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Sample records for external bottom side

  1. A scaling law for the local CHF on the external bottom side of a fully submerged reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-02-01

    A scaling law for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water has been developed from the results of an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model for pool boiling on a downward facing curved heating surface. The scaling law accounts for the effects of the size of the vessel, the level of liquid subcooling, the intrinsic properties of the fluid, and the spatial variation of the local critical heat flux along the heating surface. It is found that for vessels with diameters considerably larger than the characteristic size of the vapor masses, the size effect on the local critical heat flux is limited almost entirely to the effect of subcooling associated with the local liquid head. When the subcooling effect is accounted for separately, the local CHF limit is nearly independent of the vessel size. Based upon the scaling law developed in this work, it is possible to merge, within the experimental uncertainties, all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes under both saturated and subcooled boiling conditions into a single curve. Applications of the scaling law to commercial-size vessels have been made for various system pressures and water levels above the heated vessel. Over the range of conditions explored in this study, the local CHF limit is found to increase by a factor of two or more from the bottom center to the upper edge of the vessel. Meanwhile, the critical heat flux at a given angular position of the heated vessel is also found to increase appreciably with the system pressure and the water level.

  2. APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE PIER 5, SOUTH SIDE, AND BOTTOM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE PIER 5, SOUTH SIDE, AND BOTTOM OF STEEL TRUSS SPAN 4 (IN BACKGROUND) AND 5 (IN FOREGROUND), FACING NORTH - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  3. General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery as it is being hoisted in a vertical position in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Bottom/Side Lift Gantry Conceptual Design Rev. 01

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, P.S.

    2000-04-11

    The purpose of this task is to update the existing bottom/side lift gantry analysis so that the design is consistent with Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II) design constraints listed in the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999a, Section 2.2.1.1, p. 9a). This update is consistent with the requirements of the Technical Guidance Document for License Application Preparation (YMP 1999, Section 6.2.5.1). This update will also take into account the latest available equipment classification and Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M and O 2000c) requirements. The principal objective of this analysis is to verify that the newly developed bottom/side lift gantry concept continues to be a suitable design concept for the current Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design. This analysis includes an examination of the waste package (WP) transfer operation at the emplacement drift transfer dock. In addition, this analysis verifies that the gantry is compatible with the WP transporter, which has been redesigned to handle WPs sitting on pallets (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this work is to examine the existing analysis and to determine what, if any, modifications to the analysis may be required as a result of additional requirements imposed by the EDA II concept. Then, a revision will be made to the conceptual design accordingly. The analysis will also be revised to show the approximate sizes and locations of the electrical equipment and control cabinets, and to take into account the weight of that equipment in the total gantry weight. The analytical portions of the analysis are revised, as required, to address changes resulting from modifications to the conceptual design or from changes in classification and/or SDD requirements. Finally, the revised conceptual design is evaluated to verify that it continues to be a suitable method for handling the WPs within the emplacement drift. Except as noted

  5. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Haralds; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results. Internal and external factors and indicators, which affect energy management potential in pellet production are analysed. Analysis of external factors is based on the state legal framework regulating the development of the energy sector. Methodology on the analysis of energy demand includes the internal energy management of an enterprise. The experimental results discussed in this paper show that particular steps, which are oriented to specific use of technological equipment, could play significant role in energy efficiency improvement in industry which is illustrated by the pre-milling process in the pellet production system using power.

  6. Polymeric waveguide array with 45 degree slopes fabricated by bottom side tilted exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaohui; Dou, Xinyuan; Wang, Alan X.; Chen, Ray T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrated a practical fabrication process of polymeric waveguide array (12 channels) with 50μm(W)×50μm(H)×23mm(L) dimension and mirror embedded 45° degree slopes for vertical coupling purpose. The entire process contained three main parts: a SU8 pre-mold with 45° slope, a PDMS mold and the final waveguide array device. The key step of fabricating the pre-mold included a bottom side tilted exposure of SU8 photo resist. By placing the sample upside down, tilting by 58.7° and immersing into DI water, the ultraviolet (UV) beam that shined vertically was directed to go through from the bottom of the glass substrate into top side SU8 resist with 45° angle to form the surface. This method was able to guarantee no-gap contact between the mask pattern and the photo resist when exposing. By comparing the process complexity and achieved structure of the top and bottom side exposure, the later was proved to be a promising method for making high quality tilted structure without any tailing effect. The reversed PDMS mold was then fabricated on the SU8 pre-mold. The PDMS mold was used to imprint the cladding layer of the waveguide array. After metal deposition, core filling and top cladding layer coating, the final polymeric waveguide array device was achieved. For performance evaluation, 850nm laser beam from VCSEL was modulated to 10Gbps signals and vertically coupled into the waveguide array. The eye diagrams revealed high Q factor when transmitting signals along these waveguide array.

  7. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  8. An unusual side effect of isotretinoin: retinoid dermatitis affecting external urethral meatus.

    PubMed

    Alli, Nuran; Yorulmaz, Ahu

    2015-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Iso) is the most effective drug against severe nodulocystic acne. As a synthetic oral retinoid, Iso exerts its actions by modulating cell growth and differentiation. Targeting all the pathophysiologic processes in acne development, Iso has been considered to be an unique drug, however it has several side effects. While chelitis, xerosis, ocular sicca, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, hyperlipidemia are the most common side effects, teratogenicity and depressive symptoms are the most concerning ones. In addition, Iso has unusual side effects which have been described for the first time in the literature. Here, we report a remarkable side effect of Iso in a 23-years-old male patient with retinoid dermatitis affecting the external uretral meatus. To our knowledge, only few cases of retinoid dermatitis in the urethral mucosa due to Iso have been reported in the literature so far. PMID:24964168

  9. Mapping the Gulf of Maine with side-scan sonar: A new bottom-type classification for complex seafloors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.A.; Kelley, J.T.; Dickson, S.M.; Belknap, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bedrock-framed seafloor in the northwestern Gulf of Maine is characterized by extreme changes in bathymetric relief and covered with a wide variety of surficial materials. Traditional methods of mapping cannot accurately represent the great heterogeneity of such a glaciated region. A new mapping scheme for complex seafloors, based primarily on the interpretation of side-scan sonar imagery, utilizes four easily recognized units: rock, gravel, sand and mud. In many places, however, the seafloor exhibits a complicated mixture or extremely 'patchy' distribution of the four basic units, which are too small to map individually. Twelve composite units, each a two-component mixture of the basic units, were established to represent this patchiness at a small scale (1:100,000). Using a geographic information system, these and all other available data (seismic profiles, grab samples, submersible dives and cores) were referenced to a common geographic base, superimposed on bathymetric contours and then integrated into surficial geologic maps of the regional inner continental shelf. This digital representation of the seafloor comprises a multidimensional, interactive model complete with explicit attributes (depth, bottom type) that allow for detailed analysis of marine environments.

  10. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0–1.4 m·s-1; 1.4–3.4 m·s-1; 3.4–5.2 m·s-1; >5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  11. Proposal of new models of the bottom-side B0 and B1 parameters for IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, D.; Torta, J. M.; Blanch, E.

    2009-06-01

    The time series of hourly electron density profiles N(h) obtained from 27 ionosonde stations distributed world-wide have been used to obtain N(h) average profiles on a monthly basis and to extract the expected bottom-side parameters that define the IRI profile under quiet conditions. The time series embrace the time interval from 1998 to 2006, which practically contains the entire solar cycle 23. The Spherical Harmonic Analysis (SHA) has been used as an analytical technique for modeling globally the B0 and B1 parameters as general functions on a spherical surface. Due to the irregular longitudinal distribution of the stations over the globe, it has been assumed that the ionosphere remains approximately constant in form for a given day under quiet conditions for a particular coordinate system. Since the Earth rotates under a Sun-fixed system, the time differences have been considered to be equivalent to longitude differences. The time dependence has been represented by a two-degree Fourier expansion to model the annual and semiannual variations and the year-by-year analyses of the B0 and B1 have furnished nine sets of spherical harmonic coefficients for each parameter. The spatial-temporal yearly coefficients have been further expressed as linear functions of Rz12 to model the solar cycle dependence. The resultant analytical model provides a tool to predict B0 and B1 at any location distributed among the used range of latitudes (70°N-50°S) and at any time that improves the fit to the observed data with respect to IRI prediction.

  12. Externalities and School Enrollment Policy: A Supply-Side Analysis of School Choice in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kat Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This article is an in-progress examination of the current landscape of school choice in a well-known case of universal decentralization: New Zealand's public school system. Using a supply-side analysis of the implications of a specific policy--school enrollment schemes--this author seeks to test hypotheses about zoning and self-preservation using…

  13. Restoration of the Baltic Proper to a system in equilibrium with the external phosphorus supply in the presence of huge sustained internal supply connected to anoxic bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigebrandt, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The phosphorus (P) content of the water column of the Baltic Proper has increased by 20 % since the 1980s in spite of a simultaneous reduction by 50 % of the external supply from land-based human activities and runoff. A simple budget model explains that the increased P content is a result of sustained leakage of P from anoxic bottoms. At the present, the internal P supply from anoxic bottoms is about three times greater than the external supply. Restoration of the Baltic Proper to a less eutrophic state obviously requires that the internal source vanishes which requires that the deepwater is kept oxygenated during a long period. This will not likely happen by natural processes as long as the oxygen consumption in the deepwater is high due to high P content and high biological production in the water column. One might therefore consider man-made oxygenation to keep the deepwater bottoms oxygenated. In the presentation positive and negative effects of man-made oxygenation of the Baltic Proper are discussed based on recently published results from a pilot experiment in the Swedish By Fjord and from analyses of physical, ecological and biogeochemical conditions in the Baltic Proper.

  14. Externalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This issue explains the concept of externalities (benefits or burdens which accrue to society when there is a difference between the private cost or benefit of an action and the social cost or benefit of that action). These external or social costs of individual actions are often referred to as spillover costs. Three brief teaching units follow…

  15. Features of the occurrence of the additional stratification on the bottom-side F region over the equatorial location of Trivandrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridula, N.; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Vineeth, C.; Kishore Kumar, K.

    2014-08-01

    The general features of occurrence of an additional layer on the bottom side of F region, referred to as F0.5 layer in the pre noon period, over the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat of 0.5° N) in India during the period from 2004 to 2007 are presented using ionosonde observations. The F0.5 layer has a June (northern summer) solsticial maximum probability of occurrence with secondary maxima during December (northern winter) solstice. The seasonal as well as the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of F0.5 layer as mentioned in this paper seems to be a result of the variations in the amplitude and phases of the tides and gravity waves, and inventory of the metallic ions of meteoric origin. This study brings out an important manifestation of morning time F layer base region dynamics.

  16. Measurement and simulation of top- and bottom-illuminated solar-blind AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with high external quantum efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, Moritz Helbling, Markus; Knigge, Andrea; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus

    2015-12-28

    A comprehensive study on top- and bottom-illuminated Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors having different AlGaN absorber layer thickness is presented. The measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows pronounced threshold and saturation behavior as a function of applied bias voltage up to 50 V reaching about 50% for 0.1 μm and 67% for 0.5 μm thick absorber layers under bottom illumination. All experimental findings are in very good accordance with two-dimensional drift-diffusion modeling results. By taking into account macroscopic polarization effects in the hexagonal metal-polar +c-plane AlGaN/AlN heterostructures, new insights into the general device functionality of AlGaN-based MSM photodetectors are obtained. The observed threshold/saturation behavior is caused by a bias-dependent extraction of photoexcited holes from the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN interface. While present under bottom illumination for any AlGaN layer thickness, under top illumination this mechanism influences the EQE-bias characteristics only for thin layers.

