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1

Planet Formation: Terrestrial and Extra Solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conference on Planet Formation: Terrestrial and Extra Solar was held near the end of a three month workshop of the same name. The purpose of the conference was to discuss topics in planet formation, evolution, and detection. The recent discoveries of extrasolar planets(now numbering around 100), combined with recently obtained observational upper limits on the lifetimes of protoplanetary disks, make this an ideal time to rethink how planets form. This program will examine the formation process from dust grains to planetesimals, from planetesimals to Earth mass bodies or multiple-Earth mass cores, and from cores to gas giant planets. It will also consider post-formation evolution, e.g., planet-disk interactions, in an attempt to understand both the very short orbital periods of many of the extrasolar planets, and their often large eccentricities.

Lin, Douglas N. C.; Lunine, Jonathan; Murray, Norman

2004-03-01

2

SETI [Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some critics of the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) like to bolster their arguments with what they call the Fermi Paradox. Legend has it that one day at Los Alamos, shortly after the Alamogordo test (when the first atomic bomb was exploded in the desert about 50 miles northwest of this town on July 16, 1945), Enrico Fermi abruptly broke

B. M. Oliver

1994-01-01

3

The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence.  

PubMed

Modern history of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is reviewed. The history of radio searches is discussed, as well as the major advances that have occurred in radio searches and prospects for new instruments and search strategies. Recent recognition that searches for optical and infrared signals make sense, and the reasons for this are described, as well as the equipment and special detection methods used in optical searches. The long-range future of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) is discussed in the context of the history of rapid change, on the cosmic and even the human time scale, of the paradigms guiding SETI searches. This suggests that SETI searches be conducted with a very open mind. PMID:21220287

Drake, Frank

2011-02-13

4

METI: Messaging to ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perhaps, after 50 years of listening to nothing but cosmic static, it is time to recognize that the time has come for humankind to take the lead in helping to end the Great Silence. Could it be that the future of SETI lies not in receiving, but rather in transmitting? In this chapter we introduce Messaging to Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (METI) as a complementary science to SETI observations.

Zaitsev, Alexander L.

5

Terrestrial planet formation in extra-solar planetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial planets form in a series of dynamical steps from the solid component of circumstellar disks. First, km-sized planetesimals form likely via a combination of sticky collisions, turbulent concentration of solids, and gravitational collapse from micron-sized dust grains in the thin disk midplane. Second, planetesimals coalesce to form Moon- to Mars-sized protoplanets, also called “planetary embryos”. Finally, full-sized terrestrial planets accrete from protoplanets and planetesimals. This final stage of accretion lasts about 10-100 Myr and is strongly affected by gravitational perturbations from any gas giant planets, which are constrained to form more quickly, during the 1-10 Myr lifetime of the gaseous component of the disk. It is during this final stage that the bulk compositions and volatile (e.g., water) contents of terrestrial planets are set, depending on their feeding zones and the amount of radial mixing that occurs. The main factors that influence terrestrial planet formation are the mass and surface density profile of the disk, and the perturbations from giant planets and binary companions if they exist. Simple accretion models predicts that low-mass stars should form small, dry planets in their habitable zones. The migration of a giant planet through a disk of rocky bodies does not completely impede terrestrial planet growth. Rather, “hot Jupiter” systems are likely to also contain exterior, very water-rich Earth-like planets, and also “hot Earths”, very close-in rocky planets. Roughly one third of the known systems of extra-solar (giant) planets could allow a terrestrial planet to form in the habitable zone.

Raymond, Sean N.

2008-05-01

6

The Opportunities and Challenges in the Use of Extra-Terrestrial Acoustics in the Exploration of the Oceans of Icy Planetary Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic radiation is the signal of choice for exploring Earth's oceans. Its potential application for the oceans of icy moons requires investigation. However acoustic technology needs to be treated with care for extra-terrestrial purposes. Instruments, calibrations, and predictive codes that have served well on Earth may require fundamental redesign for use on other worlds. However when such an assessment is achieved, acoustic signals open up the possibility of exploring volumes exceeding one million cubic kilometres in a few minutes. This paper begins at tutorial level for novice acousticians, illustrating the principles by which acoustics can be used to monitor the environment at great distances from the source, both by projecting out signals and by using natural signals of opportunity. It then progresses to calculations for a generic icy moon (which resembles, but does not model Europa), proceeding from tutorial calculations of `flat world' models to calculate the propagation times for pulses to circumpropagate around the entire moon. Given that a single emitted pulse can produce multiple arrivals from different propagation paths, the paper discusses how the structure of the received time history can be used to monitor changes in the temperature profile in the ocean, position of the water/ice layer and the asphericity of the moon during orbit.

Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.; Finfer, D. C.

2012-12-01

7

The extra-terrestrial vacuum-ultraviolet wavelength range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and extra-terrestrial range at wavelengths from 10 nm to 300 nm is absorbed in the upper atmosphere by ozone, molecular and atomic oxygen, and molecular nitrogen. Observations at wavelengths down to ≈ 200 nm can be carried out from stratospheric balloons, and observations below 200 nm require space platforms operating at altitudes above 250

J. Gethyn Timothy; Klaus Wilhelm; Lidong Xia

2010-01-01

8

An energy-efficient architecture for multi-hop communication between rovers and satellites in extra-terrestrial surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past three decades, several man-made vehicles have being sent into space to explore the extra-terrestrial bodies. As the search for water and other useful substances in the extra-terrestrial surfaces increases, this exploration activity is set to dramatically increase over the next decade (2020); with NASA planning to explore the surface of Mars, Moon and other planets and satellites.

Daniel Irwin; Hrishikesh Venkataraman; Gabriel-Miro Muntean

2012-01-01

9

Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and

Zsolt Hetesi

2010-01-01

10

Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

Hetesi, Zsolt

2010-03-01

11

The weak force and SETH: The search for ExtraTerrestrial Homochirality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality-SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how

Alexandra J. MacDermott

1996-01-01

12

The weak force and SETH: The search for ExtraTerrestrial Homochirality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality—SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how

Alexandra J. MacDermott

1996-01-01

13

Flat mirror optics to study extra-solar terrestrial planets from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is currently envisioned as a 75-1,000 m, interferometer with four free-flying elements to detect and obtain spectra of extra-solar Earth-like planets. Because of the ambitious nature of the mission, a low-cost, precursor interferometer capable of detecting the nearest extra-solar planets would be very beneficial. It has been argued (P. Bely et al, N. Woolf et

R. Angel; J. Burge; N. Woolf

1999-01-01

14

Searching for extra-terrestrial intelligence and the discovering of extrasolar planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance, instrumentality, and the status in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, and, in addition, the SETI program and its development, are introduced. Especial emphasis is on the discovery of extrasolar planets, its purpose, ways and means, achievement, and future.Finding extrasolar planets is one of the most popular issues at present. It will be one of the

Guang-Jie Wu; Dao-Han Chen

2002-01-01

15

Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity May Help in Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main strategies in Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is trying to overhearcommunications between advanced civilizations. However, there is a (seeming) problem with this approach:advanced civilizations, most probably, save communication expenses by maximally compressingtheir messages, and the notion of a maximally compressed message is naturally formalized as a messagex for which Kolmogorov complexity C(x) is close to

M. Schmidt

1999-01-01

16

On the relationship between extra-terrestrial radiation and surface pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface pressure of an Antarctic station displays two minima, one in spring, the other in autumn. It is believed that these minima are caused by radiative forcing, as the gradient of the extra-terrestrial radiation is largest during the two equinoxes. The best correlation (r = 0.85) was obtained when the pressure lagged the radiation gradient by ten days.

Gerd Wendler; Michael Pook

1996-01-01

17

The implications of the discovery of extra-terrestrial life for religion.  

PubMed

This paper asks about the future of religion: (i) Will confirmation of extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) cause terrestrial religion to collapse? 'No' is the answer based upon a summary of the 'Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey'. Then the paper examines four specific challenges to traditional doctrinal belief likely to be raised at the detection of ETI: (ii) What is the scope of God's creation? (iii) What can we expect regarding the moral character of ETI? (iv) Is one earthly incarnation in Jesus Christ enough for the entire cosmos, or should we expect multiple incarnations on multiple planets? (v) Will contact with more advanced ETI diminish human dignity? More than probable contact with extra-terrestrial intelligence will expand the Bible's vision so that all of creation--including the 13.7 billion year history of the universe replete with all of God's creatures--will be seen as the gift of a loving and gracious God. PMID:21220288

