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Sample records for external costs related

  1. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

  2. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed. PMID:26237285

  3. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  4. Cost of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in bone infection

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Khaled Mohamed; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; Ghafar, Khaled Abd EL

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the cost benefit of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in treatment of bone infection by segment transfer. METHODS: Out of 71 patients with infected nonunion tibia treated between 2003 and 2006, 50 patients fitted the inclusion criteria (26 patients were treated by external fixation only, and 24 patients were treated by external fixation early removal after segment transfer and replacement by internal fixation). Cost of inpatient treatment, total cost of inpatient and outpatient treatment till full healing, and the weeks of absence from school or work were calculated and compared between both groups. RESULTS: The cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of external fixation only was 22.6 ± 3.3 while the cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of early external fixation removal and replacement by intramedullary nail was 26.0 ± 3.2. The difference was statistically significant regarding the cost of hospital stay and surgery in favor of the group of external fixation only. The total cost of medical care (surgery, hospital stay, treatment outside the hospital including medications, dressing, physical therapy, outpatient laboratory work, etc.) in group of external fixation only was 63.3 ± 15.1, and total absence from work was 38.6 ± 6.6 wk. While the group of early removal of external fixation and replacement by IM nail, total cost of medical care was 38.3 ± 6.4 and total absence from work or school was 22.7 ± 4.1. The difference was statistically significant regarding the total cost and absence from work in favor of the group of early removal and replacement by IM nail. CONCLUSION: Early removal of external fixation and replacement by intramedullary nail in treatment of infected nonunion showed more cost effectiveness. Orthopaedic society needs to show the cost effectiveness of different procedures to the community, insurance, and health authorities. PMID:25621219

  5. External Communities of Practice and Relational Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Frank W.; Navarro, Juan G. Cegarra

    2004-01-01

    External communities of practice are groups formed by company clients and employees based on common interests, commitment, mutual trust and collaboration whose members regularly share knowledge and learning. This paper examines how external communities of practice contribute to the creation of relational capital through an empirical investigation…

  6. Externalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This issue explains the concept of externalities (benefits or burdens which accrue to society when there is a difference between the private cost or benefit of an action and the social cost or benefit of that action). These external or social costs of individual actions are often referred to as spillover costs. Three brief teaching units follow…

  7. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External restructuring costs. 231.205-70 Section 231.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial...

  8. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium. PMID:8653190

  9. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia. [Including external environmental costs

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions.

  10. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise. PMID:2502036

  11. Relations between Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems are closely related and often co-occur. Directional models have been employed to test how these problems are related, while few studies have tested a third variables model. Objective: This study investigates whether internalizing and externalizing problems are reciprocally or…

  12. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determining cost allowability in accordance with FAR part 31 shall apply. (5) Restructuring savings means cost... costs are allowable in accordance with FAR part 31 and DFARS part 231; (2) An audit of...

  13. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determining cost allowability in accordance with FAR part 31 shall apply. (5) Restructuring savings means cost... costs are allowable in accordance with FAR part 31 and DFARS part 231; (2) An audit of...

  14. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determining cost allowability in accordance with FAR part 31 shall apply. (5) Restructuring savings means cost... costs are allowable in accordance with FAR part 31 and DFARS part 231; (2) An audit of...

  15. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determining cost allowability in accordance with FAR part 31 shall apply. (5) Restructuring savings means cost... costs are allowable in accordance with FAR part 31 and DFARS part 231; (2) An audit of...

  16. Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.

    1990-07-01

    Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Defensive externality and its relation to academic performance.

    PubMed

    Prociuk, T J; Breen, L J

    1975-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between locus of control and academic performance by evaluating the academic achievement of defensive externals, which has been considered a confounding factor in previous research. A further objective was an examination of the effect of two mediating variables in their relation to locus of control and academic performance. One hundred sixty college students were administered the Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance scales, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, and the Achievement via Independence/via Conformance scales. Obtained results demonstrated that internals were academically superior to both defensive and congruent externals. Defensive externals were shown to have higher grade point averages than congruent externals, and female defensive externals achieved greater academic success than their male counterparts. Further results suggested that the relationship between locus of control and academic performance may not be a direct one but may be modified by specific mediating variables. PMID:1151611

  18. Cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans. PMID:24069398

  19. Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Strategies in Radiation Contaminated Areas in Fukushima in Regard to External Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans. PMID:24069398

  20. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  1. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  2. Relative Costs of Various Types of Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Patricia H.

    Issues of the relative costs of multiple choice tests and alternative types of assessment are explored. Before alternative assessments in large-scale or small-scale programs are used, attention must be given to cost considerations and the resources required to develop and implement the assessment. Major categories of cost to be considered are…

  3. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7–11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. PMID:25671019

  4. Environmental policy making: liability for externalities in the presence of transaction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, P.J.W.N.

    1980-07-01

    Environmental law that favors the victim of pollution against the polluter has some theoretical justification. For depletable externalities, this originates from the important asymmetries between free riding and holding out and from the physical nature of several externality problems. For a large class of pollution examples, however, where the externality is undepletable, no market can achieve a Pareto optimal allocation. Market solutions are useless in these cases if efficiency is the criterion for the allocation of liability. In a real-world context, very high transaction costs remove the justification for any rule, and the possibility of asymmetry in pollution costs could be used to support laws that favor the polluter. The efforts of policymakers should be directed towards more careful assessment of the likely costs and benefits of polluting activities and of the distributional and ethical dimensions. 13 references, 3 figures.

  5. Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Experience Relating to Engine External Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soditus, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Airlines are extremely sensitive to the amount of dollars spent on maintaining the external engine hardware in the field. Analysis reveals that many problems revolve around a central issue, reliability. Fuel and oil leakage due to seal failure and electrical fault messages due to wire harness failures play a major role in aircraft delays and cancellations (D&C's) and scheduled maintenance. Correcting these items on the line requires a large investment of engineering resources and manpower after the fact. The smartest and most cost effective philosophy is to build the best hardware the first time. The only way to do that is to completely understand and model the operating environment, study the field experience of similar designs and to perform extensive testing.

  6. Changes in kinematics, metabolic cost and external work during walking with a forward assistive force.

    PubMed

    Zirker, Christopher A; Bennett, Bradford C; Abel, Mark F

    2013-08-01

    We examined how the application of a forward horizontal force applied at the waist alters the metabolic cost, kinematics, and external work of gait. Horizontal assist forces of 4%, 8% and 12% of a subject's body weight were applied via our testing apparatus while subjects walked at comfortable walking speed on a level treadmill. Kinematic and metabolic parameters were measured using motion capture and ergospirometry respectively on a group of 10 healthy male subjects. Changes in kinematic and metabolic parameters were quantified and found similar to walking downhill at varying grades. A horizontal assist force of 8% resulted in the greatest reduction of metabolic cost. Changes in recovery factor, external work, and center of mass (COM) movement did not correlate with changes in metabolic rate and therefore were not driving the observed reductions in cost. The assist force may have performed external work by providing propulsion as well as raising the COM as it pivots over the stance leg. Assist forces may decrease metabolic cost by reducing the concentric work required for propulsion while increasing the eccentric work of braking. These findings on the effects of assist forces suggest novel mobility aids for individuals with gait disorders and training strategies for athletes. PMID:23183216

  7. [Cost benefits of intensive insulin therapy using injections, external pumps and implantable pumps].

    PubMed

    Selam, J L; Haardt, M J; Berne, C; Dorange, C; Lanoe, J L; Bethoux, J P; Slama, G

    1993-12-01

    Since feasibility is now proven, cost-efficacy of external sub-cutaneous (EXT) and implantable programmable (IMP) insulin pumps needs to be compared to those of intensified conventional insulin therapy (CONV). Only metabolic efficacy and short-term direct costs are easily evaluable. We (WHO-CSII Study) and others have shown that glycemic control and severe hypoglycemia risk are slightly improved, while ketoacidosis risk and costs are aggravated with EXT vs CONV. We (CEDIT Study) and others have shown that glycemic control, mild and severe hypoglycemic risks are improved, with no increase in ketoacidosis rates although a doubling in costs with IMP vs CONV. Rigid interpretation of the above data would limit indications of insulin pumps to patients experiencing frequent hypoglycemias while on intensified conventional insulin therapy. PMID:8206188

  8. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Petruccelli, Umberto

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  9. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed. PMID:24274582

  10. Hangover hyperthermia in rats: relation to tolerance and external stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Taira, T

    1988-01-01

    The recent finding of rebound hyperthermia in rats on the day after a single IP injection or oral intubation of ethanol was confirmed. In our studies, body temperature measured by rectal probe was significantly decreased for 8 h after 2.5 g/kg ethanol IP and was then significantly elevated 16-24 h after injection; increased vocalization during handling at 24 h was also found. However, rats isolated in a sound-attenuation chamber with remote temperature measurement showed no hyperthermia even though they were hypothermic during intoxication. The results do not support the hypothesis that rebound hyperthermia was caused by either a disruption of circadian rhythms, or by a mild abstinence syndrome alone. Instead, it appears that external stimuli, perhaps related to stress or associated with ethanol administration, are necessary on the day after a moderate dose of ethanol to produce the hyperthermia. Like hangover in humans, hyperthermia was reduced in rats made tolerant to ethanol: both the hypothermia and the rebound hyperthermia were significantly lower on the day after the 12th alternate-day ethanol injection than after the first injection. The aftereffects in rats of acute intoxication are, by definition, hangover signs, and they resemble hangover in humans in several ways, but their relevance as an animal model of hangover remains to be determined. PMID:3127841

  11. 48 CFR 31.205-21 - Labor relations costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Labor relations costs. 31....205-21 Labor relations costs. (a) Costs incurred in maintaining satisfactory relations between the... costs of shop stewards, labor management committees, employee publications, and other related...

  12. 48 CFR 31.205-21 - Labor relations costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Labor relations costs. 31....205-21 Labor relations costs. (a) Costs incurred in maintaining satisfactory relations between the... costs of shop stewards, labor management committees, employee publications, and other related...

  13. 48 CFR 31.205-21 - Labor relations costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Labor relations costs. 31....205-21 Labor relations costs. (a) Costs incurred in maintaining satisfactory relations between the... costs of shop stewards, labor management committees, employee publications, and other related...

  14. Cost effectiveness of external hip protectors in the hospital setting: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Stollenwerk, Björn; Waldeyer, Regina; Klein-Meding, Christiane; Müller, Dirk; Stock, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Chronic illnesses, for which many patients are admitted to hospitals, substantially increase the risk of falling, and hence the likelihood of incurring a hip fracture. Hip fractures not only have devastating consequences on an individual's quality of life but may also affect a hospital's reputation in the community. In addition, hospitals may face litigation claims and increased costs for patients who fall and suffer a major injury as a consequence. External hip protectors are comparable to padded undergarments and shield the trochanter, reducing the detrimental effects and force impacting the bone during a fall. Screening for patients at high risk of falling and providing high-risk patients with hip protectors as a preventive measure to avoid hip fractures, not only improves public health, but can also save hospitals care and litigation costs. PMID:24834633

  15. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-09-27

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO{sub 2} emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies.

  16. 42 CFR 422.6 - Cost-sharing in enrollment-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost-sharing in enrollment-related costs. 422.6 Section 422.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM General Provisions § 422.6 Cost-sharing in enrollment-related costs....

  17. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided. PMID:15018372

  18. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  19. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  20. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  1. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  2. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  3. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Relations among Family Risk Factors and Childhood Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal…

  4. 42 CFR 413.9 - Cost related to patient care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost related to patient care. 413.9 Section 413.9... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... Rules § 413.9 Cost related to patient care. (a) Principle. All payments to providers of services must...

  5. 42 CFR 413.9 - Cost related to patient care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost related to patient care. 413.9 Section 413.9... PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... Rules § 413.9 Cost related to patient care. (a) Principle. All payments to providers of services must...

  6. Information and issues related to the quantification of environmental externalities for new powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Callaway, J.M.; Glantz, C.S.; Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides background information for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its efforts to quantify the environmental externalities associated with new electricity resources. A more detailed companion document has been provided to Bonneville for internal use. This report defines what is meant by externalities, particularly in the context of electricity resources. It outlines the economics issues associated with assigning an economic value, such as cents per kilowatt hour, to the residual environmental impacts of electricity powerplants. It examines two generic theoretical approaches for estimating such values and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The report also addresses the need to include relevant stages in the fuel cycle in estimating the costs of externalities. The fuel-cycle concept is defined and its importance is discussed. The approaches used by several states to quantify externalities are described. A review of the valuation efforts of various states and utilities indicates that three states have actually developed methodologies for assigning economic values to externalities. Information that Bonneville may need to request from resource developers to quantify externalities is discussed, and an appendix presents suggested forms for obtaining the required information. Summary information also is presented on models for analyzing the dispersion of powerplant plumes for the purpose of estimating environmental externality costs. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. The relation between attachment, personality, internalizing, and externalizing dimensions in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment and personality features is an important field to explore in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), and previous research has shown that personality features may be conceptualized within latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. This cross-sectional study used a structural equation model to examine the association between the BPD participants' perception of attachment and personality features, mediated by the underlying internalizing/externalizing personality dimensions. Data were analyzed for 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, diagnosed with BPD who completed attachment and personality self-report measures. The authors' results showed a good fit of the model, suggesting a significant association between attachment and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions, which simultaneously congregate and influence personality traits. The perception of attachment anxiety was positively related to the internalizing dimension and at the same time negatively related to the externalizing dimension. However, the perception of attachment avoidance was not related to internalizing or externalizing personality dimensions. PMID:27583810

  8. Conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology: overlap, developmental patterns, and etiology of two related constructs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed. PMID:19583888

  9. Are Externalizing and Internalizing Difficulties of Young Children with Spelling Impairment Related to Their ADHD Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-01-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we…

  10. Dogmatism and Externality in Locus of Control As Related to Counselor Trainee Skill in Facilitative Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlozzi, Alfred F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Hypothesized that dogmatism and externality in locus of control are inversely related to skill in facilitative responding. Dogmatism and externality were measured by the Opinion Scale, and skill in facilitative responding was determined with the Gross Rating of Facilitative Interpersonal Functioning Scale. Results supported the hypothesis. (Author)

  11. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Conflict, Children's Social Skills and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalická, Vera; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that the relation between student-teacher conflict and children's externalizing behavior might be reciprocal, and possibly also between student-teacher conflict and children's social skills. Because children with externalizing behavior also tend to display low levels of social skills, we do not know if one or both of these…

  12. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  13. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  14. Managing External Relations: The Lifeblood of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the role of customer and stakeholder relations in the success of space missions. Topics include agency transformation; an overview of project and program experience with a discussion of positions, technical accomplishments, and management lessons learned; and approaches to project success with emphasis on communication. Projects and programs discussed include the Space Shuttle Main Engine System, DC-XA Flight Demonstrator, X-33 Flight Demonstrator, Space Launch Initiative/2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle, X-37 Flight Demonstrator, Constellation (pre Dr. Griffin), Safety and Mission Assurance, and Exploration Launch Projects.

  15. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Relations Among Family Risk Factors and Childhood Externalizing Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children’s externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children’s externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., negativity and low warmth), and child externalizing symptoms at 24 months and first grade in a community-based sample of 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal depression and negative parental behaviors were associated with concurrent externalizing behaviors, though maternal depression may be differentially linked to boys’ and girls’ externalizing problems. The relation between depression and boys’ externalizing symptoms was more pronounced at 24 months, and over time, the relation between maternal depression and boys’ externalizing symptoms decreased in magnitude, whereas this relation increased among girls. PMID:19271833

  16. 42 CFR 423.6 - Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs. 423.6 Section 423.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT General Provisions § 423.6 Cost-sharing...

  17. 42 CFR 422.6 - Cost-sharing in enrollment-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing in enrollment-related costs. 422.6 Section 422.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM General Provisions § 422.6 Cost-sharing...

