologic maps indicates that significant middle Tertiary extension is more widely distributed than previously thought. The state can be subdivided into regional tilt-block domains in which middle Tertiary rocks dip consistently in one direction. The dip direction in any tilt-block domain is generally toward the breakaway of a low-angle detachment fault that underlies the tilt-block domain; we interpret this an indicating that normal faults in the upper plate of a detechment fault are generally synthetic, rather than antithetic, with respect to the detachment fault.

  19. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  20. Perspectives: Middle School Education, 1964-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John H., Ed.

    This collection of essays provides extensive background information and varied views on the history, philosophy, and curriculum of the middle school as a movement or as an educational design for pre- and early adolescents. After a brief prologue by editor John H. Lounsbury, 14 essays by separate authors are presented: "The Junior High School:…

  1. Making Middle Schools Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jon W.; Bondi, Joseph W.

    Over the past 20 years, the middle school has been a major innovative movement changing the face of intermediate education. While hard to define exactly, middle schools have different priorities and purposes than junior high schools. The former serve preadolescents (ages 10 to 14) through a balanced, comprehensive program. Middle school programs…

  2. Explaining English Middle Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kabyong

    2009-01-01

    The current paper attempts to account for the formation of English middle sentences. Discussing a set of previous analyses on the construction under investigation we show, following the assumptions of Oosten(1986) and Iwata(1999), that English middle constructions should be divided into two types: generic middle constructions and non-generic…

  3. Extensive Tympanic Membrane Cholesteatoma with Marginal Perforation: An Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Sakalli, Erdal; Kaya, Deniz; Celikyurt, Cengiz; Erdurak, Selcuk Cem

    2013-01-01

    The migration of squamous epithelium of external ear through a tympanic membrane perforation into the middle ear forms a cholesteatoma. But it is extremely a rare condition to observe extensive cholesteatoma on the medial surface of tympanic membrane with perforation. This condition is termed tympanic membrane cholesteatoma (TMC). We herein present an exceptional case of extensive TMC with marginal perforation. PMID:23956906

  4. Orbital extension of trigeminal schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Das, Debabrata; Varshney, Rahul; Nandy, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors. Here, we report a 35-year-old female presenting with an axial proptosis of right eyeball with right-sided III, IV and VI cranial nerve palsy. Her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was perception of light absent and in the left eye was 20/20. MRI scan revealed a large right-sided heterogeneous, extra-axial middle cranial fossa mass that extended to the intraconal space of right orbit. A diagnosis of intracranial trigeminal nerve schwannoma with right orbital extension was made. Successful surgical excision of the mass with preservation of the surrounding tissues and orbital exenteration was done. Post-operative period was uneventful. PMID:25552864

  5. Orbital extension of trigeminal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Das, Debabrata; Varshney, Rahul; Nandy, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors. Here, we report a 35-year-old female presenting with an axial proptosis of right eyeball with right-sided III, IV and VI cranial nerve palsy. Her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was perception of light absent and in the left eye was 20/20. MRI scan revealed a large right-sided heterogeneous, extra-axial middle cranial fossa mass that extended to the intraconal space of right orbit. A diagnosis of intracranial trigeminal nerve schwannoma with right orbital extension was made. Successful surgical excision of the mass with preservation of the surrounding tissues and orbital exenteration was done. Post-operative period was uneventful. PMID:25552864

  6. Mechanism of hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene on Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst by the use of radioisotope [sup 35]S tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Kabe, T.; Qian, W.; Ogawa, S.; Ishihara, A. )

    1993-09-01

    In order to estimate the behavior of sulfur on hydrodesulfurization catalyst, the [sup 35]S-labelled dibenzothiophene ([sup 35]S-DBT) was hydrodesulfurized on sulfided Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] in a fixed-bed pressurized flow reactor. During the reaction, the radioactivities of unreacted [sup 35]S-DBT and formed [sup 35]S-H[sub 2]S were monitored. The rate of the release of sulfur on the catalyst was estimated from the rates of an increase and a decrease of the radioactivity in formed [sup 35]S-H[sub 2]S. The activation energies of the release of sulfur were 3.7 and 9.9 kcal/mol for sulfided Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], respectively. The amount of labile sulfur (S[sub 0]), which could be calculated from the maximum amount of [sup 35]S accomodated on the catalyst, increased with increasing temperature. When it was assumed that sulfur in sulfided Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] existed in the form of Co[sub 9]S[sub 8]-MoS[sub 2]/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], the ratio of labile sulfur to total sulfur did not exceed 50%, even under conditions where the rate of DBT HDS is relatively high. On the contrary, the ratio of labile sulfur to total sulfur for Co/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] exceeded 80%. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Extensive quantities in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannaerts, Sebastiaan H.

    2014-05-01

    A literature survey shows little consistency in the definitions of the term ‘extensive quantity’ (a.k.a. extensive property) as used in thermodynamics. A majority assumes that extensive quantities are those that are proportional to mass. Taking the mathematical meaning of proportional and taking the ‘mass’ to be that of the system or subsystem, it is shown that the proportionality assumption is only correct for a few extensive quantities under condition of constant composition. A large subset of extensive quantities are completely independent of mass; for most systems extensive quantities are not proportional to mass, but mass is the (extensive) constant of proportionality. The definition by IUPAC, based on the additivity of extensive quantities, is the preferred baseline for discussing this subject. It is noted however, that two types of additivity need to be distinguished and that a few intensive quantities are also additive. This paper leaves several interesting questions open to further scrutiny.

  8. The Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, H. C., Ed.

    Designed to stimulate and support training for Extension work and to orient new employees, this book covers the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) and its methods of operation. It begins by describing the status of rural extension in the United States and abroad; the history of the CES and its antecendents; the legal basis, scope, functions, and…

  9. Preparing Middle School Teachers: What Does a Licensure Program Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    This paper describes the development of a middle childhood level (MCL) teacher preparation program under Ohio licensure requirements. Wright State University developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and middle school field experiences. After graduation, students enter a graduate program…

  10. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  11. Middle Start Snapshots: Improving Middle-Grades Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This publication describes the school-improvement process in three schools participating in Middle Start, a comprehensive school-improvement program for schools with middle grades. Middle Start services, grounded in the Middle Start Principles and Practices, are tailored to a school's specific needs. The schools profiled are Bendle Middle School…

  12. Generativity in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Paula

    The study described in this paper was conducted to delineate the phenomenon of generativity in middle-aged adults in an attempt to identify its major characteristics, attributes, determinants, and situational or circumstantial variables. Three themes emerged from a literature survey of materials on middle adulthood: the theme of the entry…

  13. Mathematics in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

    This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

  14. Middle School Advisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Tricia

    Designed for those teaching an advisement program to middle school students, this book provides a year-long program with suggestions for many activities geared to middle school students. The text is divided into the traditional four-quarter school year but can be adapted to any school year configuration. The activities are designed so that the…

  15. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. PMID:20206101

  16. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  17. Muddle in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A 1989 Carnegie Corporation report called for major reforms in early adolescent education and sharply criticized the middle school concept. To compound the social displacement problem, middle schools are often created to satisfy budgetary requirements and shifting enrollment trends, not to meet children's needs. Moving fifth graders is ill…

  18. Graduating to Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, John

    1993-01-01

    Former middle-school principal's graduation speech to fifth graders and their parents focuses on three areas: students and psychological and physiological changes they will experience; what to expect in middle school (teamwork and advisee-group activities); and secrets for success and happiness. Students and parents are advised to concentrate on…

  19. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  20. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Continuing and Online Education About Degree Programs Independent Learning School for Workers UW HELP UW System eCampus Cooperative Extension About Agriculture & Natural Resources Community, Natural Resource & ...