  17. [Fiber morphometry of the external intercostal muscle. Comparison of dominant and nondominant sides in patients with severe COPD].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Fuentes, M A; Gea, J; Pallás, O; Gallego, F; Félez, M A; Broquetas, J M

    1998-04-01

    The general morphometric characteristics of the external intercostal muscle (EIM) of patients with chronic respiratory disease have been well described. Because this muscle is highly accessible, it can provide an ideal model for longitudinal studies using consecutive biopsies of both sides. Whether or not the EIM fiber phenotype is homogeneous on dominant (D) and non dominant (ND) sides is unknown, however. To evaluate possible structural differences in right and left EIM in patients with COPD, eight patients (63 +/- 7 years of age) were enrolled. Lung function, respiratory muscle power, general muscle power and nutritional state were evaluated. Biopsies of the fifth EIM were taken from both sides. Specimens were processed in parallel manner to determine conventional morphometry (hematoxylin-eosin staining), including minimum diameter (Dm) and fiber area (Ar) in cross sections. Fibers were typed by ATPase (at pH 4.2, 4.6 and 9.4) and NADH-TR staining. Nutrition was normal in all patients. All patients had severe COPD (FEV1 27 +/- 7% of reference, limits 13 to 38% of reference) with air entrapment (RV 163 +/- 36% of reference, limits 181 to 276% of reference). None of the patients showed respiratory insufficiency at rest (PaO2 72 +/- 7 mmHg). Peripheral musculoskeletal power measured by manual dynamometer showed no significant right-left differences: D 29 +/- 2 and ND 28 +/- 3 dynes. Morphometric study of 16 muscle specimens showed no significant differences between fiber size on D and ND sides. DmD was 47 +/- 10 microns and ArD, was 2,595 +/- 1,249 microns2. DmD was 49 +/- 9 microns and ArD was 2,636 +/- 953 microns2. Likewise, no significant differences were found between D and ND fiber types: type ID 51 +/- 4% and type IID 49 +/- 5% versus type IND 52 +/- 4% and type IIND 48 +/- 4%. EIM on N and ND sides is homogeneous at the fifth intercostal space. This finding, along with the scarcely invasive nature of the technique for collecting specimens leads us to

  18. A Comparison Study of the Oxygen-Rich Side Blow Furnace and the Oxygen-Rich Bottom Blow Furnace for Liquid High Lead Slag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hao, Zhandong; Yang, Tianzu; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Zhang, Li; Bin, Shu; Bin, Wanda

    2015-05-01

    This work investigates the characteristics of the oxygen-rich side blow furnace (OSBF) and the oxygen-rich bottom blow furnace (OBBF) as the reductive smelting reactor for molten high lead slag. The slags were collected from different sampling points of these furnaces during a regular high lead slag reduction process and analyzed. It is disclosed that lead content of the melt in the OSBF shows dramatic fluctuations, while melt from different sampling points of the furnace behave similarly, exhibiting the characteristics of batch reactor. An obvious axial lead content gradient is detected in the OBBF, showing the characteristics of a plug flow reactor. The industrial performances of these furnaces are also compared. The results indicate that 1.38% higher lead recovery can be achieved by using the OSBF instead of the OBBF. Unit energy consumptions of the OBBF-OSBF and OBBF-OBBF processes can be reduced to 230 kgce/ t crude lead, which is 70 kgce/ t crude lead less than that of the tradition Shuikoushan (SKS) process.

  19. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong Ye, Peng; Jiang, Wen-jin; Ma, Shuo-yi Zhao, Jian-bo Zeng, Qing-le

    2015-10-15

    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  20. Fluid mud dynamics in the Weser estuary turbidity zone tracked by high-resolution side-scan sonar and parametric sub-bottom profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrottke, Kerstin; Becker, Marius; Bartholomä, Alexander; Flemming, Burghard W.; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2006-09-01

    Fluid mud in estuarine turbidity maximum zones (TMZ) can pose considerable navigation risks due to potentially substantial reductions in nautical depth, coupled with an inherent difficulty of detection by conventional echo-sounders. Despite intensive research efforts, however, our knowledge about the spatial and temporal dynamics of fluid mud is still not sufficient. In this study, the combined use of a side-scan sonar (Sportscan®, Imagenex) and a parametric sub-bottom profiler (SES-2000®, Innomar Technology GmbH) has proved successful for high-resolution fluid mud detection and volumetric quantification in an estuarine environment. In 2004 and 2005, repeated surveys were conducted in the navigation channel of the upper meso- to lower macrotidal Weser estuary TMZ (German North Sea coast) at different tidal stages and river discharges. Current velocity data were simultaneously collected by 1,200-kHz broadband ADCP (RDInstruments) measurements. Ground-truthing was carried out by means of grab sampling and gravity coring, adapted to fluid mud conditions. It was found that fluid mud occurrence in the Weser estuary is highly variable on time scales of a few hours and spatial scales of several metres. The riverbed is characterised by sand and mud deposits, and a complex morphology including subaqueous dunes and smooth bed deposits intermittently overlain by fluid mud. Thus, a continuous, coherent fluid mud body covering the entire TMZ riverbed was not observed. Rather, spatial distribution was patchy and highly dependent on suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations in the water column, as a result of which local fluid mud deposits varied in thickness from centimetres to metres. The formation of fluid mud was largely restricted to slack water, although slack-water conditions were not necessarily associated with large-scale fluid mud appearance. Advective SPM transport of resuspended fluid mud seems to be the most plausible explanation for the high spatial

  1. Bottom-side profile parameters (B0, B1) characteristics over the Brazilian equatorial and low latitudes and their comparison with different options in the IRI-2012 model during the 24th solar minimum (2010-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K.; Fagundes, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the characteristics of the bottom-side profile thickness (B0) and shape (B1) parameters from ionosonde and IRI-2012 model over the Brazilian sector. The ionosonde data from an equatorial station Fortaleza and a low latitude station Cachoera Paulista during a two year period from 2010 to 2011 are considered in this study. Simultaneous comparison is made on the performance of three different options 'Gul-1987', 'Bil-2000' and the 'ABT-2009' for bottom-side profile estimation in the latest available IRI-2012. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the B0 and B1 from ionosonde measurements are studied and compared with those from the IRI-2012 model using the three different options. It is seen that the Gul-1987 method shows better predictions of the observed B0 at the equatorial and low latitudes values when compared with the other options. The latest option 'ABT-2009' has shown improved predictions in the estimation of B1 compared with those from the other methods particularly during the night-time hours. A comparison on the seasonal characteristics of the day maximum values of B0 between observations and the three different options in IRI-2012 reveals that the Gul-1987 method shows better predictions of the seasonal variations in B0 while ABT-2009 method shows better predictions of seasonal variations in B1. Further, an insight into the percentage of deviations in the estimation of B0 and B1 reveals that the models overestimate the B0 during night-time and underestimate the B0 (at equator) during day-time while they underestimate the B1 during night-time hours at both locations. Also, the variations in the bottom-side total electron content are studied using the three different methods in the IRI-2012 model and compared with those derived from the ionosonde observations.

  2. Bottom-side profile parameters (B0, B1) characteristics over the Brazilian equatorial and low latitudes and their comparison with different options in the IRI-2012 model during the 24th solar minimum (2010-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports the characteristics of the bottom-side profile thickness (B0) and shape (B1) parameters from ionosonde and IRI-2012 model over the Brazilian sector. The ionosonde data from an equatorial station Fortaleza and a low latitude station Cachoera Paulista during a two year period from 2010 to 2011 are considered in this study. Simultaneous comparison is made on the performance of three different options 'Gul-1987', 'Bil-2000' and the 'ABT-2009' for bottom-side profile estimation in the latest available IRI-2012. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the B0 and B1 from ionosonde measurements are studied and compared with those from the IRI-2012 model using the three different options. It is seen that the Gul-1987 method shows better predictions of the observed B0 at the equatorial and low latitudes values when compared with the other options. The latest option 'ABT-2009' has shown improved predictions in the estimation of B1 compared with those from the other methods particularly during the night-time hours. A comparison on the seasonal characteristics of the day maximum values of B0 between observations and the three different options in IRI-2012 reveals that the Gul-1987 method shows better predictions of the seasonal variations in B0 while ABT-2009 method shows better predictions of seasonal variations in B1. Further, an insight into the percentage of deviations in the estimation of B0 and B1 reveals that the models overestimate the B0 during night-time and underestimate the B0 (at equator) during day-time while they underestimate the B1 during night-time hours at both locations. Also, the variations in the bottom-side total electron content are studied using the three different methods in the IRI-2012 model and compared with those derived from the ionosonde observations.

  3. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  4. Retrospective study and review of ocular radiation side effects following external-beam Cobalt-60 radiation therapy in 37 dogs and 12 cats

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Chantale L.; Mutsaers, Anthony J.; Mayer, Monique N.; Woods, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the ocular side effects of cancer-bearing dogs and cats treated with external–beam Cobalt-60 (Co-60) radiation in which one or both orbit(s) were included in the radiation field. A total of 37 dogs and 12 cats presented to the Ontario Veterinary College during the 10-year study period (1999–2009) were evaluated. The radiation protocols ranged from a maximum of 60 Gray (Gy) in 24 fractions for curative intent to a minimum of 8 Gy in 1 fraction for palliative treatment. The main ocular side effect reported in both dogs and cats was conjunctivitis (79% and 55%, respectively). Other common ocular side effects included eyelid lesions in dogs (44%), ulcerative keratitis in cats (36%), and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in both dogs and cats (44% and 27%, respectively). The high incidence of ocular side effects in both patient populations indicates a need for regular ophthalmic examinations as a component of routine follow-up for radiation therapy involving the orbit. Radiation damage to ocular tissues is also reviewed. PMID:23729828

  5. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  6. Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 550 Side Effects WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS? WHO GETS SIDE EFFECTS? ... t assume that you will get every side effect that’s listed! Most people have few or only ...

  7. Availability of end-to-side arterial anastomosis to the external carotid artery using short-thread double-needle microsuture in free-flap transfer for head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mutsumi; Asato, Hirotaka; Sarukawa, Shunji; Takushima, Akihiko; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Harii, Kiyonori

    2006-02-01

    We seldom have difficulties in the selection of appropriate recipient arteries for microvascular free flap transfer in the head and neck region because many sizable branches (branch artery) of the external carotid artery (ECA) or subclavian artery are available. However, we occasionally encountered the lack of an appropriate recipient artery, especially in secondary reconstruction or reconstruction following the extensive ablation of recurrent cancer. For these challenging cases, we have used end-to-side arterial anastomosis directly to the ECA. Between July 1997 and December 2004, end-to-side anastomosis of the flap artery to the ECA was employed in 16 cases. The reason for its use included the marked size discrepancy between the jejunal artery and branch artery in 4 jejunal transfer cases, the lack of 2 appropriate recipient arteries for double free flap transfers in 1 case, and the lack of an available branch artery as a recipient due to poor regional conditions in 11 cases. Fifteen of 16 flaps underwent an uneventful postoperative course, except 1 whose flap artery was pressed by the submandibular gland and sustained thrombosis 3 days postoperatively. In this case, however, the flap survived perfectly after prompt thrombectomy and reanastomosis. Eventually, all 16 flaps survived completely. We reconfirmed the availability of end-to-side anastomosis to the ECA when a suitable branch artery is not available. Although end-to-side anastomosis to the ECA is laborious compared with end-to-end anastomosis, our newly developed short-thread double-needle microsuture combined with the back-wall-first technique helps to ensure easier anastomosis. Using this device, because all stitches are carried from inside the vessel to outside, the surgeon can place the first stitch at any point on the posterior wall and advance the next suture to the preferred site of the previous suture, and suturing can be performed more safely even in cases where the tunica intima is separated

  8. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  9. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  10. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  11. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  12. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  13. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary Brown, William Detmold, Stefan Meinel, Konstantinos Orginos

    2012-09-01

    The arena of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. This has led to a great deal of theoretical effort being put forth in the calculation of mass spectra in this sector. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of experiments for some time, it is interesting to compare results between lattice QCD computations and continuum theoretical models. Several recent lattice QCD calculations exist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. In this work we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of the mass spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. The wide range of quark masses in these systems require that the various flavors of quarks be treated with different lattice actions. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. The calculation of the ground state spectrum is presented and compared to recent models.

  14. 48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda bottle liter at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. The impact on floats or hulls during landing as affected by bottom width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, E

    1936-01-01

    For floats and hulls having V bottoms the impact force does not necessarily increase with increasing width. Therefore, the weight of the float landing gear, side walls, and other parts, and of the fuselage construction need not be increased with increasing bottom width, but the weight of the bottom construction itself, on the other hand, does not increase with increase in bottom width and is largely determined by the type of construction.