  18. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Prinzie, Peter; van der Sluis, Cathy M; de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja

    2010-08-01

    Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, children rated their externalizing behavior. Mediational analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects. Higher levels of Extraversion and lower levels of Benevolence were related directly to higher levels of child externalizing behavior. Higher levels of paternal authoritative parenting and lower levels of maternal overreactivity were related to lower scores on externalizing behavior. In addition, the relation between Benevolence, Emotional Stability, and externalizing behavior was partially mediated by parental overreactivity. Conscientiousness had an indirect effect on externalizing behavior through paternal authoritative parenting. Relations were not moderated by child gender. This study is of theoretical interest because the results demonstrate that parenting is a mediating mechanism that accounts for associations between personality and externalizing behavior. PMID:20545815

  19. Autonomic Functioning Moderates the Relations between Contextual Factors and Externalizing Behaviors among Inner-city Children

    PubMed Central

    Bubier, Jennifer L.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Breiner, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has identified various child-specific and contextual risk factors associated with externalizing behaviors, there is a dearth of literature examining child × context interactions in the prospective prediction of externalizing behaviors. To address this gap, we examined autonomic functioning as a moderator of the relation between contextual factors (i.e., neighborhood cohesion and harsh parental behaviors) and externalizing behaviors. Participants were an ethnic minority, inner-city sample of first through fourth grade children (N = 57, 50% male) and their primary caregivers who participated in two assessments approximately 1 year apart. Results indicated that baseline sympathetic functioning moderated the relation between (a) neighborhood cohesion and externalizing behaviors and (b) harsh parental behaviors and externalizing behaviors. Post-hoc probing of these interactions revealed that higher levels of neighborhood cohesion prospectively predicted (a) higher levels of externalizing behaviors among children with heightened baseline sympathetic functioning, and (b) lower levels of externalizing behaviors among children with attenuated baseline sympathetic functioning. In addition, among children with heightened baseline sympathetic functioning, higher levels of harsh parental behaviors prospectively predicted higher levels of externalizing behaviors. PMID:19685985

  20. Externalizing symptoms, effortful control, and intrusive parenting: A test of bidirectional longitudinal relations during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-11-01

    At approximately 30, 42, and 54 months of age (N = 231), the relations among children's externalizing symptoms, intrusive maternal parenting, and children's effortful control (EC) were examined. Both intrusive parenting and low EC have been related to psychopathology, but children's externalizing problems and low EC might affect the quality of parenting and one another. Mothers' intrusive behavior with their children was assessed with observations, children's EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, and children's externalizing symptoms were assessed with mothers', fathers', and caregivers' reports. In a structural equation panel model, bidirectional relations between intrusive parenting and EC were found: EC at 30 and 42 months predicted low levels of intrusive parenting a year later, controlling for prior levels of parenting and vice versa. Moreover, high levels of children's externalizing problems at both 30 and 42 months negatively predicted EC a year later, controlling for prior levels of EC. Although externalizing problems positively predicted high EC over time, this appeared to be a suppression effect because these variables had a strong negative pattern in the zero-order correlations. Moreover, when controlling for the stability of intrusive parenting, EC, and externalizing (all exhibited significant stability across time) and the aforementioned cross-lagged predictive paths, EC and externalizing problems were still negatively related within the 54-month assessment. The findings are consistent with the view that children's externalizing behavior undermines their EC and contributes to intrusive mothering and that relations between intrusive parenting and EC are bidirectional across time. Thus, interventions that focus on modifying children's externalizing problems (as well as the quality of parenting) might affect the quality of parenting they receive and, hence, subsequent problems with adjustment. PMID:26439056

  1. Relations Among Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms and Drinking Frequency During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Jin; Sacco, Paul; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Camlin, Elizabeth A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In adolescence, internalizing (e.g., anxious, depressive, and withdrawn) and externalizing (e.g., aggressive, oppositional, delinquent, and hyper-active) symptoms are related with alcohol use. However, the directionality among internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and alcohol use during adolescence is equivocal. Moreover, gender differences and similarities among these behaviors are not definitive in existing literature. Objectives This study examined longitudinal relationships between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and past-month alcohol use among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Using longitudinal survey data from a study of community-dwelling adolescents (n = 724), we estimated cross-lagged structural equation models to test relations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms (as measured by the Youth Self Report, YSR [Achenbach, 1991]) and self-report alcohol use in the past month among adolescents. Gender differences were tested in a multiple group structural equation model. Results Alcohol use at age 12 was a predictor of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at age 15 for both boys and girls. With regard to gender differences, girls demonstrated an association between internalizing symptoms and drinking at age 12, whereas boys showed a stronger association between externalizing symptoms and drinking at age 18. Conclusions/Importance Early alcohol use is problematic for youth, and results of this study lend support to prevention programs for youth. Preventing or curbing early drinking may offset later externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as ongoing alcohol use, regardless of gender. PMID:26646723

  2. Characterization of a Low-Cost Optical Flow Sensor When Using an External Laser as a Direct Illumination Source

    PubMed Central

    Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Pallejà, Tomàs; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a low cost optical flow sensor is combined with an external laser device to measure surface displacements and mechanical oscillations. The measurement system is based on applying coherent light to a diffuser surface and using an optical flow sensor to analyze the reflected and transferred light to estimate the displacement of the surface or the laser spot. This work is focused on the characterization of this measurement system, which can have the optical flow sensor placed at different angles and distances from the diffuser surface. The results have shown that the displacement of the diffuser surface is badly estimated when the optical mouse sensor is placed in front of the diffuser surface (angular orientation >150°) while the highest sensitivity is obtained when the sensor is located behind the diffuser surface and on the axis of the laser source (angular orientation 0°). In this case, the coefficient of determination of the measured displacement, R2, was very high (>0.99) with a relative error of less than 1.29%. Increasing the distance between the surface and the sensor also increased the sensitivity which increases linearly, R2 = 0.99. Finally, this measurement setup was proposed to measure very low frequency mechanical oscillations applied to the laser device, up to 0.01 Hz in this work. The results have shown that increasing the distance between the surface and the optical flow sensor also increases the sensitivity and the measurement range. PMID:22247696

  3. Reducing prospective memory error and costs in simulated air traffic control: External aids, extending practice, and removing perceived memory requirements.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E

    2016-09-01

    In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067

  4. Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

  5. Managing Corporate External Relations: Changing Perspectives and Responses. Report No. 679.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Phyllis S.

    Because of their direct or indirect impact on a company, relations with its publics have long been a preoccupation of management. This study, based on information received from more than 500 executives representing 368 companies, documents the complex of issues and publics that shapes contemporary corporate external relations efforts and probes…

  6. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  7. The economic cost of farm-related fatalities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pollock, K S; Griffith, G R; Fragar, L J

    2012-01-01

    Farm-related fatalities are a significant problem in Australian agriculture. Over the period 2001-2004, there were 404 fatalities that occurred as a direct consequence of visiting, residing, or working on a farm. This study employed a human capital approach to establish the economic costs of farm-related fatalities to the Australian economy. Modeling of direct and indirect costs associated with farm-related fatalities estimated that the 404 traumatic deaths over the period 2001-2004 cost the Australian economy $650.6 million in 2008 Australian dollars (AUD). This equates to 2.7% of the 2008 farm gross domestic product (GDP) due to potentially preventable farm accidents and injuries. Farm-related deaths are a significant economic cost to the Australian economy. Greater resources need to be directed to farm health and safety interventions to increase their effectiveness at reducing the risk exposure of those visiting, residing, and working on Australian farms. PMID:22458013

  8. Societal costs of air pollution-related health hazards: A review of methods and results

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, Tanjima; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical and systematic review of the societal costs of air pollution-related ill health (CAP), to explore methodological issues that may be important when assessing or comparing CAP across countries and to suggest ways in which future CAP studies can be made more useful for policy analysis. The methodology includes a systematic search based on the major electronic databases and the websites of a number of major international organizations. Studies are categorized by origin – OECD countries or non-OECD countries – and by publication status. Seventeen studies are included, eight from OECD countries and nine from non-OECD countries. A number of studies based on the ExternE methodology and the USA studies conducted by the Institute of Transportation are also summarized and discussed separately. The present review shows that considerable societal costs are attributable to air pollution-related health hazards. Nevertheless, given the variations in the methodologies used to calculate the estimated costs (e.g. cost estimation methods and cost components included), and inter-country differences in demographic composition and health care systems, it is difficult to compare CAP estimates across studies and countries. To increase awareness concerning the air pollution-related burden of disease, and to build links to health policy analyses, future research efforts should be directed towards theoretically sound and comprehensive CAP estimates with use of rich data. In particular, a more explicit approach should be followed to deal with uncertainties in the estimations. Along with monetary estimates, future research should also report all physical impacts and source-specific cost estimates, and should attempt to estimate 'avoidable cost' using alternative counterfactual scenarios. PMID:18786247

  9. Cost of crashes related to road conditions, United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R

    2009-10-01

    This is the first study to estimate the cost of crashes related to road conditions in the U.S. To model the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in the crash, we used 2000-03 Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the only dataset that provides detailed information whether road conditions contributed to crash occurrence. We applied the logistic regression results to a costed national crash dataset in order to calculate the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in each crash. In crashes where someone was moderately to seriously injured (AIS-2-6) in a vehicle that harmfully impacted a large tree or medium or large non-breakaway pole, or if the first harmful event was collision with a bridge, we changed the calculated probability of being road-related to 1. We used the state distribution of costs of fatal crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity to estimate the respective state distribution of non-fatal crash costs. The estimated comprehensive cost of traffic crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity was $217.5 billion in 2006. This represented 43.6% of the total comprehensive crash cost. The large share of crash costs related to road design and conditions underlines the importance of these factors in highway safety. Road conditions are largely controllable. Road maintenance and upgrading can prevent crashes and reduce injury severity. PMID:20184840

  10. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowes, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  11. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  12. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Relation to Autonomic Function: A Population-Based Study in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; van Roon, Arie M.; Ormel, Johan; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether externalizing and internalizing problems are related to lower and higher heart rate (HR), respectively, and to explore the relationship of these problems with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Moreover, to study whether problems present at both preschool and preadolescent age…

  13. Testing Links between Childhood Positive Peer Relations and Externalizing Outcomes through a Randomized Controlled Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control…

  14. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This first external review draft of the Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Ozone Criteria Document) is being released in January 2005 for public comment and for review by EPA's Clean A...

  15. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This second external review draft of the Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants, Volumes I-III (Ozone Criteria Document) is being released for public comment and for review by EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) r...

  16. The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions accounted…

  17. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant scienc...

  18. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science...

  19. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of ...

  20. Influences of external vs. core-shell mixing on aerosol optical properties at various relative humidities.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Srivastava, Rohit

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol optical properties of external and core-shell mixtures of aerosol species present in the atmosphere are calculated in this study for different relative humidities. Core-shell Mie calculations are performed using the values of radii, refractive indices and densities of aerosol species that act as core and shell, and the core-shell radius ratio. The single scattering albedo (SSA) is higher when the absorbing species (black carbon, BC) is the core, while for a sulfate core SSA does not vary significantly as the BC in the shell dominates the absorption. Absorption gets enhanced in core-shell mixing of absorbing and scattering aerosols when compared to their external mixture. Thus, SSA is significantly lower for a core-shell mixture than their external mixture. SSA is more sensitive to core-shell ratio than mode radius when BC is the core. The extinction coefficient, SSA and asymmetry parameter are higher for external mixing when compared to BC (core)-water soluble aerosol (shell), and water soluble aerosol (core)-BC (shell) mixtures in the relative humidity range of 0 to 90%. Spectral SSA exhibits the behaviour of the species which acts as a shell in core-shell mixing. The asymmetry parameter for an external mixture of water soluble aerosol and BC is higher than BC (core)-water soluble aerosol (shell) mixing and increases as function of relative humidity. The asymmetry parameter for the water soluble aerosol (core)-BC (shell) is independent of relative humidity as BC is hydrophobic. The asymmetry parameter of the core-shell mixture decreases when BC aerosols are involved in mixing, as the asymmetry parameter of BC is lower. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) of core-shell mixtures increases at a higher rate when the relative humidity exceeds 70% in continental clean and urban aerosol models, whereas AOD remains the same when the relative humidity exceeds 50% in maritime aerosol models. The SSA for continental aerosols varies for core-shell mixing of water soluble

  1. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities. PMID:25425100

  2. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Steve J; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  3. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  4. A relative shift in cloacal location repositions external genitalia in amniote evolution.

    PubMed

    Tschopp, Patrick; Sherratt, Emma; Sanger, Thomas J; Groner, Anna C; Aspiras, Ariel C; Hu, Jimmy K; Pourquié, Olivier; Gros, Jérôme; Tabin, Clifford J

    2014-12-18

    The move of vertebrates to a terrestrial lifestyle required major adaptations in their locomotory apparatus and reproductive organs. While the fin-to-limb transition has received considerable attention, little is known about the developmental and evolutionary origins of external genitalia. Similarities in gene expression have been interpreted as a potential evolutionary link between the limb and genitals; however, no underlying developmental mechanism has been identified. We re-examined this question using micro-computed tomography, lineage tracing in three amniote clades, and RNA-sequencing-based transcriptional profiling. Here we show that the developmental origin of external genitalia has shifted through evolution, and in some taxa limbs and genitals share a common primordium. In squamates, the genitalia develop directly from the budding hindlimbs, or the remnants thereof, whereas in mice the genital tubercle originates from the ventral and tail bud mesenchyme. The recruitment of different cell populations for genital outgrowth follows a change in the relative position of the cloaca, the genitalia organizing centre. Ectopic grafting of the cloaca demonstrates the conserved ability of different mesenchymal cells to respond to these genitalia-inducing signals. Our results support a limb-like developmental origin of external genitalia as the ancestral condition. Moreover, they suggest that a change in the relative position of the cloacal signalling centre during evolution has led to an altered developmental route for external genitalia in mammals, while preserving parts of the ancestral limb molecular circuitry owing to a common evolutionary origin. PMID:25383527

  5. Mathematics achievement and anxiety and their relation to internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sarah S; Willcutt, Erik G; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of 366 second and third graders. Math achievement was significantly correlated with attentional difficulties and social problems but not with internalizing symptoms. The relation between math achievement and externalizing behavioral problems was stronger in girls than in boys. Math achievement was not correlated with trait anxiety but was negatively correlated with math anxiety. Critically, math anxiety differed significantly between children classified as math learning disabled (MLD), low achieving (LA), and typically developing (TD), with math anxiety significantly higher in the MLD and LA groups compared to the TD group. Our findings suggest that, even in nonclinical samples, math difficulties at the earliest stages of formal math learning are associated with attentional difficulties and domain-specific anxiety. These findings underscore the need for further examination of the shared cognitive, neural, and genetic influences underlying problem solving and nonverbal learning difficulties and accompanying internalizing and externalizing behaviors. PMID:23313869

  6. Externalizing Behavior and Substance Use Related Problems at 15 Years in Prenatally Cocaine Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J.; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (β=.15, p=.02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI=1.38–5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive or foster care (n=44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n=139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687

  7. Prospective payment for hospital costs using diagnosis-related groups: will cost inflation be reduced?

    PubMed

    Keith, S N

    1983-06-01

    In response to rapidly rising costs in the medical care industry, especially for inpatient hospital charges, the Reagan administration has sent the first component of a plan for prospective payment of medical care to Congress. This first phase would involve changing reimbursement for hospital charges under Medicare using a system of predetermined rates for particular illnesses. Reimbursement rates have been set for 467 patient-illness categories, or diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), in an attempt to eliminate the variance in hospital costs and stem inflation under Medicare for patients with similar illnesses. But such a system is still subject to manipulation by hospitals that seek to increase reimbursement either to meet costs not covered by the appropriate DRG or to increase profit. The DRG reimbursement system does not prevent cost shifting to private insurance patients and does not involve physicians in efforts to improve cost efficiency. Although the DRG approach may seem conceptually appropriate, implementation will be difficult and the dampening effect on rapidly rising medical care costs may be overestimated. An alteration in the reimbursement mechanism for all medical care may be indicated to reduce significantly the inflation in medical care costs. PMID:6410079

  8. Dispersion relations of externally and thermally excited dust lattice modes in 2D complex plasma crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xuefeng; Cui Jian; Zhang Yuan; Liu Yue

    2012-07-15

    The dispersion relations of the externally and thermally (naturally) excited dust lattice modes (both longitudinal and transverse) in two-dimensional Debye-Yukawa complex plasma crystals are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated numerically by taking the neutral gas damping effects into account and the numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data given by Nunomura et al.[Phys. Rev. E 65, 066402 (2002)]. It is found that for the mode excited by an external disturbance with a real frequency, the dispersion properties are changed at a critical frequency near where the group velocity of the mode goes to zero. Therefore, the high frequency branch with negative dispersion cannot be reached. In contrast, for the thermally excited mode, the dispersion curve can extend all the way to the negative dispersion region, while a 'cut-off' wave number exists at the long wavelength end of the dispersion in the transverse mode.

  9. The Relation among Sleep, Routines, and Externalizing Behavior in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jill A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Bader, Stephanie H.; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined relations among sleep, routines, and externalizing behavior (based on parent report) in 115 children ages 6 to 12 years in two groups: 58 children with an autism spectrum disorder (age M = 9.0, SD = 2.09) and 57 non-ASD children (age M = 8.25, SD = 1.98). Within the ASD group, sleep hygiene and sleep quality were related…

  10. Development and application of performance and cost models for the externally-fired combined cycle. Task 1, Volume 2. Topical report, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.; Frey, H.; Rubin, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    Increasing restrictions on emission of pollutants from conventional pulverized coal fired steam (PCFS) plant generating electrical power is raising capital and operating cost of these plants and at the same time lowering plant efficiency. This is creating a need for alternative technologies which result in lower emissions of regulated pollutants and which are thermally more efficient. Natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation systems have lower capital cost and higher efficiencies than conventional coal fired steam plants, and at this time they are the leading contender for new power plant construction in the U.S. But the intermediate and long term cost of these fuels is high and there is uncertainty regarding their long-term price and availability. Coal is a relatively low cost fuel which will be abundantly available in the long term. This has motivated the development of advanced technologies for power production from coal which will have advantages of other fuels. The Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is one such technology. Air pollution control/hot gas cleanup issues associated with this technology are described.