  1. Mission Middle College (The Middle College Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang-Jolliff, Jennifer

    Fashioned after the LaGuardia model, Mission Middle College Program began in the fall of 2001. It is an educational collaboration between the Santa Clara Unified School District (SCUSD) and Mission Community College in Santa Clara, California. It is a program for students who are highly intellectual and capable but uninspired and outside the high…

  2. Michigan Middle Start Studies of Middle Start School Improvement, Lake Middle School: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalan, Pritha

    This case study documented the collaboration of Lake Middle School (pseudonym for a school in Michigan) with Middle Start, a middle-grades reform model and its progress and struggles implementing the model. Middle Start was coordinated by the Michigan Middle Start Partnership, and alliance that provided technical assistance, professional…

  3. Ozone reference models for the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Young, D. F.

    1990-01-01

    Data on monthly latitudinal variations in middle-atmosphere vertical ozone profiles are presented, based on extensive Nimbus-7, AE-2, and SME satellite measurements from the period 1978-1982. The coverage of the data sets, the characteristics of the sensors, and the analysis techniques applied are described, and the results are compiled in tables and graphs. These ozone data are intended to supplement the models of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere.

  4. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  5. Signature extension studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of specific spectral regions to signature extension is explored. In the recent past, the signature extension task was focused on the development of new techniques. Tested techniques are now used to investigate this spectral aspect of the large area survey. Sets of channels were sought which, for a given technique, were the least affected by several sources of variation over four data sets and yet provided good object class separation on each individual data set. Using sets of channels determined as part of this study, signature extension was accomplished between data sets collected over a six-day period and over a range of about 400 kilometers.

  6. Ann Richards Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents photos and basic information about a Texas middle school whose architecture reflects the hybrid culture of the borderlands and "regionalism" in which it is located. A line drawing of the site plan is included. (GR)

  7. Middle School Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Teddy J.; Clements, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    After viewing and discussing slides of Van Gogh's and Munch's paintings and studying the principles of color, middle school students had to execute two drawings, one showing any emotion and the second depicting an expressionistic self-portrait. (RM)

  8. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, demonstrations, activities, and teaching suggestions on topics appropriate for middle school science including a simple electrolysis cell, conversion factors, energy, solubilities of salts, condensers, and a worksheet for studying coppice woodlands. (DC)

  9. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes activities, demonstrations, and materials suitable for middle school science, including investigations on solar energy, surface tension, exploding cottages, worms and light, airplanes, depolarizing simple cells, and the thermal expansion of metals. (JN)

  10. Middle atmospheric electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.

  11. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Provides science activities and teaching hints appropriate for the middle school sciences including making a domino "gunpowder fuse" that detonates a mousetrap "bomb," using fishing rods and bicycles as teaching aids, constructing lead holders, and teaching chromatography. (DC)

  12. Wirth Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Wirth Middle School, Cahokia, Illinois. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  13. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  14. Biosignatures in Middle Cambrian Paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L. B.; White, T. S.; Kump, L. R.

    2008-12-01

    Before the advent of plants with spores and body structures that are easily preserved in the fossil record, the evidence for terrestrial ecosystems is limited to observations of their effects on the chemistry of weathering surfaces. Seven paleosols and paleosaprolites from southeast South Dakota and northwest and central Iowa have been analyzed to assess the extent of abiotic weathering and the presence of biosignatures in the Midwestern US during the Middle Cambrian. Evidence for extensive weathering exists on a variety of basement material, from the 1800 Ma Harris granite to the 1100 Ma Keweenawan basalts. All of the weathering profiles are overlain by the Middle Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone, placing their most likely time of development shortly before the advent of vascular plants. All weathering horizons show high chemical indices of alteration, typically >85, and considerable leaching of mobile cations, such as Na, Ca, Mg, and Mn, which is consistent with tropical to subtropical weathering conditions expected for central Laurentia during this interval. Organic carbon contents of <0.2 wt% are present in all weathering horizons, indicating the potential presence of a terrestrial biota. Carbon isotope values for this organic matter are ~-25 permil for paleosols in the western portion of the study area, and ~-23 permil for paleosols in the eastern half. These results are consistent with a photosynthetic origin for the organic matter. Organic matter in the overlying sandstone tends to be lighter than the soil organic matter. At most sites, this difference is 1 permil, except at the Elk Point site, where the difference is 27 permil, suggesting methanotrophic influence on this organic matter. A strong biosignature present at most sites is the near-complete loss of P from the surface. P is an important limiting nutrient in the terrestrial environment. Near-complete apatite dissolution at the surface of most of the weathering horizons is best explained by leaching via

  15. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrogenation reactions on noble metal catalysts. 1. Elucidation of the behavior of sulfur on alumina-supported platinum and palladium using the {sub 35}S radioisotope tracer method

    SciTech Connect

    Kabe, Toshiaki; Qian, Weihua; Hirai, Yosiki; Li, Li; Ishihara, Atsushi

    2000-02-15

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions of {sup 35}S-radioisotope-labeled dibensothiophene (DBT) were carried out over a series of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported noble-metal-containing catalysts at 5.00 MPa and at 260 and 280 C. The amount of sulfur (S{sub TOTAL}) accommodated on the catalyst and the amount of labile sulfur (S{sub 0}) participating in the reaction were determined using a direct method, the {sup 35}S radioisotope pulse tracer method, which has recently been developed by the authors. It was observed that both S{sub TOTAL} and S{sub 0} increased linearly with an increase in active metal loading. At the same time, it was found that the sulfided test noble metal catalysts corresponded to a S/Pt (Pd) ratio of 0.25 and that almost all the labile sulfur on these catalysts was mobile in the HDS reaction. Further, the activities of both HDS and hydrogenation reactions over the bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Pd) were higher than those of the monometallic catalysts tested together, whereas the synergetic effects observed on the Pt-Pd catalyst were not as significant as in typical Co-Mo catalyst cases.