  16. TLP tendon bottom connector

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, H.S.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a bottom connector for connecting a tendon segment of a tension leg platform to a subsea template which includes a receptacle for the connector comprising: a first body member adapted to be received within an anchor receptacle, a second body member connected to the first body member through a flexible joint for universally pivotal movement and adapted to be connected to the tendon segment, a latch carrier movable with respect to the first body member and having latch segments pivotally connected to the latch carrier, the latch segments being such that in one position of the latch carrier, the latch segments engage both a recess in the receptacle and the first body member when the connector is inserted into the receptacle a sufficient distance so that the latch segments and carrier will react to the recess and such that when the latch carrier is in another position, the latch segments are clear of the recess to enable the connector to move further into the receptacle or to allow the bottom connector to be removed from the receptacle, and release means operative to maintain the carrier in the other position if a decision is made to remove the connector from the receptacle.

  17. 28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 13. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  18. EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south side of the building including the diesel fuel tank and bottom portion of a stack - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  19. 16. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice and diagonal connections for the 2nd and 3rd spans. View is of south side of 3rd span just west of its connection with the 4th span. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  20. 27. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice and diagonal connections for the 1st and 4th spans. View is of south side of 4th span just east of its connection with the 3rd span. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  1. Anomalous course of the external carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Katsushi

    2016-09-01

    The course and the branching patterns of the external carotid artery were investigated macroscopically in a total of 550 bodies or 1100 head sides of Japanese subjects, donated for student dissection at Kumamoto University from 1994 to 2014. With the exception of 14 head sides, the external carotid arteries running between the posterior belly of the digastric and stylohyoid muscles were found in 42 (3.87 %) out of 1086 head sides. Strictly speaking, they passed between the stylohyoid muscle and the stylohyoid branch of the facial nerve in 23 out of these 42 head sides. In the remaining 19 instances, the stylohyoid branch of the facial nerve was cut and its relationship to the external carotid artery was not clear. The external carotid artery running lateral to the intact stylohyoid branch of the facial nerve, medial to the digastric muscle was not found. The external carotid arteries running lateral to the digastric muscle were found in 4 (0.37 %) out of 1086 head sides. As a result, it is proposed that plural, potential courses of the external carotid artery originally exist and that some parts of such potential courses remain as branches of the external carotid artery in the usual instance, while the anomalous courses of the external carotid artery are induced mainly by anastomosis between the muscular branches supplying the wall of the head and neck in contrast to the usual external carotid artery induced mainly by the branches originally supplying the pharynx. PMID:26439732

  2. 4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridgeleft side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridge-left side) and 1959 bridge (right side) across Carquinez Strait. Town of Crockett is on south bank (bottom of image). C&H sugar factory is along the strait to the east (right) side of the 1959 bridge. The toll plaza is at the top of the image on the 1959 bridge side. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev

    2014-05-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.

  4. Estimators of bottom reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, L.; Holloway, J.

    1992-01-01

    Estimators of in situ bottom spectral reflectance are calculated from multi-station optical field data gathered with standard instrumentation from different sites. These spectra are then compared to reflectance spectra measured in the laboratory of the bottom sediments collected in the field for the stations at these different sites. The relative fit of the estimated spectral curves to those measured in the laboratory was measured. The most accurate absolute estimation was provided by the single scattering irradiance model.

  5. Central tower section of the front (south side) with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central tower section of the front (south side) with the top of the central entrance projection at the bottom - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  8. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  9. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Which pipelines must have coating for external... must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks, each buried or submerged pipeline must have an external coating for external corrosion control if the...

  10. Effects of substrate induced respiration on the stability of bottom ash in landfill cover environment.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, A; Lovat, E; Persson, K M

    2014-12-01

    The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is being increasingly used to construct landfill covers in Sweden. In post-closure, owing to increased cover infiltration, the percolating water can add external organic matter to bottom ash. The addition and subsequent degradation of this external organic matter can affect metal mobility through complexation and change in redox conditions. However, the impacts of such external organic matter addition on bottom ash stability have not been fully evaluated yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of external organic matter on bottom ash respiration and metal leaching. The samples of weathered bottom ash were mixed with oven dried and digested wastewater sludge (1%-5% by weight). The aerobic respiration activity (AT4), as well as the leaching of metals, was tested with the help of respiration and batch leaching tests. The respiration and heavy metal leaching increased linearly with the external organic matter addition. Based on the results, it was concluded that the external organic matter addition would negatively affect the quality of landfill cover drainage. PMID:25395160

  11. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  12. Sedimentation and polar order of active bottom-heavy particles.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Katrin; Hahn, Aljoscha M; Stark, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Self-propelled particles in an external gravitational field have been shown to display both an increased sedimentation length and polar order even without particle interactions. Here, we investigate self-propelled particles which additionally are bottom-heavy, that is they feel a torque aligning them to swim against the gravitational field. For bottom-heavy particles the gravitational field has the two opposite effects of i) sedimentation and ii) upward alignment of the particles' swimming direction. We perform a multipole expansion of the one-particle distribution of non-interacting particles with respect to orientation and derive expressions for sedimentation length and mean particle orientation which we check against Brownian Dynamics simulations. For large strength of gravity or small particle speeds and aligning torque, we observe sedimentation with increased sedimentation length compared with passive colloids but also active colloids without bottom-heaviness. Increasing, for example, swimming speed the sedimentation profile is inverted and the particles swim towards the top wall of the enclosing box. We find maximal orientational order at intermediate swimming speeds for both cases of particles with bottom-heaviness and those without. Ordering unsurprisingly is increased for the bottom-heavy particles, but this difference disappears at higher levels of activity and for very high activities ordering goes to zero in both cases. PMID:23612748

  13. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  14. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed. PMID:27545510

  15. 15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  16. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  17. Emotional Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Emotional Side Effects In this section you can learn more about ... Finding and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Children and Cancer ...

  18. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  19. Seabed sub-bottom sediment classification using parametric sub-bottom profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Mohamed; Rabah, Mostafa

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been published concerning classification techniques of seabed surfaces using single beam, multibeam, and side scan sonars, while few paid attentions to classify sub-bottom layers using a non-linear Sub-Bottom Profiler (SBP). Non-linear SBP is known for its high resolution images due to the very short pulse length and aperture angle for high and low frequencies. This research is devoted to develop an energy based model that automatically characterizes the layered sediment types as a contribution step toward "what lies where in 3D?". Since the grain size is a function of the reflection coefficient, the main task is to compute the reflection coefficients where high impedance contrast is observed. The developed model extends the energy based surface model (Van Walree et al., 2006) to account for returns reflection of sub-layers where the reflection coefficients are computed sequentially after estimating the geo-acoustic parameters of the previous layer. The validation of the results depended on the model stability. However, physical core samples are still in favor to confirm the results. The model showed consistent stable results that agreed with the core samples knowledge of the studied area. The research concluded that the extended model approximates the reflection coefficient values and will be very promising if volume scatters and multiple reflections are included.

  20. Side-to-Side Cold Welding for Controllable Nanogap Formation from "Dumbbell" Ultrathin Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Dai, Gaole; Wang, Binjun; Xu, Shang; Lu, Yang; Shen, Yajing

    2016-06-01

    Cold welding has been regarded as a promising bottom-up nanofabrication technique because of its ability to join metallic nanostructures at room temperature with low applied stress and without introducing damage. Usually, the cold welding process can be done instantaneously for ultrathin nanowires (diameter <10 nm) in "head-to-head" joining. Here, we demonstrate that "dumbbell" shaped ultrathin gold nanorods can be cold welded in the "side-to-side" mode in a highly controllable manner and can form an extremely small nanogap via a relatively slow welding process (up to tens of minutes, allowing various functional applications). By combining in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis and molecular dynamic simulations, we further reveal the underlying mechanism for this "side-to-side" welding process as being dominated by atom kinetics instead of thermodynamics, which provides critical insights into three-dimensional nanosystem integration as well as the building of functional nanodevices. PMID:27173140

  1. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  2. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  3. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  4. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  5. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  6. Ultracold molecules from the bottom-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jessie T.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Liu, Lee R.; Yu, Yichao; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules exhibit strong, long-range, and tunable dipole-dipole interactions that may be utilized for a wide range of studies in quantum simulation and quantum information processing. To realize the full potential of these studies, it is desirable to have a low entropy sample of ultracold polar molecules with full control over both internal and external states, as well as inter-particle interactions. We work toward this goal with a new, bottom-up approach using the highly polar NaCs molecule. The key steps of our scheme are trapping single Na and Cs atoms in optical dipole traps, cooling the atoms to their motional ground state using Raman sideband cooling, and finally coherently transferring them to ground state NaCs molecules via a two-photon process. This approach should enable creation of low entropy samples with full control over all degrees of freedom, as well as realizing the possibility of single-site read-out and manipulation of molecules.

  7. 22. Engine room, as seen from starboard side, forward corner. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Engine room, as seen from starboard side, forward corner. In left foreground is centrifugal water pump driven by a two-cylinder steam reciprocating engine to supply water to trim tanks. Center of view shows hot well for main engine, and at right is bottom of cylinder, condenser, and valve chest of main (walking beam) engine. X-braces in left side of image are stiffening trusses for the hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  8. Dry bottom ash removal -- Ash cooling vs. boiler efficiency effects

    SciTech Connect

    Carrea, E.; Scavizzi, G.C.; Barsin, J.

    1998-07-01

    The current wet method of removing boiler bottom ash from coal fired utility boilers quenches the ash which in turn heats the water, evaporates a portion of it adding to the gas weights moved through the steam generator. The newer dry ash removal systems use a portion of the combustion air to cool ash and thus return some of the otherwise lost latent heat back to the furnace. There has been some debate concerning the overall effect upon boiler efficiency. For example when a large quantity of ash cooling air is required and the resulting decrease in air side air heater mass flow could result in an elevate stack gas temperature thus negating the efficiency enhancing dry bottom ash effect expected. The presentation will present actual data form operating units and provide various heat balances to demonstrate the actual performance conditions that have been achieved.

  9. Passively Q-switched side pumped monolithic ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Steven X. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a side-pumped passively Q-switched non-planar ring oscillator. The method introduces a laser into a cavity of a crystal, the cavity having a round-trip path formed by a reflection at a dielectrically coated front surface, a first internal reflection at a first side surface of the crystal at a non-orthogonal angle with the front, a second internal reflection at a top surface of the crystal, and a third internal reflection at a second side surface of the crystal at a non-orthogonal angle with the front. The method side pumps the laser at the top or bottom surface with a side pump diode array beam and generates an output laser emanating at a location on the front surface. The design can include additional internal reflections to increase interaction with the side pump. Waste heat may be removed by mounting the crystal to a heatsink.

  10. PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING THE LARGE SLIDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING THE LARGE SLIDING DOORS WITH MULTI-LIGHT WINDOWS AND METAL SECTIONS AT THE BOTTOM. NOTE THE FRAMEWORK WHICH SUPPORTS THE OVERHEAD GUIDEWAYS. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Hangar, Lexington Boulevard, south of Enterprise Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 11. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF SKIDOO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, WITH SIX FOOT SCALE AND MAN AGAINST WATER TANK IN FOREGROUND THE IN THE BOTTOM OF THE RAVINE IS THE SAME AS IN CA-290-3. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. 4. EXTERIOR OF EAST SIDE SHOWING STAIRS TO CATWALK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF EAST SIDE SHOWING STAIRS TO CATWALK AND OPEN UTILITY ROOM DOOR. OPEN DOOR AT BOTTOM OF STAIRS LEADS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  14. Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing flame deflector at bottom of stand. Stairs and handrails were added after test stand was converted to test propellant flow in components as opposed to firing rocket engines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 22. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL OIL TANK, PORT SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL OIL TANK, PORT SIDE, LOOKING FORWARD. NOTE SHIP'S FRAMING MEMBERS AND UNIVERSAL JOINT IN SHAFT FOR PUMPING VALVE AT BOTTOM OF TANK. THE ACCESS LADDER STEPS ARE MARKED WITH LEVEL INDICATIONS. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of storage tank bottom plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafaat, Taufik A.; Ismail, Mokhtar Che

    2015-07-01

    Aboveground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) receive crude oil from offshore for storage and further processing. Integrity issue of AST storing crude oil is not only affected by external corrosion but also internal corrosion from crude oil that supports the growth of the microorganisms originating from the reservoir. The objective of this research is to study the effect of sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) on the corrosion of AST. The results indicates that SRB has significant effect on the corrosion rate of storage tank bottom plate.