Peters, Ted

2011-02-13

18

Extra-terrestrial igneous granites and related rocks: A review of their occurrence and petrogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The telluric planets and the asteroid belt display the same internal structure with a metallic inner core and a silicate outer shell. Experimental data and petrological evidence in silicate systems show that granite can be produced by extreme igneous differentiation through various types of igneous processes.On Moon, 4.4-3.9 Ga granite clasts display dry mineral assemblages. They correspond to at least 8 discrete intrusive events. Large K/Ca enrichment and low REE abundances in granite relative to KREEP are consistent with silicate liquid immiscibility, a process observed in melt inclusions within olivine of lunar basalts and in lunar meteorites. Steep-sided domes identified by remote sensing can represent intrusive or extrusive felsic formations.On Mars, black-and-white rhythmic layers observed on the Tharsis rise along the flanks of the peripheral scarps of the Tharsis Montes giant volcanoes suggest the possible eruption of felsic pyroclastites. Though no true granites were found so far in the Martian SNC meteorites, felsic glasses and mesostases were identified and a component close to terrestrial continental (granitic) crust is inferred from trace element and isotope systematics.Venus has suffered extensive volcanic resurfacing, whereas folded and faulted areas resemble terrestrial continents. Near large shield volcanoes, with dominant basaltic compositions, steep-sided domes have been interpreted as non-degassed silicic extrusions. The hypothesis of a granitic component is "tantalising".Extra-terrestrial granite is frequently found as clasts and mesostases in asteroidal meteorites. Porphyritic textures, with alkali feldspar crystals up to several centimetres in size, were observed in silicate enclaves within iron meteorites. In the chondrite clan, polymict breccias can contain granitic clasts, whose provenance is debated. One clast from the Adzhi-Bogdo meteorite yields a 4.53 ± 0.03 Ga Pb-Pb age, making it the oldest known granite in the solar system.The vast majority of granitic materials recognised so far in the extra-terrestrial record are characterised by ferroan A-type compositions, characterised by high to very high K2O and medium CaO contents, sodic varieties being exceedingly rare. Textural evidence of graphic quartz-alkali feldspar intergrowths within crystallised products suggests that they are igneous in origin and crystallised quickly from a liquid. In water-depleted to water-free environments, fluorine and chlorine can play significant roles, as their effects on liquidus temperatures and crystallising assemblages are nearly identical to those of water. The distribution of alkalis and alkaline earths cannot be related only to extensive crystal fractionation, but is likely induced by supplementary silicate liquid immiscibility. Medium-temperature silicate liquid immiscibility is well known as a mode of differentiation in experimental petrology studies at very low pressures on systems dominated by Fe, Ti, K, and P as major elements.The ultimate question is, therefore, not whether granite (s.l.) occurs in any given planetary body, but if sufficient volumes of granitic materials could have been produced to constitute stable continental nuclei.

Bonin, Bernard

2012-11-01

19

Power optimization of an extra-terrestrial, solar-radiant stirling heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power output and thermal efficiency of a finite-time, optimized, extra-terrestrial, solar-radiant Stirling heat engine have been studied. The thermodynamic model adopted is a regenerative gas Stirling cycle coupled to a heat source and heat sink by radiant heat transfer. Both the heat source and sink are assumed to have infinite heat-capacity rates. Expressions are obtained for optimum power and

David A. Blank; Chih Wu

1995-01-01

20

Techniques for the measurement of extra-terrestrial soft x-radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic spectrum has no clearly defined boundaries separating one part from another. Rather has each region become associated with a name which has arisen historically. It is therefore necessary to make some fairly arbitrary decision on the region to be included in the term soft X-radiation. The study of extra-terrestrial X-radiation grew historically from photometer type measurements using metal

R. L. F. Boyd; R. L. F

1965-01-01

21

The weak force and SETH: The search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality  

SciTech Connect

We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality{emdash}SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the {ital Z}{sup 0} boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how the resulting small excess of the more stable enantiomer may be amplified to homochirality. Titan and comets are good places to test for emerging pre-biotic homochirality, while on Mars there may be traces of homochirality as a relic of extinct life. Our calculations of the PVED show that the natural L-amino acids are indeed more stable than their enantiomers, as are several key D-sugars and right-hand helical DNA. Thiosubstituted DNA analogues show particularly large PVEDs. L-quartz is also more stable than D-quartz, and we believe that further crystal counts should be carried out to establish whether reported excesses of L quartz are real. Finding extra-terrestrial molecules of the same hand as on Earth would lend support to the universal chiral influence of the weak force. We describe a novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, which we hope to use to detect optical rotation on other planets. Moving parts are avoided by replacing the normal rotating polarizer by multiple fixed polarizers at different angles as in the eye of the bee. Even if we do not find the same hand as on Earth, finding extra-terrestrial optical rotation would be of enormous importance as it would still be the homochiral signature of life. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

MacDermott, A.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

1996-07-01

22

Fear, pandemonium, equanimity and delight: human responses to extra-terrestrial life.  

PubMed

How will people respond to the discovery of extra-terrestrial life? Potentially useful resources for addressing this question include historical prototypes, disaster studies and survey research. Reactions will depend on the interplay of the characteristics of the newly found life, the unfolding of the discovery, the context and content of the message and human information processing as shaped by biology, culture and psychology. Pre-existing images of extra-terrestrials as god-like, demonic, or artificial will influence first impressions that may prove highly resistant to change. Most probably people will develop comprehensive images based on minimal information and assess extra-terrestrials in the same ways that they assess one another. Although it is easy to develop frightening scenarios, finding microbial life in our Solar System or intercepting a microwave transmission from many light years away are less likely to be met with adverse reactions such as fear and pandemonium than with positive reactions such as equanimity and delight. PMID:21220289

Harrison, Albert A

2011-02-13

23

Predicting what extra-terrestrials will be like: and preparing for the worst.  

PubMed

It is difficult to imagine evolution in alien biospheres operating in any manner other than Darwinian. Yet, it is also widely assumed that alien life-forms will be just that: strange, un-nerving and probably repulsive. There are two reasons for this view. First, it is assumed that the range of habitable environments available to extra-terrestrial life is far wider than on Earth. I suggest, however, that terrestrial life is close to the physical and chemical limits of life anywhere. Second, it is a neo-Darwinian orthodoxy that evolution lacks predictability; imagining what extra-terrestrial life would look like in any detail is a futile exercise. To the contrary, I suggest that the outcomes of evolution are remarkably predictable. This, however, leads us to consider two opposites, both of which should make our blood run cold. The first, and actually extremely unlikely, is that alien biospheres will be strikingly similar to our terrestrial equivalent and that in such biospheres intelligence will inevitably emerge. The reasons for this revolve around the ubiquity of evolutionary convergence, the determinate structure of the Tree of Life and molecular inherency. But if something like a human is an inevitability, why do I also claim that the first possibility is 'extremely unlikely'? Simply because the other possibility is actually the correct answer. Paradoxically, we and our biosphere are completely alone. So which is worse? Meeting ourselves or meeting nobody? PMID:21220280

Morris, Simon Conway

2011-02-13

24

Montana Evidence for Extra-Terrestrial Impact Event That Caused Ice-Age Mammal Die- Off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence has been found in Montana for an extra-terrestrial impact event previously documented in the States of AZ, NM, NC, and SC and in Alberta and Manitoba. A mammoth fossil site dated at 11.5 ka (C14) before present (BP) was described in 1969 as the last mammoth occurrence in Montana. The mammoth remains were found in an organic-rich layer--a black mat. The black mat contains abundant charcoal (evidence for forest fire), black carbon glass foam, plant material deposited in a pond, and unrusted iron micro-meteorites. SEM photos of iron micro-meteorites reveal fusion crusts, flow lines, and micro-impact craters--direct evidence for an extra- terrestrial origin. One 140 ?m long micro-meteorite is 96 wt.% Fe and 4% Mn. Another is 71% Fe and 29% Ti. Mammoth tusks contain rusty pits, consistent with iron micro-meteorites that were embedded and then rusted out. A sample of carbon glass in the black mat contains 62% C, 22% O, 6% Fe, 4% Ca, 4% Si, and 2% Al. At the Indian Creek Archeological Site near Townsend, MT below the cultural layers and below a 11.2 ka (C14) volcanic ash layer there are individual glass bubbles about 1 mm in diameter with micro-impact craters. The size distribution of these micro-craters resembles the size distribution of lunar craters, but at a vastly different scale. The glass contains 53% C, 33% O, 6% Ca, 4% Si, 2% Al, 1% Mg, and 0.6% K. The carbon glass and micro-meteorites suggest a comet rather a meteorite origin for the extra-terrestrial material.

Baker, D. W.; Miranda, P. J.; Gibbs, K. E.

2008-05-01

25

Chemical methods for searching for evidence of extra-terrestrial life.  

PubMed

This paper describes the chemical concepts used for the purpose of detecting life in extra-terrestrial situations. These methods, developed initially within the oil industry, have been used to determine when life began on Earth and for investigating the Moon and Mars via space missions. In the case of Mars, the Viking missions led to the realization that we had meteorites from Mars on Earth. The study of Martian meteorites in the laboratory provides tantalizing clues for life on Mars in both the ancient and recent past. Meteorite analyses led to the launch of the Beagle 2 spacecraft, which was designed to prove that life-detection results obtained on Earth were authentic and not confused by terrestrial contamination. Some suggestions are made for future work. PMID:21220284

Pillinger, Colin

2011-02-13

26

The detection of extra-terrestrial life and the consequences for science and society.  