  16. Extensive Reading in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…

  17. Extensions of Natural Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastelli, G.

    2014-03-01

    Given an n-dimensional natural Hamiltonian L on a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian manifold, we call "extension" of L the n+1 dimensional Hamiltonian H = ½p2u + α(u)L + β(u) with new canonically conjugated coordinates (u,pu). For suitable L, the functions α and β can be chosen depending on any natural number m such that H admits an extra polynomial first integral in the momenta of degree m, explicitly determined in the form of the m-th power of a differential operator applied to a certain function of coordinates and momenta. In particular, if L is maximally superintegrable (MS) then H is MS also. Therefore, the extension procedure allows the creation of new superintegrable systems from old ones. For m=2, the extra first integral generated by the extension procedure determines a second-order symmetry operator of a Laplace-Beltrami quantization of H, modified by taking in account the curvature of the configuration manifold. The extension procedure can be applied to several Hamiltonian systems, including the three-body Calogero and Wolfes systems (without harmonic term), the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system and n-dimensional anisotropic harmonic oscillators. We propose here a short review of the known results of the theory and some previews of new ones.

  18. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  19. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  20. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  1. Extending Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    The April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language" featured a discussion forum on extensive reading (ER). Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice…

  2. Identifying High Extension Communicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.; Pope, LaVern

    1978-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of social science faculty at the University of Missouri-Columbia to find the extent to which they engaged in communicating information to the public through university extension, with implications for changes in the university rewards system. (MF)

  3. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  4. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Explains some middle school science demonstrations and experiments: included are a simplified circuit board, a scheme for the identification of plastics, a soot-free bunsen burner, science in a packet of cornflakes, and perceptual ambiguities with a "Chinese Compass." (GA)

  5. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Discusses indoor rocketry and use of a vivid model of human birth. Also discusses information (momentum/force) indicating how a motorcycle can be driven up around the increasing slope of an elliptical path, a food testing worksheet, and a worksheet on light for upper elementary/lower middle school students. Includes sample worksheets. (Author/JN)

  6. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presented are six activities suitable for middle grades. They include programs for voting, creating Logo patterns, and for selecting a writing topic. Other activities focus on use of the colon and FOR/NEXT loop in BASIC and evaluating programs. (JN)

  7. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  8. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, experiments, and activities useful in middle school science instruction, including demonstrating how strong paper can be, the inclined plane illusion, a simplified diet calculation, a magnetic levitator, science with soap bubbles, a model motor and dynamo, and a pocketed sorter for safety glasses. (SK)

  9. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Activities for middle/junior high school students are presented, including use of string variables, science lesson ideas, computer scavenger hunt, and guidelines for interviewing people who own/use computers. Includes "I'll Write...Just Lead Me to My Computer" by Robert Engberg, discussing word processing instruction. (JN)

  10. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrations, experiments, and classroom activities/materials for middle school science are presented. These include: additive color mixing demonstration; electricity activity and worksheet; atmospheric pressure "magic" demonstration; homemade microbalance; energy from soap bubbles; and a model used to demonstrate muscle pairs and how they work…

  11. Middle School Health. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Worth Independent School District, TX.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to define a portion of the common core of knowledge and skills that middle school students should know or be able to do to promote health and well-being. It identifies an appropriate score and sequence, and offers suggestions for teaching and learning. It is also intended as a tool for coordinating and…

  12. The Middle Income Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  13. Reconstructive Middle Ear Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, R.R.F.; Ballagh, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss is a common cause of deafness and disability, particularly in children and young adults. This article presents a brief overview of the various methods currently available for reconstructing the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicular chain, including some comments as to their indications and limitations. Schematic diagrams showing these techniques illustrate the various types of repair described. PMID:21221356

  14. Middle Level Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child Laborers in Children's Literature." (MJP)

  15. Middle School Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Kallio, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of primary resources in the teaching of middle school social studies. Describes a lesson in which students were given a copy of the Declaration of Independence, written in everyday language, and were asked to discuss and evaluate it. Suggests another activity based on Thomas Jefferson's writings. (SG)

  16. Making Middle Managers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randlesome, Collin

    1990-01-01

    Thanks to the efforts of Chambers of Industry and Commerce and the immense output of universities and polytechnics, West Germany possesses a healthy balance of managerial talent in that area of companies that is vital for success--lower and middle management. (JOW)

  17. Utopia Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  18. The Middle Management Muddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Saul

    1980-01-01

    Clinicans promoted to middle management positions have a good deal of difficulty coping with the use of power and with a variety of other unfamiliar and uncomfortable dilemmas. Among the most difficult of these is their responsibility for supervising the work of the professional staff. (Author)

  19. Prospects for Middle Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John

    1972-01-01

    This article is concerned with the status of middle management in the community college. Aspects discussed include the dual role of the chairman and alternative models of departmental organization which attempt to reduce separatism within the college. Community Colleges is a monthly supplement to Change magazine. (RN)

  20. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  1. Middle School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of 22 middle schools, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and design team, a general building description, and general construction costs and specifications. Also provides a rough site plan and photographs. (EV)

  2. The Middle School Plunge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Schwerdt, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers nationwide continue to wrestle with a basic question: At what grade level should students move to a new school? In the most common grade configuration in American school districts, public school students make two school transitions, entering a middle school in grade 6 or 7 and a high school in grade 9. This pattern reflects the…

  3. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  4. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East ... 2, 2015. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html . Accessed April ...

  5. Reading in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The middle school reading/literature instructor needs to determine where each student is in reading achievement and then assist each to achieve as optimally as possible. What might the teacher do to assist students to become good middle school readers? A major problem of middle schoolers is to be able to recognize a certain percent of words…

  6. Instructor Middle Years. September 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robin; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This "Instructor" Supplement on middle school education, presents articles on new research and materials, adolescent development, reasons for teaching middle school, moving toward a middle school curriculum, peer teaching, multimedia software, murder mysteries, ancient China, geometry, teamwork, descriptive writing, literature, problem solving,…

  7. Agricultural Extension: Who Uses It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Michael; Lasley, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A Missouri study conducted to determine agricultural extension usage patterns found that heavy users of extension publications tended to be younger farmers, those with a relatively large amount of land, and pork producers. Extension meetings were a less frequent source of information than either publications or county extension office visits. (LRA)