  17. Lifetime measurements for bottom hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, G.

    1984-09-01

    The review of lifetime measurements of bottom hadrons begins with a first measurement by JADE, followed by similar measurements by MAC and MKII groups. New MAC data are reviewed based on a total of 75,000 multihadron events taken at a c.m. energy of 29 GeV. According to Monte Carlo calculations, 18% of the lepton candidates stem from charm decay and roughly 30% were misidentified hadrons. DELCO studied electrons obtained from 42,000 multihadron events at 29 GeV. The electrons were identified by means of Cerenkov counters. JADE analayzed 22,000 multihadron events at 35 GeV. Data were analyzed using two methods - one using a sample of b-enriched events, and the other using weighted distributions. The TASSO results were obtained with two different configurations of the detector - one of which used a drift chamber and the other a vertex detector. (LEW)

  18. Two Droplets Burning Side by Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiment team got more than twice as many burns have been completed as were originally scheduled for STS-95. This image was taken July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:13 (approximate). As shown here, scientists were able to burn two droplets side by side, more closely mimicking behavior of burning fuel in an engine. This shows ignition of a single drop that subsequently burned while a fan blew through the chamber, giving the scientists data on burning with convection, but no buoyancy -- an important distinction when you're trying to solve a problem by breaking it into parts. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 11-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300176.html.

  19. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions to the different drugs. The doctors, nurses, and pharmacists will describe what to look out for in ... will be monitored very closely by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists to make sure that all side effects are ...

  20. The Girlfriends Project: Evaluating a Promising Community-Based Intervention from a Bottom-Up Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard in research but may not fully explain or predict outcome variations in community-based interventions. Demonstrating efficacy of externally driven programs in well-controlled environments may not translate to community-based implementation where resources and priorities vary. A bottom-up evaluation…

  1. In-flight Video Captured by External Tank Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In this July 26, 2005 video, Earth slowly fades into the background as the STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery climbs into space until the External Tank (ET) separates from the orbiter. An External Tank ET Camera System featuring a Sony XC-999 model camera provided never before seen footage of the launch and tank separation. The camera was installed in the ET LO2 Feedline Fairing. From this position, the camera had a 40% field of view with a 3.5 mm lens. The field of view showed some of the Bipod area, a portion of the LH2 tank and Intertank flange area, and some of the bottom of the shuttle orbiter. Contained in an electronic box, the battery pack and transmitter were mounted on top of the Solid Rocker Booster (SRB) crossbeam inside the ET. The battery pack included 20 Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries (similar to cordless phone battery packs) totaling 28 volts DC and could supply about 70 minutes of video. Located 95 degrees apart on the exterior of the Intertank opposite orbiter side, there were 2 blade S-Band antennas about 2 1/2 inches long that transmitted a 10 watt signal to the ground stations. The camera turned on approximately 10 minutes prior to launch and operated for 15 minutes following liftoff. The complete camera system weighs about 32 pounds. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) participated in the design, development, and testing of the ET camera system.

  2. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  3. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  4. 9. EMPIRE STATE MINE, BOTTOM ORE BIN/SHOOT. TIN ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EMPIRE STATE MINE, BOTTOM ORE BIN/SHOOT. TIN ROOF OF SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING AND UPPER ORE SHOOT VISIBLE. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  5. Side pocket mandrel

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.W.; Crawford, M.S.; Crawford, W.B.

    1987-12-29

    A side pocket mandrel is described comprising: a tubular body section having a hollow interior that defines a main bore to one side thereof and another bore to the other side thereof; and a short-length seating section welded to one end of the body section. The seating section has a main bore formed to one side thereof aligned with the main bore in the body section, and a valve seating bore formed on the other side thereof generally aligned with the other bore. The seating bore has a polish section adjacent its outer end. The outer end opening through an exterior end surface of the mandrel. The seating bore has a recessed section adjacent the polish section. That provides an inwardly facing stop shoulder at one end thereof and a latch shoulder at the other end thereof facing the stop shoulder; and a tubular member welded to the seating section in axial alignment with the main bores. The axis of the polish section of the seating bore is inclined toward the axes of the main bores at a small angle.

  6. 3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side elevation. Note gasoline sign post added. Flush store window not altered, 1900 clapboard siding and panelling remaining. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  7. Adirondack's Finer Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This close-up look at the martian rock dubbed Adirondack was captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's microscopic imager before Spirit stopped communicating with Earth on the 18th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The rock's smooth and pitted surface is revealed in this first-ever microscopic image of a rock on another planet. The examined patch of rock is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across; features within the rock as small as 1/10 of a millimeter (.04 inch) can be detected. The rover's shadow appears at the bottom of the image.

  8. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  9. From Both Sides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glew, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Ontario Agri-Food Education's curriculum unit, "From Both Sides," applies a cooperative-learning method of conflict resolution to environmental issues. Two groups of students are assigned polar views on an issue such as pesticide use. Five steps involve preparing and presenting a position, refuting opposing positions, reversing perspectives, and…

  10. 50 kHz bottom backscattering measurements from two types of artificially roughened sandy bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Su-Uk; Cho, Sungho; Choi, Jee Woong

    2016-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of 50 kHz bottom backscattering strengths as a function of grazing angle were performed on the sandy bottom of a water tank; two types of bottom roughnesses, a relatively smooth interface and a rough interface, were created on the bottom surface. The roughness profiles of the two interface types were measured directly using an ultrasound arrival time difference of 5 MHz and then were Fourier transformed to obtain the roughness power spectra. The measured backscattering strengths increased from ‑29 to 0 dB with increasing grazing angle from 35 to 86°, which were compared to theoretical backscattering model predictions. The comparison results implied that bottom roughness is a key factor in accurately predicting bottom scattering for a sandy bottom.

  11. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  12. 4. VIEW EAST, SOUTHWEST FRONT, NORTHWEST SIDE Side elevation. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, SOUTHWEST FRONT, NORTHWEST SIDE Side elevation. Note the ground floor windows which were added. Siding is vinyl, but the burned area exposes asbestos siding added when the rear and upper areas were converted to living spaces. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  13. Photographic evidence of variable bottom-current activity in the Suruga and Sagami Bays, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hakuyu; Ohta, Suguru

    1993-01-01

    Complex patterns of bottom-current behaviour were clarified by studies of sedimentary features and orientations of benthic animals in the deep Suruga and Sagami Bays on the Pacific side of central Honshu, Japan. Both the Suruga and Sagami Bay measure about 60 km in length as well as in width at their mouths and are about 1500 m deep in their central portions. The size of each bay is comparable to that of ancient forearc basins. The bottom sediments are characterized by turbidites and slump deposits. At 32 stations on the bottom of the bays, deep-sea photographs were taken, most of which clearly indicate bottom-current activity. Current-induced bottom features are current-lineations, moat-like scours around resistant objects, crag-and-tail structures behind obstacles, ripple marks, sand ridges and deformed biogenic structures such as burrows, mounds, tracks and faeces. These features are produced by bottom currents with rather high velocities. Other important current indicators are some benthic organisms, which in general show a sensitive response to currents and adopt particular orientations. Typical examples of megabenthos identified in the bottom photographs as effective current indicators are the small deimatid holothurian Peniagone japonica, the benthic shrimp Glyphocrangon hastacauda, sea anemones, and sea pens. Among them, the orientation of Peniagone japonica shows abrupt changes of current direction with time, for example, from N (0°) to SW (240°) during 15 min and from N to S and back to N, a complete rotation during 40 min. The results of these observations indicate that the bottom currents in deep bays tend to fluctuate rapidly in velocity and direction, probably owing to strong internal tidal waves in the very steep embayments. Upslope currents appear to be present at the mouths of submarine canyons. Thus, it should be borne in mind that palaeocurrent analysis of ancient bottom-current deposits or contourites is limited in application.

  14. Auxiliary wire connections for side post batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlik, R.F.; Eccles, T.C.

    1987-02-17

    A mount is described for connecting perforated terminal lugs of a pair of cables directly to a battery side terminal having a hole provided with internal screw threads, the mount comprising: a stud adapted to extend through the perforation of the lug of one of the cables, the stud including: an element at one end of the stud having external screw threads disposed to mesh with the internal threads, a member intermediate the ends of the stud for clamping the lug of the one cable against the side terminal when the external threads are in mesh with the internal threads, a device at the opposite end of the stud for releasably attaching the lug of the other cable to the stud, and structure for preventing displacement of the stud from the lug of the one cable, the stud having a socket at the opposite end thereof provided with internal screw threads, the device being a fastener adapted to extend through the perforation of the lug of the other cable and having external screw threads disposed to mesh with the threads of the socket.

  15. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  16. Simulations: The dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods. Both methods are, in principle, simple. However, simple does not mean risk-free. In the literature, many of the pitfalls in the field are mentioned, but usually as a footnote --and these footnotes are scattered over many papers. The present paper focuses on the "dark side" of simulation: it is one big footnote. I should stress that "dark", in this context, has no negative moral implication. It just means: under-exposed.

  17. "Side" effects: a misnomer.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    The tragic results for the babies of patients prescribed thalidomide, although they can indeed be termed "side" effects, hardly warrant so slight an epithet, and Dr Joyce in his paper would like the term to be dropped in favour of "additional" effects of drugs. Despite extensive clinical trials before drugs are put before the prescribing doctor, side effects cannot be entirely anticipated or eliminated, and indeed many are not harmful. However, it is important, Dr Joyce argues, for information to the doctor from the patient and from the doctor to the manufacturer to be collected and evaluated. Only in this way can effects of drugs other than those intended be drawn to the notice of the manufacturer. The commentary by two practising physicians emphasizes the ambiguities in the descriptive literature accompanying a new drug. Dr Herxheimer and Dr Higgs would like to see some sort of panel to be established to reassess drugs in the light of observations on their effects and "side" effects on patients, a task which the existing Committee on Safety of Medicines could not at the moment undertake. A medical need for a new drug should be established before it is manufactured, let alone offered to the general practitioner. PMID:823336

  18. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment.

  19. The External Degree Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. School of Management.

    An external degree is one granted on the basis of academic work undertaken through independent and flexible study and pursued in whole or in part outside of the framework of existing college and university courses. A person's qualifications for an external degree are measured not by a list of accumulated formal courses taken and passed, but by an…

  20. Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. The two (2) arms act as simple spans, a small amount of negative bending is accommodated by the continous top and bottom truss chords due to a continuous condition. Note the inclined end post of each of the simple spans, the operator's house, center/pivot pier and the pivotal pole-line pole placed atop of bridge. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  1. Object detection in side scan sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenwu; Cheng, Binbin; Chen, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Automatic target detection is a challenging task as the response from an underwater target may vary greatly depending on its configuration, sonar parameters and the environment. We propose a Z- test algorithm for target detection in side scan sonar image which avoids this problem that covers the variation in the target response. A Z-test is performed on the means of the pixel gray levels within and outside the window area, a detection being called when the value of test statistic feature exceeds a certain threshold. The algorithm is formulated for real-time execution on limited memory commercial-of-the-shelf platforms and is capable of detection objects on the seabed-bottom.