PubMed

Astronomers are now able to detect planets orbiting stars other than the Sun where life may exist, and living generations could see the signatures of extra-terrestrial life being detected. Should it turn out that we are not alone in the Universe, it will fundamentally affect how humanity understands itself--and we need to be prepared for the consequences. A Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society in London, 6-9 Carlton House Terrace, on 25-26 January 2010, addressed not only the scientific but also the societal agenda, with presentations covering a large diversity of topics. PMID:21220276

Dominik, Martin; Zarnecki, John C

2011-02-13

27

Origins of Non-mass-dependent Fractionation of Extra-terrestrial Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of oxygen isotopes in meteorites and within the earliest solids that formed in the solar system hints that the precursors of these materials must have undergone a mass-independent process. The mass-independent process is specifically one that fractionates 16O from 17O and 18O. This chemical signature is indicative of non-equilibrium processing, which bear resemblance to some unusual terrestrial phenomenon such as fractionation of ozone in the upper Earth atmosphere. That the mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes is preserved within petrological records presents planetary scientists interesting clues to the events that may have occurred during the formation of the solar system. Currently, there are several hypotheses on the origins of the oxygen isotope distribution within primitive planetary materials, which include both thermal and photochemical models. We present a new model based on a physico-chemical hypothesis for the origin of non-mass-dependent O-isotope distribution in oxygen-bearing extra-terrestrial materials, which originated from the disproportionation of CO in dark molecular clouds to create CO2 reservoirs. The disproportionation created a reservoir of heavy oxygen isotopes and could have occurred throughout the evolution of the disk. The CO2 was a carrier of the isotope anomaly in the solar nebula and we propose that non-steady-state mixing of these reservoirs with the early rock-forming materials during their formation corresponds with the birth and evolution of the solar system.

Barcena, Homar; Connolly, Harold C.

2012-08-01

28

Likelihood deconvolution of diffuse prompt and extra-terrestrial neutrino fluxes in the AMANDA-II detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unknown flux of prompt atmospheric neutrinos presents a challenging background to searches for extra-terrestrial neutrinos in high-energy detectors. Uncertainties in this flux will weaken the power of the detector to place constraints on other expected signals. A new likelihood analysis, using the full information present in event arrival directions and energy will be presented, which allows simultaneous constraints on

Gary C. Hill

2008-01-01

29

The New Worlds Observer: a mission for high-resolution spectroscopy of extra-solar terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Worlds Observer (NWO) is a proposed space mission to provide high resolution spectroscopy from the far UV to the near IR of extra-solar terrestrial sized planets. The design of NWO is based on the concept of a large, space-based, pinhole camera made up of two spacecraft flying in formation. The first spacecraft is a large, thin occulting shield

Willard L. Simmons; Webster C. Cash; Sara Seager; Erik Wilkinson; N. Jeremy Kasdin; Robert J. Vanderbei; Naomi Chow; Erica Gralla; Johanna Kleingeld

2004-01-01

30

Catastrophic events on the terrestrial planetary bodies in Phanerozoic period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis of the catastrophic events on the moon, the Earth, Mars and Venus 0.037 to 1.0 b.y. ago is provided. The correlation between the intensity of cratering on the terrestrial planetary bodies and cosmic age of meteorites is shown. Synchronous splash of meteoritic bombardment of the moon and the terrestrial planets 500-700 m.y. ago is noted. That is one

A. B. Korol; K. K. Kamensky

1997-01-01

31

Tectonothermal evolution of solid bodies: terrestrial planets, exoplanets and moons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for understanding the tectonothermal evolution of solid planetary bodies has historically been lacking owing to sparse observational constraints. Developments in simulating the physical interiors and tectonic behaviour of terrestrial planets have allowed insights into the relevant physics and important factors governing planetary behaviour. This contribution summarises the critical factors in determining a planet's tectonic regime, and the application

C. J. ONeill

2012-01-01

32

Searches for a diffuse flux of extra-terrestrial muon neutrinos with AMANDA-II and IceCube  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMANDA-II data collected during the period 2000-03 have been analysed in a search for a diffuse flux of high-energy extra-terrestrial neutrinos from the sum of all sources in the universe. With no excess of events seen, an upper limit on an E-2 flux of E2 Phi < 8.8 x 10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 was obtained. The astrophysical implications

Kotoyo Hoshina; Jessica Hodges; Gary C. Hill

2008-01-01

33

The game of active search for extra-terrestrial intelligence: breaking the `Great Silence'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been performed principally as a one-way survey, listening of radio frequencies across the Milky Way and other galaxies. However, scientists have engaged in an active messaging only rarely. This suggests the simple rationale that if other civilizations exist and take a similar approach to ours, namely listening but not broadcasting, the result is a silent universe. A simple game theoretical model, the prisoner's dilemma, explains this situation: each player (civilization) can passively search (defect), or actively search and broadcast (cooperate). In order to maximize the payoff (or, equivalently, minimize the risks) the best strategy is not to broadcast. In fact, the active search has been opposed on the basis that it might be dangerous to expose ourselves. However, most of these ideas have not been based on objective arguments, and ignore accounting of the possible gains and losses. Thus, the question stands: should we perform an active search? I develop a game-theoretical framework where civilizations can be of different types, and explicitly apply it to a situation where societies are either interested in establishing a two-way communication or belligerent and in urge to exploit ours. The framework gives a quantitative solution (a mixed-strategy), which is how frequent we should perform the active SETI. This frequency is roughly proportional to the inverse of the risk, and can be extremely small. However, given the immense amount of stars being scanned, it supports active SETI. The model is compared with simulations, and the possible actions are evaluated through the San Marino scale, measuring the risks of messaging.

de Vladar, Harold P.

2013-01-01

34

The New Worlds Observer: a mission for high-resolution spectroscopy of extra-solar terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Worlds Observer (NWO) is a proposed space mission to provide high resolution spectroscopy from the far UV to the near IR of extra-solar terrestrial sized planets. The design of NWO is based on the concept of a large, space-based, pinhole camera made up of two spacecraft flying in formation. The first spacecraft is a large, thin occulting shield (perhaps hundreds of meters in diameter) with a shaped "pinhole" aperture about 10m in diameter. The second spacecraft is a conventional-quality space telescope (possibly with a 10m primary mirror) which "flies" through the pinhole image of the planetary system to observe the extra-solar planets free from stellar background. In this paper we describe the design of the two spacecraft system. In particular, the shaped-pinhole design utilizes the shaped-pupil coronagraph pioneered for the Terrestrial Planet Finder. In this paper we describe some of the NWO's technology challenges and science opportunities. Additionally, we describe an extension of the design to provide 100km resolution images of extra-solar planets.

Simmons, Willard L.; Cash, Webster C.; Seager, Sara; Wilkinson, Erik; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Chow, Naomi; Gralla, Erica; Kleingeld, Johanna

2004-10-01

35

Extra Low-Frequency Terrestrial Radio-Wave Field Calculations with the Zonal Harmonics Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of the zonal harmonics series for calculating the terrestrial wave guide fields directly is described. The analysis is extended to include radio waves propagating into sea water or below the earth's surface. A sample calculation of ELF radio waves is ...

J. R. Johler R. L. Lewis

1968-01-01

36

First stage identification of syntactic elements in an extra-terrestrial signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

By investigating the generic attributes of a representative set of terrestrial languages at varying levels of abstraction, it is our endeavour to try and isolate elements of the signal universe, which are computationally tractable for its detection and structural decipherment. Ultimately, our aim is to contribute in some way to the understanding of what ‘languageness’ actually is. This paper describes

John Elliott

2011-01-01

37

Extra Low-Frequency Terrestrial Radio-Wave Field Calculations with the Zonal Harmonics Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the zonal harmonics series for calculating the terrestrial wave guide fields directly is described. The analysis is extended to include radio waves propagating into sea water or below the earth's surface. A sample calculation of ELF radio waves is analyzed into a direct wave and a wave that has traveled the circumference of the earth. The location of

J. Ralph Johler; Richard L. Lewis

1969-01-01

38

An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can\\u000alead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial\\u000aplanet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can\\u000abe photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen\\u000athen may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front

M. Jura

2004-01-01

39

Extra terrestrial abiogenic organization of organic matter: The hollow spheres of the Orgueil meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of the Orgueil meteorite were macerated in mineral acids (HNO3-HF-HNO3) to dissolve the mineral matrix and separate the acid-resistant organic residues; a routine procedure in the extraction of pollen and spores from terrestrial sediments. Numerous spherical hollow objects were found, optically resembling the brown amorphous residual organic matrix of the meteorite. Their morphology, size-distribution, and chemical composition, revealed by

Martine Rossignol-Strick; Elso S. Barghoorn

1971-01-01

40

Extra-terrestrial life in the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision plan and beyond.  

PubMed

Our exciting time allows us to contemplate the moment in the not-too-distant future when we can detect the presence of life on worlds orbiting stars other than our Sun. It will not be easy and will require the development and use of the very latest technologies. It also very probably demands deployment in space of relevant instrumentation in order to carry out these investigations. The European Space Agency has been involved in the studies and development of the required technologies for more than a decade and is currently formulating a roadmap for how to achieve the ultimate detection of signs of life as we know it on terrestrial exoplanets. The major elements of the roadmap consist of the following. First, the search for and detection of terrestrial exoplanets. Here, some progress has been made recently and is reported in this paper. Second, the more and more detailed study of the physical characteristics of such exoplanets. Finally, the search for biomarkers--indicators of biological activity--that can be observed at interstellar distances. The last is probably one of the most difficult problems ever contemplated by observational astronomy. PMID:21220282

Fridlund, Malcolm

2011-02-13

41

First stage identification of syntactic elements in an extra-terrestrial signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By investigating the generic attributes of a representative set of terrestrial languages at varying levels of abstraction, it is our endeavour to try and isolate elements of the signal universe, which are computationally tractable for its detection and structural decipherment. Ultimately, our aim is to contribute in some way to the understanding of what 'languageness' actually is. This paper describes algorithms and software developed to characterise and detect generic intelligent language-like features in an input signal, using natural language learning techniques: looking for characteristic statistical "language-signatures" in test corpora. As a first step towards such species-independent language-detection, we present a suite of programs to analyse digital representations of a range of data, and use the results to extrapolate whether or not there are language-like structures which distinguish this data from other sources, such as music, images, and white noise.