  8. Making the Middle Count

    PubMed Central

    Esbenshade, Angie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses three ways in which dramatic improvements in middle flow, or examination-to-disposition time, can be driven by emergency department (ED) nursing leadership. By operationalizing a “results pending” area, low-acuity patients who are unlikely to be admitted can await diagnostic results or be actively monitored by a dedicated nurse, ED rooms and beds may be reserved for higher acuity patients. Monthly operational stakeholder meetings can provide a consistent opportunity to track, monitor, and improve flow while also celebrating successes and identifying needed performance improvements based on objective metrics for shared goals. Internal customer rounding is a process that serves as effective follow-up from the stakeholder meeting to ensure aligned behaviors to meet identified goals. Frequency of rounding is identified during the stakeholder meeting. By using these three tools, ED stakeholders can effectively focus on solutions instead of barriers to improving middle flow. PMID:25569321

  9. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  10. Portable Extensible Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Jay G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Nonuniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to represent geometry and data offers a standard way to facilitate the multidisciplinary analysis and design of aeropropulsion products. Using standard geometry defined by NURBS throughout design, analysis, part definition, manufacture, and test processes saves money and time. The Portable Extensible Viewer (PEV) offers engineers of different disciplines a means to view and manipulate NURBS geometry and associated data. Under the guidance of a team of Lewis, Boeing Company, and Navy personnel, PEV was developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division for Lewis' Interdisciplinary Technology Office. The aeropropulsion industry provided input to the design requirements.

  11. Middle management of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the middle manager in a research organization is discussed. The middle manager serves as a liaison between upper management and researchers to assure that individual research projects manifest the goals of the organization. The author draws on his long experience in this role to describe management practices that have proven successful. A general discussion is presented of the makeup of a research environment, derived from a study of a division involved in aerospace research and development (R and D). The study emphasized the importance of planning and management style in producing an attractive environment. Management practices are described, which include goal setting, planning, staffing, reviewing and evaluating, and rewarding. The importance of selecting and defining an appropriate research area is discussed. It is emphasized that in relating to the staff the middle manager must cultivate the human side of supervision, develop the art of delegating responsibility, judiciously select facilities, and provide recognition and meaningful rewards to develop a productive research staff. The development of the staff is probably the most important and challenging role of the manager.

  12. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23894137

  13. Non-extensive radiobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  14. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  15. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  16. Evaluation of the contribution of chronic skin irritation and selected compositional parameters to the tumorigenicity of petroleum middle distillates in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; McKee, R H

    1993-07-28

    Two-year skin carcinogenicity studies were conducted in C3H mice to assess the effects of irritation and selected compositional parameters on the carcinogenic potential of four petroleum liquids. Three samples (lightly refined paraffinic oil, LRPO; lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil, LHSO; jet fuel, JF) can be generically classified as middle distillates, i.e. distillation occurs between 350 and 700 degrees F (175-370 degrees C). The fourth sample was a Steam Cracked Gas Oil (SCGO) that distilled within the same range. In studies that assess the effects of irritation on tumorigenicity, LRPO was tested undiluted or was diluted to 50% and 25% in either mineral oil (which eliminated irritation of the skin) or toluene (which did not). Undiluted LRPO elicited tumors in 8% of the mice. Both dilution procedures eliminated tumorigenic potential. Thus, it was possible to maintain a visible level of skin irritation equivalent to that elicited by undiluted LRPO without inducing tumors. SCGO elicited a chronic irritant state grossly equivalent to LRPO but was not tumorigenic. Jet Fuel A (JF) was tested undiluted using both a standard skin painting protocol and an intermittent dosing schedule in which treatment was suspended periodically to allow skin irritation to resolve. The standard treatment protocol of JF resulted in both marked skin irritation and tumors in 44% of the mice. However, using the intermittent schedule, the tumor yield was reduced to 2%. Collectively these data demonstrate that tumor formation is not a necessary sequelae to chronic skin irritation. Conversely, prevention of a marked chronic irritant state was accompanied by decreased tumor yield. These data suggest that the chronic irritant state may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for tumor formation. In studies to assess the effects of compositional parameters, a lightly hydrodesulfurized specialty oil (LHSO) similar to LRPO but refined to have negligible levels of sulfur compounds (3 ppm

  17. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit while in high…

  18. The middle manager role in energy company environmental efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhoff, Maya E.

    2005-12-01

    This research examines the internal organizational processes determining corporate environmental action. Corporations have a tremendous environmental impact, yet relatively little is known about how employees within them view and work on these issues. The research focused on middle managers, a level of the company whose value is often questioned. Interviews were conducted with 70 middle managers at two energy companies (comprising utilities and unregulated businesses). Interviews examined the shape and significance of middle manager involvement in environmental issues, looking specifically at what issues middle managers deal with, what goals they pursue, and what approaches they use. The research finds middle managers' roles with respect to environmental issues to be far-reaching and complex. Much of their effort is focused on meeting regulatory requirements ("complying"). They are committed to compliance, in part for ethical reasons, but often find regulations frustrating and costly. Compliance is more challenging than commonly thought; it demands time, knowledge, and substantial creativity. In pursuing it, interviewees work with employees throughout the organization. This research shows middle managers interacting with those hierarchically above and below them in ways that greatly modify earlier portrayals of middle managers. Earlier portrayals often emphasized struggles for power within the organization. Here, middle managers work in ways best characterized as collaborative and supportive. Middle managers also have extensive involvement laterally within the company and with groups outside the company. These links have received modest attention in literature, yet are found to be terribly important. Middle managers' lateral efforts inside the company, often on teams, allow diverse expertise (e.g., from people in different functions) to be applied to environmental issues. Documenting middle managers' involvement externally, with governmental officials and sectors

  19. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  20. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential. PMID:26049252

  1. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  2. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  3. Toxicology for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ruth N.; Parrish, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment that demonstrates that common substances, whether or not the students think of them as medicines, drugs of abuse, or foods, have toxic effects on Daphnia. Combines an inexpensive hands-on experiment with extensive discussion to help the students think about chemical concentration, potency, and the difference between harmful…

  4. ISS Update: Guillen Middle School

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries and Operations Support Officer Cassandra Rodriquez answer questions from Guillen Middle School students in El Paso, TX. Rodriquez also discusses her role...