  2. Closeup view of the bottom area of Space Shuttle Main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the bottom area of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2052 engine assembly mounted in a SSME Engine Handler in the Horizontal Processing area of the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features in this view are the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Discharge Duct toward the bottom of the assembly, the SSME Engine Controller and the Main Fuel Valve Hydraulic Actuator are in the approximate center of the assembly in this view, the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump (LPFTP), the LPFTP Discharge Duct are to the left on the assembly in this view and the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump is located toward the top of the engine assembly in this view. The ring of tabs in the right side of the image, at the approximate location of the Nozzle and the Coolant Outlet Manifold interface is the Heat Shield Support Ring. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a door when it is open. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Root Cellar, West Pennington Avenue, North of Building No. 121, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Drum & Can Loading Facility, South of Arizona Street near Kamehameha Highway, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST SIDE SHOWING NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM NORTHEAST SIDE SHOWING NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Drum & Can Loading Facility, South of Arizona Street near Kamehameha Highway, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. North side, westcentral part, showing two doorways to the side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, west-central part, showing two doorways to the side aisle of the audience seating section. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 4. Detail of siding beneath plywood on west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of siding beneath plywood on west side of claim house, also showing closed off door - George Spangerberger Farmstead, John Siegrist Claim House, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  8. 14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE WOODEN WINDOW FRAMES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  9. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (LEFT) AND SOUTHEAST SIDE (RIGHT). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (LEFT) AND SOUTHEAST SIDE (RIGHT). NOTE THE FIXED LOUVER ROOF VENTS. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 59. SIDE VIEW OF TENSION CARRIAGE: Side view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. SIDE VIEW OF TENSION CARRIAGE: Side view towards the south of the California Street cable's tension carriage. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. FACILITY 859, DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (WILSON STREET SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 859, DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (WILSON STREET SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. VIEW OF FRONT SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FRONT SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM EAST SIDE OF COURTYARD UNDER ARCADE, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. North side and a portion of the front (east side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side and a portion of the front (east side) of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. East side and part of the front (south side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side and part of the front (south side) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Semi-Infirmary Tubercular Ward, East Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Page Street, northwest corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. 1. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH NORTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH NORTHEAST SIDE OF MINE OFFICE ON RIGHT OF PHOTO - Juniata Mill Complex, Assay Office, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  18. Corrosion on steam-side heat exchanger tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, A.; Esparza, P.; Bas, C.G.; Morales, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Sanchez, S.R. de

    1996-01-01

    Two corrosion cases occurred on the steam side of tubes in a heat exchanger in a central power station which used seawater as a coolant. The first case is stress corrosion cracking in the presence of oxygen and ammonia with through-wall cracks that originated in dealloyed cavities. The second case describes high-pressure, high-temperature steam impinging the tubes, leading to deep erosion on the tube`s external side. Erosion-corrosion accelerated on the seawater side because heating decreased the critical flow rate and enhanced formation of deposits which were obstacles to the flow.

  19. Compact, Two-Sided Structural Cold Plate Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaffetti, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In two-sided structural cold plates, typically there is a structural member, such as a honeycomb panel, that provides the structural strength for the cold plates that cool equipment. The cold plates are located on either side of the structural member and thus need to have the cooling fluid supplied to them. One method of accomplishing this is to route the inlet and outlet tubing to both sides of the structural member. Another method might be to supply the inlet to one side and the outlet to the other. With the latter method, an external feature such as a hose, tube, or manifold must be incorporated to pass the fluid from one side of the structural member to the other. Although this is a more compact design than the first option, since it eliminates the need for a dedicated supply and return line to each side of the structural member, it still poses problems, as these external features can be easily damaged and are now new areas for potential fluid leakage. This invention eliminates the need for an external feature and instead incorporates the feature internally to the structural member. This is accomplished by utilizing a threaded insert that not only connects the cold plate to the structural member, but also allows the cooling fluid to flow through it into the structural member, and then to the cold plate on the opposite side. The insert also employs a cap that acts as a cover to seal the open area needed to install the insert. There are multiple options for location of o-ring style seals, as well as the option to use adhesive for redundant sealing. Another option is to weld the cap to the cold plate after its installation, thus making it an integral part of the structural member. This new configuration allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features.

  20. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  1. West-Side Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  2. Processing NPP Bottoms by Ferrocyanide Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Savkin, A. E.; Slastennikov Y. T.; Sinyakin O. G.

    2002-02-25

    The purpose of work is a laboratory test of a technological scheme for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides by use of ozonization, ferrocyanide precipitation, filtration and selective sorption. At carrying out the ferrocyanide precipitation after ozonization, the specific activity of bottoms by Cs{sup 137} is reduced in 100-500 times. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency of ferrocyanide precipitation depends on the quality of consequent filtration. Pore sizes of a filter has been determined to be less than 0.2 {micro}m for complete separation of ferrocyanide residue. The comparison of two technological schemes for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides, characterized by presence of the ferrocyanide precipitation stage has been performed. Application of the proposed schemes allows reducing volumes of radioactive waste in many times.

  3. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  4. Evaluating External Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSantis, James R.

    1978-01-01

    Effective external communication by higher education institutions is described as an ongoing program, based on objective research, continuous informal feedback, and informed anticipation of changes in the environment that will force changes in the institution. (JMF)

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Infection “I am extra careful to stay away ... doctor or nurse right away. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection Take these steps to lower your chances ...

  6. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National ... before taking medicine for diarrhea. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea These foods and drinks may help if ...

  7. Master external pressure charts

    SciTech Connect

    Michalopoulos, E.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a method to develop master external pressure charts from which individual external pressure charts for each material specification may be derived. The master external charts can represent a grouping of materials with similar chemical composition, similar stress-strain curves but produced to different strength levels. External pressure charts are used by various Sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes to design various components such as cylinders, sphered, formed heads, tubes, piping, rings and other components, subjected to external pressure or axial compression loads. These charts are pseudo stress-strain curves for groups of materials with similar stress-strain shapes. The traditional approach was originally developed in the 1940`s and is a graphical approach where slopes to the strain curves are drawn graphically from which pseudo-strain levels are calculated. The new method presented in this paper develops mathematical relationships for the material stress-strain curves and the external pressure charts. The method has the ability to calculate stress-strain curves from existing external pressure charts. The relationships are a function of temperature, the modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and two empirical material constants. In this approach, conservative assumptions used to assign materials to lower bound external pressure charts can be removed. This increases the buckling strength capability of many materials in the Code, providing economic benefits while maintaining the margin of safety specified by the Code criteria. The method can also reduce the number of material charts needed in the Code and provides for the capability to extend the existing pressure charts to higher design temperatures. The new method is shown to contain a number of improvements over the traditional approach and is presently under consideration by appropriate ASME Code committees.

  8. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  9. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  10. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  11. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  12. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  13. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  14. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  15. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  16. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  17. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  18. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  19. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  20. Combined contributions of feedforward and feedback inputs to bottom-up attention

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Peyman; Moore, Tirin; Soltani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In order to deal with a large amount of information carried by visual inputs entering the brain at any given point in time, the brain swiftly uses the same inputs to enhance processing in one part of visual field at the expense of the others. These processes, collectively called bottom-up attentional selection, are assumed to solely rely on feedforward processing of the external inputs, as it is implied by the nomenclature. Nevertheless, evidence from recent experimental and modeling studies points to the role of feedback in bottom-up attention. Here, we review behavioral and neural evidence that feedback inputs are important for the formation of signals that could guide attentional selection based on exogenous inputs. Moreover, we review results from a modeling study elucidating mechanisms underlying the emergence of these signals in successive layers of neural populations and how they depend on feedback from higher visual areas. We use these results to interpret and discuss more recent findings that can further unravel feedforward and feedback neural mechanisms underlying bottom-up attention. We argue that while it is descriptively useful to separate feedforward and feedback processes underlying bottom-up attention, these processes cannot be mechanistically separated into two successive stages as they occur at almost the same time and affect neural activity within the same brain areas using similar neural mechanisms. Therefore, understanding the interaction and integration of feedforward and feedback inputs is crucial for better understanding of bottom-up attention. PMID:25784883

  1. College Graduation "Is" the Bottom Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Bottom Line was founded in 1997 to help disadvantaged Boston students get into college, graduate from college and go far in life. In its first year, it supported 25 students through the college admissions process. This year, it is helping more than 350 Boston high school seniors from the class of 2006 to get into college and providing support to…

  2. Growth of false bottoms under sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naomi; Feltham, Daniel; Flocco, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    In the summer months, melt water from the surface of Arctic sea ice can percolate through the relatively porous ice and collect at the ice-ocean interface, filling hollows in the base of the ice. These pools are called under-ice melt ponds. Freezing can occur at the interface between the fresh water and the oceanic mixed layer, forming a sheet of ice called a false bottom. These have been observed to thicken and migrate upwards over time. False bottoms insulate the true base of the sea ice from the ocean and their formation is a significant mechanism of Arctic sea ice summer growth. Current parameterisations of basal ablation of sea ice in climate models do not account for these processes, the inclusion of which could improve the accuracy of predictions of Arctic sea ice. In this poster, a one-dimensional thermodynamic model of the evolution of under-ice melt ponds and false bottoms is presented. Our aim is to develop a parameterisation of the impact of under ice melt ponds and false bottoms on basal ablation of Arctic sea ice appropriate for use in gridded climate models.

  3. Bottom Up Succession Planning Works Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul

    The majority of current succession planning practices reflect the viewpoint of only a linear career direction for ambitious people. They are based on the premise that competent people have and want only one career direction--an upwardly mobile one. In today's work force, however, a "bottom-up" process works better in succession planning. This…

  4. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  5. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  6. MANAGEMENT OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS CONTAINING TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States-Japan Ministerial Agreement of May 1974 provided for the exchange of environmental information in several areas of mutual concern. This report is the compilation of papers presented at the Second U.S.-Japan Experts' Meeting on the Management of Bottom Sediments ...

  7. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  8. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  9. Closeup side view of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2059 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up side view of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2059 mounted in a SSME Engine Handler near the Drying Area in the High Bay section of the SSME Processing Facility. The prominent features of the SSME in this view are the hot-gas expansion nozzle extending from the approximate image center toward the image right. The main-engine components extend from the approximate image center toward image right until it meets up with the mount for the SSME Engine Handler. The engine is rotated to a position where the major components in the view are the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump Discharge Duct with reflective foil insulation on the upper side of the engine, the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump and its Discharge Duct on the right side of the engine assembly extending itself down and wrapping under the bottom side of the assembly to the High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump pump. The High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Discharge Duct exists the turbopump and extends up to the top side of the assembly where it enters the main oxidizer valve. The sphere on the lower side of the engine assembly is an accumulator that is part of the SSMEs POGO suppression system. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. The DarkSide awakens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D’Angelo, D.; D’Incecco, M.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-05-01

    The DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.

  11. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  12. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  13. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  14. View northeast, west side, and south side (showing National Defense ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, west side, and south side (showing National Defense University Academic Operations Center Building in background) - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 3. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING 883. INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS AND ROLLING MILLS PROCESSES. (4/25/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SIDE-BY-SIDE PROTOCOL COMPARISON TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven state, tribal, and federal agencies participated during summer 2005 in a side-by-side comparison of protocols used to measure common in-stream physical attributes to help determine which protocols are best for determining status and trend of stream/watershed condition. Th...

  17. Measurement of bottom-reflected sound in bottom-limited propagation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Jooyoung; Park, Joungsoo

    2016-07-01

    To study the bottom reflection of underwater acoustic sound in a bottom-limited propagation environment, an experiment was conducted using four transmitting sounds in the form of a continuous wave from 1 to 6 kHz. The site of the experiment was a continental shelf region off the east coast of Korea where the bottom was composed of sandy mud. The mean water depth was 1100 m in the experiment area. Oceanographic data and acoustic data were collected simultaneously during the experiment. It was found that the sound pressure level decreased by 90 dB to 3.4 km and there is little frequency dependence because a strong direct path contributes more than a bottom-reflected path in sound pressure level. At a range between 6 and 7 km, there is a strong bottom-reflected ray path and frequency dependence exists because the bottom reflection loss varies with frequency at a given grazing angle. Sound pressure levels increase as the range increases between 6 and 7 km by 5.4, 1.9, 1.7, and 1.5 dB at frequencies of 1000, 2490, 3990, and 5490 Hz, respectively.

  18. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    SciTech Connect

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  19. BWR reactor vessel bottom head failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) incorporate many unique structural features that make their expected response under severe accident conditions very different from that predicted in the case of pressurized water reactor accident sequences. The effect of the BWR procedural and structural differences upon the progression of a severe accident sequence during the period preceding movement of core debris into the reactor vessel lower plenum has been discussed previously. It is the purpose of this paper to briefly address the events occurring after debris relocation past the core plate and to describe the subsequent expected modes of bottom head pressure boundary failure. As an example, the calculated timing of events for the unmitigated short-term station blackout severe accident sequence at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station is also presented. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Kondo effect in charm and bottom nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-06-01

    The Kondo effect for isospin-exchange interaction between a D ¯, B meson and a valence nucleon in charm and bottom atomic nuclei including the discrete energy levels for valence nucleons is discussed. To investigate the binding energy by the Kondo effect, I introduce the mean-field approach for the bound state of the D ¯, B meson in charm and bottom nuclei. Assuming a simple model, I examine the validity of the mean-field approximation by comparing the results with the exact solutions. The effect of the quantum fluctuation is estimated beyond the mean-field approximation. The competition between the Kondo effect and the other correlations in valence nucleons, the isospin symmetry breaking and the nucleon pairings, are discussed.