  11. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children’s Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2009-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children’s externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. Children’s experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children’s externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children’s coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems. PMID:18489409

  12. Relations of parenting and temperament to Chinese children's experience of negative life events, coping efficacy, and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children's externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children's coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems. PMID:18489409

  13. Internal and external green-blue agricultural water footprints of nations, and related water and land savings through trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Thammer, M.; Heinke, J.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Lucht, W.; Cramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    The need to increase food production for a growing world population makes an assessment of global agricultural water productivities and virtual water flows important. Using the hydrology and agro-biosphere model LPJmL, we quantify at 0.5° resolution the blue (irrigation water) and green (precipitation water) virtual water content, i.e. the inverse of water productivity, for 11 of the world's major crop types. Based on these, we also quantify the water footprints (WFP) of all countries, for the period 1998-2002, distinguishing internal and external WFP (virtual water imported from other countries) and their blue and green components, respectively. Moreover, we calculate water savings and losses, and for the first time also land savings and losses, through international trade with these products. The consistent separation of blue and green water flows and footprints, which is needed due to the different sources and opportunity costs of these two water pools, shows that green water globally dominates both the internal and external WFP (84% of the global WFP and 94% of the external WFP rely on green water). Accordingly, some of the major exporters of the crops considered here (e.g. Argentina, Canada) export mainly green virtual water, but traditional rice exporters such as India and Pakistan mainly export blue virtual water. The external WFPs are found to be relatively small (6% of the total global blue WFP, 16% of the total global green WFP). Nevertheless, current trade saves significant water volumes and land areas (~263 km3 and ~41 Mha, respectively, equivalent to 5% of the sowing area of the crops considered here and 3.5% of the annual precipitation on this area). Linking the proportions of external to internal blue/green WFP with the per capita WFPs allows recognizing that only a few countries consume more water from abroad than from their own territory and have at the same time above average WFPs. Thus, countries with high levels of per capita water consumption

  14. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed. PMID:27470923

  15. Sequence Effect in Parkinson's Disease Is Related to Motor Energetic Cost.

    PubMed

    Tinaz, Sule; Pillai, Ajay S; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinesia is the most disabling motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). The sequence effect (SE), a feature of bradykinesia, refers to the rapid decrement in amplitude and speed of repetitive movements (e.g., gait, handwriting) and is a major cause of morbidity in PD. Previous research has revealed mixed results regarding the role of dopaminergic treatment in the SE. However, external cueing has been shown to improve it. In this study, we aimed to characterize the SE systematically and relate this phenomenon to the energetic cost of movement within the context of cost-benefit framework of motor control. We used a dynamic isometric motor task with auditory pacing to assess the SE in motor output during a 15-s task segment in PD patients and matched controls. All participants performed the task with both hands, and without and with visual feedback (VF). Patients were also tested in "on"- and "off"-dopaminergic states. Patients in the "off" state did not show higher SE compared to controls, partly due to large variance in their performance. However, patients in the "on" state and in the absence of VF showed significantly higher SE compared to controls. Patients expended higher total motor energy compared to controls in all conditions and regardless of their medication status. In this experimental situation, the SE in PD is associated with the cumulative energetic cost of movement. Dopaminergic treatment, critical for internal triggering of movement, fails to maintain the motor vigor across responses. The high motor cost may be related to failure to incorporate limbic/motivational cues into the motor plan. VF may facilitate performance by shifting the driving of movement from internal to external or, alternatively, by functioning as a motivational cue. PMID:27252678

  16. Gender and relational differences in sensitivity to internal and external cues at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Watson, John S; Futo, Judit; Fonagy, Peter; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences favoring women in relation to awareness of the subjective (internal) world are well demonstrated but their origins are poorly understood. We trained 173 12-month-olds to visually fixate a video image in response to an internal cue (opening own mouth), external cue (seeing a face open its mouth), or both cues. Female infants showed significantly greater sensitivity than males to the internal cues suggesting that prioritization of internally accessible experience is already evident at one year of age. PMID:21500960

  17. Practical and fast quantum random number generation based on photon arrival time relative to external reference

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2014-02-03

    We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.

  18. Does Gender Moderate the Relations Between Externalizing Behavior and Key Emergent Literacy Abilities? Evidence From a Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Joye, Shauna W; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2013-11-26

    Objective: There is a significant negative relation between externalizing behavior and emergent literacy skills among preschool children. Method: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of gender on the predictive relation of externalizing behavior and emergent literacy in a group of 178 preschool children (mean age = 48.50 months, SD = 3.66; 48% boys). Results: Externalizing behaviors predicted emergent literacy over time. Distinct patterns of predictive associations dependent on gender were found. Girls with higher levels of externalizing behaviors experienced less change in their vocabulary skills compared with the vocabulary change shown by girls with lower levels of these problem behaviors. Conclusion: The results suggest that early identification programs that include externalizing behavior problems and their relation with emergent literacy development should account for potential gender differences. A theoretical framework in which girls with behavior problems receive less opportunity for vocabulary acquisition is presented. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) X-XX). PMID:24282144

  19. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human external nose.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; De Menezes, Marcio; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2011-01-30

    The objective of this study was to measure: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of external nose (linear distances, ratios, angles, volume and surface area); and (2) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the external nose were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized digitizer in 519 male and 340 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. The subjects were divided into 11 non-overlapping age groups: for children and preadolescent subjects, 2-year spans were used, while larger intervals were used for adolescent and adult subjects. From the landmarks, nasal volume and external surface area; nasal and alar base widths, nasal height, nasal bridge length, philtrum length, nasal tip protrusion, right and left nostril lengths, superior and inferior nostril widths; nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height, and nasal width-to-nasal height ratios; nasal convexity, alar slope, and nasal tip angles were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. On average, men had larger nasal external volume and area, linear distances and nasal width-to-height ratio than women (p<0.01); no sex differences were found for the angles and the nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height ratio. Age significantly influenced all analyzed measurements (p<0.001): nasal volume, area, linear distances increased from childhood to old age, while the nasal tip angle decreased as a function of age. No consistent age related patterns were found for the ratios and the nasal convexity and alar slope angles. Men and women had different age related patterns, with significant sex by age interactions (p<0.001). Overall, in most occasions male increments in nasal dimensions were larger than female ones. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human nasal morphology during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic

  20. Technical Aspects of Interfacing MUMPS to an External SQL Relational Database Management System

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Walters, Richard F.; Penrod, Gail

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an interface connecting InterSystems MUMPS (M/VX) to an external relational DBMS, the SYBASE Database Management System. The interface enables MUMPS to operate in a relational environment and gives the MUMPS language full access to a complete set of SQL commands. MUMPS generates SQL statements as ASCII text and sends them to the RDBMS. The RDBMS executes the statements and returns ASCII results to MUMPS. The interface suggests that the language features of MUMPS make it an attractive tool for use in the relational database environment. The approach described in this paper separates MUMPS from the relational database. Positioning the relational database outside of MUMPS promotes data sharing and permits a number of different options to be used for working with the data. Other languages like C, FORTRAN, and COBOL can access the RDBMS database. Advanced tools provided by the relational database vendor can also be used. SYBASE is an advanced high-performance transaction-oriented relational database management system for the VAX/VMS and UNIX operating systems. SYBASE is designed using a distributed open-systems architecture, and is relatively easy to interface with MUMPS.

  1. Greater externalizing personality traits predict less error-related insula and anterior cingulate cortex activity in acutely abstinent cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Allison J.; Sutherland, Matthew T.; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Ross, Thomas J.; Stein, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated activity in performance-monitoring brain regions following erroneous actions may contribute to the repetition of maladaptive behaviors such as continued drug use. Externalizing is a broad personality construct characterized by deficient impulse control, vulnerability to addiction, and reduced neurobiological indices of error processing. The insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) are regions critically linked with error processing as well as the perpetuation of cigarette smoking. As such, we examined the interrelations between externalizing tendencies, erroneous task performance, and error-related insula and dACC activity in overnight-deprived smokers (n=24) and nonsmokers (n=20). Participants completed a self-report measure assessing externalizing tendencies (Externalizing Spectrum Inventory) and a speeded Flanker task during fMRI scanning. We observed that higher externalizing tendencies correlated with the occurrence of more performance errors among smokers but not nonsmokers. Suggesting a neurobiological contribution to such sub-optimal performance among smokers, higher externalizing also predicted less recruitment of the right insula and dACC following error commission. Critically, this error-related activity fully mediated the relationship between externalizing traits and error rates. That is, higher externalizing scores predicted less error-related right insula and dACC activity and, in turn, less error-related activity predicted more errors. Relating such regional activity with a clinically-relevant construct, less error-related right insula and dACC responses correlated with higher tobacco craving during abstinence. Given that inadequate error-related neuronal responses may contribute to continued drug use despite negative consequences, these results suggest that externalizing tendencies and/or compromised error processing among subsets of smokers may be relevant factors for smoking cessation success. PMID:24354662

  2. Sequence Effect in Parkinson’s Disease Is Related to Motor Energetic Cost

    PubMed Central

    Tinaz, Sule; Pillai, Ajay S.; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinesia is the most disabling motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The sequence effect (SE), a feature of bradykinesia, refers to the rapid decrement in amplitude and speed of repetitive movements (e.g., gait, handwriting) and is a major cause of morbidity in PD. Previous research has revealed mixed results regarding the role of dopaminergic treatment in the SE. However, external cueing has been shown to improve it. In this study, we aimed to characterize the SE systematically and relate this phenomenon to the energetic cost of movement within the context of cost–benefit framework of motor control. We used a dynamic isometric motor task with auditory pacing to assess the SE in motor output during a 15-s task segment in PD patients and matched controls. All participants performed the task with both hands, and without and with visual feedback (VF). Patients were also tested in “on”- and “off”-dopaminergic states. Patients in the “off” state did not show higher SE compared to controls, partly due to large variance in their performance. However, patients in the “on” state and in the absence of VF showed significantly higher SE compared to controls. Patients expended higher total motor energy compared to controls in all conditions and regardless of their medication status. In this experimental situation, the SE in PD is associated with the cumulative energetic cost of movement. Dopaminergic treatment, critical for internal triggering of movement, fails to maintain the motor vigor across responses. The high motor cost may be related to failure to incorporate limbic/motivational cues into the motor plan. VF may facilitate performance by shifting the driving of movement from internal to external or, alternatively, by functioning as a motivational cue. PMID:27252678

  3. Relating costs to the user value of farmland biodiversity measurements.

    PubMed

    Targetti, S; Herzog, F; Geijzendorffer, I R; Pointereau, P; Viaggi, D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of agricultural management on global biodiversity highlights the need for farm-scale monitoring programmes capable of determining the performance of agriculture practices. Yet the identification of appropriate indicators is a challenging process and one that involves considering a number of different aspects and requirements. Besides the attention given to scientific effectiveness, relevant but less studied issues related to biodiversity measurements include the economic feasibility of monitoring programmes and the relevance of indicators for different end-users. In this paper, we combine an analytic assessment of costs and a stakeholder-based evaluation of the usefulness of a set of biodiversity-related parameters (habitat mapping, vegetation, bees, earthworms, spiders, and a farmer questionnaire) tested for scientific consistency in 12 European case studies and on more than 14,000 ha of farmland. The results point to the possibility of meeting the expectations of different end-users (administrators, farmers and consumers) with a common indicator set. Combining costs and usefulness also suggests the possibility of designing more efficient monitoring approaches involving private agencies and networks of volunteers and farmers for the field data collection at different stages of a monitoring programme. Although complex, such an approach would make it possible to enhance the effectiveness of available funds for farmland biodiversity monitoring. PMID:26457535

  4. The costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in automotive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Punnett, L

    1999-01-01

    Inadequate application of ergonomic principles to the design of workplaces and individual jobs has adverse consequences for worker health and safety, especially in terms of strains, sprains, and other musculoskeletal disorders. In addition to the human pain and suffering, other losses are externalized to workers, with adverse financial and psychosocial impacts. There are also costs to employers through workers' compensation claims, scrap, and decreased production quality, medical insurance premiums, labor turnover, and adverse impacts on labor relations, although many of these are not linked by traditional accounting methods to ergonomic problems per se. Data collected in five plants of two major U.S. automotive manufacturing companies in the last decade have been used to estimate some of the costs associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), only some of which resulted in workers compensation claims. In one plant in 1984-85, the payroll cost of all back and shoulder disorders was at least $320 per year per worker, not including workers' compensation premiums or claims paid. A large proportion of these costs were accrued by "unreported" cases, that is, cases that either had never been reported to the plant clinic or had been reported in the past and were considered administratively to have recovered. In the other four plants, annual costs associated with in-plant medical visits for MSDs in 1989-93 were almost as high as those resulting from compensation claims. At least one-half of these disorders were estimated to be attributable to physical ergonomic exposures in the workplace and thus preventable. These data are consistent with estimates by others that the real costs to employers are at least two to three times the amount paid in workers' compensation cases, and that at least 50 percent of all work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the working population could be prevented by appropriate ergonomic job design. Furthermore, recent

  5. Longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent aggression, prosocial behavior, and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent behavior, and explored indirect effects via sympathy and self-regulation. A sample of adolescents and their mothers from Northwestern and Mountain West cities in the USA participated in a study at three time points, approximately one year apart (N = 681; M age of child at Time 3 = 13.33, SD = 1.06; 51% female; 73% European American, 9% African American, 17% Multi-ethnic). Though findings varied by reporter, results suggested that restrictive and active media monitoring were indirectly associated with adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and externalizing behavior, with restrictive monitoring being somewhat maladaptive and active monitoring adaptive. The discussion focuses on the need to examine multiple aspects of media monitoring, and highlights implications of findings for parents. PMID:26641307

  6. ICU director data: using data to assess value, inform local change, and relate to the external world.

    PubMed

    Murphy, David J; Ogbu, Ogbonna C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Improving value within critical care remains a priority because it represents a significant portion of health-care spending, faces high rates of adverse events, and inconsistently delivers evidence-based practices. ICU directors are increasingly required to understand all aspects of the value provided by their units to inform local improvement efforts and relate effectively to external parties. A clear understanding of the overall process of measuring quality and value as well as the strengths, limitations, and potential application of individual metrics is critical to supporting this charge. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for understanding value metrics, describe an approach to developing a value measurement program, and summarize common metrics to characterize ICU value. We first summarize how ICU value can be represented as a function of outcomes and costs. We expand this equation and relate it to both the classic structure-process-outcome framework for quality assessment and the Institute of Medicine's six aims of health care. We then describe how ICU leaders can develop their own value measurement process by identifying target areas, selecting appropriate measures, acquiring the necessary data, analyzing the data, and disseminating the findings. Within this measurement process, we summarize common metrics that can be used to characterize ICU value. As health care, in general, and critical care, in particular, changes and data become more available, it is increasingly important for ICU leaders to understand how to effectively acquire, evaluate, and apply data to improve the value of care provided to patients. PMID:25846533

  7. Major Trends and Portents Related to Information Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John H., Jr.

    Managers' having to account for cost of information activities is here to stay. Budgeting is going to become more stringent and imaginative. Costs should not be equated with human values--psychological and subjective--which apparently many managers do, feeling that having to cost information activities is degrading. Some trends are: Buy products…

  8. Validity of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory in a Criminal Offender Sample: Relations with Disinhibitory Psychopathology, Personality, and Psychopathic Features

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Noah C.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides a self-report based method for indexing a range of correlated problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI organizes lower-order behaviors and traits of this kind around higher-order factors encompassing general disinhibitory proneness, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. The current study used data from a male prisoner sample (N = 235) to evaluate the validity of ESI total and factor scores in relation to external criterion measures consisting of externalizing disorder symptoms (including child and adult antisocial deviance and substance-related problems) assessed via diagnostic interview, personality traits assessed by self-report, and psychopathic features as assessed by both interview and self-report. Results provide evidence for the validity of the ESI measurement model and point to its potential utility as a referent for research on the neurobiological correlates and etiological bases of externalizing proneness. PMID:21787091

  9. A regulatory focus perspective on eating behavior: how prevention and promotion focus relates to emotional, external, and restrained eating

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Sassenrath, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    By applying regulatory focus theory (RFT) to the context of eating behavior, the present research examines the relations between individual differences in the two motivational orientations as conceptualized in RFT, that is, prevention-focused and promotion-focused self-regulation and emotional, external, and restrained eating. Building on a representative study conducted in the Netherlands (N = 4,230), it is documented that individual differences in prevention focus are positively related to emotional eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to external and restrained eating. Individual differences in promotion focus are positively related to external eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to emotional and restrained eating. In relating RFT to different eating styles we were able to document significant relations of basic self-regulatory orientations with regard to essential daily behavior associated with health and well-being. The implications for changing eating styles are discussed. PMID:25477840

  10. State Medicaid Pharmacy Payments and Their Relation to Estimated Costs

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E. Kathleen; Kreling, David H.; Gondek, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Although prescription drugs do not appear to be a primary source of recent surges in Medicaid spending, their share of Medicaid expenditures has risen despite efforts to control costs. As part of a general concern with prescription drug policy, Congress mandated a study of the adequacy of Medicaid payments to pharmacies. In this study, several data sources were used to develop 1991 estimates of average pharmacy ingredient and dispensing costs. A simulation was used to estimate the amounts States pay. Nationally, simulated payments averaged 96 percent of estimated costs overall but were lower for dispensing costs (79 percent) and higher for ingredient costs (102 percent). PMID:10137796

  11. External Visual Representations in Science Learning: The case of relations among system components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilam, Billie; Poyas, Yael

    2010-11-01

    How do external visual representations (e.g., graph, diagram) promote or constrain students' ability to identify system components and their interrelations, to reinforce a systemic view through the application of the STS approach? University students (N = 150) received information cards describing cellphones' communication system and its subsystem components. One group (n = 82) received a display of cards presenting this information in rich and diverse visual representations and a few text cards. Another group (n = 68) received a single representation display, of text only. Using these card sets, students were asked to identify the cellular systems' components and relations, and to construct new interrelations. Findings showed that, mostly, multimedia enabled better identification and construction of relations of higher component diversity, accuracy, description, and novelty, using a larger number of information cards than did the textual display. Generally, findings suggested that components' saliency and distinctiveness in the visual display afforded a better systemic view. However, curriculum designers and teachers should be aware of cases in which rich multimedia constrained performance.

  12. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management,...

  13. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management,...

  14. Cost Accounting: Problems and Research Related to Cost Definitions and Collection of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that traditional cost analysis may not be the most appropriate way to justify educational budgets. This article suggests that using constructed cost models to develop operating budget requests can help ensure that the distinction between legitimate information needs and managerial autonomy is maintained. (LBH)

  15. Epidemiology and costs of hypertension-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Leone, Aldo; Landini, Linda; Leone, Aurelio

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys demonstrate undoubtedly that cardiovascular disorders caused or associated with hypertension are at a high risk of non-fatal or fatal events and occurring with a great rate. Ischaemic heart disease with effort angina and myocardial infarction, often unrecognized myocardial infarction, stroke and transient ischaemic attack may be observed more frequently than other cardiovascular disorders in hypertensive patients. Large-scale trials do not support the hypothesis that effective benefits are reached by current non-pharmacological or pharmacological prevention which need enormous costs to public health. Lowering blood pressure is the main target to reach in an attempt to reduce cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients. Therefore, the costs-benefit ratio, which estimates public health costs, needs yet marked improvement since the public health expenses are heaviest with results that do not support the economic effort. Statistically, quantitative measures to modify the current regimen need to better evaluate both public health costs and reached benefits. PMID:21861839

  16. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

  17. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  18. Does Parental Psychological Control Relate to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood? An Examination Using the Berkeley Puppet Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…

  19. Longitudinal Relations of Children's Effortful Control, Impulsivity, and Negative Emotionality to Their Externalizing, Internalizing, and Co-Occurring Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Cumberland, Amanda; Liew, Jeffrey; Reiser, Mark; Zhou, Qing; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and negative emotionality to at least borderline clinical levels of symptoms and change in maladjustment over four years. Children's (N = 214; 77% European American; M age = 73 months) externalizing and internalizing symptoms were rated by parents and…

  20. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

  1. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... advertising costs. 231.205-1 Section 231.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (e) See... public relations and advertising costs also include monies paid to the Government associated with...