  5. The Logical Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The same software controlling autonomous and crew-assisted operations for the International Space Station (ISS) is enabling commercial enterprises to integrate and automate manual operations, also known as decision logic, in real time across complex and disparate networked applications, databases, servers, and other devices, all with quantifiable business benefits. Auspice Corporation, of Framingham, Massachusetts, developed the Auspice TLX (The Logical Extension) software platform to effectively mimic the human decision-making process. Auspice TLX automates operations across extended enterprise systems, where any given infrastructure can include thousands of computers, servers, switches, and modems that are connected, and therefore, dependent upon each other. The concept behind the Auspice software spawned from a computer program originally developed in 1981 by Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory for simulating tasks performed by astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle. At the time, the Space Shuttle Program was dependent upon paper-based procedures for its manned space missions, which typically averaged 2 weeks in duration. As the Shuttle Program progressed, NASA began increasing the length of manned missions in preparation for a more permanent space habitat. Acknowledging the need to relinquish paper-based procedures in favor of an electronic processing format to properly monitor and manage the complexities of these longer missions, NASA realized that Draper's task simulation software could be applied to its vision of year-round space occupancy. In 1992, Draper was awarded a NASA contract to build User Interface Language software to enable autonomous operations of a multitude of functions on Space Station Freedom (the station was redesigned in 1993 and converted into the international venture known today as the ISS)

  6. Nothing in the Middle: What Middle Schoolers Are Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traw, Rick

    A study examined what kinds of books middle schoolers will read when given the freedom to choose. Subjects were 55 children of middle-class parents enrolled in 2 sections of eighth-grade English at a university laboratory school. Of the original population of 55 students, 7 elected not to have data from their reading included, and records were not…

  7. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  8. The dynamics of continental extension and divergent margin formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, D.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Continental breakup is a highly variable process. Differences occur in the relative timing and extent of volcanism, uplift, and graben formation as well as in the mode and amount of continental extension before breakup. The authors propose a model that reconciles this variability with the previously recognized tendency for breakup to occur along preexisting weak trends. Continental lithosphere is viewed as a composite material composed of two strong layers, one in the upper mantle and one in the middle crust. Finite element simulation indicates that extensional failure at weaknesses in the mantle causes concentrated extension in the mantle and diffuse extension in the crust. This leads to early melt segregation and volcanism, margin uplift during the late stages of the extension process, and relatively narrow symmetrical extended margins. In contrast, failure at weaknesses in the crustal strong zone causes focused extension in the crust and diffuse extension in the mantle. This produces initial graben formation, cooling in the lower crust and upper mantle, and broad asymmetrical extended margins. Volcanism only occurs late in the process. Failure at laterally offset weaknesses within both strong layers, perhaps the most common case, leads to a deformation pattern dominated by simple shear. Thus, differences in the prerift configuration of the continental lithosphere can control the overall style of continental breakup. They find that certain features of the evolution of the US Atlantic margin, particularly the formation of the hinge zone and the distribution and timing of extension may be better explained using these models.

  9. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  10. Mining the Middle School Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawter, David

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students are walking dichotomies. They can talk about world peace and then hit the kid next to them. They can recycle to ease global warming only to leave the cafeteria a mess. Why? Well, scientifically, it is because their brains do not work. When people look at middle school students, they can plainly see evidence of physical…

  11. Middle School Organization and Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Nancy J.

    The major purpose of this report is to present information about the organization of middle schools in the school district of Philadelphia. The report includes: (1) summary information on rostering/scheduling practices; and (2) comparisons of promotion/retention rates, average daily attendance, and suspension rates in middle schools with different…

  12. Movin' up to the Middle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The middle years are crucial to high school success, when students develop skills for navigating the larger world, and discover the direction they want their lives to take. So why, asks noted middle school educator Rick Wormeli, would anyone leave the transition into this phase to chance? Five mind-sets can help educators guide their students on…

  13. Calculus in the Middle School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  14. Middle Grades Reform. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have pointed to the lagging scores of eighth graders on international, national, and state assessments as evidence that students are not prepared to meet high academic standards and that middle grades reform is needed. In response to these concerns, educators have introduced reforms designed to provide middle-level…

  15. Key Characteristics of Middle School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Nyman, Terri R.

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined student performance in middle schools with a grade configuration of six through eight. Schools were categorized into two groups: high-performing middle schools--middle schools making adequate yearly progress for two consecutive school years, and low-performing middle schools--middle schools not making adequate yearly…

  16. 34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWARAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1909, SHEET NO. 11. Aperture card 6498-11. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1908, SHEET NO. 7. Aperture card 6498-7. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  19. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  20. Exploring Middle School Girls' Science Identities: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions of Scientists when Working "Side-by-Side" with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland-Smith, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This article is the culmination of an extensive inquiry-focused interactive experience involving female middle school students and five university scientists, which demonstrated that middle school girls' perception of science and scientists can be successfully improved. The study exposed students to adult professional scientists over a period of a…

  1. Shuttle-derived densities in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, Joe D.; Findlay, John T.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Space Shuttle flights have furnished a basis for the derivation of middle-atmosphere densities with unprecedented vertical resolution; an archival data base is now available that furnishes extensive information for the evaluation of existing model estimates for latitudinal and seasonal effects, as well as the improvement of mean monthly predictions. The High Resolution Accelerometry Package results yield extensive large-amplitude, low-frequency density variations throughout the thermosphere. The Inertial Measurement Unit results show abrupt density shifts at all latitudes, with visible shears being observed that can be correlated to summer activity.

  2. Venus Middle Atmosphere Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, F. P.; Sundaram, M.; Slanger, T. G.; Allen, M.; Yung, Y. L.

    2005-08-01

    Venus is the most similar planet to Earth, and years of research have sought to understand their similarities and differences. Yet, it is still not clear what chemical processes maintain the long-term stability of Venus' primarily CO2 atmosphere. CO2 dissociates into CO and O after absorbing photons at wavelengths < 210 nm. These O atoms should combine to form O2, and observations of intense airglow confirm rapid production of O2 on both day and night sides. CO and O2 are sufficiently stable that an initially pure CO2 atmosphere would rapidly evolve to have 7-8% CO and 3.5-4% O2 [1]. The observed upper limit on O2 (0.3 ppm [2]), however, indicates catalytic mechanisms [3], rapidly convert CO and oxygen into CO2. The current understanding of Venus middle atmosphere chemistry, the state of lab data, and prospects for advances based on Venus Express will be reviewed. Recent work evaluating newly proposed mechanisms for producing CO2, which could be important depending on the rates of poorly constrained reactions, will be described. This research was supported by funding from NASA's Planetary Atmospheres program and the Australian Research Council. Part of this work was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. [1] Nair, et al., Icarus 111, 124 (1994), [2] Trauger and Lunine, Icarus 55, 272 (1983), [3] Pernice, et al., PNAS 101, 14007 (2004)

  3. Simultaneous dislocation of both interphalangeal joints in the middle finger.

    PubMed

    Hester, Thomas; Mahmood, Shoib; Morar, Yateen; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous dorsal dislocation of both interphalangeal joints (IPJs) in one finger is an uncommon injury. This injury usually occurs on the ulnar side of the hand involving ring and little fingers. We report a case of simultaneous dislocation of both IPJs in the middle finger. Closed reduction and splinting with the IPJs in extension provided a good result with full range of motion at the patient's final follow-up. PMID:25979959

  4. The Middle of the Muddle--in the Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vito, Alfred

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for creation, and the characteristics of, middle schools. Investigates the problems of science curriculum materials and preparation of science teachers for the 6-8 grade level. (CP)

  5. GNU Fortran Cray Pointer Extension

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-07-27

    The gfortran compiler is a Fortran front end to the GNU Compiler Collection. The Cray Pointer extension adds to this existing compiler support for Cray-style integer pointers. This non-standard but widely used extension adds the functionality of C-like pointers to the Fortran language.