  1. [Congenital rocker-bottom foot (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schulitz, K P; Schumacher, G; Parsch, K

    1977-02-01

    A report was made of 19 patients with rocker-bottom foot operated on during the last 10 years in the Orthopedic Hospital and Out-Patient Clinic of the University of Heidelberg. No additional bone anomalies were present in 6 cases. The remaining malformations occurred together with multiple contractures and in the context of spina bifida cystica. The various malformations of the foot were divided into three groups. This study is particularly concerned with therapy for rocker-bottom foot. Conservative measures are not suitable for types I and Ia while conservative therapy should be attempted in type II. The surgical procedure involves 4 steps: development of the calcancal part of the foot, repositioning of the navicular bone, new adjustment of the ankle and various stabilization measures including the Grice operation and transposition of various tendons. The surgical procedure and the results were discussed. PMID:320773

  2. Automated area segmentation for ocean bottom surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, John C.; Smith, Cheryl M.

    2015-05-01

    In practice, environmental information about an ocean bottom area to be searched using SONAR is often known a priori to some coarse level of resolution. The SONAR search sensor then typically has a different performance characterization function for each environmental classification. Large ocean bottom surveys using search SONAR can pose some difficulties when the environmental conditions vary significantly over the search area because search planning tools cannot adequately segment the area into sub-regions of homogeneous search sensor performance. Such segmentation is critically important to unmanned search vehicles; homogenous bottom segmentation will result in more accurate predictions of search performance and area coverage rate. The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) has developed an automated area segmentation algorithm that subdivides the mission area under the constraint that the variation of the search sensor's performance within each sub-mission area cannot exceed a specified threshold, thereby creating sub-regions of homogeneous sensor performance. The algorithm also calculates a new, composite sensor performance function for each sub-mission area. The technique accounts for practical constraints such as enforcing a minimum sub-mission area size and requiring sub-mission areas to be rectangular. Segmentation occurs both across the rows and down the columns of the mission area. Ideally, mission planning should consider both segmentation directions and choose the one with the more favorable result. The Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm was tested using two a priori bottom segmentations: rectangular and triangular; and two search sensor configurations: a set of three bi-modal curves and a set of three uni-modal curves. For each of these four scenarios, the Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm automatically partitioned the mission area across rows and down columns to create regions with homogeneous sensor performance. The

  3. Bottom Pressure Variability in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limeburner, R.; Abualnaja, Y.; Beardsley, R.

    2012-04-01

    We deployed an array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments at Jeddah, Thuwal and Rabigh along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea for a period of 3 years. This PTC array accurately measured the regional tidal variability of the bottom pressure field and characterized the low frequency along-shore pressure, temperature and salinity gradients and their variability. Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. On time scales of order 1 day the most energetic component of sea level variability was the semidiurnal and diurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. On time scales of order 10 days the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. On yearly time scales the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10 mb and was highest in January thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. Higher sea level in winter months may be due to a convergence in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress. The amplitude of the principal tidal and subtidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

  4. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  5. Ocean bottom gravimetry near the coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Kanazawa, T.; Oshida, A.

    2008-12-01

    Inland earthquakes have recently caused damages in the Japanese Islands. Although more than 2,000 active faults have been recognized in and around Japan, the earthquakes had their sources in unexpected faults in the upper crust. Detecting such hidden active faults has become an important subject in the field of earth sciences. Precise gravimetry, a basic geodetic measurement, is now recognized as one of important means for detecting active faults hidden under the ground. Precise and dense gravimetry has covered the Japanese Islands, but not in the offshore area. The most critical point is that there are no gravity data in the offshore area near the coast; the area has not been included in land nor marine gravity mapping. An ocean bottom gravimeter (OBG) was developed in Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, for gravimetry on the deep seafloor (Fujimoto et al., 1998). Free gimbal suspensions with an oil damper keep a sensor package of Scintrex CG-3M/SB gravimeter roughly vertical, typically in a few tens arc-seconds, and the effect of the remaining tilt is numerically corrected by the gravimeter. The gimbals and the sensor are in a pressure-tight spherical housing made of titanium alloy, and the logging unit in a glass sphere. Two trial measurements on the shallow seafloor in Suruga Bay showed that precision of seafloor gravimtery with the OBG is much the same that with field gravimeters on land (Fujimoto et al., 1998). The importance of gravity mapping over the shallow ocean bottom near the coast was recognized and there were requests to use our OBG for such observations. Then we modify the OBG system into a single housing for easy maintenance and measurement. Ocean bottom gravity measurements with the OBG have been carried out around Awaji Island near Kobe, off the northern end of Tohoku, off Niigata, and in the Seto Inland Sea. The OBG was lowered from a boat to each gravity point on the bottom with a rope. Judging from the observed data, precision

  6. The Dark Side of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, David H., Ed.; Cropley, Arthur J., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.; Runco, Mark A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With few exceptions, scholarship on creativity has focused on its positive aspects while largely ignoring its dark side. This includes not only creativity deliberately aimed at hurting others, such as crime or terrorism, or at gaining unfair advantages, but also the accidental negative side effects of well-intentioned acts. This book brings…

  7. [External ear melanoma].

    PubMed

    Amando García, L; Suárez Nieto, C; Madrigal Rubiales, B; García García, J

    2003-02-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are the tumours that have increased more their incidence in the last fifty years. Melanomas arising from the external auditory canal are extraordinariously unfrequent. These tumours show an aggressive and silent behaviour, and due to this the diagnosis is frequently made in an advanced stage. A male with a malignant melanoma arising from his left external auditory canal was attended in our department, suspecting an epidermoid carcinoma. The clinical findings and the extension of the lesion required a lateral temporal bone resection, parotidectomy and neck dissection to achieve a total resection. We present a review of the literature about this entity and an analysis of the incidence, significance of the lymph node metastases and value of the elective neck dissection. PMID:12802982

  8. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  9. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE FROM BOW AFT SHOWING BILGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE FROM BOW AFT SHOWING BILGE KEEL STABILIZERS ON HULL BOTTOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 SCREEN DOOR TO EXTERIOR AND DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO DINING ROOM. HOLE AT BOTTOM LEFT OF 1/2 SCREEN DOOR WAS A CAT DOOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  11. 23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE NORTH DOORS AT TOP; WEST DOOR MOTOR DISCONNECT ABOVE ACTUATOR; WINCH AND PULLEY SYSTEM AT BOTTOM; HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT ABOVE WINCHES; MOTOR COMPRESSOR FOR DOORS ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław

    2010-10-01

    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  13. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  14. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTION AT THIRD PANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTION AT THIRD PANAL POINT IN FROM ABUTMENT. NOTE THAT THE BOTTOM CHORD IS CONTINUOUS ACROSS THE CONNECTION - Poffenberger Road Bridge, Spanning Catoctin Creek, Middletown, Frederick County, MD

  15. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... outlets prohibited, except on tanks used for shipments of sludge acid and alkaline corrosive liquids. (b) If installed, bottom outlets or bottom washout chambers shall be of metal not subject to...

  16. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  17. External Coulomb-Friction Damping For Hydrostatic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmann, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    External friction device damps vibrations of shaft and hydrostatic ring bearing in which it turns. Does not rely on wear-prone facing surfaces. Hydrostatic bearing ring clamped in radially flexing support by side plates clamped against radial surfaces by spring-loaded bolts. Plates provide friction against radial motions of shaft.

  18. Determination of /sup 239,240/Pu in bottom sediments of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Legin, V.K.; Pospelov, Yu.N.; Simonyak, Z.N.

    1988-11-01

    We present a technique for determining the /sup 239,240/Pu content, using /sup 236/Pu as the monitor of chemical yield, in samples of soils and bottom sediments - objects of the external environment. Plutonium is extracted from the matrix material by leaching with a mixture of concentrated acids HCl-HNO/sub 3/, after which it is separated by ion-exchange methods. After electrodeposition onto stainless steel discs the activity of the nuclides of plutonium is measured by the method of alpha-spectrometry. The average chemical yields during the analysis of the samples was 40-60%, the relative standard deviation was 10%, and the lower limit of detectability was 0.3 Bq. We present results of the determination of the /sup 239,240/Pu content in surface samples of bottom sediments from the Gulf of Finland and that past of the Baltic Sea which adjoins the territory of the USSR. It is found that the unit activity of /sup 239,240/Pu in the bottom sediments varies within the limits of 0.4-1.2 Bq/kg and lies at the global level. Global genesis of /sup 239,240/Pu in the bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland and the open parts of the Baltic Sea is also confirmed by the values which are found for the ratios /sup 238/Pu//sup 239,240/Pu and /sup 239,240/Pu//sup 137/Cs.

  19. Side effects with amiodarone therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, R.; Jowett, N. I.; Thompson, D. R.; Pohl, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Amiodarone hydrochloride is increasingly being used in the treatment of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Although a highly effective anti-arrhythmic agent, its use is restricted by the high incidence of side effects. To elucidate the value of monitoring serum level of both the parent drug and its active metabolite in predicting the occurrence of side effects, the investigators examined 109 patients from a register of patients treated with amiodarone for the prevalence of known side effects of the drug. The register contained over 90% of patients treated with amiodarone at the Leicester General Hospital during the period of the study. The findings suggest cutaneous side effects and abnormal thyroid function tests (without overt gland dysfunction) are more likely to occur with increasing duration of treatment and cumulative dosage. However, neither the serum amiodarone level nor the serum metabolite level had any predictive power for the occurrence of side effects. In view of this finding, it is recommended that close attention be paid to the continued clinical monitoring of side effects and that there is utility in measuring the serum amiodarone level in each patient to avoid the prescription of unnecessarily high doses. This is necessary not only to lessen the occurrence of cumulative dose-related side effects, but also because the variable but very long half-life of the drug leads to difficulties in relating spot drug levels to long-term effects. PMID:7937427

  20. 2. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING 883. INSTALLATION OF ROLLING MILLS AND MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT FOR DEPLETED URANIUM FABRICATION. THE CRANE NEAR THE CEILING WAS USED TO INSTALL THE EQUIPMENT. BOXES ON THE FLOOR CONTAINED EQUIPMENT TO BE INSTALLED. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 12. Stairwell at south side of original Clubhouse. Doorway at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Stairwell at south side of original Clubhouse. Doorway at bottom right leads to lower porch (see photo WA-201-2-13). Barely visible to left of that doorway is entrance to original Clubhouse bar seen in photos WA-201-2-9 and WA-201-10. Doorway at top of photo leads to upper porch (Turf Club) as seen in photo WA-201-2-14. Stairs continue upward (not shown) to the original 1933 cupola. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  2. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  3. 4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State Route 100 center, back gates to Winterthur and Wilmington Country Club upper center, duck pond and reservoir bottom right and center, and State Route 92 center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  4. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.050 Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit...

  5. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  6. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  7. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Double bottom requirements. 173.058 Section 173.058... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of...

  8. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  9. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  10. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Double bottom requirements. 173.058 Section 173.058... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of...

  11. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Double bottom requirements. 173.058 Section 173.058... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of...

  12. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Double bottom requirements. 173.058 Section 173.058... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of...

  13. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  14. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Double bottom requirements. 173.058 Section 173.058... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of...

  15. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project.

  16. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  17. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  18. Search for top and bottom squarks

    SciTech Connect

    C. Rott

    2003-10-15

    Searches for the lightest scalar top quark {bar t}{sub 1} and scalar bottom quark {bar b}{sub 1} performed at LEP2 with a center-of-mass energy of up to {radical}s = 209 GeV and at Tevatron using data collected at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV during Run I and at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV during Run II, are discussed. Different possible decay modes were considered and no evidence for any such signal was observed. Exclusion limits were extracted.