  2. 48 CFR 1631.205-70 - FEHBP public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FEHBP public relations and... COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-70 FEHBP public relations and advertising costs. (a) The cost of media messages that are directed at advising current...

  3. 48 CFR 1631.205-70 - FEHBP public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP public relations and... COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-70 FEHBP public relations and advertising costs. (a) The cost of media messages that are directed at advising current...

  4. 42 CFR 413.17 - Cost to related organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... organization; (ii) A substantial part of its business activity of the type carried on with the provider is... control and there is an open, competitive market for the type of services, facilities, or...

  5. 42 CFR 413.17 - Cost to related organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES...) A substantial part of its business activity of the type carried on with the provider is transacted... and there is an open, competitive market for the type of services, facilities, or supplies...

  6. 42 CFR 413.17 - Cost to related organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... organization; (ii) A substantial part of its business activity of the type carried on with the provider is... control and there is an open, competitive market for the type of services, facilities, or...

  7. 42 CFR 413.17 - Cost to related organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... organization; (ii) A substantial part of its business activity of the type carried on with the provider is... control and there is an open, competitive market for the type of services, facilities, or...

  8. 42 CFR 413.17 - Cost to related organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES... organization; (ii) A substantial part of its business activity of the type carried on with the provider is... control and there is an open, competitive market for the type of services, facilities, or...

  9. External Visual Representations in Science Learning: The Case of Relations among System Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie; Poyas, Yael

    2010-01-01

    How do external visual representations (e.g., graph, diagram) promote or constrain students' ability to identify system components and their interrelations, to reinforce a systemic view through the application of the STS approach? University students (N = 150) received information cards describing cellphones' communication system and its subsystem…

  10. 77 FR 36534 - Third External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... of EPA's air quality criteria. On September 29, 2008 (73 FR 56581), EPA formally initiated its... (74 FR 54562). In August 2010, EPA held a workshop to discuss, with invited scientific experts, initial draft materials prepared in the development of the ISA (75 FR 42085). The first external...

  11. The Relations between Autonomy and Control in the Management of External Consultants and Organizational Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Johansen, Are; Sorhaug, Tore

    1998-01-01

    Sources of organizational learning were studied for 131 employees, 109 of whom were managers, who participated in projects with external consultants in a large public-transport company in Norway. A multiple regression analysis explained 69% of organizational learning as a function of attitude toward learning. Differences between managers and other…

  12. Developmental Changes in the Relations between Inhibitory Control and Externalizing Problems during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utendale, William T.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in executive function, and in particular, reduced capacity to inhibit a dominant action, are a risk factor for externalizing problems (EP). Inhibitory control (IC) develops in the later preschool and early childhood periods, such that IC might not regulate EP in toddlers and younger preschoolers. Aggression was observed during peer play…

  13. Relations Among Positive Parenting, Children’s Effortful Control, and Externalizing Problems: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Zhou, Qing; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Fabes, Richard A.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    In a 3-wave longitudinal study (with assessments 2 years apart) involving 186 early adolescents (M ages of approximately 9.3, 11.4, and 13.4), the hypothesis that parental warmth/positive expressivity predicts children’s effortful control (EC) (a temperamental characteristic contributing to emotion regulation) 2 years later, which in turn predicts low levels of externalizing problems another 2 years later, was examined. The hypothesis that children’s EC predicts parenting over time was also examined. Parents were observed interacting with their children; parents and teachers reported children’s EC and externalizing problems; and children’s persistence was assessed behaviorally. Children’s EC mediated the relation between positive parenting and low levels of externalizing problems (whereas there was no evidence that children’s EC predicted parenting). PMID:16150002

  14. Relationship between the P3 Event-Related Potential, Its Associated Time-Frequency Components, and Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Casey S.; Malone, Stephen M.; Bernat, Edward M.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    P3 amplitude reduction (P3-AR) is associated with biological vulnerability to a spectrum of externalizing disorders, such as ADHD, conduct disorder, and substance use disorders. P3, however, is generally characterized as a broad activation involving multiple neurophysiological processes. One approach to separating P3-related processes is time-frequency (TF) analysis. The current study used a novel PCA-based TF analysis method to investigate relationships between P3, its associated TF components, and externalizing in a community-based sample of adolescent males. Results showed that 1) alone, P3 and each TF-PCA derived component could successfully discriminate diagnostic groups from controls, and 2) delta components in specific time ranges accounted for variance beyond that accounted for by P3. One delta component was associated with all diagnostic groups, suggesting it may represent a more parsimonious endophenotype for externalizing than P3-AR. PMID:19674392

  15. Reciprocal Relations Between Parents’ Physical Discipline and Children’s Externalizing Behavior During Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Laird, Robert D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from two long-term longitudinal projects, we investigated reciprocal relations between maternal reports of physical discipline and teacher and self ratings of child externalizing behavior, accounting for continuity in both discipline and externalizing over time. In Study 1, which followed a community sample of 562 boys and girls from age 6–9, high levels of physical discipline in a given year predicted high levels of externalizing behavior in the next year, and externalizing behavior in a given year predicted high levels of physical discipline in the next year. In Study 2, which followed an independent sample of 290 lower income, higher risk boys from age 10–15, mother-reported physical discipline in a given year predicted child ratings of antisocial behavior in the next year, but child antisocial behavior in a given year did not predict parents’ use of physical discipline in the next year. In neither sample was there evidence that associations between physical discipline and child externalizing changed as the child aged, and findings were not moderated by gender, race, socioeconomic status, or the severity of the physical discipline. Implications for the reciprocal nature of the socialization process and the risks associated with physical discipline are discussed. PMID:21262050

  16. External forcing as a source for the observed multi-decadal relation between AMV and the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Lea; Luo, Feifei; Sankar, Syam; Gao, Yongqi; Keenlyside, Noel; Vareed Joseph, Porathur; Johannessen, Ola

    2016-04-01

    The instrumental records show a significant positive correlation between the Atlantic multi-decadal variability (AMV) and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, where a positive (negative) AMV is associated with more (less) ISM rainfall. We have used both proxy reconstruction and twelve models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to investigate if the observed AMV-ISM relation is a persistent internal climate signal or externally forced. A comparison of several annual resolution proxy records both from the Atlantic and for the ISM show that the multi-decadal variability in both indices is persistent, but the link between them is not. The correlation between the two regions is weak, and even negative in some periods, before the instrumental time period. The analysis of CMIP5 simualtions is consistent with these results. While none of the CMIP5 models investigated simulate the significant AMV-ISM connection in the pre-industrial control simulations with fixed external forcing, three of the models reproduce the relation in the 20th century historical simulations with transient forcing. In these models external forcing is linked to the mid-to-upper tropospheric temperature pattern with a strengthened land-ocean contrast over South Asia, consistent with an enhanced ISM, as well as the evolution of AMV. We conclude that the significant AMV-ISM relation found in the observations after the industrial revolution may be associated with external forcing, rather than being internal climate variability.

  17. The relative cost of Medicaid enrollees and the commercially insured in HMOs.

    PubMed

    Welch, W P; Wade, M

    1995-01-01

    Under several national health care reform proposals in 1994, many Medicaid beneficiaries would have enrolled in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) with other persons. Several states already enroll Medicaid beneficiaries in HMOs with commercial enrollees. This DataWatch examines the cost of Medicaid enrollees in HMOs relative to the cost of commercial enrollees. Data from nine HMOs indicate that, on average, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and poverty-related Medicaid enrollees cost 13 percent more than commercial enrollees cost. If one adjusts for enrollees' age and sex, Medicaid costs are 23 percent higher than commercial costs. PMID:7657242

  18. The relation between mothers' hostile attribution tendencies and children's externalizing behavior problems: the mediating role of mothers' harsh discipline practices.

    PubMed

    Nix, R L; Pinderhughes, E E; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Pettit, G S; McFadyen-Ketchum, S A

    1999-01-01

    This study examined relations among mothers' hostile attribution tendencies regarding their children's ambiguous problem behaviors, mothers' harsh discipline practices, and children's externalizing behavior problems. A community sample of 277 families (19% minority representation) living in three geographic regions of the United States was followed for over 4 years. Mothers' hostile attribution tendencies were assessed during the summer prior to children's entry into kindergarten through their responses to written vignettes. Mothers' harsh discipline practices were assessed concurrently through ratings by interviewers and reports by spouses. Children's externalizing behavior problems were assessed concurrently through written questionnaires by mothers and fathers and in the spring of kindergarten and first, second, and third grades through reports by teachers and peer sociometric nominations. Results of structural equations models demonstrated that mothers' hostile attribution tendencies predicted children's future externalizing behavior problems at school and that a large proportion of this relation was mediated by mothers' harsh discipline practices. These results remained virtually unchanged when controlling for initial levels of children's prekindergarten externalizing behavior problems at home. PMID:10446725

  19. The Cost of Cancer-Related Physician Services to Medicare

    PubMed Central

    Maroongroge, Sean; Kim, Simon P.; Mougalian, Sarah; Johung, Kimberly; Decker, Roy H.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Long, Jessica B.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Although physician services represent a substantial portion of cancer care costs, little is known about trends in the costs of physician cancer services in the fee-for-service Medicare program. We analyzed aggregated data from all Part B Medicare claims for physician and supplier services attributed to cancer patients from 1999 to 2012 to characterize how billing and payments have changed over time for the most common cancer types. Billing and expenditure data are from the Medicare Statistical Supplement, and age-adjusted incidence data are from SEER. Physician services for cancer patients grew from $7.6 billion in 1999 to $12.3 billion in 2012 (60 percent increase). Reimbursements for physician and supplier services for cancer treatment in Medicare Part B beneficiaries steadily grew from 1999 to 2005 and then plateaued through 2012, led by a decrease in reimbursements for prostate cancer care. These trends may reflect shifts toward hospital-based care or changes in aggressiveness of care. PMID:26029009

  20. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public relations and... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (e) See... public relations and advertising costs also include monies paid to the Government associated with...

  1. Longitudinal relations among exuberance, externalizing behaviors, and attentional bias to reward: the mediating role of effortful control.

    PubMed

    Morales, Santiago; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Buss, Kristin

    2016-09-01

    The present study examined the associations between temperamental exuberance during toddlerhood (20 months), attention bias towards reward at the end of kindergarten (76 months), and externalizing behaviors across the kindergarten year. Moreover, we examined the role of effortful control at 48 months on the relation between early exuberance and attention bias. Attention bias towards reward was positively predicted by exuberance, negatively predicted by effortful control, and positively related to externalizing problems. Finally, the longitudinal path between exuberance and attention bias to reward was mediated by effortful control - such that higher toddler exuberance led to increased attention bias towards reward by way of lower effortful control. These results extend the attention bias and socioemotional functioning literature and have implications for the identification of children at risk for behavioral problems. PMID:26077132

  2. Trajectories of Religious Coping from Adolescence into Early Adulthood: Their Form and Relations to Externalizing Problems and Prosocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Panerai, Laura; Eggum, Natalie D.; Cohen, Adam B.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about changes in religious coping and their relations to adolescents’ and young adults’ functioning. In 686 Italian youths, trajectories of religious coping were identified from age 16–17 years to age 22–23 years; cohorts of youths reported at three of the four assessments. Four trajectories of religious coping were identified: decreasing, low stable, high stable, and increasing. A decline in religious coping was associated with high levels of externalizing problems at age 16–17, whereas an increase in religious coping was associated with higher externalizing problems at ages 18–19 and 20–21 years, and with relatively high involvement with deviant peers. High stable religious copers were high in prosocial behavior at three ages; low stable religious copers were higher than people undergoing change in their religious coping from mid-adolescence into early adulthood. These results can expand our current thinking about religious coping and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21682728

  3. Effects of response sets on NEO-PI-R scores and their relations to external criteria.

    PubMed

    Caldwell-Andrews, A; Baer, R A; Berry, D T

    2000-06-01

    Validity scales indicate the extent to which the results of a self-report inventory are a valid indicator of the test taker's psychological functioning. Validity scales generally are designed to detect the common response sets of positive impression management (underreporting, or faking good), negative impression management (overreporting, or faking bad), and random responding. The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992b) is a popular personality assessment tool based on the 5-factor model of personality and is used in a variety of settings. The NEO-PI-R does not include objective validity scales to screen for positive or negative impression management. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of recently proposed validity scales for detecting these response sets on the NEO-PI-R (Schinka, Kinder, & Kremer, 1997) and to examine the effects of positive and negative impression management on correlations between the NEO-PI-R and external criteria (the Interpersonal Adjective Scale-Revised-B5 [Wiggins & Trapnell, 1997] and the NEO-PI-R Form R). The validity scales discriminated with reasonable accuracy between standard responding and the 2 response sets. Additionally, most correlations between the NEO-PI-R and external criteria were significantly lower when participants were dissimulating than when responding to standard instructions. It appears that response sets of positive and negative impression management may pose a significant threat to the external validity of the NEO-PI-R and that validity scales for their detection might be a useful addition to the inventory. PMID:10900573

  4. Relation between chirp and linewidth reduction in external Bragg reflector semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, N.A.; Henry, C.H.; Kazarinov, R.F.; Lee, H.J.; Johnson, B.H.

    1987-07-13

    A 1.5-..mu..m single longitudinal mode semiconductor laser, formed by butt coupling an external Bragg reflector to a standard Fabry--Perot laser, is shown to have greatly reduced wavelength chirp and emission linewidth. The linewidth reduction is found to be proportional to the square of the chirp reduction, in agreement with a previous theoretical prediction. The linewidth and chirp reduction factor can be varied by changing the operating point of the laser. With a 3-mm-long Bragg reflector, a linewidth of 1 MHz at 5 mW has been achieved.

  5. Constipation-related direct medical costs in 16 887 patients newly diagnosed with chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Vincent K.; Siersema, Peter D.; Joseph, Alain; Hodgkins, Paul; Smeets, Hugo M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic constipation is a common condition, but the exact impact on healthcare budgets in Western Europe is poorly documented. Objectives The aim of this study was to (a) investigate chronic constipation-related direct medical costs in patients with newly diagnosed chronic constipation and (b) study differences in costs according to natural history. Patients and methods We identified 16 887 patients newly diagnosed with chronic constipation in a Dutch health insurance database (∼1.3 million patients) in 2006–2009. Individuals with chronic constipation were selected on the basis of chronic laxative use (≥90 days/year) and diagnostic related groups for chronic constipation. On the basis of the episodes of laxative use and diagnostic related groups, individuals were categorized as having persistent, episodic, and nonrecurrent disease. Unadjusted costs for laxatives and hospital care for chronic constipation and constipation-related comorbidities were assessed and compared between patients with nonrecurrent, episodic, and persistent disease. Factors associated with costs were identified using Cox regression analyses. Results The mean total chronic constipation-related direct medical costs in the first year after diagnosis were €310±845 and consisted of laxatives (45%) and hospital care for chronic constipation (26%) as well as constipation-related comorbidities (29%). Costs were highest in patients with persistent disease (€367±882) compared with patients with episodic (€292±808) and nonrecurrent (€263±613) disease (P<0.01). Male sex was associated with higher costs, whereas increasing age, diabetes, and use of opioids were associated with lower costs. Conclusion Pharmacy costs and hospital care costs for chronic constipation-related comorbidities were the largest cost drivers for total constipation-related direct medical costs in patients with newly diagnosed chronic constipation. Direct medical costs differed according to patient

  6. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  7. Launching Payloads Into Orbit at Relatively Low Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A report proposes the development of a system for launching payloads into orbit at about one-fifth the cost per unit payload weight of current systems. The PILOT system was a solid-fuel, aerodynamically spun and spin-stabilized, five-stage rocket with onboard controls including little more than an optoelectronic horizon sensor and a timer for triggering the second and fifth stages, respectively. The proposal calls for four improvements over the PILOT system to enable control of orbital parameters: (1) the aerodynamic tipover of the rocket at the top of the atmosphere could be modeled as a nonuniform gyroscopic precession and could be controlled by selection of the initial rocket configuration and launch conditions; (2) the attitude of the rocket at the top of the first-stage trajectory could be measured by use of radar tracking or differential Global Positioning System receivers to determine when to trigger the second stage; (3) the final-stage engines could be configured around the payload to enhance spin stabilization during a half-orbit coast up to apoapsis where the final stage would be triggered; and (4) the final payload stage could be equipped with a "beltline" of small thrusters for correcting small errors in the trajectory as measured by an off-board tracking subsystem.

  8. The Relative Efficiency of Charter Schools: A Cost Frontier Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronberg, Timothy J.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Taylor, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    Charters represent an expansion of public school choice, offering free, publicly funded educational alternatives to traditional public schools. One relatively unexplored research question concerning charter schools asks whether charter schools are more efficient suppliers of educational services than are traditional public schools. The potential…

  9. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public relations and... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. The provisions of FAR 31.205-1 shall be modified to include the...

  10. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Public relations and... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. The provisions of FAR 31.205-1 shall be modified to include the...