Elliott, John

2011-02-01

42

Production of pre-biotic molecules from extra-terrestrial ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts of interstellar ices on early Earth could have been partially responsible for the creation of amino acids on the planet. We present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of shock compressed aqueous mixtures representative of astrochemical ices found on dust grains and within other celestial bodies. We discover that high shock velocities drive the synthesis of a number of transient, exotic C--N bonded species at significantly higher pressures and temperatures than previously studied. Upon quenching to lower pressure conditions we observe a simple mechanism for the formation of the alpha amino acid glycine, an important component of protein synthesis. We find that shock compression of astrophysical ices followed by rapid expansion is a viable pathway for amino acid formation on the primitive planet.

Goldman, N.

2009-12-01

43

Imagined tool-use in near and far space modulates the extra-striate body area.  

PubMed

Active tool-use can result in the incorporation of the tool into the body schema, e.g., the representation of the arm is enlarged according to tool length. This modification even influences the processing of space: using a long tool leads to a remapping of far space as near space. We here further investigate the interaction of the neural representations of the human body, tool use, and spatial domain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in twelve right-handed healthy individuals while they imagined moving a cylinder towards a target position in far or near space by mentally using either pliers or a joystick. The fMRI data revealed that already the imagined use of preferred tools in near and far space (i.e., pliers in far space, joystick in near space) modulated the neural activity in the extra-striate body area (EBA) located in the occipito-temporal cortex. Moreover, psycho-physical interaction analysis showed that during imagined tool-use the functional connectivity of left EBA to a network representing the near-personal space around the hand was strengthened. This increased functional connectivity is likely to reflect the neural processes underlying the incorporation of the tool into the body schema. Thus, the current data suggest that simulating tool-use modulates the representation of the human body in extra-striate cortex. PMID:22749971

Tomasino, Barbara; Weiss, Peter H; Fink, Gereon R

2012-06-29

44

the evolution of body proportions in terrestrial mammals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotion is a behaviour resulting from the interaction of the nervous and muculo­skeletal systems and the environment. However the musculo skeletal systems of some terrestrial mammals present an intrinsic ability to realize a dynamic stable locomotion. Actual anthropomorphic passive walkers demonstrate that a pure mechanical system with leg and arms is able to walk down an inclined plane. Numerical simulations

Rémi Hackert; Nadja Schilling; Martin S. Fischer

45

Estimates of Evaporation From Terrestrial Surface Water Bodies Using the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface modeling has led to significant advances in the understanding the role of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle in the Earth system. However, the representation of land surface of in these modeling approaches suffers from drawbacks such as lack of representation of terrestrial surface water bodies. These water bodies play an important role in the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles and thus should be included in the computation of the hydrologic budget. To emphasize the contribution of surface water bodies towards the total terrestrial evaporative flux, we present global estimates of monthly evaporation rates from lakes, rivers and reservoirs. The identification of lakes, river and reservoirs follows from the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (Lehner and Doll [2004]). Evaporation is estimated using the Penman formulation, using observed global net radiation and temperature data from Langley Surface Radiation Budget data. We compare our estimates with those from other studies for different hydrologic regions of the world (such as the Mississippi and the Congo basins).

Ortiz, V.; Goteti, G.; Famiglietti, J.

2005-12-01

46

Warming-induced reductions in body size are greater in aquatic than terrestrial species.  

PubMed

Most ectothermic organisms mature at smaller body sizes when reared in warmer conditions. This phenotypically plastic response, known as the "temperature-size rule" (TSR), is one of the most taxonomically widespread patterns in biology. However, the TSR remains a longstanding life-history puzzle for which no dominant driver has been found. We propose that oxygen supply plays a central role in explaining the magnitude of ectothermic temperature-size responses. Given the much lower oxygen availability and greater effort required to increase uptake in water vs. air, we predict that the TSR in aquatic organisms, especially larger species with lower surface area-body mass ratios, will be stronger than in terrestrial organisms. We performed a meta-analysis of 1,890 body mass responses to temperature in controlled experiments on 169 terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species. This reveals that the strength of the temperature-size response is greater in aquatic than terrestrial species. In animal species of ?100 mg dry mass, the temperature-size response of aquatic organisms is 10 times greater than in terrestrial organisms (-5.0% °C(-1) vs. -0.5% °C(-1)). Moreover, although the size response of small (<0.1 mg dry mass) aquatic and terrestrial species is similar, increases in species size cause the response to become increasingly negative in aquatic species, as predicted, but on average less negative in terrestrial species. These results support oxygen as a major driver of temperature-size responses in aquatic organisms. Further, the environment-dependent differences parallel latitudinal body size clines, and will influence predicted impacts of climate warming on food production, community structure, and food-web dynamics. PMID:23129645

Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Atkinson, David

2012-11-05

47

Is sexual body shape dimorphism consistent in aquatic and terrestrial chelonians?  

PubMed

Comparisons between aquatic and terrestrial species provide an opportunity to examine how sex-specific adaptations interact with the environment to influence body shape. In terrestrial female tortoises, selection for fecundity favors the development of a large internal abdominal cavity to accommodate the clutch; in conspecific males, sexual selection favors mobility with large openings in the shell. To examine to what extent such trends apply in aquatic chelonians we compared the body shape of males and females of two aquatic turtles (Chelodina colliei and Mauremys leprosa). In both species, females were larger than males. When controlled for body size, females exhibited a greater relative internal volume and a higher body condition index than males; both traits potentially correlate positively with fecundity. Males were more streamlined (hydrodynamic), and exhibited larger openings in the shell providing more space to move their longer limbs; such traits probably improve mobility and copulation ability (the males chase and grab the female for copulation). Overall, although the specific constraints imposed by terrestrial and aquatic locomotion shape the morphology of chelonians differently (aquatic turtles were flatter, hence more hydrodynamic than terrestrial tortoises), the direction for sexual shape dimorphism remained unaffected. Our main conclusion is that the direction of sexual shape dimorphism is probably more consistent than sexual size dimorphism in the animal kingdom. PMID:20832271

Bonnet, Xavier; Delmas, Virginie; El-Mouden, Hassan; Slimani, Tahar; Sterijovski, Bogoljub; Kuchling, Gerald

2010-09-15

48

Planning An Efficient Search For Extra-Solar Terrestrial Planets: How To Find Exo-Earths With NWO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for exoplanets is an important goal for the Astronomy community in the next decade. We discuss the feasibility of finding terrestrial planets around nearby stars using direct-detection methods. The probability of finding a planet in the habitable zone around a given star depends on its brightness and distance from Earth, the fraction of stellar systems that contain terrestrial planets (?Earth), and the characteristics of the observatory. We discuss the available target stars and the completeness of a search for terrestrial exoplanets given different mission constraints. New Worlds Observer (NWO) is a two-spacecraft mission that consists of an external starshade and an UV-optical space telescope, flying in tandem. In this paper, we focus on NWO's ability to complete a feasible observing schedule designed to find and characterize 30 Exo-Earths around nearby stars (if ?Earth = 1). NWO offers the ability to create flexible, adaptable observing schedules to meet a variety of observing goals.

Glassman, Tiffany M.; Newhart, L.; Barber, G.; Turnbull, M.; NWO Study Team

2009-01-01

49

Impact seismology on terrestrial planets and Small bodies (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On planetary bodies without atmosphere (e.g. the Moon, Jovian satellites, small bodies) or a planet with a weak atmosphere such as Mars, impacts of meteoroids are high potential seismic sources. During the Apollo seismic experiment on the Moon, impacts related seismic events were used to constrain the crustal structure, including estimates of lateral variations. (Chenet et al, EPSL, 2006) Moreover, the location and time of present-day lunar surface impacts with masses larger than about 1 kg can now be determined, as impacts generate light flashes observed from Earth with modest telescopes. The location of larger impacts (> 100 kg) can also be detected by High Resolution Optical Orbital cameras. As soon as they are located by these non-seismic methods, impacts become the only seismic sources that can be used by a single seismic station on a planet for inverting the interior structure. We review and present in this paper the main characteristics of the seismic source generated by an impact, in both amplitude and cutoff frequency, and compare these signals to shallow moonquakes as detected by Apollo. We focus on the largest impacts on the Moon, and show that they have a relatively low frequency cutoff frequency (< 1 Hz) associated with the shock wave generated during the impact. Both this cutoff frequency and the amplitude of the seismic wave allow us to constrain the mass and velocity of the impactor (Gudkova et al, Icarus, 2010, Kawamura et al, 2010). We then present mass-frequency models of impacts on the Moon from Apollo observations, and extrapolate these models to other planets and planetary bodies (Mars, Jovian satellites and small bodies). This allow us to constrain not only the expected amplitude of the micro-seismic noise associated with continuous impacts on airless planets (called the meteoritic hum, Lognonné et al, 2009) but also the expected detection frequency of impacts on future seismological missions, such as Moon missions (e.g. SELENE2, ILN, Lunette) or Mars missions (e.g. GEMS, NF or MarsNext). By using statistical simulation, the expected resolution in the seismic velocities models resulting from these future missions can be computed, and we illustrate this for the Moon (Yamada et al., 2010). We finally present and discuss new or exotic challenges such as impact seismology on small bodies or in-situ detection of the electromagnetic signals associated with impacts.

Lognonne, P.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Le Feuvre, M.; Gudkova, T.; Kawamura, T.; Garcia, R. F.; Johnson, C. L.; Yamada, R.; Weber, R. C.; Blitz, C.