  19. Bottom quark mass from {Upsilon} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The bottom quark pole mass M{sub b} is determined using a sum rule which relates the masses and the electronic decay widths of the {Upsilon} mesons to large {ital n} moments of the vacuum polarization function calculated from nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The complete set of next-to-next-to-leading order [i.e., O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2},{alpha}{sub s}v,v{sup 2}) where v is the bottom quark c.m. velocity] corrections is calculated and leads to a considerable reduction of theoretical uncertainties compared to a pure next-to-leading order analysis. However, the theoretical uncertainties remain much larger than the experimental ones. For a two parameter fit for M{sub b}, and the strong M{bar S} coupling {alpha}{sub s}, and using the scanning method to estimate theoretical uncertainties, the next-to-next-to-leading order analysis yields 4.74 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.87 GeV and 0.096{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.124 if experimental uncertainties are included at the 95{percent} confidence level and if two-loop running for {alpha}{sub s} is employed. M{sub b} and {alpha}{sub s} have a sizable positive correlation. For the running M{bar S} bottom quark mass this leads to 4.09 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.32 GeV. If {alpha}{sub s} is taken as an input, the result for the bottom quark pole mass reads 4.78 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.98 GeVthinsp[4.08 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.28 GeV] for 0.114{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.122. The discrepancies between the results of three previous analyses on the same subject by Voloshin, Jamin, and Pich and K{umlt u}hn {ital et al.} are clarified. A comprehensive review on the calculation of the heavy-quark{endash}antiquark pair production cross section through a vector current at next-to-next-to leading order in the nonrelativistic expansion is presented. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. The DarkSide project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DarkSide project, The

    2016-02-01

    DarkSide is a graded experimental project based on radiopure argon, and is now, and will be, used in direct dark matter searches. The present DarkSide-50 detector, operating at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, is a dual-phase, 50 kg, liquid argon time-projection-chamber surrounded by an active liquid scintillator veto. It is designed to be background free in 3 years of operation. DS-50 performances, when filled with atmospheric argon, are reported. However DS-50 filled with underground argon, shows impressive reduction of the 39Ar isotope. The application of this powerful technology in a future generation of the DarkSide program is discussed.

  1. A photofunctional bottom-up bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Hoshiko, Ken; Liu, Qian; Yagi, Toshiki; Nagayama, Tatsuhiro; Kusaka, Shinpei; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional polymeric nanosheets have recently gained much attention, particularly top-down nanosheets such as graphene and metal chalcogenides originating from bulk-layered mother materials. Although molecule-based bottom-up nanosheets manufactured directly from molecular components can exhibit greater structural diversity than top-down nanosheets, the bottom-up nanosheets reported thus far lack useful functionalities. Here we show the design and synthesis of a bottom-up nanosheet featuring a photoactive bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex motif. A liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis between a three-way dipyrrin ligand and zinc(II) ions results in a multi-layer nanosheet, whereas an air/liquid interfacial reaction produces a single-layer or few-layer nanosheet with domain sizes of >10 μm on one side. The bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) metal complex nanosheet is easy to deposit on various substrates using the Langmuir-Schäfer process. The nanosheet deposited on a transparent SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode in a photoelectric conversion system, and is thus the first photofunctional bottom-up nanosheet. PMID:25831973

  2. A photofunctional bottom-up bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Hoshiko, Ken; Liu, Qian; Yagi, Toshiki; Nagayama, Tatsuhiro; Kusaka, Shinpei; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Two-dimensional polymeric nanosheets have recently gained much attention, particularly top-down nanosheets such as graphene and metal chalcogenides originating from bulk-layered mother materials. Although molecule-based bottom-up nanosheets manufactured directly from molecular components can exhibit greater structural diversity than top-down nanosheets, the bottom-up nanosheets reported thus far lack useful functionalities. Here we show the design and synthesis of a bottom-up nanosheet featuring a photoactive bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex motif. A liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis between a three-way dipyrrin ligand and zinc(II) ions results in a multi-layer nanosheet, whereas an air/liquid interfacial reaction produces a single-layer or few-layer nanosheet with domain sizes of >10 μm on one side. The bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) metal complex nanosheet is easy to deposit on various substrates using the Langmuir-Schäfer process. The nanosheet deposited on a transparent SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode in a photoelectric conversion system, and is thus the first photofunctional bottom-up nanosheet.

  3. A photofunctional bottom-up bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Hoshiko, Ken; Liu, Qian; Yagi, Toshiki; Nagayama, Tatsuhiro; Kusaka, Shinpei; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional polymeric nanosheets have recently gained much attention, particularly top-down nanosheets such as graphene and metal chalcogenides originating from bulk-layered mother materials. Although molecule-based bottom-up nanosheets manufactured directly from molecular components can exhibit greater structural diversity than top-down nanosheets, the bottom-up nanosheets reported thus far lack useful functionalities. Here we show the design and synthesis of a bottom-up nanosheet featuring a photoactive bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex motif. A liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis between a three-way dipyrrin ligand and zinc(II) ions results in a multi-layer nanosheet, whereas an air/liquid interfacial reaction produces a single-layer or few-layer nanosheet with domain sizes of >10 μm on one side. The bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) metal complex nanosheet is easy to deposit on various substrates using the Langmuir–Schäfer process. The nanosheet deposited on a transparent SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode in a photoelectric conversion system, and is thus the first photofunctional bottom-up nanosheet. PMID:25831973

  4. A note on the effect of bottom currents on an ocean bottom seismometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trehu, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    Two three-component ocean bottom seismometers and a current meter were deployed a few hundred meters apart on the southern Blake Plateau off the United States eastern coast to study the effect of near-bottom currents on the background noise level of seismometers. Although analysis of the data is limited somewhat by instrumental problems, the increase in current speed, which ranged from 2 to 25 cm/sec, is correlated with a broadband increase in the noise level at frequencies below 10 Hz. Intermittent periods of narrow-band 8-Hz noise, which were also observed, are not correlative with bottom currents and were tentatively attributed to passing ships. Details of the mechanism of generation of the background noise cannot be determined from the present data set.

  5. The first results of using the Allium test in estimating the chemical and radiation toxicity of bottom sediments in the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A Ya; Trofimova, E A; Zueva, A V; Dementiev, D V

    2016-07-01

    The first results of the use of the Allium test for estimation of toxicity of bottom sediments in the Yenisei River and the effect of external γ-radiation under laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of stimulation of the onion root growth, i.e., the absence of toxicity was discovered in toxicological experiments using bottom sediments and under external γ-radiation. The stimulating effect of radiation on the growth of onion roots limits the use of the Allium test for testing samples from the Yenisei River ecosystem in the zone subjected to the impact of radioactive discharges from the Mining and Chemical Combine. PMID:27595829

  6. The theory and a technique for an efficiency enhancing two stage bottoming cycle for piston/cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Zeh, D.

    1995-12-31

    While there is now much interest in electric vehicles or various hybrids, the most benefit may result from a revolutionary modification and efficiency improvement of the conventional internal combustion Otto cycle engine, by recovering a large portion of the availability that exists at the end of the power stroke. This paper will describe the theory and a potentially practical method for achieving a 50% improvement in power output and fuel efficiency. While the topping cycle will remain the internal combustion piston/cylinder engine, a two stage bottom cycle will be used. The first bottom stage is a single process consisting of a turbine installed in the exhaust stream to extract power from the excess pressure that exists when the engine exhaust valve opens. The second bottom stage is a complete external combustion gas turbine cycle consisting of a compressor, exhaust gas to compressed air heat exchanger and a turbine. Such a two stage bottoming cycle can be practical and may increase the power output by about 50%. This means that a car that achieves 30 mpg without a bottoming cycle can achieve 45 mpg with this bottoming cycle. Alternatively if the performance of cars can be improved to 66 mpg by means of decreasing the power requirements with smaller size and frontal area, better aerodynamics, lower rolling resistance tires and better transmission and drive trains, this vehicle can be extended to 100 mpg with this combined cycle engine.

  7. Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Collin; Manousakis, Georgios; Lee, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), marked by progressive bilateral ptosis and diffuse reduction in ocular motility, represents a finding of mitochondrial myopathy rather than a true diagnosis. PEO often occurs with other systemic features of mitochondrial dysfunction that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate and early recognition of PEO is paramount for the optimal care of these patients. We present an evidence-based review of the presenting neuro-ophthalmic features, differential diagnosis, diagnostic tools, systemic implications, and treatment options for isolated PEO and other PEO-associated mitochondrial syndromes. PMID:27072953

  8. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  9. External split field generator

    SciTech Connect

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  10. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames. PMID:27391805

  11. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization.

    PubMed

    Heed, Tobias; Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames. PMID:27391805

  12. The 727/JT8D refan side nacelle airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. W.; Vadset, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Airloads on the 727/JT8D refan side engine nacelle are presented. These consist of surface static pressure distributions from two low speed wind tunnel tests. External nacelle surface pressures are from testing of a flow-through, body mounted nacelle model, and internal inlet surface pressures are from performance testing of a forced air inlet model. The method for obtaining critical airloads on nacelle components and a representative example are discussed.

  13. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  14. Side Effects and Their Management

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Donate One Time Monthly Event Tribute For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) ... Care and Treatment Newly Diagnosed Continuum of Care Brain Tumor Treatments Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side Effects & ...

  15. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physicalmore » pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.« less

  16. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physical pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.

  17. COS Side 2 NUV Detector Recovery After MEB Side Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinski, John

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after a COS MEB side switch. The recovery procedure consists of two separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after a COS MEB side switch: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a series of dark exposures. Visit1 must be successfully completed before proceeding onto Visit 2. This proposal is model after cycle 20 13129 - COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous ShutdownIf the cause of the COS MEB side switch is the result of a NUV anomaly, replacing this proposal with the COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown procedure {cycle 20 proposal 13129} should be consider.

  18. Interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Cerdeira, Cecilia; Fan, Boyu; Barizien, Antoine; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    The inverted flag instability occurs when an elastic plate that is free at its leading edge and clamped at its trailing edge is subjected to an axial wind. The oscillating motion that follows has received recent attention. However, previous studies have focused on the dynamics of a single flag even though these are rarely found isolated in natural phenomena, such as the fluttering of leaves in the wind. The interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags has been investigated, analyzing the effects of the distance between flags and the wind speed. Both in-phase and anti-phase coupling have been observed for different ranges of these parameters.

  19. The turbulent wake behind side-by-side plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseini Dadmarzi, Fatemeh; Narasimhamurthy, Vagesh D.; Andersson, Helge I.; Pettersen, Bjørnar

    2011-12-01

    The wake behind two flat plates placed side by side normal to the inflow has been investigated by direct numerical simulation. The spacing between the two plates is one plate width d and the Reynolds number based on the plate width and inflow velocity is 1000. Flow pattern study indicates an anti-phase vortex shedding behind flat plates in the near wake which merges to one large wake downstream. Such a vortex structure has not been observed behind the flat plates for this gap ratio.

  20. Brushless machine having ferromagnetic side plates and side magnets

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S

    2012-10-23

    An apparatus is provided having a cylindrical stator and a rotor that is spaced from a stator to define an annular primary air gap that receives AC flux from the stator. The rotor has a plurality of longitudinal pole portions disposed parallel to the axis of rotation and alternating in polarity around a circumference of the rotor. Each longitudinal pole portion includes portions of permanent magnet (PM) material and at least one of the longitudinal pole portions has a first end and an opposing second end and a side magnet is disposed adjacent the first end and a side pole is disposed adjacent the second end.

  1. Unilateral Vestibular Loss Impairs External Space Representation

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24523916

  2. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  4. [External ophthalmomyiasis: case reports].

    PubMed

    Yar, Kemal; Özcan, Altan Atakan; Koltaş, İ Soner

    2011-01-01

    We report two cases with external ophthalmomyiasis due to infestation with the larvae of Oestrus ovis. During an ophthalmologic examination, motile larvae were seen on the conjunctiva, which were removed and sent to the Department of Parasitology for identification. Microscopic examination of the specimens revealed that both patients were infested with the first stage larvae of O. ovis. The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and steroids and recovered without any complications. O. ovis larvae are the most common cause of ophthalmomyiasis worldwide. They are usually seen in underdeveloped, agricultural areas with high numbers of livestock, especially during Spring and Summer. These kind of infestations should be kept in mind in cases of conjunctivitis in the warm months of the year. PMID:22198925

  5. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.