  11. Development of Relativization in Korean as a Foreign Language: The Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy in Head-Internal and Head-External Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, K. Seon; Kim, Hae-Young

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) intersects with the typological characteristics of Korean in the acquisition of relative clauses (RCs). Korean has two types of RC constructions: head-external and head-internal. The head-external relative has its head to the right of the RC, whereas the…

  12. 42 CFR 422.6 - Cost-sharing in enrollment-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assistance program) and section 1860D-1(c) of the Act (relating to dissemination of enrollment information... which enrollment is effected or coordinated under section 1851 of the Act. (d) Collection of fees—(1... under title XVIII. (f) Assessment methodology. (1) The amount of the applicable portion of the user...

  13. 42 CFR 422.6 - Cost-sharing in enrollment-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... counseling and assistance program) and section 1860D-1(c) of the Act (relating to dissemination of enrollment...—(1) Timing of collection. CMS collects the fees over 9 consecutive months beginning with January of... under title XVIII. (f) Assessment methodology. (1) The amount of the applicable portion of the user...

  14. 42 CFR 422.6 - Cost-sharing in enrollment-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... counseling and assistance program) and section 1860D-1(c) of the Act (relating to dissemination of enrollment...—(1) Timing of collection. CMS collects the fees over 9 consecutive months beginning with January of... under title XVIII. (f) Assessment methodology. (1) The amount of the applicable portion of the user...

  15. Direct and indirect costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis and related disease activity scores in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akkoç, Nurullah; Direskeneli, Haner; Erdem, Hakan; Gül, Ahmet; Kabasakal, Yasemin; Kiraz, Sedat; Balkan Tezer, Dilara; Hacıbedel, Başak; Hamuryudan, Vedat

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed quality of life, direct and indirect healthcare costs related to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study included 650 prevalent AS patients visiting seven centers at tertiary healthcare institutions in Turkey who were interviewed using a standard questionnaire to determine annual direct and indirect healthcare costs. Eligible patients were age ≥18 years with AS for at least 12 months. Direct costs were categorized as inpatient, outpatient and pharmacy, and AS-related consultation. Indirect costs were categorized as workday loss, additional AS-related costs, and caregiver costs. Clinical outcome measures were obtained, including Patients' Global Disease Activity (Pt-GDA); visual analog scale (Pain-VAS) for pain; Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Functional Index (BASFI), and Metrology Index (BASMI) scores, and EuroQoL 5 dimension (EQ-5D) health status survey scores. Mean (€,335.20) and median (€5,671.00) annual costs per patient were calculated. Pharmacy costs (€4,032.73) were highest among overall expenditures, followed by additional AS-related consultation (€2,480.38), outpatient (€225.02), and inpatient costs (€29.98). Over half of AS patients (54.8 %) experienced work loss. Related average annual costs were €414.16, based on income level. 10.3 % of AS patients incurred an additional €2,008.07 in 1 year. 6.8 % of patients required caregivers and incurred €778.70 in average annual patient paid costs. Mean Pt-GDA, Pain-VAS, EQ-5D, BASDAI, BASFI, and BASMI scores were 4.4, 40.5, 62.7, 3.6, 3.1, and 2.9, respectively. Direct and indirect AS-related costs are high and represent a considerable economic burden on Turkish AS patients. PMID:25749712

  16. Perceived health status and environmental quality in the assessment of external costs of waste disposal facilities. An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Giaccaria, Sergio; Frontuto, Vito

    2012-08-01

    Taxation for urban waste management has been reformed in Italy by the introduction of an environmental law in 2006. In the planning phase of waste management, externalities generated by new facilities remain widely unaccounted, with a consequent distortion for prices, often raising local conflicts. The paper presents a survey based on the choice modelling methodology, aimed to evaluate on a monetary scale the disamenity effect perceived by incinerator and landfills in an Italian urban context: the city of Turin. In a random utility framework the behaviour of respondents, whose choices are found to be driven by the endowment of information about technological options, socio-economic characteristics as income, education, family composition, and also by their health status was modelled. Furthermore, empirical evidence that the behaviour in residential location choices is affected by different aspects of the respondent life and in particular by the health status was found. Distinct estimates of willingness to accept compensation for disamenity effects of incinerator (Euro 2670) and landfill (Euro 3816) are elicited. The effect of health status of the respondents, their level of information about the waste disposal infrastructure, the presence of a subjective strong aversion (NIMBY) and the actual endowment and concentration of infrastructures are demonstrated to be significant factors determining the choice behaviour, but differentiated and specific for incinerators and landfills. PMID:22588111

  17. Food Insecurity and Cost-Related Medication Underuse Among Nonelderly Adults in a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Afulani, Patience; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Harrison, Gail G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether nonelderly US adults (aged 18–64 years) in food-insecure households are more likely to report cost-related medication underuse than the food-secure, and whether the relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse differs by gender, chronic disease, and health insurance status. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n = 67 539). We examined the relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse with the χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression with interaction terms. Results. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed a dose–response relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse, with an increasing likelihood of cost-related medication underuse with increasing severity of food insecurity (P < .001). This association was conditional on health insurance status, but not substantially different by gender or chronic disease status. Being female, low-income, having no or partial health insurance, chronic conditions, functional limitations, or severe mental illness were positively associated with cost-related medication underuse. Conclusions. Using food insecurity as a risk factor to assess cost-related medication underuse could help increase identification of individuals who may need assistance purchasing medications and improve health for those in food-insecure households. PMID:26270308

  18. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public relations and advertising costs. 231.205-1 Section 231.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES...

  19. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public relations and advertising costs. 231.205-1 Section 231.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES...

  20. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public relations and advertising costs. 231.205-1 Section 231.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES...

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public relations and advertising costs. 31.205-1 Section 31.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-1 Public...

  2. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-47 - Costs related to legal and other proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs related to legal and other proceedings. 970.3102-05-47 Section 970.3102-05-47 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-47...

  3. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  4. PERC Handbook (Program Effectiveness and Related Costs). Empire State College Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palola, Ernest G.; And Others

    This handbook is a "how to do it" set of definitions, instruments, and procedures based on program effectiveness and related costs (PERC) evaluation at Empire State College (Saratoga Springs, New York) and four other cooperating institutions. The handbook focuses first on program effectiveness and then considers program costs. It utilizes a…

  5. 42 CFR 457.224 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 457.224 Section 457.224 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or could be provided under a State CHIP program— (1) Any cost sharing amounts that...

  6. 42 CFR 457.224 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 457.224 Section 457.224 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or could be provided under a State CHIP program— (1) Any cost sharing amounts that...

  7. 42 CFR 457.224 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 457.224 Section 457.224 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or could be provided under a State CHIP program— (1) Any cost sharing amounts that...

  8. 42 CFR 457.224 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 457.224 Section 457.224 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or could be provided under a State CHIP program— (1) Any cost sharing amounts that...

  9. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... general health and fitness or encouraging healthful lifestyles; (2) The costs of the contractor's messages... in advance of the policy year. (b) Costs of media messages that inform enrollees about the FEGLI... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public relations...

  10. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... general health and fitness or encouraging healthful lifestyles; (2) The costs of the contractor's messages... in advance of the policy year. (b) Costs of media messages that inform enrollees about the FEGLI... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public relations...

  11. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... general health and fitness or encouraging healthful lifestyles; (2) The costs of the contractor's messages... in advance of the policy year. (b) Costs of media messages that inform enrollees about the FEGLI... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public relations...

  12. Beam related response of in vivo diode detectors for external radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baci, Syrja; Telhaj, Ervis; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-01

    In Vivo Dosimetry (IVD) is a set of methods used in cancer treatment clinics to determine the real dose of radiation absorbed by target volume in a patient's body. IVD has been widely implemented in radiotherapy treatment centers and is now recommended part of Quality Assurance program by many International health and radiation organizations. Because of cost and lack of specialized personnel, IVD has not been practiced as yet, in Albanian radiotherapy clinics. At Hygeia Hospital Tirana, patients are irradiated with high energy photons generated by Elekta Synergy Accelerators. We have recently started experimenting with the purpose of establishing an IVD practice at this hospital. The first set of experiments was aimed at calibration of diodes that are going to be used for IVD. PMMA, phantoms by PTW were used to calibrate p - type Si, semiconductor diode dosimeters, made by PTW Freiburg for entrance dose. Response of the detectors is affected by energy of the beam, accumulated radiation dose, dose rate, temperature, angle against the beam axis, etc. Here we present the work done for calculating calibration factor and correction factors of source to surface distance, field size, and beam incidence for the entrance dose for both 6 MV photon beam and 18 MV photon beam. Dependence of dosimeter response was found to be more pronounced with source to surface distance as compared to other variables investigated.

  13. Cost of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Fayad, Rim; Nuwayhid, Iman; Tamim, Hala; Kassak, Kassem; Khogali, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the medical and compensation costs of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon and to examine cost distributions by worker and injury characteristics. METHODS: A total of 3748 claims for work injuries processed in 1998 by five major insurance companies in Lebanon were reviewed. Medical costs (related to emergency room fees, physician consultations, tests, and medications) and wage and indemnity compensation costs were identified from the claims. FINDINGS: The median cost per injury was US dollars 83 (mean, US dollars 198; range, US dollars 0-16,401). The overall cost for all 3748 injuries was US dollars 742,100 (76% of this was medical costs). Extrapolated to all injuries within insured workplaces, the overall cost was US dollars 4.5 million a year; this increased to US dollars 10 million-13 million when human value cost (pain and suffering) was accounted for. Fatal injuries (three, 0.1%) and those that caused permanent disabilities (nine, 0.2%) accounted for 10.4% of the overall costs and hospitalized injuries (245, 6.5%) for 45%. Cost per injury was highest among older workers and for injuries that involved falls and vehicle incidents. Medical, but not compensation, costs were higher among female workers. CONCLUSION: The computed costs of work injuries--a fraction of the real burden of occupational injuries in Lebanon--represent a considerable economic loss. This calls for a national policy to prevent work injuries, with a focus on preventing the most serious injuries. Options for intervention and research are discussed. PMID:12973643

  14. The Relation of Attachment Security to Adolescents' Paternal and Peer Relationships, Depression, and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Marsh, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with…

  15. Remission of Maternal Depression: Relations to Family Functioning and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major…

  16. FRTR COST AND PERFORMANCE REMEDIATION CASE STUDIES AND RELATED INFORMATION, FOURTH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CD-ROM contains over 350 cost and performance technology case study reports and other publications related to the work by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. The reports were compiled from previously published case studies developed by federal agencies.

  17. FRTR COST & PERFORMANCE REMEDIATION CASE STUDIES AND RELATED INFORMATION, 3RD EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CD contains over 320 cost and performance technology case study reports and other publications related to the work by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. The reports compiled were previously published by the member agencies.

  18. The Role of Gender and Race in the Relation between Adolescent Distress Tolerance and Externalizing and Internalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Magidson, Jessica F.; MacPherson, Laura; Seitz-Brown, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Distress tolerance (DT) is an established construct contributing to the onset and maintenance of psychopathology in adulthood; however, few studies have examined the role of DT in older adolescent psychopathology. Emerging data suggest that gender and race may influence this relation. Therefore, the current study examined the relation between gender, race, and DT on parent-reported internalizing and externalizing DSM-oriented symptoms among a community sample of 128, 14 to 18 year old adolescents. Results indicated a moderating effect of gender on affective problems, such that females with low DT, but not males, displayed significantly greater affective problems. Findings also indicated a significant moderating effect of race, such that Caucasians with low DT, but not African Americans, displayed significantly higher somatic, oppositional defiant, and conduct problems. These findings suggest that DT is an important clinical variable in older adolescence, particularly among Caucasians and females. PMID:24215952

  19. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting. PMID:26822337

  20. Using an External Exposome Framework to Examine Pregnancy-Related Morbidities and Mortalities: Implications for Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Oyana, Tonny J.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Cormier, Stephania A.; Xu, Xiaoran; Juarez, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We have conducted a study to assess the role of environment on the burden of maternal morbidities and mortalities among women using an external exposome approach for the purpose of developing targeted public health interventions to decrease disparities. Methods: We identified counties in the 48 contiguous USA where observed low birthweight (LBW) rates were higher than expected during a five-year study period. The identification was conducted using a retrospective space-time analysis scan for statistically significant clusters with high or low rates by a Discrete Poisson Model. Results: We observed statistically significant associations of LBW rate with a set of predictive variables. However, in one of the two spatiotemporal models we discovered LBW to be associated with five predictive variables (teen birth rate, adult obesity, uninsured adults, physically unhealthy days, and percent of adults who smoke) in two counties situated in Alabama after adjusting for location changes. Counties with higher than expected LBW rates were similarly associated with two environmental variables (ozone and fine particulate matter). Conclusions: The county-level predictive measures of LBW offer new insights into spatiotemporal patterns relative to key contributory factors. An external framework provides a promising place-based approach for identifying “hotspots” with implications for designing targeted interventions and control measures to reduce and eliminate health disparities. PMID:26703702

  1. Examining the Developmental History of Child Maltreatment, Peer Relations, and Externalizing Problems among Adolescents with Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the childhood history of maltreatment, peer relations, and externalizing problems among individuals who manifested low, moderate, or high symptom levels of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in adolescence. Participants included 174 children who attended a longitudinal summer camp research program between the ages of 9 to 12. Multiple sources of information (self-, peer-, and counselor-reports) were utilized. Subsequently, they participated in a personality disorder assessment during adolescence (Mean age =15.30). The results indicated that children who manifested higher levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence had higher odds of having a history of child maltreatment. Children who manifested high levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence showed a faster growth rate for peer bullying and externalizing problems in childhood. In addition, their peers rated them as less cooperative, less likely to be leaders, and more likely to initiate fights. These finding suggested that children who manifested elevated PPD symptoms in adolescence had shown early signs of behavioral disturbances in childhood, some of which gradually worsened as they approach adolescence. PMID:19825263

  2. The relevance of unrelated costs internal and external to the healthcare sector to the outcome of a cost-comparison analysis of secondary prevention: the case of general colorectal cancer screening in the German population.

    PubMed

    Tscheulin, Dieter K; Drevs, Florian

    2010-04-01

    recipients of the screening program (i.e. survivors of a typically fatal condition), the impact of age and gender on the results of a cost-comparison analysis of colorectal cancer screening are presented and discussed. Our study shows that colorectal cancer screening generates individual cost savings in the social security system up to a life expectancy of 60 years. Beyond that age, the balance between a recipient's social security contributions and insurance system expenditure is negative. The paper clarifies the relevance of healthcare costs not related to the prevented disease to the economic evaluation of prevention programs, particularly in the case of fatal diseases such as colorectal cancer. The results of the study imply that, from an economic perspective, the participation of at-risk individuals in disease prevention programs should be promoted. PMID:19449159

  3. Cost-of-illness and disease burden of food-related pathogens in the Netherlands, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Haagsma, Juanita A; Kortbeek, Laetitia M; Tariq, Luqman; Wilson, Margaret; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Havelaar, Arie H

    2015-03-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control and prevention of food-related disease, both the disease burden expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and the cost-of-illness of food-related pathogens are estimated and presented. Disease burden of fourteen pathogens that can be transmitted by food, the environment, animals and humans was previously estimated by Havelaar et al. (2012). In this paper we complement these by cost-of-illness estimates. Together, these present a complete picture of the societal burden of food-related diseases. Using incidence estimates for 2011, community-acquired non-consulting cases, patients consulting their general practitioner, hospitalized patients and the incidence of sequelae and fatal cases, estimates were obtained for DALYs, direct healthcare costs (e.g. costs for doctor's fees, hospitalizations and medicines), direct non-healthcare costs (e.g. travel costs to and from the doctor), indirect non-healthcare costs (e.g. productivity loss, special education) and total costs. The updated disease burden for 2011 was equal to 13,940 DALY/year (undiscounted) or 12,650 DALY/year (discounted at 1.5%), and was of the same magnitude as previous estimates. At the population-level thermophilic Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii and rotavirus were associated with the highest disease burden. Perinatal listeriosis infection was associated with the highest DALY per symptomatic case. The total cost-of-illness in 2011 of fourteen food-related pathogens and associated sequelae was estimated at € 468 million/year, if undiscounted, and at € 416 million/year if discounted by 4%. Direct healthcare costs accounted for 24% of total costs, direct non-healthcare costs for 2% and indirect non-healthcare costs for 74% of total costs. At the population-level, norovirus had the highest total cost-of-illness in 2011 with € 106 million/year, followed by thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (€ 76 million/year) and rotavirus (€ 73 million

  4. Obesity-related hospitalization costs to the U.S. Navy, 1993 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Bradham, D D; South, B R; Saunders, H J; Heuser, M D; Pane, K W; Dennis, K E

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate the cost to the U.S. Navy for obesity-related hospital admissions by examining (1) inpatient utilization associated with obesity; (2) the rank order, probability, and total facility costs of obesity-related diagnosis-related groups (DRGs); and (3) expected inpatient expenses. The frequency and probability of inpatient events in the Navy's active duty population were derived from the Department of Defense's Retrospective Case Mix Analysis System. Medicare-based facility costs per DRG were estimated. These measures were combined in a decision-analytic model. Expected facility costs per obesity-related admission for active duty Navy personnel increased by age group from $3,328 for 18 to 24 year olds to $5,746 for 45 to 64 year olds. The annual avoidable inpatient cost for the Navy was estimated to be $5,842,627 for the top 10 obesity-related DRGs. Improvements to the Navy Physical Readiness Program and other interventions that may reduce obesity, obesity-related health care use, and the public economic burden should be pursued. PMID:11197088