  6. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  7. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  8. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  9. Why Do Extension Agents Resign?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Linda Nunes; van Es, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Past and current Illinois extension agents were surveyed via mail questionnaires as to reasons for staying or leaving extension programs. Reasons for leaving included family changes, family moves, opportunity to advance, better salary/benefits, dissatisfaction with administration, and too much time away from family. (CT)

  10. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  11. Middle Archean continent formation by crustal delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, Tanja E.; van Keken, Peter E.

    2001-12-01

    The processes that created the first large cratonic areas such as the Pilbara and the Kaapvaal remain poorly understood. Models based on the uniformitarian extrapolation of present-day arc volcanic processes to a hotter early Earth have not adequately explained the observations in these terranes. Here we propose an alternative mechanism for the formation of the earliest continental crust. The formation of continental crust may be achieved by delamination of the lower eclogitic part of an oceanic plateau like protocrust. Such delamination results in uplift, extension, and the production of tonalite, trondhjemite, and granodiorite (TTG) suites as recorded in Middle Archean cratons. The available geologic and geophysical observations in combination with model calculations permit this scenario as an alternative to subduction-based hypotheses.

  12. Middle atmosphere dynamics and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of the dynamics and composition of that region of the earth atmosphere lying above the tropopause but below 100 km are considered as they relate to processes at middle and high latitudes. The physics of the summer to winter reversal of the direction of the middle atmosphere jet is discussed, along with the effects of planetary waves on the mean zonal flow, which occasionally produce sudden stratosphere warming events. The chemistry of the two middle atmospheric trace constituents ozone and nitric oxide, which play dominant roles in atmospheric radiation balance and lower ionospheric structure, respectively, is then examined, and the importance of transport in determining their distribution is pointed out.

  13. Global middle Pliocene biome reconstruction: A data/model synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Valdes, Paul J.; Francis, Jane E.; Sellwood, Bruce W.

    2002-12-01

    The middle Pliocene warm interval (ca. 3 Ma BP) has been extensively studied. However, our knowledge concerning the global distribution of middle Pliocene biomes remains far from complete. This paper presents the results from a "first attempt" at simulating the distribution of different mid-Pliocene biomes using an advanced numerical general circulation climate model (Hadley Centre Atmospheric Model Version 3) and the BIOME 4 vegetation model. The modeling indicates that during the middle Pliocene the geographical coverage of tundra type biomes may have been significantly reduced compared with the present day in the Northern Hemisphere. High-latitude forests expand in the place of tundra forms of vegetation. Total area covered by forest increases for the Pliocene case compared with the present day. Arid deserts become less prevalent in the Pliocene scenario and are replaced by tropical xerophytic shrublands and savanna-type vegetation. These results compare favorably with geological data in general and with the U.S. Geological Survey's PRISM2 middle Pliocene vegetation reconstruction, although data/model inconsistencies are apparent. Although some of these inconsistencies relate to the weaknesses of the climate and biome model employed, others identify deficiencies in the extant geological data set or the interpretation of this data. This modeled biome reconstruction will serve as a useful vehicle for aiding in future comparisons between geological data on middle Pliocene biomes and model predictions.

  14. Addressing Violence in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Stephanie M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the successful effort at one middle school in the Virginia Beach city school system to establish a safe school environment by providing successful programs and effective policies, and by relying on a school, family, and community partnership. (SR)

  15. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  16. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the first 2 to 4 years of life for several reasons: Their eustachian tubes are shorter and more horizontal than those of adults, which lets bacteria and viruses find their way into the middle ear more ...

  17. Crafts in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, D. I. R.

    1972-01-01

    In the middle years of schooling, size, measurement, shape and form build up a child's mathematical and visual concepts. A restless drive to create, to see what happens in making something, can provide the driving force in crafts. (Editor)

  18. Middle/High School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Highlights middle school/high school construction projects that have won the Learning By Design Awards for 2001. Projects covered involve new school construction; and renovation, additions, and restoration. (GR)

  19. In praise of middle managers.

    PubMed

    Huy, Q N

    2001-09-01

    Middle managers have often been cast as dinosaurs. Has-beens. Mediocre managers and intermediaries who defend the status quo instead of supporting others' attempts to change organizations for the better. An INSEAD professor has examined this interesting breed of manager--in particular, middle managers' roles during periods of radical organizational change. His findings will surprise many. Middle managers, it turns out, make valuable contributions to the realization of radical change at companies--contributions that go largely unrecognized by most senior executives. Quy Nguyen Huy says these contributions occur in four major areas. First, middle managers often have good entrepreneurial ideas that they are able and willing to realize--if only they can get a hearing. Second, they're far better than most senior executives at leveraging the informal networks at companies that make substantive, lasting change. Because they've worked their way up the corporate ladder, middle managers' networks run deep. Third, they stay attuned to employees' emotional needs during organizational change, thereby maintaining the transformation's momentum. And finally, they manage the tension between continuity and change--they keep the organization from falling into extreme inertia or extreme chaos. The author examines each of these strengths, citing real-world examples culled from his research. Of course, not every middle manager in an organization is a paragon of entrepreneurial vigor and energy, Huy acknowledges. But cavalierly dismissing the roles that middle managers play--and carelessly reducing their ranks--will drastically diminish senior managers' chances of realizing radical change at their companies. Indeed, middle managers may be the most effective allies of corner office executives when it's time to make major changes in businesses. PMID:11550632

  20. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  1. Putting Extension on a Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, James E.

    1970-01-01

    Between and during television programs from WNBF-TV, Binghamton, New York, the Extension Service is providing public service announcements giving information on nutrition, food stamps, forage pests, outdoor recreation, farm safety, environmental quality, and many other subjects. (EB)

  2. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  3. New Evidence for the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paul S.; Shewey, Kathy

    Studies done in the 1960s and 1970s which sought to compare middle schools with junior high schools were ineffective. Intended to fill the frequently noted research void in the middle school movement, this monograph summarizes previous research on the effectiveness of middle level schools and presents results of a 1993 study on middle schools…

  4. Model studies of hydrodesulfurization by Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Friend, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of surface modifiers (Co, S) on activity and selectivity of Mo(110) for desulfurization processes were studied. S generally increases the selectivity for desulfurization while decreasing overall reactivity. Co promots C-H activation processes on Mo(110). The Mo(110)-(9x2)-Co surface affects the desulfurization of 2,5- dihydrothiophene and methanethiol. Vibrational spectroscopy is being used for determining molecular orientation; vibrational frequencies were calculated for four labeled 2-propoxide isomers on Mo(110) and found to agree with experiment.