  6. Use of incinerator bottom ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, J.; Coutaz, L.; Ambroise, J.; Chababbet, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to show if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could be an alternative aggregate for the production of building concrete presenting a characteristic 28-day compressive strength of 25 MPa. The aggregates passing the 20-mm sieve and retained on the 4-mm sieve were considered for investigation. They showed lower density, higher water absorption, and lower strength than natural gravel. They could be considered as average quality aggregates for use in concrete. When directly introduced in concrete, they led to swelling and cracking of specimens, due to the reaction between cement and metallic aluminium. Therefore, a treatment by sodium hydroxide was proposed to avoid such degradation, which made possible the partial replacement (up to 50%) of gravel in concrete without affecting the durability.

  7. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  8. Conductivity Probe after Trench-Bottom Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Needles of the thermal and conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander were positioned into the bottom of a trench called 'Upper Cupboard' during Sol 86 (Aug. 21, 2008), or 86th Martian day after landing. This image of the conductivity probe after it was raised back out of the trench was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera. The conductivity probe is at the wrist of the robotic arm's scoop.

    The probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Discovering bottom squark coannihilation at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Alexander; Lastovicka, Tomas; Nomerotski, Andrei; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana

    2010-02-01

    We study the potential of the international linear collider (ILC) at {radical}(s)=500 GeV to probe new dark matter motivated scenario where the bottom squark (sbottom) is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. For this scenario, which is virtually impossible for the LHC to test, the ILC has a potential to cover a large fraction of the parameter space. The challenge is due to a very low energy of jets, below 20-30 GeV, which pushes the jet clustering and flavor tagging algorithms to their limits. The process of sbottom pair production was studied within the SiD detector concept. We demonstrate that ILC offers a unique opportunity to test the supersymmetry parameter space motivated by the sbottom-neutralino coannihilation scenario in cases when the sbottom production is kinematically accessible. The study was done with the full SiD simulation and reconstruction chain including all standard model and beam backgrounds.

  10. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  11. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  12. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  13. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  14. Successful demand-side management

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.; Flanigan, T.

    1995-05-01

    This article is a brief summary of a series of case studies of five publicly-owned utilities that are noted for their success with demand-side management. These utilities are: (1) city of Austin, Texas, (2) Burlington Electric Department in Vermont, (3) Sacramento Municipal Utility District in California, (4) Seattle City Light, and (5) Waverly Light and Power in Iowa. From these case studies, the authors identified a number of traits associated with a successful demand-side management program. These traits are: (1) high rates, (2) economic factors, (3) environmental awareness, (4) state emphasis on integrated resource planning/demand side management, (5) local political support, (6) large-sized utilities, and (7) presence of a champion.

  15. Side by side treadmill walking with intentionally desynchronized gait.

    PubMed

    Nessler, Jeff A; McMillan, David; Schoulten, Michael; Shallow, Teresa; Stewart, Brianna; De Leone, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Humans demonstrate an innate desire to synchronize stepping when walking side by side. This behavior requires modification of each person's gait, which may increase for pairings with very different walking patterns. The purpose of this study was to compare locomotor behavior for conditions in which partners exhibited similar and substantially different walking patterns. Twenty-six unimpaired subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at their preferred walking speed for three trials: by themselves (SOLO), next to someone on an adjacent treadmill (PAIRED), and next to someone who purposely avoided synchronization by altering stride times and/or lengths (DeSYNC). Means, coefficients of variance, approximate entropy (ApEn), rate of autocorrelation decay (α), and estimates of maximal Lyapunov exponents (λ*) were calculated for several dependent variables taken from sagittal plane kinematic data. Few differences in behavior were noted when the PAIRED condition was compared to the SOLO condition. However, the DeSYNC condition resulted in several alterations in ApEn, α, and λ*. These results suggest that greater differences in walking pattern between partners will facilitate greater modification to an individual's gait. Additional study of side by side walking may hold implications for understanding the control of gait in humans and may have application in a clinical setting. PMID:23001358

  16. Peptide nanotube aligning side chains onto one side.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuki; Mitani, Shota; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2016-06-01

    A novel pseudo cyclic penta-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine, two β-alanines, and a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid (CP5ES) is synthesized and investigated on peptide nanotube (PNT) formation. When the PNT is formed with the maximum number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the cyclic peptides, the sequence enables the alignment of the side chains, naphthyl groups, on one side of the PNT. Microscopic and spectroscopic observations of CP5ES crystals reveal that CP5ES forms rod- or needle-shaped molecular assemblies showing exciton coupling of the Cotton effect and predominant monomer emission, which are different from a reference cyclic tri-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine and two β-alanines. Insertion of a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid into β-amino acids in the cyclic skeleton is therefore suggested to be effective to make the side chains aligning on one side of the PNT. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27282135

  17. The Light and Dark Sides of a Distant Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    The top graph consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. It tells astronomers that a distant planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, always has a giant hot spot on the side that faces the star, while the other side is cold and dark. The artist's concepts above the graph illustrate how the planet might look throughout its orbit if viewed up close with infrared eyes.

    Spitzer was able to determine the difference in temperature between the two sides of this planet by measuring the planet's infrared light, or heat, at five points during its 4.6-day-long trip around its star. The temperature rose and fell depending on which face, the sunlit or dark, was pointed toward Spitzer's cameras. Those temperature oscillations are traced by the wavy orange curve. They indicate that Upsilon Andromedae b has an extreme range of temperatures across its surface, about 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,550 degrees Fahrenheit). This means that hot gas moving across the bright side of the planet cools off by the time it reaches the dark side.

    The bottom graph and artist's concepts represent what astronomers might have seen if the planet had bands of different temperatures girdling it, like Jupiter. Some astronomers had speculated that 'hot-Jupiter' planets like Upsilon Andromedae b, which circle very closely around their stars, might resemble Jupiter in this way. If Upsilon Andromedae b had been like this, there would have been no difference between the average temperatures of the sunlit and dark sides to detect, and Spitzer's data would have appeared as a flat line.

  18. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past

  19. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  20. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  1. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  2. The DarkSide Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.; Agnes, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cariello, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Catalanotti, S.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; De Deo, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Kendziora, C.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kurlej, A.; Li, P. X.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Musico, P.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Papp, L.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Segreto, E.; Shields, E.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Watson, A.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  3. Hope, for the Dry Side.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husted, Bette Lynch

    2001-01-01

    Describes the experiences of the author as she tries to transfigure her students enrolled in freshman writing and college preparatory writing classes at Blue Mountain Community College in Pendleton, Oregon (located in the "dry side" of the state). Addresses students' racism, homophobia, and distrust of their own skills in writing. (RS)

  4. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  5. Double-sided Relativistic Magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, A. V.; Krastelev, E. G.

    1997-05-01

    A new scheme of a symmetricaly powered relativistic magnetron and several methods of localised electron flow forming in an interaction region are proposed to increase an efficiency of relativistic magnetrons. As will be shown, a very important reason is the effect of nonsymmetric feeding of power from one side of a magnetron, which is typical for experiments. One-sided powering leads to the axial drift of electrons, to the transformation of transverse velocities of electrons to longitudinal one and to the generation of a parasitic e-beam which does not take part in energy exchange between electrons and waves at all. A special driver was designed for double-sided powering of relativistic magnetrons. The proposed system is compact, rigid and capable of reliable operation at high repetition rates, which is advantageous for many applications. Several smooth-bore magnetrons were tested by means of computer simulations using PIC code KARAT. The results showed a dramatical difference between the dynamics of electron flow for one- and two-sided power feeding of a structure under test. Design of a driver and computer simulation results are presented.

  6. Another Side to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, William L.

    1984-01-01

    Education about nuclear arms should be balanced. Most of the supplementary materials dealing with nuclear war that are available to teachers are published by anti-war groups. Basic problems with these materials are discussed and information which can be used to present the other side of the story is provided. (RM)

  7. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Brucken, E.; Devoto, F.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Casal, B.; Cuevas, J.; Gomez, G.; Palencia, E.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Amerio, S.; Dorigo, T.; Gresele, A.; Lazzizzera, I.

    2011-05-06

    We report measurements of direct CP--violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +})=+0.39{+-}0.15(stat){+-}0.08(syst), and bottom baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}p{pi}{sup -})=+0.03{+-}0.17(stat){+-}0.05(syst) and A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}pK{sup -})=+0.37{+-}0.17(stat){+-}0.03(syst). In addition, we measure CP violation in B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP}(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=-0.086{+-}0.023(stat){+-}0.009(syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  8. A measurement of the Z branching fraction to bottom quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Joel

    1998-04-01

    The quantity Rb = Γ(Z0/to b/bar b)/Γ(Z0/to q/bar q), the fraction of Z0 boson decays into a bottom (b) quark/antiquark pair relative to those into any quark/antiquark pair, is sensitive to possible physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Previous measurements have indicated a possible deviation of Rb from the Standard Model prediction, which could indicate the existence of new particles predicted by Supersymmetry or Technicolor theories. I have measured Rb using the L3 experiment at LEP to study a sample of approximately one million Z0/to q/bar q decays produced in e+e/sp- collisions during 1994 and 1995. I studied background efficiencies and systematic errors using over five million Z0/to q/bar q decays generated by a Monte Carlo (random) algorithm based on the Standard Model. These decay events were then passed through a finely detailed, time dependent simulation of the L3 detector. I performed a search for the presence of a b quark (a 'b tag') separately on each side of the Z0 decay point in each event. This allows the b tagging efficiency as well as Rb to be determined from data, reducing the systematic error in the measurement. The b tagging algorithm I used relies on the high precision particle tracking capabilities of the L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector and Time Expansion Chamber to determine the decay point of the Z0 and the distance of closest approach of each particle to that point (in the plane perpendicular to the e+e/sp- beams). If the observed particle tracks were not consistent with a single point of origin, that side of the event was tagged as a b candidate. The result I obtain isRb = 0.2179/pm 0.0018([ statistical])/pm 0.0032([ systematic]) - 0.196(Rc - 0.172)where Rc, the Z0 branching ratio to charm quarks, is left as a free parameter. This agrees with the Standard Model prediction to within its 41% confidence limit, if Rc is taken as its Standard Model value of 0.172. This measurement therefore does not give any

  9. Denitrification and flushing of the Santa Barbara Basin bottom waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goericke, Ralf; Bograd, Steven J.; Grundle, Damian S.

    2015-02-01

    The sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) are an important paleoecological resource since their structure reflects the oxygenation of the bottom waters and the quality and quantity of the particulate matter which is sequestered to the bottom of the basin. These properties are controlled by regional atmospheric and oceanic climate. The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has been monitoring the bottom waters of the SBB on a regular basis since 1986. Over the last decade, properties of SBB bottom waters have undergone dramatic changes: low concentrations of nitrate were observed more frequently and concentrations of nitrite, at times, reached values of 7 μM, in contrast to maximum concentrations of 0.2 μM observed during the earlier time period. Here we study the links between regional climate and conditions at the bottom of the SBB by relating recent changes in bottom water chemistry to local and regional forcing of the basin. Varying rates of primary production of the overlying water or rates of export production were not significantly related to the observed biogeochemical changes in the basin. Rather, the frequency or rate of flushing, as inferred from phosphate concentration changes at the bottom of the basin, and decreasing concentrations of oxygen in the waters outside the basins could be related to the observed changes. The episodic more than 10-fold increases of nitrite in the bottom waters likely represent a tipping point in the biogeochemical system driven by decreasing concentrations of oxygen in the bottom waters.

  10. Field trail of fiber optic ocean bottom cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Huang, Wenzhu; Wang, Zhaogang; Luo, Yingbo; Li, Fang

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the field test of the fiber optic ocean bottom cable (FOOBC). The FOOBC are several ocean bottom seismic stations connected by optical fiber cables. In the ocean bottom seismic station, there are three orthogonal fiber optic accelerometers and one fiber optic hydrophone. The design of the sensors and stations are introduced. The field demonstration of an ocean bottom seismic station is carried out in Yunnan Province, China. The test results show that the three accelerometers has similar response to the seismic signal with traditional MEMS accelerometers. We believe that the fiber optic seismic cable is promising in the field of oil and gas exploration and earthquake monitoring.