  5. Predictors of longitudinal outcome and recovery of pragmatic language and its relation to externalizing behaviour after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Coleman, Lee; Ditchfield, Michael; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Anderson, Vicki A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the contribution of age-at-insult and brain pathology on longitudinal outcome and recovery of pragmatic language in a sample of children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI (n=112) were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i) Middle Childhood (5-9 years; n=41); (ii) Late Childhood (10-11 years; n=39); and (iii) Adolescence (12-15 years; n=32) and group-matched for age, gender and socio-economic status (SES) to a typically developing (TD) control group (n=43). Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence 2-8 weeks after injury and were assessed on measures of pragmatic language and behavioural functioning at 6- and 24-months after injury. Children and adolescents with TBI of all severity levels demonstrated impairments in these domains at 6-months injury before returning to age-expected levels at 2-years post-TBI. However, while adolescent TBI was associated with post-acute disruption to skills that preceded recovery to age-expected levels by 2-years post injury, the middle childhood TBI group demonstrated impairments at 6-months post-injury that were maintained at 2-year follow up. Reduced pragmatic communication was associated with frontal, temporal and corpus callosum lesions, as well as more frequent externalizing behaviour at 24-months post injury. Findings show that persisting pragmatic language impairment after pediatric TBI is related to younger age at brain insult, as well as microhemorrhagic pathology in brain regions that contribute to the anatomically distributed social brain network. Relationships between reduced pragmatic communication and more frequent externalizing behavior underscore the need for context-sensitive rehabilitation programs that aim to increase interpersonal effectiveness and reduce risk for maladaptive behavior trajectories into the

  6. The relation of potassium and sodium intakes to diet cost among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Rehm, C D; Maillot, M; Monsivais, P

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommended that Americans increase potassium and decrease sodium intakes to reduce the burden of hypertension. One reason why so few Americans meet the recommended potassium or sodium goals may be perceived or actual food costs. This study explored the monetary costs associated with potassium and sodium intakes using national food prices and a representative sample of US adults. Dietary intake data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with a national food prices database. In a population of 4744 adults, the association between the energy-adjusted sodium and potassium intakes, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and energy-adjusted diet cost was evaluated. Diets that were more potassium-rich or had lower Na:K ratios were associated with higher diet costs, while sodium intakes were not related to cost. The difference in diet cost between extreme quintiles of potassium intakes was $1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.69). A food-level analysis showed that beans, potatoes, coffee, milk, bananas, citrus juices and carrots are frequently consumed and low-cost sources of potassium. Based on existing dietary data and current American eating habits, a potassium-dense diet was associated with higher diet costs, while sodium was not. Price interventions may be an effective approach to improve potassium intakes and reduce the Na:K ratio of the diet. The present methods helped identify some alternative low-cost foods that were effective in increasing potassium intakes. The identification and promotion of lower-cost foods to help individuals meet targeted dietary recommendations could accompany future dietary guidelines. PMID:24871907

  7. Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Annemieke C; Polinder, Suzanne; Panneman, Martien J M; van Beeck, Ed F; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2015-08-01

    The main cause of death and serious disability in bicycle accidents is traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and costs of bicycle-related TBI across various age groups, and in comparison to all bicycle-related injuries, to identify main risk groups for the development of preventive strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance System and National Medical Registration were used for all patients with bicycle-related injuries and TBI who visited a Dutch emergency department (ED) between 1998 and 2012. Demographics and national, weighted estimates of injury mechanism, injury severity and costs were analysed per age group. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Between 1998 and 2012, the incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related TBI strongly increased with 54%, to 43 per 100,000 persons in 2012. However, the incidence of all bicycle-related injuries remained stable, from 444 in 1998 to 456/100,000 in 2012. Incidence of hospital admission increased in both TBI (92%) and all injuries from cycling (71%). Highest increase in incidence of both ED treatments and hospital admissions was seen in adults aged 55+. The injury rate of TBI per kilometre travelled increased (44%) except in children, but decreased (-4%) for all injuries, showing a strong decrease in children (-36%) but an increase in men aged 25+, and women aged 15+. Total costs of bicycle-related TBI were €74.5 million annually. Although bicycle-related TBI accounted for 9% of the incidence of all ED treatments due to cycling, it accounted for 18% of the total costs due to all bicycle-related injuries (€410.7 million). Children and adolescents (aged 0-24) had highest incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related injuries. Men in the working population (aged 15-64) had highest indirect costs following injuries from cycling, including TBI. Older cyclists (aged

  8. Health-related economic costs of the Three-Mile Island accident.

    PubMed

    Hu, T W; Slaysman, K S

    1984-01-01

    On March 1979, a nuclear power station at Three-Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had a major breakdown. During the two-week period of the accident, about 150,000 residents were evacuated for reasons associated with safety and health. Many residents during and after the accident, regardless of whether they left or stayed, made mental and physical adjustments due to this accident. This paper is to estimate the economic costs incurred by individuals or communities as a result of a change in physical or mental health status and/or a change in health care services due to the TMI accident. The findings indicate that stress symptoms caused by the accident did affect the health-related behaviors of area residents. Of the costs examined, the economic costs of work days lost and physician visits are the largest cost items. There were some increases in consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and tranquilizers immediately following the accident. PMID:10268833

  9. A study of the relative effectiveness and cost of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Furniss, M. A.; Potter, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a number of experiments to illuminate the relative effectiveness and costs of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode are reported. It was found that for equal time spent in preparing the search strategy, the batch and interactive modes gave approximately equal recall and relevance. The interactive mode however encourages the searcher to devote more time to the task and therefore usually yields improved output. Engineering costs as a result are higher in this mode. Estimates of associated hardware costs also indicate that operation in this mode is more expensive. Skilled RECON users like the rapid feedback and additional features offered by this mode if they are not constrained by considerations of cost.

  10. Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

  11. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Slager, R; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-05-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually

  12. Long-term dynamics of a tidewater outlet glacier in West Greenland and its relation to external forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieli, Andreas; Luethi, Martin; Moreau, Luc; Reisser, Moritz; Ian, Joughin

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic changes of ocean-terminating outlet glaciers such as terminus retreat and flow acceleration are responsible for about half of the current mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. Although these changes seem related to the general warming in recent decades, the detailed link between external forcing from the atmosphere and/or ocean and glacier response is not well understood. Further, existing observations of tidewater outlet glacier change also show strong temporal fluctuations and are mostly limited to the last two decades of satellite observations. It is therefore difficult to derive and interpret long-term trends in outlet glacier change which is relevant in the context of century scale predictions. Here we present and analyse a detailed long-term record of flow and geometry evolution of Eqi Sermia, a ocean terminating outlet glacier in West Greenland. This record starts in 1912 and has, due to its proximity to the main access route for early expeditions to the ice sheet, a decadal and smaller resolution. This historic record is supplemented by data from satellites and ground based radar interferometry for deriving front positions and flow velocities in the two recent decades. The front and flow speed of Eqi Sermia was more or less stable between 1912 with aslow retreat phase between 1920 to the 1960, followed by a slight readvance in the 1980s. In 2007 the terminus started to retreat very rapidly, retreated 3 km since and in a step wise fashion and almost quadrupled its flow speed at the terminus. A comparison with surface mass balance and temperature records suggests a close relation of the long-term evolution of Egi Sermia to atmospheric forcing rather than oceanic, perhaps reflecting the relatively shallow fjord depths. In contrast, the recent rapid retreat and acceleration may be due to a changing regime in the calving process and geometric effects.

  13. The Deductibility of Work-Related Higher Education Costs: The Saga Continues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Mark A.; Bird, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Whether a taxpayer's work-related higher education costs are deductible under IRC (Internal Revenue Code) Section 162 is an issue highly dependent upon facts and circumstances. The regulations pursuant to IRC Section 162 and the emergence of case law on this topic constitute important elements to consider in making this determination.

  14. Relative Costs and Benefits of Work and Children to Professional and Non-Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda J.

    This study investigated the relative rewards and costs of parenthood and working as perceived by 63 professional and 60 nonprofessional women between the ages of 28 and 39 who were childless, had small families, or had large families. A social exchange theory was suggested as the general theoretical framework for the study. The overall pattern of…

  15. 42 CFR 457.224 - FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to cost sharing. 457.224 Section 457.224 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES General Administration-Reviews and...

  16. The burden of smoking-related diseases in Brazil: mortality, morbidity and costs.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Márcia Teixeira; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Bardach, Ariel

    2015-06-01

    Advances in tobacco control in Brazil can be reflected in the decrease in prevalence over the past two decades. Death statistics and the occurrence of events and direct costs attributable to tobacco-related diseases have not been frequently estimated in the country. The goal of this article is to estimate the burden of smoking in 2011 regarding mortality, morbidity and medical care costs of the main tobacco-related diseases. A probabilistic microsimulation health economic model was built. The model incorporates the natural history, costs and quality of life of all the tobacco-related adult-specific diseases. Smoking was accountable for 147,072 deaths, 2.69 million years of life lost, 157,126 acute myocardial infarctions, 75,663 strokes, and 63,753 cancer diagnoses. The direct cost for the health system was of BRL 23.37 billion. The monitoring of tobacco-related burden is an important strategy to guide decision-makers and to strenghten health public policies. PMID:26200375

  17. Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Vary; Morose, Willy; Schwartzman, Kevin; Oxlade, Olivia; Barr, Graham; Grimard, Franque; Menzies, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Background Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy) can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. Methods Using decision analysis incorporating multiple Markov processes (Markov modelling), we compared expected tuberculosis morbidity, mortality and costs in Haiti with DOTS expansion to reach all of the country, and achieve WHO benchmarks, or if the current situation did not change. Probabilities of tuberculosis related outcomes were derived from the published literature. Government health expenditures, patient and family costs were measured in direct surveys in Haiti and expressed in 2003 US$. Results Starting in 2003, DOTS expansion in Haiti is anticipated to cost $4.2 million and result in 63,080 fewer tuberculosis cases, 53,120 fewer tuberculosis deaths, and net societal savings of $131 million, over 20 years. Current government spending for tuberculosis is high, relative to the per capita income, and would be only slightly lower with DOTS. Societal savings would begin within 4 years, and would be substantial in all scenarios considered, including higher HIV seroprevalence or drug resistance, unchanged incidence following DOTS expansion, or doubling of initial and ongoing costs for DOTS expansion. Conclusion A modest investment for DOTS expansion in Haiti would provide considerable humanitarian benefit by reducing tuberculosis-related morbidity, mortality and costs for patients and their families. These benefits, together with projected minimal Haitian government savings, argue strongly for donor support for DOTS expansion. PMID:16911786

  18. Genetic and treatment-related risk factors associated with external apical root resorption (EARR) concurrent with orthodontia

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, J.; Falcão-Alencar, G.; Mason, A.; Jacobson, E.; Kluemper, G. T.; Macri, J. V.; Hartsfield, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective As genetic variation accounts for two-thirds of the variation in external apical root resorption (EARR) concurrent with orthodontic treatment, we analyzed the association of selected genetic and treatment-related factors with EARR concurrent with orthodontic treatment. Setting and sample population This case–control study of 134 unrelated, orthodontically treated Caucasian individuals was conducted in part at an Indiana Private Practice, Indiana University and the University of Kentucky. Methods Utilizing a research data bank containing information from ~1450 orthodontically treated patients, pre- and post-treatment radiographs from 460 individuals were evaluated for EARR of the four permanent maxillary incisors. Sixty-seven unrelated Caucasians with moderate to severe EARR were identified and were age-/sex-matched with orthodontically treated Caucasian controls yielding 38 females and 29 males per group. Factors tested for an association with EARR included the following: 1) treatment duration, 2) extraction of maxillary premolars, 3) numerous cephalometric measurements, and 4) DNA polymorphisms within/near candidate genes in a pathway previously implicated in EARR such as the purinergic-receptor-P2X, ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2RX7; rs208294, rs1718119, and rs2230912), caspase-1 (CASP1; rs530537, rs580253, and rs554344), interleukin-1 beta (IL1B; rs1143634), interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A; rs1800587), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA; rs419598) genes. Stepwise logistic regression was utilized to identify the factors significantly associated (significance taken at or less than the layered Bonferroni correction alpha) with the occurrence of EARR. Results A long length of treatment and the presence of specific genotypes for P2RX7 SNP rs208294 were significantly associated with EARR. Conclusion EARR occurrence was associated with both genetic and treatment-related variables, which together explained 25% of the total variation associated with EARR

  19. Robust, low-cost data loggers for stream temperature, flow intermittency, and relative conductivity monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas; Todd, Andrew S.; Zeigler, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature and streamflow intermittency are critical parameters influencing aquatic ecosystem health. Low-cost temperature loggers have made continuous water temperature monitoring relatively simple but determining streamflow timing and intermittency using temperature data alone requires significant and subjective data interpretation. Electrical resistance (ER) sensors have recently been developed to overcome the major limitations of temperature-based methods for the assessment of streamflow intermittency. This technical note introduces the STIC (Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity logger); a robust, low-cost, simple to build instrument that provides long-duration, high-resolution monitoring of both relative conductivity (RC) and temperature. Simultaneously collected temperature and RC data provide unambiguous water temperature and streamflow intermittency information that is crucial for monitoring aquatic ecosystem health and assessing regulatory compliance. With proper calibration, the STIC relative conductivity data can be used to monitor specific conductivity.

  20. [Impact of characteristics related to patients and interventions on revenues and costs of hospitals].

    PubMed

    Iserloh, M; Kox, W J

    2015-01-01

    Since introduction of the German refined DRG system, the, in relation to other countries, relatively long hospital stay has been reduced significantly. The analyses presented here examine the hypothesis that only few impact factors allow for good hospital management and that length of stay is a performance indicator. The analyses were based on remuneration data of 20 German hospitals for 2007-2009, comprising details of 963 923 patient cases, and cost data for 2007-2010. Using simple and multiple linear regressions, the impact of hospital length of stay and case-based factors on case mix index (CMI) and cost categories were explained. The variance of the case mix index was best explained by the length of hospital stay, showing an adjusted regression coefficient β=0.488 (p<0.001), followed by the number of coded procedures (β=0.35, p<0.001). Other predictors played a minor role. The regression coefficient was higher for conservative (non-operative) than for surgery (operative) departments. In the regression on costs, the length of hospital stay explained the variance of total costs by β=0.391 (p<0.001), among these personnel costs of the nursing staff correlated most highly (β=0.595, p<0.001). The analyses confirm the working hypothesis with length of stay impacting CMI and costs most significantly. Treatment effort and complexity level, mortality rate, patient age or gender are well discussed factors but their joint impact on the CMI is minor. Consequently, cockpits for operational length of stay management comprising key data and ratios should be introduced on the department level. PMID:24566837

  1. Relative costs of offspring sex and offspring survival in a polygynous mammal.

    PubMed

    Froy, Hannah; Walling, Craig A; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2016-09-01

    Costs of reproduction are expected to be ubiquitous in wild animal populations and understanding the drivers of variation in these costs is an important aspect of life-history evolution theory. We use a 43 year dataset from a wild population of red deer to examine the relative importance of two factors that influence the costs of reproduction to mothers, and to test whether these costs vary with changing ecological conditions. Like previous studies, our analyses indicate fitness costs of lactation: mothers whose calves survived the summer subsequently showed lower survival and fecundity than those whose calves died soon after birth, accounting for 5% and 14% of the variation in mothers' survival and fecundity, respectively. The production of a male calf depressed maternal survival and fecundity more than production of a female, but accounted for less than 1% of the variation in either fitness component. There was no evidence for any change in the effect of calf survival or sex with increasing population density. PMID:27601725

  2. Cost of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Bahia, Luciana; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Pepe, Camila Ribeiro; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society. PMID:27305403

  3. A Standardized Relative Resource Cost Model for Medical Care: Application to Cancer Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Medicare data represent 75% of aged and permanently disabled Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the fee-for-service (FFS) indemnity option, but the data omit 25% of beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Little research has examined how longitudinal patterns of utilization differ between HMOs and FFS. The Burden of Cancer Study developed and implemented an algorithm to assign standardized relative costs to HMO and Medicare FFS data consistently across time and place. Medicare uses 15 payment systems to reimburse FFS providers for covered services. The standardized relative resource cost algorithm (SRRCA) adapts these various payment systems to utilization data. We describe the rationale for modifications to the Medicare payment systems and discuss the implications of these modifications. We applied the SRRCA to data from four HMO sites and the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare data. Some modifications to Medicare payment systems were required, because data elements needed to categorize utilization were missing from both data sources. For example, data were not available to create episodes for home health services received, so we assigned costs per visit based on visit type (nurse, therapist, and aide). For inpatient utilization, we modified Medicare’s payment algorithm by changing it from a flat payment per diagnosis-related group to daily rates for diagnosis-related groups to differentiate shorter versus longer stays. The SRRCA can be used in multiple managed care plans and across multiple FFS delivery systems within the United States to create consistent relative cost data for economic analyses. Prior to international use of the SRRCA, data need to be standardized. PMID:23962514

  4. Cost-Utility Analyses of Cataract Surgery in Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery

  5. The relation between maternal phenotype and offspring size, explained by overhead material costs of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Filin, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Variation in offspring size with female size and other aspects of the maternal phenotype is commonly observed and taxonomically widespread. However, life history theory predicts that optimal offspring size should not depend on maternal size or total reproductive effort. This incongruity persists despite various modifications to theory, that nonetheless, either are limited in their applicability or fail to alter the prediction of fixed offspring size. I demonstrate that the persistence of this theoretical outcome stems from an ideal assumption that reproductive effort relates only to direct material costs, and therefore, equal or proportional to clutch mass or the product of offspring size and number. A major innovation in my study is to explicitly distinguish between direct and overhead components of the costs of reproduction. When overhead energetic costs of reproduction are explicitly incorporated, I readily obtain variation in optimal offspring size with maternal phenotype. This consequence of overhead costs of reproduction has not been demonstrated before. I identify functional forms of such overhead costs that facilitate variation in optimal offspring size. In particular, costs that are more sensitive to offspring size than to offspring number are most effective in causing variation in offspring size. The novelty of the model lies in succeeding to resolve the above incongruity both within the framework of traditional models of optimal offspring size and within more dynamic description of the lifecycle (addressing simultaneously both offspring and maternal performance), including stochastic effects, difference between reserves and structural components of size, and distinction between starvation and extrinsic mortality. My predictions explain several patterns of variation in size and body composition of offspring, with respect to both environmental conditions and maternal phenotype. PMID:25219621