  5. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  6. Basement extension and salt mobility, southern Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, H.R.; Legall, F.

    1986-05-01

    The Grand Banks, an especially wide cratonic segment of the North American Atlantic continental shelf, extended vigorously during Late Triassic-Aptian rift-phase episodes, accompanied by syntectonic basin filling and large-scale structural disruption. Thereafter, the rift-disrupted domain underwent drift-phase subsidence and was buried by a seaward-prograding continental terrace wedge, in which progressively feeble extension is evident. Rift-faulted cratonic basement is perceptible on industry-acquired reflection seismic profiles from the southern Grand Banks. The profiles also show that Carboniferous and Lower Jurassic salt were the main levels of supracrustal detachment during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous extension. Large salt-mobilized structures within the rift-phase succession include fault-zone sheaths, elongate pillows, aligned piercement spires, and immense walls. These elements parallel large extension faults in basement and, in many places, are superposed on the faults. In striking contrast, upper Aptian and younger drift-phase strata are regionally subhorizontal, and are broken to middle and late Tertiary stratigraphic levels by only a few small extension faults and aligned diapirs. The authors interpret the structural/stratigraphic relationships in the southern Grand Banks to indicate that episodic Mesozoic and Cenozoic basement extension was the principal dynamic agent in determining the timing of salt structures, their orientations, and styles of disruption on enclosing strata. This genetic association may be applicable to other parts of the Grand Banks tectonic province, and possibly to other extensional cratonic margin basins.

  7. Extensive balanitis xerotica obliterans of urethrocutaneous fistula presenting as mass in scrotum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Nagappa, Bhubnesh; Ganesamoniv, Raguram

    2010-08-01

    A rare case of extensive lichen sclerosis (balanitis xerotica obliterans) involving the anterior urethra, urethrocutaneous fistula, and scrotum is described in a middle-aged man who presented with a history of obstructive voiding symptoms. He was managed by excision of mass along with the fistulae and staged buccal mucosal urethroplasty. PMID:19913886

  8. Isokinetic Leg Flexion and Extension Strength of Elite Adolescent Female Track and Field Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Adolescent female track-and-field athletes were measured to compare isokinetic strength of leg flexion and extension movements. Throwers, jumpers, middle-distance runners, and sprinters participated in the study. Throwers were found to be stronger in absolute strength, but there were no significant differences in relative strength. Results are…

  9. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Qiuhuan; Gong, Shusheng; Liu, Honggang; Yu, Zilong; Zhang, Luo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009), and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage. PMID:22928138

  10. Security in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.F. Jr.; Bruzonsky, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The full range of U.S. security interests in the Middle East is covered in this volume of original contributions from prominent international scholars. Case studies of key countries emphasize the prospects for peaceful political, economic, and cultural change in the region. The Arab-Israeli conflict is examined with particular attention to the ''Palestine problem,'' U.S. policy and diplomacy, and the peace process. Finally, the involvement of the U.S. and the USSR and the policy options open to them are considered. Includes chapters on oil and its role in Middle-East security issues.

  11. Middle Years. The Magazine for Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hereford, Nancy-Jo; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Special supplement for middle level educators focuses on news from around the country, student environmental action, adolescent development, saying no to drugs, the case against tracking, technology solutions, astronomy, ancient Egypt, the American West, learning with literature, camaraderie, and puzzles for problem solvers. (SM)

  12. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  13. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  14. Effective Public Relations in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Public relations efforts of the Carroll County (Ohio) extension office included periodic reports to legislators, a toll-free number distributed on refrigerator magnets, annual calendar/report to the public, newspaper supplements, and town meetings. Long-term effects were a 116% increase in funding, used to upgrade staff, programs, and…

  15. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  16. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  17. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  18. Carbonate facies and stratigraphic framework of middle Magdalena (middle Pennsylvanian), Hueco Mountains, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.L.; Stanton, R.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The middle Magdalena of the Hueco Mountains, west Texas, is best exposed in the vicinity of Pow Wow Canyon, particularly along the western scarp of the range. It can be divided into two major depositional sequences, the lowermost of which consists predominantly of alternating bank, interbank, and shoal deposits of Atokan age. These banks are low-relief accumulations of Donezella, with coeval slackwater skeletal wackestones and interbedded deposits of foraminiferal sands. A prominent zone of intertonguing Chaetetes biostromes punctuates the middle part of this sequence. The Desmoinesian sequence begins as a series of rubbly limestones in association with abundant silicified plant remains and is interpreted as a set of paleosols. These are overlain by argillaceous, low-diversity wackestones and packstones of lagoonal origin, followed by carbonates of more open-marine circulation with abundant corals and other stenotypic fossils. In turn, these deposits are succeeded by a sequence of phylloid algal banks that increase in resistance upward to where they represent strata of the upper Magdalena. At this locality, however, the upper Magdalena is very thin because it is truncated by the pre-Hueco unconformity which, so prominent at the head of the canyon, can now be traced to the western scarp. These deposits are directly analogous to subsurface reservoir facies of the same age on the opposite side of the Diablo uplift in the Permian basin and thus provide an opportunity to generate reservoir models based on extensive outcrop exposure.

  19. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  20. Integrated Middle School Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use of the TARRGET model (Tasks, Autonomy, Recognition, Resources, Grouping, Evaluation, and Time) in restructuring middle school literacy instruction in urban schools. By changing the scheduling of reading and writing instruction, using literature as a basis for reading instruction, and emphasizing comprehension…

  1. Probability Simulation in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappan, Glenda; Winter, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two simulations designed to teach probability to middle-school age pupils are presented. The first simulates the one-on-one foul shot simulation in basketball; the second deals with collecting a set of six cereal box prizes by buying boxes containing one toy each. (MP)

  2. The Middle School Recipe Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lynnette S., Comp.

    The purpose of this book is to provide activities, forms, and information to aid elementary and middle school counselors in improving services and programs for students. The materials included may also serve as an invaluable tool in assisting newly employed counselors in setting up their programs. This publication is organized in the format of the…

  3. Class Guitar in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Grant

    1996-01-01

    Provides a thorough overview of middle school guitar instruction discussing both private and group lessons. Considers the role of the guitar as both a solo instrument and in ensemble and orchestra. Includes curricular guidelines for a beginning guitar course and a sample list of songs for a final recital. (MJP)

  4. DARE Middle School Program Revamped

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Elizabeth S.