2010-12-01

50

The search for extra-solar terrestrial planets: techniques and technology. Proceedings. Conference, Boulder, CO (USA), 14 - 17 May 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics were dealt with: search for extrasolar terrestrial planets, techniques, technology, planetary atmosphere evolution, solar system evolution, photometric search, radial velocity searches, photon-noise limit, astrometric searches, OSI mission, GAIA mission, ground-based interferometry, FRESIP mission, DARWIN project, and public involvement in extrasolar planet detection.

J. M. Shull; H. A. Thronson Jr.; S. A. Stern

1996-01-01

51

Migrating Neptune-class bodies as a source of large terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the discovery of more than 100 exosolar Jupiter-class planets the detection of Neptune-size and large terrestrial-like bodies will be the next major step in the search for exoplanets. Space-borne telescopes like COROT and Eddington using high precision photometry and the transit technique, will have the capability to detect exoplanets with sizes of 1.5-4 Earth radii at distances between 0.3-1

H. Lammer; F. Selsis; I. Ribas; H. I. M. Lichtenegger; T. Penz; E. F. Guinan; S. J. Bauer; W. W. Weiss

2003-01-01

52

Prospective Extra-Atmospheric Astronomical Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advantages of extra-atmospheric telescopes over terrestrial telescopes are outlined. An enumeration of the requirements of extra-atmospheric telescopes is given and the significance of extra-atmospheric astronomy with respect to the future of astronom...

V. G. Kurt

1973-01-01

53

Molecular phylogeny of selected predaceous leeches with reference to the evolution of body size and terrestrialism.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships of erpobdellid leeches collected throughout Europe were investigated using newly obtained mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO-I) gene sequence data from 10 taxa. Monophyly of the five European Erpobdella species (sub-family Erpobdellinae) was supported, but a newly discovered leech, E. wuttkei Kutschera, 2004 (the smallest member of its genus, discovered in an aquarium) was only distantly related to this clade. Three members of the semiaquatic Trochetinae were included in this study. The largest European leech species discovered so far, Trocheta haskonis Grosser, 2000, was found to be a terrestrial predator that feeds on earthworms. The rare species T. haskonis is the sister taxon of T. bykowskii Gedroyc, 1913, a well-known amphibious leech. Based on a comparison of body sizes and a phylogenetic tree the evolution of terrestrialism in the family Erpobdellidae is discussed. PMID:17046348

Pfeiffer, I; Brenig, B; Kutschera, U

2005-06-17

54

Niche Habitats for Extra-Terrestrial Life: The Potential for Astrobiology on the Moons of Saturn and Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology today has a strong anticipatory focus, and efforts are concentrated on determining the factors behind the potential presence, type, and distribution of life in our solar system and beyond. The critical requirements for life: a liquid solvent, and electron acceptors and donors for metabolism, guide the search, and is a central concept to the location and extent of circumstellar habitable zones. For our own solar system, however, the search can be widened beyond this narrow band of 'earth-like' conditions, and our increasing knowledge of the capabilities of life, as well as higher resolution imaging and analysis of solar system bodies, warrants the application of a more expansive habitable niche approach. The Saturnian and Jovian satellite systems are ideal for the application of this concept, and are here used to demonstrate how a collection of system characteristics may be used to assess the potential for individual bodies to harbour life. Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede in the Jovian system, and Enceladus, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, and Hyperion in the Saturnian system all possess characters that could make them conducive to the origin or maintenance of life upon or within them. The possibility of some of these bodies containing extraterrestrial life is reflected in future explorative missions.

Battison, Leila

2011-03-01

55

LINEAR ALLOMETRIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOTAL METABOLIC ENERGY PER LIFE SPAN AND BODY MASS OF TERRESTRIAL MAMMALS IN CAPTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Atanasov, A.T., 2006. Linear allometric relationship between total metabolic energy per life span and body mass of terrestrial mammals in captivity. Bulg. J. Vet. Med. , 9, No 3, 159 ?174. The bioenergetic studies on animals have shown that basal metabolic rate P (kJ\\/d), is related to the body mass M (kg) of animals as expressed by the equation:

A. T. Atanasov

2006-01-01

56

Terrestrial models for development of methods to search for life on Mars and other planetary bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful missions to Mars, Europa and other bodies of the Solar system have created a prerequisite to search for extraterrestrial life. The first attempts of microbial life detection on the Martian surface by the Viking landed missions gave no biological results. Microbiological investigations of the Martian subsurface ground ice layers seem to be more promising. It is well substantiated to consider the Antarctic ice sheet and the Antarctic and Arctic permafrost habitats as terrestrial analogues. The results of our long-standing microbiological studies of the Antarctic ice would provide the basis for detection of viable microbial cells on Mars. Our microbiological investigations of the most ancient and deepest strata of the Antarctic ice sheet for the first time gave evidence for the natural phenomenon of long-term anabiosis (preservation of viability and vitality for millennia years). A combination of classical microbiological methods, epifluorescence microscopy, SEM, TEM, molecular diagnostics, radiolabeling and other techniques made it possible for us to obtain a convincing proof of the presence of pro- and eukaryotes in the Antarctic ice sheet. In this communication we will review and discuss some critical issues related to the detection of viable microorganisms in cold terrestrial environments with regard to future search for microbial life and/or its biosignatures on extraterrestrial objects.

Abyzov, S. S.; Duxbury, N. S.; Fukuchi, M.; Hoover, R. B.; Kanda, H.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Naganuma, T.; Poglazova, M. N.; Ivanov, M. V.

57

Body mass explains characteristic scales of habitat selection in terrestrial mammals  

PubMed Central

Niche theory in its various forms is based on those environmental factors that permit species persistence, but less work has focused on defining the extent, or size, of a species’ environment: the area that explains a species’ presence at a point in space. We proposed that this habitat extent is identifiable from a characteristic scale of habitat selection, the spatial scale at which habitat best explains species’ occurrence. We hypothesized that this scale is predicted by body size. We tested this hypothesis on 12 sympatric terrestrial mammal species in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. For each species, habitat models varied across the 20 spatial scales tested. For six species, we found a characteristic scale; this scale was explained by species’ body mass in a quadratic relationship. Habitat measured at large scales best-predicted habitat selection in both large and small species, and small scales predict habitat extent in medium-sized species. The relationship between body size and habitat selection scale implies evolutionary adaptation to landscape heterogeneity as the driver of scale-dependent habitat selection.

Fisher, Jason T; Anholt, Brad; Volpe, John P

2011-01-01

58

The effects of temperature, desiccation, and body mass on the locomotion of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio laevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotion in terrestrial isopods is strongly influenced by body size and by abiotic factors. We determined the speeds of isopods of differing masses within a linear racetrack at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 °C. We also predicted maximum speeds based on the Froude number concept as originally applied to vertebrates. In addition we used a circular thermal gradient to examine

Tara M. Dailey; Dennis L. Claussen; Gregory B. Ladd; Shizuka T. Buckner

2009-01-01

59

Effect of Metal Mixtures (Cd and Zn) on Body Weight in Terrestrial Isopods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to cadmium and zinc mixtures on the weight of terrestrial isopods. Experiments were conducted using uncontaminated specimens of P. laevis. The isopods were exposed to various concentrations of cadmium and zinc sulfate in single- and mixed-metal experiments. The mean weight of the unexposed isopods in the control group

J. P. Odendaal; A. J. Reinecke

2004-01-01

60

Terrestrial models for development of methods to search for life on Mars and other planetary bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful missions to Mars, Europa and other bodies of the Solar system have created a prerequisite to search for extraterrestrial life. The first attempts of microbial life detection on the Martian surface by the Viking landed missions gave no biological results. Microbiological investigations of the Martian subsurface ground ice layers seem to be more promising. It is well substantiated to

S. S. Abyzov; N. S. Duxbury; M. Fukuchi; R. B. Hoover; H. Kanda; I. N. Mitskevich; A. L. Mulyukin; T. Naganuma; M. N. Poglazova; M. V. Ivanov

2004-01-01

61

Reduced survival and body size in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from a metal-polluted environment.  

PubMed

Terrestrial isopods (woodlice) may show trade-offs in life history parameters when exposed to toxins. We have shown previously [Jones and Hopkin (1996) Functional Ecology 10, 741-750] that woodlice which survive to reproduce in sites heavily polluted with metals from an industrial smelting works do not alter their reproductive allocation. This study investigates whether there are differences in the survival and body size of Porcellio scaber from these same populations. Specimens were collected from eight sites at different distances from the Avonmouth smelter, UK. The sites represented a gradient of concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in the woodlice, from background levels to a grossly contaminated sites close to the smelter. In laboratory trials, the number of days survived by starved males showed a significant decline with increased concentrations of Zn in those animals. The maximum size of both sexes declined significantly from the least to the most polluted sites. The most polluted sites had significantly fewer large animals. The cost of detoxifying assimilated metals appears to be reduced energy reserves and smaller body size. PMID:15093314

Jones, D T; Hopkin, S P

1998-01-01

62

The effects of temperature, desiccation, and body mass on the locomotion of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio laevis.  