  6. A noticeable difference? Productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work in economic evaluations on expensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; Tan, Siok Swan; Brouwer, Werner; Hakkaart, Leona

    2016-05-01

    Productivity costs can strongly impact cost-effectiveness outcomes. This study investigated the impact in the context of expensive hospital drugs. This study aimed to: (1) investigate the effect of productivity costs on cost-effectiveness outcomes, (2) determine whether economic evaluations of expensive drugs commonly include productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work, and (3) explore potential reasons for excluding productivity costs from the economic evaluation. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify economic evaluations of 33 expensive drugs. We analysed whether evaluations included productivity costs and whether inclusion or exclusion was related to the study population's age, health and national health economic guidelines. The impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was assessed in studies that included productivity costs. Of 249 identified economic evaluations of expensive drugs, 22 (9 %) included productivity costs related to paid work. One study included unpaid productivity. Mostly, productivity cost exclusion could not be explained by the study population's age and health status, but national guidelines appeared influential. Productivity costs proved often highly influential. This study indicates that productivity costs in economic evaluations of expensive hospital drugs are commonly and inconsistently ignored in economic evaluations. This warrants caution in interpreting and comparing the results of these evaluations. PMID:25876834

  7. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  8. Impact of Measurement Invariance on Construct Correlations, Mean Differences, and Relations with External Correlates: An Illustrative Example Using Big Five and RIASEC Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Neal; Golubovich, Juliya; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of measurement invariance and the provision for partial invariance in confirmatory factor analytic models on factor intercorrelations, latent mean differences, and estimates of relations with external variables is investigated for measures of two sets of widely assessed constructs: Big Five personality and the six Holland interests…

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of the Relation between Parental Expressed Emotion and Externalizing Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Stephanie H.; Barry, Tammy D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the longitudinal relation between parental expressed emotion, a well-established predictor of symptom relapse in various other disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) with externalizing behaviors in 84 children, ages 8-18 (at Time 2), with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It was found that parental expressed emotion, specifically…

  10. The Internal/External Frame of Reference Model of Self-Concept and Achievement Relations: Age-Cohort and Cross-Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Parker, Philip D.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Möller, Jens; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model and dimensional comparison theory posit paradoxical relations between achievement (ACH) and self-concept (SC) in mathematics (M) and verbal (V) domains; ACH in each domain positively affects SC in the matching domain (e.g., MACH to MSC) but negatively in the nonmatching domain (e.g., MACH to…

  11. Multimethod Assessment of Psychopathy in Relation to Factors of Internalizing and Externalizing from the Personality Assessment Inventory: The Impact of Method Variance and Suppressor Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Edens, John F.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Research to date has revealed divergent relations across factors of psychopathy measures with criteria of "internalizing" (INT; anxiety, depression) and "externalizing" (EXT; antisocial behavior, substance use). However, failure to account for method variance and suppressor effects has obscured the consistency of these findings across distinct…

  12. Control of Rhagoletis indifferents using Thiamethoxam and Spinosad baits under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis indifferens Curran) using thiamethoxam in sucrose bait and spinosad bait in cherry orchards under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity were studied in Washington and Utah in 2010 and 2011. Thiamethoxam ...

  13. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. Potential escalation of heat-related working costs with climate and socioeconomic changes in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Sultan, Benjamin; Vautard, Robert; Braconnot, Pascale; Wang, Huijun J.; Ducharne, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change will increase the frequency of hot temperatures, impairing health and productivity for millions of working people and raising labor costs. In mainland China, high-temperature subsidies (HTSs) are allocated to employees for each working day in extremely hot environments, but the potential heat-related increase in labor cost has not been evaluated so far. Here, we estimate the potential HTS cost in current and future climates under different scenarios of socioeconomic development and radiative forcing (Representative Concentration Pathway), taking uncertainties from the climate model structure and bias correction into account. On average, the total HTS in China is estimated at 38.6 billion yuan/y (US $6.22 billion/y) over the 1979–2005 period, which is equivalent to 0.2% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Assuming that the HTS standards (per employee per hot day) remain unchanged throughout the 21st century, the total HTS may reach 250 billion yuan/y in the 2030s and 1,000 billion yuan/y in 2100. We further show that, without specific adaptation, the increased HTS cost is mainly determined by population growth until the 2030s and climate change after the mid-21st century because of increasingly frequent hot weather. Accounting for the likely possibility that HTS standards follow the wages, the share of GDP devoted to HTS could become as high as 3% at the end of 21st century. PMID:27044089

  15. Potential escalation of heat-related working costs with climate and socioeconomic changes in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sultan, Benjamin; Vautard, Robert; Braconnot, Pascale; Wang, Huijun J; Ducharne, Agnes

    2016-04-26

    Global climate change will increase the frequency of hot temperatures, impairing health and productivity for millions of working people and raising labor costs. In mainland China, high-temperature subsidies (HTSs) are allocated to employees for each working day in extremely hot environments, but the potential heat-related increase in labor cost has not been evaluated so far. Here, we estimate the potential HTS cost in current and future climates under different scenarios of socioeconomic development and radiative forcing (Representative Concentration Pathway), taking uncertainties from the climate model structure and bias correction into account. On average, the total HTS in China is estimated at 38.6 billion yuan/y (US $6.22 billion/y) over the 1979-2005 period, which is equivalent to 0.2% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Assuming that the HTS standards (per employee per hot day) remain unchanged throughout the 21st century, the total HTS may reach 250 billion yuan/y in the 2030s and 1,000 billion yuan/y in 2100. We further show that, without specific adaptation, the increased HTS cost is mainly determined by population growth until the 2030s and climate change after the mid-21st century because of increasingly frequent hot weather. Accounting for the likely possibility that HTS standards follow the wages, the share of GDP devoted to HTS could become as high as 3% at the end of 21st century. PMID:27044089

  16. Defensive Dysregulation in Preschool Children's Attachment Story Narratives and Its Relation to Attachment Classification and Externalizing Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Ann M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between disorganized attachment representations, defensive dysregulation in preschool children's doll play story narratives and child externalizing behaviour. Preschool children (n = 53) participated in the George and Solomon (1990, 1996, 2000) "Six-Year Attachment Doll Play Procedure" and their mothers…

  17. The Relation of Maternal Sensitivity to Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems within the Context of Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garai, Emily Priscilla; Forehand, Rex L.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Reeslund, Kristen; Potts, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been linked to deficits in parenting that contribute to youth's development of externalizing and/or internalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity has been implicated within the infant literature as a foundational aspect of parenting contributing to a child's adjustment. This study examines the main and moderating effects of…

  18. High Antenatal Maternal Anxiety Is Related to ADHD Symptoms, Externalizing Problems, and Anxiety in 8- and 9-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bergh, Bea R.H.; Marcoen, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Associations between antenatal maternal anxiety, measured with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and disorders in 8- and 9-year-olds were studied prospectively in 71 normal mothers and their 72 firstborns. Clinical scales were completed by the mother, the child, the teacher, and an external observer. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses…

  19. Costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in developing countries: Colombia case.

    PubMed

    Piedrahita, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    The real burden of occupational diseases, specifically work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and its impact on workers' productivity is not known. The situation is critical in developing countries where only cases that cause workers' disability are recorded. In this study, the incidence of MSDs in Colombia was estimated by using the age and gender specific double incidence rate of repetitive strain injuries diseases in Finland for 2002. The results showed that the estimated number of MSDs recorded in Colombia during 2005 was 23,477 cases at the rate of 11.6 cases per 10,000 workers. The estimated total cost of these MSD cases relative to workers' productivity was 171.7 million US Dollars, representing around 0.2% of Colombia's Gross Domestic Product for 2005. The systematic appraisal of the incidence of MSDs and their associated cost on workers' productivity are necessary in developing countries to reduce the costly impact on productivity and to increase workers' well-being. PMID:17156613

  20. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This guide was prepared to help those involved in the manufacturing of soap, detergent, and related products to identify potential process improvements that will reduce production costs and conserve resources. The guide offers a series of generic process descriptions and checklists of improvement opportunities specific to each of five major processes used in the industry: Soap production, surfactant production, solid cake product formulation, liquid product formulation, and granulated powdered product formulation. The checklists identify thermal, electrical, environmental, water use, and low- or no-cost measures that can be implemented, as well as retrofit technology options. A variety of new technologies that may exhibit future potential are also described. Appendices include a glossary, background information on the Ontario soap/detergent industry, and description of the four major categories of ingredients used in the industry.

  1. A study on bicycle-related injuries and their costs in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Hong; Rahim, Yousif; Zhou, De-Ding

    2011-01-01

    China is known as the Bicycle Kingdom, but the nature, extent, and costs of bicycle-related injuries remain largely unknown. The authors' findings showed that the bicycle-related mortality rate increased 99% from 1992 to 2004, and it increased with age, from 0.64 per 100,000 population in the 0-14 age group to 5.93 per 100,000 population in the 65 and older age group. Labor force groups represented the majority of fatalities (70.8%) and nonfatal injuries (81.5%). The male mortality rate was 2.4 times higher than the female mortality rate. Head injuries accounted for 71.9% of fatalities and 33.1% of the hospitalizations. People with lower levels of education had higher injury rates. The poorer districts located in the countryside had the highest mortality rates compared to those located in the central, wealthier regions. The total annual cost of bicycle-related injuries was 1.1 billion CHY (Chinese Yuan) (over $137 million U.S.). To reduce bicycle-related injuries, mandatory helmet legislations, environmental modifications, and representative monitoring systems in China are required. PMID:21306091

  2. The impact of external donor support through the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on the cost of red cell concentrate in Namibia, 2004–2011

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, John P.; Bocking, Adele; Wilkinson, Robert; Postma, Maarten J.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Mataranyika, Mary; Marfin, Anthony A.; Lowrance, David W.; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit

    2015-01-01

    Background External assistance can rapidly strengthen health programmes in developing countries, but such funding can also create sustainability challenges. From 2004–2011, the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) provided more than $ 8 million to the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS) for supplies, equipment, and staff salaries. This analysis describes the impact that support had on actual production costs and the unit prices charged for red cell concentrate (RCC) units issued to public sector hospitals. Material and methods A costing system developed by NAMBTS to set public sector RCC unit prices was used to describe production costs and unit prices during the period of PEPFAR scale-up (2004–2009) and the 2 years in which PEPFAR support began to decline (2010–2011). Hypothetical production costs were estimated to illustrate differences had PEPFAR support not been available. Results Between 2004–2006, NAMBTS sold 22,575 RCC units to public sector facilities. During this time, RCC unit prices exceeded per unit cost-recovery targets by between 40.3% (US$ 16.75 or N$ 109.86) and 168.3% (US$ 48.72 or N$ 333.28) per year. However, revenue surpluses dwindled between 2007 and 2011, the final year of the study period, when NAMBTS sold 20,382 RCC units to public facilities but lost US$23.31 (N$ 170.43) on each unit. Discussion PEPFAR support allowed NAMBTS to leverage domestic cost-recovery revenue to rapidly increase blood collections and the distribution of RCC. However, external support kept production costs lower than they would have been without PEPFAR. If PEPFAR funds had not been available, RCC prices would have needed to increase by 20% per year to have met annual cost-recovery targets and funded the same level of investments as were made with PEPFAR support. Tracking the subsidising influence of external support can help blood services make strategic investments and plan for unit price increases as external funds are

  3. The role of external pressure and support on teacher choices related to evolution curriculum in the secondary biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschman, Scot

    The scientific community strongly and virtually universally supports the teaching of biological evolution in our public schools. However, there are many in the general public who object to the teaching of biological evolution in our nation's science classrooms. Groups such as Answers in Genesis and the Discovery Institute, along with parents, students, school boards, and school administrators are alleged by many in the scientific and science education communities to be pressuring teachers in a variety of ways regarding the teaching of evolution. The purpose of this study was to examine the sources of, extent of, and ways in which science teachers deal with external influences that attempt to alter their science curriculum related to the teaching of the theory of biological evolution in order to support it, deemphasize it or remove it from their classrooms. It also attempted to determine the impact these outside influences have on evolution education in the classroom. Internal influences were examined in order to ascertain other possible reasons why teachers might or might not de-emphasize, omit, or teach evidence contrary to evolution. Two thousand cover letters were sent out to high school biology teachers selected at random from three states in the U.S. Registry of Teachers, directing them to a web site where they could complete the questionnaire online. One hundred seventy eight teachers responded to the survey. The statistical analyses used in this study to examine the results included analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent samples t tests for means comparisons, as well as a variety of descriptive statistics. This study found that 59% of the teachers who responded had experienced some form of pressure related to their evolution curriculum, and that the majority of this pressure came from students, groups or individuals not affiliated with their school district, and parents. The most common manifestations of pressure were to teach that evolution was "only" a

  4. Environmentally related diseases and the possibility of valuation of their social costs.

    PubMed

    Hajok, Ilona; Marchwińska, Ewa; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Kuraszewska, Bernadeta; Piekut, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The risks of the morbidity of the asbestos-related lung cancer was estimated in the general population of Poles as the result of increased exposure to asbestos fibers during the removal of asbestos-cement products and the possibility of the valuation of the social costs related to this risk. The prediction of the new incidences was made using linear regression model. The forecast shows that to the end of 2030 about 3,500 new cases of lung cancer can be expected as a result of occupational exposure to asbestos in the past which makes together with paraoccupational exposure about 14.000 new cases. The forecast shows the increasing number of asbestos-related lung cancer in Poland and indicates the priority areas where preventive action should be implemented. PMID:25374934

  5. Environmentally Related Diseases and the Possibility of Valuation of Their Social Costs

    PubMed Central

    Hajok, Ilona; Marchwińska, Ewa; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Kuraszewska, Bernadeta; Piekut, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The risks of the morbidity of the asbestos-related lung cancer was estimated in the general population of Poles as the result of increased exposure to asbestos fibers during the removal of asbestos-cement products and the possibility of the valuation of the social costs related to this risk. The prediction of the new incidences was made using linear regression model. The forecast shows that to the end of 2030 about 3,500 new cases of lung cancer can be expected as a result of occupational exposure to asbestos in the past which makes together with paraoccupational exposure about 14.000 new cases. The forecast shows the increasing number of asbestos-related lung cancer in Poland and indicates the priority areas where preventive action should be implemented. PMID:25374934

  6. Longitudinal Relations of Children’s Effortful Control, Impulsivity, and Negative Emotionality to Their Externalizing, Internalizing, and Co-Occurring Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Cumberland, Amanda; Liew, Jeffrey; Reiser, Mark; Zhou, Qing; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of effortful control (EC), impulsivity, and negative emotionality to at least borderline clinical levels of symptoms and change in maladjustment over four years. Children’s (N = 214; 77% European American; M age = 73 months) externalizing and internalizing symptoms were rated by parents and teachers at 3 times, 2 years apart (T1, T2, and T3) and were related to children’s adult-rated EC, impulsivity, and emotion. In addition, the authors found patterns of change in maladjustment were related to these variables at T3 while controlling for the T1 predictor. Externalizing problems (pure or co-occurring with internalizing problems) were associated with low EC, high impulsivity, and negative emotionality, especially anger, and patterns of change also related to these variables. Internalizing problems were associated with low impulsivity and sadness and somewhat with high anger. Low attentional EC was related to internalizing problems only in regard to change in maladjustment. Change in impulsivity was associated with change in internalizing primarily when controlling for change in externalizing problems. PMID:19586175

  7. Colistin and tigecycline for management of external ventricular device-related ventriculitis due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Gentle Sunder; Tamang, Sushil; Paneru, Hem Raj; Shrestha, Pramesh Sunder; Keyal, Niraj; Acharya, Subhash Prasad; Marhatta, Moda Nath; Shilpakar, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of nosocomial ventriculitis associated with external ventricular device (EVD). It is frequently multidrug resistant (MDR), carries a poor outcome, and is difficult to treat. We report a case of MDR Acinetobacter ventriculitis treated with intravenous and intraventricular colistin together with intravenous tigecycline. The patient developed nephrotoxicity and poor neurological outcome despite microbiological cure. Careful implementation of bundle of measures to minimize EVD-associated ventriculitis is valuable. PMID:27365967

  8. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Haiqiang; Guo, Huifang; Yang, Yilong; Sun, Baozhi

    2015-01-01

    Background Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout. Results Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy. Conclusions Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers’ PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers. PMID:26575031

  9. Colistin and tigecycline for management of external ventricular device-related ventriculitis due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gentle Sunder; Tamang, Sushil; Paneru, Hem Raj; Shrestha, Pramesh Sunder; Keyal, Niraj; Acharya, Subhash Prasad; Marhatta, Moda Nath; Shilpakar, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of nosocomial ventriculitis associated with external ventricular device (EVD). It is frequently multidrug resistant (MDR), carries a poor outcome, and is difficult to treat. We report a case of MDR Acinetobacter ventriculitis treated with intravenous and intraventricular colistin together with intravenous tigecycline. The patient developed nephrotoxicity and poor neurological outcome despite microbiological cure. Careful implementation of bundle of measures to minimize EVD-associated ventriculitis is valuable. PMID:27365967

  10. Image and surgery-related costs comparing cone beam CT and panoramic imaging before removal of impacted mandibular third molars

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, K R; Christensen, J; Wenzel, A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to derive the absolute and relative costs of cone beam CT (CBCT) and panoramic imaging before removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Furthermore, the study aimed to analyse the influence of different cost-setting scenarios on the outcome of the absolute and relative costs and the incremental costs related to surgery. Methods: A randomized clinical trial compared complications following surgical removal of a mandibular third molar, where the pre-operative diagnostic method had been panoramic imaging or CBCT. The resources implied in the two methods were measured with health economic tools. The primary outcome was total costs defined as the sum of absolute imaging costs and incremental surgery-related costs. The basic variables were capital costs, operational costs, radiological costs, radiographic costs, overheads and patient resource utilization. Differences in resources used for surgical and post-surgical management were calculated for each patient. Results: Converted to monetary units, the total costs for panoramic imaging equalized €49.29 and for CBCT examination €184.44. Modifying effects on this outcome such as differences in surgery time, treatment time for complications, pre- and post-surgical medication, sickness absence, specialist treatment and hospitalization were not statistically significant between the two diagnostic method groups. Conclusions: Costs for a CBCT examination were approximately four times the costs for panoramic imaging when used prior to removal of a mandibular third molar. The use of CBCT did not change the resources used for surgery, post-surgical treatment and patient complication management. PMID:24922557

  11. An overview of the patterns of prescription opioid use, costs and related harms in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Blanch, Bianca; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Haber, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    Aims To report Australian population trends in subsidized prescribed opioid use, total costs to the Australian government to subsidize these medicines and opioid-related harms based on hospitalizations and accidental poisoning deaths. Methods We utilized three national aggregated data sources including dispensing claims from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, opioid-related hospitalizations from the National Hospital Morbidity Database and accidental poisoning deaths from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Results Between 1992 and 2012, opioid dispensing episodes increased 15-fold (500 000 to 7.5 million) and the corresponding cost to the Australian government increased 32-fold ($8.5 million to $271 million). Opioid-related harms also increased. Opioid-related hospitalizations increased from 605 to 1464 cases (1998–2009), outnumbering hospitalizations due to heroin poisonings since 2001. Deaths due to accidental poisoning (pharmaceutical opioids and illicit substances combined) increased from 151 to 266 (2002–2011), resulting in a rise in the death rate of 0.78 to 1.19 deaths/100 000 population over 10 years. Death rates increased 1.8 fold in males and 1.4 fold in females. Conclusions The striking increase in opioid use and related harms in Australia is consistent with trends observed in other jurisdictions. Further, there is no evidence to suggest these increases are plateauing. There is currently limited evidence in Australia about individual patterns of opioid use and the associated risk of adverse events. Further research should focus on these important issues so as to provide important evidence supporting effective change in policy and practice. PMID:24962372

  12. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY...; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) published February 1,...