    2006-01-01

    The New DARE middle school program, Take Charge of Your Life, has reinvented DARE as part of a major national research study that promises to help teachers and administrators address the issues of drugs and school violence. Gone is the old-style approach to prevention in which an officer stands behind a podium and lectures students in straight…

  5. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  6. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine…

  7. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  8. Student Merit Awards: Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    The Student Merit Award Program was designed to motivate, stimulate and reward students for their study and achievement outside the mathematics classroom by providing enrichment material on a variety of mathematical topics. In general, these topics are either not found in the standard middle school curriculum or represent a more in-depth study of…

  9. The Evolution of Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paul S.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Florida's 500 middle schools have become more sizeable, racially segregated, and security conscious. Other features include interdisciplinary team organization, warring curricula, block schedules, integrated technology, inclusion, ability grouping, corporate practices, and female and minority principals committed to…

  10. Sexual Harassment in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Betty; Jackson, Janet

    This paper presents an overview of the affects of sexual harassment on middle schools and discusses what can be done to prevent it. This paper suggests that school personnel must educate students about sexual harassment, and videos can be a particularly effective way to do this. Recent studies have shown that 81 percent of all students, grades 8…

  11. Woods Middle School: A Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Elisabeth

    1993-01-01

    Profiles the activities of the School of the Woods in Houston, which in the early 1980s began a Montessori middle school program to complement the already existing elementary instruction. Discusses the physical environment of the school, the activities of the students and teachers, the curriculum, and the contributions of parents. (MDM)

  12. Middle/High School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of two combined middle/high schools, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and design team, a general building description, and general construction costs and specifications. Also provides a rough site plan and photographs. (EV)

  13. AED in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  14. Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

  15. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped. PMID:27134373

  16. Redescription of Protanura papillata Cassagnau & Delamare Deboutteville, 1955 (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae), with new records from Middle East, and with supplemented diagnosis and key to the genus.

    PubMed

    Smolis, Adrian; Skarżyński, Dariusz; Kahrarian, Morteza; Kaprus, Ighor J

    2016-01-01

    The poorly known Neanurini genus Protanura is rediagnosed and briefly compared with Lathriopyga. Protanura papillata Cassagnau & Delamare Deboutteville, 1955, known to date only from Lebanon, is redescribed based on the lectotype and new extensive material from Middle East. PMID:27394457

  17. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  18. Neogene Extension and Exhumation in NW Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advokaat, E. L.; Hall, R.; White, L. T.; Armstrong, R. A.; Kohn, B. P.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The unusual K-shaped island of Sulawesi, located in the convergent zone between the Eurasian, Australian and Pacific plates, has traditionally been interpreted as the consequence of collision and accretion. New data challenge this idea and indicate that crustal extension has played an important role in its Neogene development. In the north of the Sulawesi North Arm are Eocene-Lower Miocene basalts intercalated with radiolarian chert and volcaniclastic sediments, which were deformed during collision of the Sula Spur with the North Arm. Undeformed granitoids derived from lower crustal rocks intrude the sequence and preliminary LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages decrease from 9.44±0.43 Ma in the north to 8.19±0.20 Ma in the south. Structurally beneath all these rocks is the Malino Metamorphic Complex (MMC) which exposes dominantly quartzo-feldspathic muscovite schists to gneisses, with subordinate amphibolites and garnet schists. The MMC is a metamorphic core complex, surrounded by a discontinuous greenschist carapace and shear zones with opposite shear senses on the northern and southern sides of the complex. Metamorphic rocks from the MMC yield SHRIMP U-Pb ages on zircon rims of 15.42±0.62 Ma and 15.36±0.53 Ma. Locally these metamorphic rocks are intruded by undeformed granitoids with SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of 4.85 ± 0.07 to 3.78±0.04 Ma. Late stage exhumation accommodated by high angle oblique normal faults is indicated by apatite (U-Th)/He ages between 3.26±0.23 Ma and 1.43±0.24 Ma, at a rate of 0.27 mm/a based on age-elevation plots. Lower Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene syn-extensional shallow marine siliciclastic and carbonate sediments are crosscut by normal faults. The timing of faulting and lack of metamorphic detritus in these young sediments support rapid and recent regional uplift. We interpret two phases of extension in North Sulawesi, one during the Middle Miocene and another during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene, exhuming the granitic and metamorphic rocks.

  19. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  20. Teachers' Views about Multiple Strategies in Middle and High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive scholarship about the importance of teaching mathematics with multiple strategies in the elementary grades, there has been relatively little discussion of this practice in the middle and high school levels or in the context of introductory algebra. This article begins our exploration of this practice by addressing the following…

  1. Be Your Own Hero: Activities for Middle-Level Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Clarance H.; Steinbrink, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Offers instructional activities (in the form of a three-day lesson plan and extension activities) for middle-level students that allow adolescents to recognize heroic people and actions, and then explore their own characters and behaviors for signs of courage, leadership, and sincerity. Lists resources about heroes. (SR)

  2. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  3. Justification as a Teaching and Learning Practice: Its (Potential) Multifacted Role in Middle Grades Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Megan E.; Bartlo, Joanna; Thanheiser, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Justification is a core mathematics practice. Although the purposes of justification in the mathematician community have been studied extensively, we know relatively little about its role in K-12 classrooms. This paper documents the range of purposes identified by 12 middle grades teachers who were working actively to incorporate justification…

  4. An Overview of Environmental Education in Middle School Natural Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhanbao, Shu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental education in middle school natural science courses is based on integrating environmental knowledge into natural science education. Therefore, environmental education objectives should be set as an extension of the objectives for natural science education. However, in order to reach the objectives laid out for environmental education…

  5. Weight-Control Practices Reported by Students in a Maine Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majka, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Extension professionals who work with youth are often faced with issues of body weight, diet and/or body image. How we handle these topics has the potential to either help or harm. The goal of the study reported here was to explore the prevalence and types of weight-control methods practiced by middle school students. The majority of students…

  6. Perception of Competence in Middle School Physical Education: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Silverman, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A…

  7. Woodbridge Middle School: Getting Better Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Woodbridge Middle School, a middle school in Woodbridge, Virginia, which has always celebrated a tradition of excellence. Today's Woodbridge Middle School in no way resembles the school that existed in 2005. Then, the students were mostly White and few qualified for the free and reduced-price meals program; today, there is no…

  8. Recruiting Middle School Students into Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matutina, Robin E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to illustrate the importance of initiating nursing recruitment during the middle school years. Data sources included citations from the years 1989 to 2006. The study focused on middle school students 9 to 13 years of age in Grades 6 to 8. One survey compared middle school students' perceptions of an ideal…

  9. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  10. Ready, Set, Go: It's Middle School!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Desha; Gray, Kimberly; Stockdale, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Middle school teachers teach energetic, curious adolescents rigorous content at a time in their lives when many changes are occurring. Those entering the teaching profession as middle school teachers must be prepared for this unique environment. This study examines 16 pre-service middle school teachers' developments as they participate in a…