PubMed

Locomotion in terrestrial isopods is strongly influenced by body size and by abiotic factors. We determined the speeds of isopods of differing masses within a linear racetrack at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C. We also predicted maximum speeds based on the Froude number concept as originally applied to vertebrates. In addition we used a circular thermal gradient to examine the temperature preferences of isopods, and we measured the effects of desiccation on locomotion. Measured speeds of the isopods progressively increased with temperature with an overall Q(10) of 1.64 and scaling exponents ranging from 0.38 to 0.63. The predicted maximum speeds were remarkably close to the measured speeds at the highest test temperature although the scaling exponents were closer to 0.15. The isopods did not exhibit a strong thermal preference within the gradient; however, they did generally avoid temperatures above 25 degrees C. Moderate desiccation had no apparent effect on locomotor performance, but there was a progressive decrease in speed once animals had lost more than 10% of their initial body mass. Though largely restricted to moist habitats, P. laevis can easily withstand short exposures to desiccating conditions, and they are capable of effective locomotion over a wide range of temperatures. Since they are nonconglobating, active escape appears to be their primary defense when threatened under exposed conditions. Although their maximum speeds may be limited both by temperature and by their inability to change gait, these speeds are clearly adequate for survival. PMID:19535030

Dailey, Tara M; Claussen, Dennis L; Ladd, Gregory B; Buckner, Shizuka T

2009-02-10

63

Oxygen consumption of the semi-terrestrial crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus in relation to body mass and temperature: an information theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pachygrapsus marmoratus is a semi-terrestrial crab and the most common grapsid crab in the intertidal belt of rocky shores throughout the Mediterranean\\u000a Sea, Black Sea and northeastern Atlantic. In this study, the combined effects of temperature (T), body mass (M), and sex (S) on the routine oxygen consumption rate (R) in P. marmoratus were quantified. The blotted wet body mass

Stelios Katsanevakis; John Xanthopoulos; Nikos Protopapas; George Verriopoulos

2007-01-01

64

The microbiome: the forgotten organ of the astronaut's body--probiotics beyond terrestrial limits.  

PubMed

Space medicine research has drawn immense attention toward provision of efficient life support systems during long-term missions into space. However, in extended missions, a wide range of diseases may affect astronauts. In space medicine research, the gastrointestinal microbiome and its role in maintaining astronauts' health has received little attention. We would like to draw researchers' attention to the significant role of microbiota. Because of the high number of microorganisms in the human body, man has been called a 'supra-organism' and gastrointestinal flora has been referred to as 'a virtual organ of the human body'. In space, the lifestyle, sterility of spaceship and environmental stresses can result in alterations in intestinal microbiota, which can lead to an impaired immunity and predispose astronauts to illness. This concern is heightened by increase in virulence of pathogens in microgravity. Thus, design of a personal probiotic kit is recommended to improve the health status of astronauts. PMID:22953705

Saei, Amir Ata; Barzegari, Abolfazl

2012-09-01

65

An interesting journey of an ingested needle: a case report and review of the literature on extra-abdominal migration of ingested Foreign bodies  

PubMed Central

Swallowed foreign bodies encounter a major problem especially in children, but fortunately they mostly do not cause any related complication and are easily passed with the stool. In this paper, an interesting journey of a needle is presented. A 20-year old female admitted to our emergency service after she had swallowed a sewing machine needle, which is initially observed in the stomach in the plain abdominal radiography. During the follow-up period, the needle traveled through bowels, and surprisingly was observed in the left lung on 10th day of the follow-up. It was removed with a thoracotomy and pneumotomy under the fluoroscopic guidance. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the day 5. We also review the literature on interesting extra-abdominal migrations of swallowing foreign bodies.

2011-01-01

66

An interesting journey of an ingested needle: a case report and review of the literature on extra-abdominal migration of ingested foreign bodies.  

PubMed

Swallowed foreign bodies encounter a major problem especially in children, but fortunately they mostly do not cause any related complication and are easily passed with the stool. In this paper, an interesting journey of a needle is presented. A 20-year old female admitted to our emergency service after she had swallowed a sewing machine needle, which is initially observed in the stomach in the plain abdominal radiography. During the follow-up period, the needle traveled through bowels, and surprisingly was observed in the left lung on 10th day of the follow-up. It was removed with a thoracotomy and pneumotomy under the fluoroscopic guidance. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the day 5. We also review the literature on interesting extra-abdominal migrations of swallowing foreign bodies. PMID:21615959

Ozkan, Zeynep; Kement, Metin; Karg?, Ahmet B; Censur, Zafer; Gezen, Fazli C; Vural, Selahattin; Oncel, Mustafa

2011-05-26

67

High-temperature fractionation of stable iron isotopes in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples determined by ultra-precise measurements with a 57Fe-58Fe double spike and MC-ICPMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed techniques for precise stable Fe isotope measurement utilising a 57Fe-58Fe double spike and pseudo-high-resolution MC-ICPMS. Instrumental mass bias is corrected using a 57Fe-58Fe double spike with a spike 58Fe/57Fe ratio of 1.012. Fe isotope analyses are carried out on a Nu Plasma MC-ICPMS with a DSN-100 desolvating nebuliser system. The MC-ICPMS is operated in pseudo-high-resolution mode with a mass resolution of ca. 3000 on all Fe isotopes permitting resolution of Fe isotope peaks from argide interferences. Residual interferences in the form of tails from these Ar-based interferences are corrected for by normalizing data to analyses of bracketing standards of the IRMM-014 standard. Repeated measurement of IRMM-014 yields an external reproducibility of 0.02‰ (2sd, n=26) on ?56Fe. Fe is separated from samples using conventional anion-exchange techniques. Replicate digestions of the JF-2 alkali feldspar standard yield an external reproducibility of 0.025‰ (2sd, n=5). Based on those results, error models predict that precisions of ? 0.01‰ (2sd) are attainable for standards and samples by combining multiple measurements of several sample digestions. We will present ultra-precise measurements of an array of international rock standards utilizing these techniques. We have obtained precise stable Fe isotope results on silicate minerals from a range of terrestrial magmatic rocks (basalt to rhyolite) and basaltic meteorites (angrites and eucrites). These results indicate that substantial stable Fe isotope fractionations (?56Fe = -1.0 to 0.85‰) exist in high-temperature magmatic systems on Earth, which appear to be redox-controlled. Fe2+-dominated minerals like olivine display marked enrichment in light isotopes of Fe (?56Fe = -0.35 to -0.30‰) compared to the host basaltic melt (?56Fe = 0.05 to 0.22‰). Conversely, clinopyroxene typically has a stable Fe isotope composition only slightly lower or similar to the host melt. Notably, plagioclase feldspar, which predominantly incorporates Fe3+ shows significantly heavy stable Fe isotope ratios (?56Fe = 0.25 to 0.42‰), particularly in rhyolitic and pegmatitic samples. Basaltic meteorites from planetesimals that differentiated in the early Solar System under reducing magmatic conditions, show muted stable Fe isotope fractionations between olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase, and a very limited range in stable Fe isotopes (?56Fe = 0.03 to 0.15‰). These results indicate that a significant stable Fe isotope fractionation between Fe2+ and Fe3+ exists at high temperatures in magmas, which is captured by minerals that crystallize with variable Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios. However, analyses of multiple individual olivine phenocrysts from a high-Mg basaltic andesite from a subduction setting on Earth show a wide range of ?56Fe (?56Fe = -1.0 to +0.19‰; n=9) implying that redox effects are not the sole influence on stable Fe isotope variations in magmas and their phenocryst assemblages at high temperatures.

Millet, M.; Baker, J.

2010-12-01

68

Histochemical and Ultrastructural Analyses of the Epithelial Cells of the Body Surface Skin from the Terrestrial Slug, Incilaria fruhstorferi.  

PubMed

Dorsal and ventral epithelium of the terrestrial slug, Incilaria fruhstorferi, is simple and consists of five cell types: microvillous, ciliated, round mucous, tubular mucous and channel. Microvillous cells were similar to human intestinal epithelial cells morphologically and functionally. At the base of microvilli, pinocytic vesicles which ultimately fused to form larger vacuoles, or multivesicular bodies were present. At the edge of tail or mouth, ciliated epithelial cells possessed the typical axonemes (9 plus 2 arrangement of microtubles). Mucous secretory cells were either tubular or round and their granules were membrane-bound and secreted by exocytosis. Granules of round mucous cells were proteinaceous but those of tubular cells were acidic mucopolysaccharides. Channel cells were elongate U-shaped and the central lumen was filled with a large amount of fluid (hemolymph). The function of channel cells is thought to remove hemolymph accumulated during hyperhydration. Our experiments of some markers-injection revealed that the fluid containing large molecules passed transcellularly from the hemolymph, across the basal or side region of the cell and into the central lumen. These results suggest that channel cell of the slug skin and vertebrate nephron showed some parallels in structure and function. PMID:18522470

Yamaguchi, K; Seo, N; Furuta, E

2000-11-01

69

Review of Extra-Terrestrial Mining Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Outer space contains a vast amount of resources that offer virtually unlimited wealth to the humans that can access and use them for commercial purposes. One of the key technologies for harvesting these resources is robotic mining of regolith, minerals, i...