  13. 15 CFR 717.4 - Report of inspection-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...), costs of producing records, and costs associated with shutting down chemical production or...

  14. Comparing treatments for age-related macular degeneration: safety, effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Maureen G

    2012-06-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received widespread attention and federal funding because of its potential to inform and improve treatment decisions. Since 2005, patients and their ophthalmologists have faced a dilemma in treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--the leading cause of blindness in the United States. Two closely related drugs have produced dramatic improvements in vision; one has been rigorously tested for use in AMD patients, while the other has been rigorously tested for use in cancer patients, but is now widely used to treat AMD. One drug costs 40 times as much as the other. This Issue Brief summarizes a CER study comparing these drugs head-to-head, and provides the most definitive evidence to date about the safety and effectiveness of the two alternatives. PMID:22754971

  15. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion. PMID:17119229

  16. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  17. Feature-Based Attention and Conflict Monitoring in Criminal Offenders: Interactive Relations of Psychopathy with Anxiety and Externalizing

    PubMed Central

    Zeier, Joshua D.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    As predicted by the response modulation model, psychopathic offenders are insensitive to potentially important inhibitory information when it is peripheral to their primary focus of attention. To date, the clearest tests of this hypothesis have manipulated spatial attention to cue the location of goal-relevant versus inhibitory information. However, the theory predicts a more general abnormality in selective attention. In the current study male prisoners performed a conflict-monitoring task, which included a feature-based manipulation (i.e., color) that biased selective attention toward goal-relevant stimuli and away from inhibitory distracters on some trials but not others. Paralleling results for spatial cuing, feature-based cuing resulted in less distracter interference, particularly for participants with primary psychopathy (i.e., low anxiety). This study also investigated the moderating effect of externalizing on psychopathy. Participants high in psychopathy but low in externalizing performed similarly to primary psychopathic individuals. These results demonstrate that the abnormal selective attention associated with primary psychopathy is not limited to spatial attention but, instead, applies to diverse methods for establishing attentional focus. Furthermore, they demonstrate a novel method of investigating psychopathic subtypes using continuous analyses. PMID:24016017

  18. Cost-related Nonadherence by Medication Type among Medicare Part D Beneficiaries with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica; Steers, W. Neil; Ettner, Susan L.; Mangione, Carol M.; Duru, O. Kenrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the rollout of Medicare Part D, cost-related non-adherence (CRN) among older adults remains a problem. Objectives To examine the rate and correlates of self-reported CRN among a population of older persons with diabetes. Research Design Cross-sectional. Subjects 1,264 Part D patients with diabetes, who entered the coverage gap in 2006. Measures Initial administrative medication lists were verified in computer-assisted telephone interviews, in which participants brought their medication bottles to the phone. Medications were classified into cardiometabolic (diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol-lowering), symptom relief, and “other.” Participants were asked if they had any cost-related non-adherence during 2006, and if so to which medication/s. We used the person-medication dyad as the unit of analysis, and tested a multivariate random effects logistic regression model to analyze the correlates of CRN. Results Approximately 16% of participants reported any CRN. CRN was more frequent for cholesterol-lowering medications [Relative risk 1.54, 95%CI 1.01-2.32] compared to medications taken for symptom relief. CRN was reported less frequently with increasing age above 75 years, compared to patients between 65 and 69. In addition, compared to those with incomes >$40,000, CRN risk for those with incomes <$25,000 was markedly higher [RR 3.05, 95%CI 1.99-4.65]. Conclusions In summary, we found high rates of CRN among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, particularly those with lower incomes. We observed more frequent CRN for cholesterol-lowering medications as compared to medications for symptom relief. Efforts to ensure medication affordability for this population will be important in boosting adherence to key medications. PMID:23032359

  19. A System-Level Comparison of Cost-Efficiency and Return on Investment Related to Online Course Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study compared costs and revenues of Illinois community colleges related specifically to online delivery systems in order, first, to determine cost-efficiency and second, to compare the results among online courses at selected community colleges in Illinois. The research question to be answered was: "To what extent are online courses…

  20. 25 CFR 39.160 - Does ISEF provide supplemental funding for extraordinary costs related to a school's geographic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... remains in its present location, will be awarded an additional cost factor of 12.5 WSU. ... costs related to a school's geographic isolation? 39.160 Section 39.160 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School...

  1. Differences in metabolic costs of terrestrial mobility in two closely related species of albatross.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Alexander P; Phillips, Richard A; Croxall, John P; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-08-01

    Black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophrys typically colonise steeper habitats than grey-headed albatrosses T. chrysostoma. The present study investigated the effect of colony philopatry on terrestrial locomotory ability in these two species, to determine: (1) if there is a difference in terrestrial locomotory ability between these two closely related species, and (2) what physiological or behavioural adaptations may account for any differences identified. We examined the metabolic cost, mechanical efficiency on an incline, and gait characteristics of terrestrial locomotion of these two species on both level and inclined planes. T. chrysostoma were able to perform at a significantly greater speed than T. melanophrys without reaching a significantly different maximal rate of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))). Conversely, T. melanophrys were able to move up a significantly steeper incline than T. chrysostoma while maintaining a similar maximal V(O(2)). Each species demonstrates stride length, force production (behavioural) and leg length (morphological) adaptations that minimise the cost of traversing their chosen colonies, indicating a clear relationship between terrestrial performance and local topography. However, it is not possible to determine if the difference in locomotory ability results from differences in colony topography, or if choice of colony site is dictated by the ability of the species to traverse different terrain. PMID:17690233

  2. Molecular Genetics External Quality Assessment Pilot Scheme for Irinotecan-Related UGT1A1 Genotyping in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuo; Wang, Lunan; Zhang, Rui; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Irinotecan is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors, especially in colorectal cancer and lung cancer. Molecular testing for UGT1A1 genotyping is increasingly required in China for optimum irinotecan administration. In order to determine the performance of laboratories with regard to the whole testing process for UGT1A1 to ensure the consistency and accuracy of the test results, the National Center for Clinical Laboratories conducted an external quality assessment program for UGT1A1*28 genotyping in 2015. The panel, which comprised of four known mutational samples and six wild-type samples, was distributed to 45 laboratories that test for the presence of UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms. Participating laboratories were allowed to perform polymorphism analysis by using their routine methods. The accuracy of the genotyping and reporting of results was analyzed. Other information from the individual laboratories, including the number of samples tested each month, accreditation/certification status, and test methodology, was reviewed. Forty-four of the 45 participants reported the correct results for all samples. There was only one genotyping error, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 99.44% (179/180 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.94−99.99%) and an analytical specificity of 100% (270/270 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 98.64−100%). Both commercial kits and laboratory development tests were commonly used by the laboratories, and pyrosequencing was the main methodology used (n = 26, 57.8%). The style of the written reports showed large variation, and many reports showed a shortage of information. In summary, the first UGT1A1 genotyping external quality assessment result demonstrated that UGT1A1 genotype analysis of good quality was performed in the majority of pharmacogenetic testing centers that were investigated. However, greater education on the reporting of UGT1A1 genetic testing results is needed. PMID:26820647

  3. Observational study on external social and lifestyle related factors and their role in pathogenesis of premature ageing and stress

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Yogesh S.; Thakar, Anup B.; Chandola, Harimohan; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the present era of stress, when lifestyle disorders are high on rise, premature ageing is also one of the most prevalent disorders. It is needed to study the external environmental psychological causative factors in premature ageing and stress. An observational study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of lifestyle, occupational and social factors and mental makeup in individuals diagnosed with premature ageing. A total of 108 patients of premature ageing and stress fulfilling the criteria of inclusion as per ageing scale were selected from outpatient Department of Panchakarma and Manasa Roga, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The diagnosed patients of premature ageing were subjected to specialized proforma enlisting all the factors as well as ageing scale, Manasa Bhava Pariksha, and Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha. The method of survey was by a questionnaire about the points regarding the lifestyle causative factors. Maximum patients had shown signs of premature ageing with Mana-Buddhi-Smriti-Bhakti Vibhrama (100% each) and involvement of negative Manasa Bhava. The 78.70% patients in this study felt of having excess responsibility on them in family. The 52.77% patients had average good relationship with their family members, while remaining 47.22% narrated history of disturbed relationship. The center of stress was found to be at personal level in all patients; at family level in 73.14%; at professional or work level in 64.81%. Various external, occupational, social and familial factors play significant role in the pathology of premature ageing by disturbing the overall psychological status. This proves the link of Manasa affecting Sharira and vice versa with reference to modern contemporary concept of psycho-neuro endocrinology. PMID:23723645

  4. The Yale Cost Model and cost centres: servant or master?

    PubMed

    Rigby, E

    1993-01-01

    Cost accounting describes that aspect of accounting which collects, allocates and controls the cost of producing a service. Costing information is primarily reported to management to enable control of costs and to ensure the financial viability of units, departments and divisions. As costing studies continue to produce estimates of Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) costs in New South Wales hospitals, as well as in other states, costs for different hospitals are being externally compared, using a tool which is usually related to internal management and reporting. Comparability of costs is assumed even though accounting systems differ. This paper examines the cost centre structures at five major teaching hospitals in Sydney. It describes the similarities and differences in how the cost centres were constituted, and then details the line items of expenditure that are charged to each cost centre. The results of a comparative study of a medical specialty are included as evidence of different costing methodologies in the hospitals. The picture that emerged from the study is that the hospitals are constituting their cost centres to meet their internal management needs, that is, to know the cost of running a ward or nursing unit, a medical specialty, department and so on. The rationale for the particular cost centre construction was that cost centre managers could manage and control costs and assign responsibility. There are variations in procedures for assigning costs to cost centres, and the question is asked 'Do these variations in procedures make a material difference to our ability to compare costs per Diagnosis Related Group at the various hospitals?' It is contended that the accounting information, which is produced as a result of different practices, is primarily for internal management, not external comparison. It would be better for hospitals to compare their estimated costs per Diagnosis Related Group to an internal standard cost rather than the costs from other

  5. The clinical and cost effectiveness of externally applied negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of wounds in home healthcare Medicare patients.

    PubMed

    Philbeck, T E; Whittington, K T; Millsap, M H; Briones, R B; Wight, D G; Schroeder, W J

    1999-11-01

    Pressure ulcers, a devastating and costly healthcare problem, often occur in home healthcare settings. We sought to determine if these and other chronic wounds treated at home with negative pressure wound therapy close faster and reduce treatment costs compared to conventional therapies. Records for 1,032 Medicare home healthcare patients with 1,170 wounds that failed to respond to previous interventions--and were subsequently treated with negative pressure wound therapy--were reviewed. Reductions in wound area and volume were compared to rates reported by Ferrell in 1993, and costs were analyzed. Ferrell reported trochanteric and trunk pressure ulcers averaging 4.3 cm2, treated with a low-air-loss surface and saline-soaked gauze closed at an average of 0.090 cm2 per day. For comparison to Ferrell's outcomes, we analyzed our Stage III and IV trochanteric and trunk wounds treated with low-air-loss and negative pressure wound therapy. Ours averaged 22.2 cm2 in area and closed at an average of 0.23 cm2 per day. The average 22.2 cm2 wound in our study, treated as described by Ferrell, would take 247 days to heal and cost $23,465. Using negative pressure wound therapy, the wound would heal in 97 days and cost $14,546. The study concluded that negative pressure wound therapy is an efficacious and economical treatment modality for a variety of chronic wounds. PMID:10687657

  6. Costs of Foraging Predispose Animals to Obesity-Related Mortality when Food Is Constantly Abundant

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.; Higginson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important medical problem affecting humans and animals in the developed world, but the evolutionary origins of the behaviours that cause obesity are poorly understood. The potential role of occasional gluts of food in determining fat-storage strategies for avoiding mortality have been overlooked, even though animals experienced such conditions in the recent evolutionary past and may follow the same strategies in the modern environment. Humans, domestic, and captive animals in the developed world are exposed to a surplus of calorie-rich food, conditions characterised as ‘constant-glut’. Here, we use a mathematical model to demonstrate that obesity-related mortality from poor health in a constant-glut environment should equal the average mortality rate in the ‘pre-modern’ environment when predation risk was more closely linked with foraging. It should therefore not be surprising that animals exposed to abundant food often over-eat to the point of ill-health. Our work suggests that individuals tend to defend a given excessive level of reserves because this level was adaptive when gluts were short-lived. The model predicts that mortality rate in constant-glut conditions can increase as the assumed health cost of being overweight decreases, meaning that any adaptation that reduced such health costs would have counter-intuitively led to an increase in mortality in the modern environment. Taken together, these results imply that efforts to reduce the incidence of obesity that are focussed on altering individual behaviour are likely to be ineffective because modern, constant-glut conditions trigger previously adaptive behavioural responses. PMID:26545121

  7. Calculation of Costs of Pregnancy- and Puerperium-related Care: Experience from a Hospital in a Low-income Country

    PubMed Central

    Medin, E.; Gazi, R.; Koehlmoos, T.P.; Rehnberg, C.; Saifi, R.; Bhuiya, A.; Khan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private healthcare sectors in Bangladesh, lack of price benchmarking leads to patients facing unexplained price discrimination when receiving healthcare services. The aim of the study was to calculate the hospital-care cost of disease-specific cases, specifically pregnancy- and puerperium-related cases, and to indentify the practical challenges of conducting costing studies in the hospital setting in Bangladesh. A combination of micro-costing and step-down cost allocation was used for collecting information on the cost items and, ultimately, for calculating the unit cost for each diagnostic case. Data were collected from the hospital records of 162 patients having 11 different clinical diagnoses. Caesarean section due to maternal and foetal complications was the most expensive type of case whereas the length of stay due to complications was the major driver of cost. Some constraints in keeping hospital medical records and accounting practices were observed. Despite these constraints, the findings of the study indicate that it is feasible to carry out a large-scale study to further explore the costs of different hospital-care services. PMID:20635637

  8. GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  9. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  10. Breast Cancer–Related Lymphedema: Comparing Direct Costs of a Prospective Surveillance Model and a Traditional Model of Care

    PubMed Central

    Pfalzer, Lucinda A.; Springer, Barbara; Levy, Ellen; McGarvey, Charles L.; Danoff, Jerome V.; Gerber, Lynn H.; Soballe, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary prevention involves monitoring and screening to prevent negative sequelae from chronic diseases such as cancer. Breast cancer treatment sequelae, such as lymphedema, may occur early or late and often negatively affect function. Secondary prevention through prospective physical therapy surveillance aids in early identification and treatment of breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL). Early intervention may reduce the need for intensive rehabilitation and may be cost saving. This perspective article compares a prospective surveillance model with a traditional model of impairment-based care and examines direct treatment costs associated with each program. Intervention and supply costs were estimated based on the Medicare 2009 physician fee schedule for 2 groups: (1) a prospective surveillance model group (PSM group) and (2) a traditional model group (TM group). The PSM group comprised all women with breast cancer who were receiving interval prospective surveillance, assuming that one third would develop early-stage BCRL. The prospective surveillance model includes the cost of screening all women plus the cost of intervention for early-stage BCRL. The TM group comprised women referred for BCRL treatment using a traditional model of referral based on late-stage lymphedema. The traditional model cost includes the direct cost of treating patients with advanced-stage lymphedema. The cost to manage early-stage BCRL per patient per year using a prospective surveillance model is $636.19. The cost to manage late-stage BCRL per patient per year using a traditional model is $3,124.92. The prospective surveillance model is emerging as the standard of care in breast cancer treatment and is a potential cost-saving mechanism for BCRL treatment. Further analysis of indirect costs and utility is necessary to assess cost-effectiveness. A shift in the paradigm of physical therapy toward a prospective surveillance model is warranted. PMID:21921254