P. J. Van Susante R. P. Mueller

2012-01-01

70

Directly interacting extra-terrestrial technological communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and distribution of intelligence in the galaxy is considered both in terms of the very great amounts of time that may have been available to the oldest civilisations which may exist and the capabilities of advanced, but not esoteric, technology. The effect of a 'multiplying' factor-colonisation-leads to a galactic scenario in which, by the present time, such older

D. Viewing

1975-01-01

71

Reduced survival and body size in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from a metal-polluted environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial isopods (woodlice) may show trade-offs in life history parameters when exposed to toxins. We have shown previously [Jones and Hopkin (1996) Functional Ecology 10, 741–750] that woodlice which survive to reproduce in sites heavily polluted with metals from an industrial smelting works do not alter their reproductive allocation. This study investigates whether there are differences in the survival and

D. T. Jones; S. P. Hopkin

1998-01-01

72

Internalization of REIC/Dkk-3 protein by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived embryoid bodies and extra-embryonic tissues.  

PubMed

REIC/Dkk-3 was first identified as a down-regulated gene in a number of human immortalized cells and human tumor-derived cell lines. Overexpression of the REIC/Dkk-3 gene using an adenovirus vector (Ad-REIC) has showed a potent selective therapeutic effect on various human cancers through induction of ER stress. Furthermore, we recently showed that Ad-REIC has an indirect host-mediated anti-tumor activity by induction of IL-7. However, the physiological function of REIC/Dkk-3 is still unclear. As a first step to study the possible receptor(s) for secreted REIC/Dkk-3, we analyzed the internalization of Cy3-labeled recombinant REIC/Dkk-3 protein. Among the cell lines screened, mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells showed a unique pattern of internalization. The internalization was observed in peripheral cells of spherical colonies formed spontaneously, but not in undifferentiated iPS cells. When we analyzed embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from iPS cells, REIC/Dkk-3 protein was internalized specifically by differentiated cells located at the periphery of EBs. Interestingly, Dkk-1 was internalized by undifferentiated cells at the center of the EBs. When developmental tissue was analyzed, internalization of REIC/Dkk-3 protein was strictly limited to extra-embryonic tissue, such as the trophectoderm layer of 4.5 days post-coitus (dpc) blastocysts and the chorionic membrane at 16.5 dpc. The mechanism of the internalization was confirmed to be endocytosis. These findings will contribute to knowledge on the interaction of REIC/Dkk-3 with a possible receptor(s). PMID:21042779

Kataoka, Ken; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Li, Kun Peng; Taketa, Chika; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Du, Gang; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Murata, Hitoshi; Huh, Nam-Ho

2010-12-01

73

Super-long anabiosis of ancient microorganisms in ice and terrestrial models for development of methods to search for life on Mars, Europa and other planetary bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful missions to Mars, Europe and other bodies of the Solar system have created a prerequisite to search for extraterrestrial life. The first attempts of microbial life detection on the Martian surface by the Viking landed missions gave no biological results. Microbiological investigations of the Martian subsurface ground ice layers seem to be more promising. It is well substantiated to consider the Antarctic ice sheet and the Antarctic and Arctic permafrost as terrestrial analogues of Martian habitats. The results of our long-standing microbiological studies of the Antarctic ice would provide the basis for detection of viable microbial cells on Mars. Our microbiological investigations of the deepest and thus most ancient strata of the Antarctic ice sheet for the first time gave evidence for the natural phenomenon of long-term anabiosis (preservation of viability and vitality for millennia years). A combination of classical microbiological methods, epifluorescence microscopy, SEM, TEM, molecular diagnostics, radioisotope labeling and other techniques made it possible for us to obtain convincing proof of the presence of pro- and eukaryotes in the Antarctic ice sheet. In this communication, we will review and discuss some critical issues related to the detection of viable microorganisms in cold terrestrial environments with regard to future searches for microbial life and/or its biological signatures on extraterrestrial objects.

Abyzov, S. S.; Duxbury, N. S.; Bobin, N. E.; Fukuchi, M.; Hoover, R. B.; Kanda, H.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Naganuma, T.; Poglazova, M. N.; Ivanov, M. V.

2006-01-01

74

Phonocephalography extra-cephalic.  

PubMed

Phonocephalography is the amplification and recording of sounds from the surface and cavities of the head aiming for the introduction of a non-invasive pre-angiographic technique. Nasopharyngeal Phonocephalography was found successful for recording of normal tracing. The effect of the extra-cephalic sounds and factors on the tracing were discussed. Phonomyelography is the application of the idea on the vertebral column. The tracing recorded was demonstrated. Modern technology has undergone considerable progress for the introduction of non-invasive techniques in medical diagnosis. Since Laennec introduced his stethoscope auscultation, amplification and recording of sounds in cardiology had reached a respectable diagnostic procedure. This article represents a trial for the introduction of a simple non-invasive pre-angiographic diagnostic technique by amplification and recording of sounds from the surface and cavities of the body. PMID:1078315

Tewfik, S; Aziz, M; el Nadi, F

1976-03-01

75

Effects of Norepinephrine and Epinephrine on Resting Membrane Potential in Body Wall Muscle Cells of Lumbricus Terrestris Eearthworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norepinephrine and to a lesser extent epinephrine increased the resting membrane potential of earthworm body wall muscle cells. Ouabain, phentolamine, propranolol, and replacement of Ca2+ with Mg2+ in the incubation medium abolished this effect. External 3'5'-cAMP in high concentration, dibutyryl cAMP, and dibutyryl cGMP did not induced hyperpolarization of muscle cell membranes. It was concluded that norepinephrine and epinephrine increased

E. M. Volkov; L. F. Nurullin; E. E. Nikol'skii; G. I. Blokhina

2001-01-01

76

Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. III. Energy changes of the centre of mass as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals.  

PubMed

This is the third in a series of four papers examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. It reports measurements of the mechanical work required (ECM, tot) to lift and reaccelerate an animal's centre of mass within each step as a function of speed and body size during level, constant average speed locomotion. A force platform was used in this study to measure ECM, tot for small bipeds, quadrupeds and hoppers. We have already published similar data from large animals. The total power required to lift and reaccelerate the centre of mass (ECM, tot) increased nearly linearly with speed for all the animals. Expressed in mass-specific terms, it was independent of body size and could be expressed by a simple equation: ECM, tot/Mb = 0.685 vg + 0.072 where ECM, tot/Mb has the units of W kg-1 and vg is speed in m s-1. Walking involves the same pendulum-like mechanism in small animals as has been described in humans and large animals. Also, running, trotting and hopping produce similar curves of ECM, tot as a function of time during a stride for both the small and large animals. Galloping, however, appears to be different in small and large animals. In small animals the front legs are used mainly for braking, while the back legs are used to reaccelerate the centre of mass within a stride. In large animals the front and hind legs serve to both brake and reaccelerate the animal; this difference in mechanics is significant in that it does not allow the utilization of elastic energy in the legs of small animals, but does in the legs of large animals. PMID:7086349

Heglund, N C; Cavagna, G A; Taylor, C R

1982-04-01

77

TERRESTRIAL ECOTOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial ecotoxicology is the study of how environmental pollutants affect land-dependent organisms and their environment. It requires three elements: (1) a source, (2) a receptor, and (3) an exposure pathway. This article reviews the basic principles of each of each element...

78

Theories with Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

We review some aspects of theories with compact extra dimensions. We consider the motivation and the theoretical basis of Large, Universal and Warped Extra Dimensions. We pay particular attention to those aspects which could have important consequences in the phenomenology at colliders.

Burdman, Gustavo [Theory Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2005-03-22

79

Repeatability of baseline corticosterone and short-term corticosterone stress responses, and their correlation with testosterone and body condition in a terrestrial breeding anuran (Platymantis vitiana).  

PubMed

Repeatability of physiological response variables, such as the stress hormone corticosterone, across numerous sampling occasions is an important assumption for their use as predictors of behaviour, reproduction and fitness in animals. Very few studies have actually tested this assumption in free-living animals under uncontrolled natural conditions. Non-invasive urine sampling and standard capture handling protocol have enabled the rapid quantification of baseline corticosterone and short-term corticosterone stress responses in anuran amphibians. In this study, established non-invasive methods were used to monitor physiological stress and urinary testosterone levels in male individuals of the terrestrial breeding Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana). Adult male frogs (n = 20) were sampled at nighttime on three repeated occasions at intervals of 14 days during their annual breeding season on Viwa Island, Fiji. All frogs expressed urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to the capture and handling stressor, with some frogs showing consistently higher urinary corticosterone responses than others. Ranks of corticosterone values at 0, 4 and 8 h, and the corrected rank were highly significant (r = 0.75-0.99) between the three repeated sampling occasions. Statistical repeatabilities were high for baseline corticosterone (r = 0.973) and for corticosterone values at 2 h (r = 0.862), 4 h (r = 0.861), 6 h (r = 0.820) and 8 h (r = 0.926), and also for the total (inclusive of baseline corticosterone values) and the corrected integrated responses (index of the acute response) [r = 0.867 and r = 0.870]. Urinary testosterone levels also showed high statistical repeatability (r = 0.78). Furthermore, variation in baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses was greater between individuals than within individuals. Baseline urinary corticosterone was significantly negatively correlated with the corrected integrated corticosterone response (r = -0.3, p < 0.001) but non-significantly with body-condition (r = -0.04) and baseline urinary testosterone (r = -0.07). In contrast, the corrected integrated corticosterone response was positively correlated (non-significantly) with baseline urinary testosterone (r = +0.04) and body-condition (r = +0.08). Urinary testosterone levels and body-condition were significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.23, p < 0.001). The results suggest that male frogs with higher levels of testosterone could have depleted energy reserve during the breeding period. The acute corticosterone responses help in replenishing energy that is needed for breeding and survival. The results also provide some support to the 'cort-fitness' hypothesis as highlighted by the negative correlation between baseline corticosterone and body-condition. It is most likely that the acute corticosterone response is adaptive and linked positively with reproductive fitness and survival in male anurans. PMID:23562802

Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

2013-04-03

80

Terrestrial Weathering Effects on Meteoritic Organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well established for meteorites which fall in hot deserts that weathering brings about a readjustment of extra-terrestrial minerals. Assemblages which had achieved a level of equilibrium on the meteorite parent body now become unstable when exposed to new chemical and physical conditions[1] with FeO and Fe2+ minerals converting to Fe3+ species. Ash and Pillinger[2] have suggested that meteoritic organic matter may also become degraded in desert environments but this is less well substantiated and the processes involved far from clear. To investigate the effects of weathering on meteorite organics, five Saharan carbon-rich chondrites were studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS). Experimental conditions are given elsewhere. The samples chosen were El Djouf (CR), Acfer 186 and 187 (both CR, undoubtably related to one another and probably El Djouf, even though the latter was found some 500km away), Acfer 182 an anomalous chondrite (possibly in the CR clan) and Acfer 202 (a C03) . Table 1 shows the relative amounts (%) of iron containing assemblages in four of the meteorites analysed as determined by Mossbauer spectroscopy. El Djouf is substantially weathered with Acfer 187 and Acfer 182 perhaps less so but more weathered than Acfer 202. Fig 1 shows the pyrograms of four of the meteorites analyzed. El Djouf, Acfer 182 and Acfer 186 (=Acfer 187) yield very few discrete organic compounds. However Py-GCMS of unweathered CRs frequently detects a variety of organic fragments. Therefore it seems reasonable to suggest that, in the two CRs at least, macromolecular material has been present but has been degraded by weathering. Such a conclusion agrees well with the results from Mossbauer spectroscopy which indicate extensive oxidation in the CR meteorites. Acfer 202 clearly contains a number of organic components almost exclusively without oxygen, indicating that the macromolecule in Acfer 202 has escaped significant terrestrial oxidation. Again this is consistent with our Mossbauer results which show that Acfer 202 contains predominantly ferrous iron indicative of low levels of terrestrial oxidation. At face value we would argue that Acfer 202 is a relatively fresh carbonaceous chondrite worthy of detailed organic study. Clearly the above samples represent almost end-member cases where terrestrial weathering has either destroyed or has yet to affect the organic material present. Perhaps the most valuable information would come from a sample where oxidation of the macromolecule is at an intermediate stage. References: [1] Bland P. A. et al. (1995) LPS XXVI, 39. [2] Ash R. D. and Pillinger C. T. (1995) Meteoritics, 30, 85-92.

Sephton, M. A.; Bland, P. A.; Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C. T.

1995-09-01

81

Terrestrial Planets: Volatiles Loss & Speed of Rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a close relation between orbiting frequencies of terrestrial planets and intensities of their outgassing [1]. ``Sweeping'' out volatiles of their bodies is provoked and facilitated by body shaking (wave oscillations) caused by movement of celestial bodies in elliptical orbits. Non-round orbits cause inertia-gravity warpings in all spheres of the bodies producing their tectonic granulation. The higher orbiting frequency

G. G. Kochemasov

2004-01-01

82

Influence of Water Availability during Incubation on Hatchling Size, Body Composition, Desiccation Tolerance, and Terrestrial Locomotor Performance in the Snapping Turtle [ITAL]Chelydra serpentina[\\/ITAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water availability during incubation on the water contents of neonatal snapping turtles at hatching were exam- ined, along with the influence of hatchling water content on desiccation tolerance and terrestrial locomotor performance. The water contents of hatchlings from eggs incubated on wet substrates were both absolutely and proportionally greater than were those of hatchlings from eggs incubated

Michael S. Finkler

1999-01-01

83

Mechanical self-stabilization, a working hypothesis for the study of the evolution of body proportions in terrestrial mammals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotion is a behaviour resulting from the interaction of the nervous and musculoskeletal systems and the environment. However, the musculoskeletal systems of some terrestrial mammals present an intrinsic ability to realize a dynamic stable locomotion. Current anthropomorphic passive walkers demonstrate that a pure mechanical system with legs and arms is able to walk down an inclined plane. Numerical simulations confirm

Rémi Hackert; Nadja Schilling; Martin S. Fischer

2006-01-01

84

Astronomers Reveal Extinct Extra-Terrestrial Fusion Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international team of astronomers, studying the left-over remnants of stars like our own Sun, have found a remarkable object where the nuclear reactor that once powered it has only just shut down. This star, the hottest known white dwarf, H1504+65, seems to have been stripped of its entire outer regions during its death throes leaving behind the core that formed its power plant. Scientists from the United Kingdom, Germany and the USA focused two of NASA's space telescopes, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), onto H1504+65 to probe its composition and measure its temperature. The data revealed that the stellar surface is extremely hot, 200,000 degrees, and is virtually free of hydrogen and helium, something never before observed in any star. Instead, the surface is composed mainly of carbon and oxygen, the 'ashes' of the fusion of helium in a nuclear reactor. An important question we must answer is why has this unique star lost the hydrogen and helium, which usually hide the stellar interior from our view? Professor Martin Barstow (University of Leicester) said. 'Studying the nature of the ashes of dead stars give us important clues as to how stars like the Sun live their lives and eventually die. The nuclear waste of carbon and oxygen produced in the process are essential elements for life and are eventually recycled into interstellar space to form new stars, planets and, possibly, living beings.' Professor Klaus Werner (University of Tübingen) said. 'We realized that this star has, on astronomical time scales, only very recently shut down nuclear fusion (about a hundred years ago). We clearly see the bare, now extinct reactor that once powered a bright giant star.' Dr Jeffrey Kruk (Johns Hopkins University) said: 'Astronomers have long predicted that many stars would have carbon-oxygen cores near the end of their lives, but I never expected we would actually be able to see one. This is a wonderful opportunity to improve our understanding of the life-cycle of stars.' The Chandra X-ray data also reveal the signatures of neon, an expected by-product of helium fusion. However, a big surprise was the presence of magnesium in similar quantities. This result may provide a key to the unique composition of H1504+65 and validate theoretical predictions that, if massive enough, some stars can extend their lives by tapping yet another energy source: the fusion of carbon into magnesium. However, as magnesium can also be produced by helium fusion, proof of the theory is not yet ironclad. The final link in the puzzle would be the detection of sodium, which will require data from yet another observatory: the Hubble Space Telescope. The team has already been awarded time on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for sodium in H1504+65 next year, and will, hopefully, discover the final answer as to the origin of this unique star. This work will be published in July in the 'Astronomy & Astrophysics' journal. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) were both launched into orbit by NASA in 1999. Their instruments make use of a technique called spectroscopy, which spreads the light obtained from astronomical objects into its constituent X-ray and ultraviolet 'colours', in the same way visible light is dispersed into a rainbow naturally, by water droplets in the atmosphere, or artificially, by a prism. When studied in fine detail each spectrum is a unique 'fingerprint' which tells us what elements are present and reveals the physical conditions in the object being studied. Related Internet Address http://www.ras.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=673&Itemid=2

2004-06-01

85

Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term ...

A. J. Nick J. D. Smith J. M. Schuler R. Mueller T. Lippitt

2012-01-01

86

The measurement of extra-terrestrial radio wave emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Printing Options Send high resolution image to Level 2 Postscript Printer Send low resolution image to Level 2 Postscript Printer Send low resolution image to Level 1 Postscript Printer Get high resolution PDF image Get low resolution PDF Send 300 dpi image to PCL Printer Send 150 dpi image to PCL Printer More Article Retrieval Options HELP for

John P. Hagen

1949-01-01

87

Diffuse, global and extra-terrestrial solar radiation for Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, equations have been developed to estimate diffuse fraction of the hourly, daily and monthly global insolation on a horizontal surface. These correlations are expressed in terms of Kd, the ratio of diffuse-to-total radiation, and KT, the clearness index. The hourly correlation equations, show a fairly similar trend to that of Orgill and Hollands (1) and Spencer (5)

M. N. A. Hawlader

1984-01-01

88

Cosmic ray produced nitrogen in extra terrestrial matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production rates of15N by both solar cosmic rays (SCR) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have been calculated for moon, as well as meteorites of various\\u000a sizes. Our production rates of15N which considered both the reaction channels16O(p, pn)15O and16O(p, 2p)15N separately are about 30% higher than those by Reedy (1981) who considered only the channel16O(p, pn)15O and used an empirical scaling

K. J. Mathew; S. V. S. Murty

1993-01-01

89

On communications with extra-terrestrial or alien intelligences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion deals with two questions: assuming a signal has been detected, does the signal contain a message. If so, how can it be deciphered. The concept of the message as a statistical variate is explained. When the suspected sequence of elements is examined for randomness, if any departure from randomness is found, the presence of a message is indicated.

R. P. Haviland

1975-01-01

90

Raman spectroscopic studies of carbon in extra-terrestrial materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurements obtained here indicate ways in which micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to elucidate structural characteristics and distribution of carbon in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Existing information about structurally significant aspects of Raman measurements of graphite is combined with structurally relevant findings from the present micro-Raman studies of carbons prepared by carbonization of polyvinylidine chloride (PVDC) at

John Macklin; Donald Brownlee; Sherwood Chang; Ted Bunch

1990-01-01

91

Reducing extra-terrestrial excavation forces with percussion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached to a test stand simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of movement. Impact energies from 13.6J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 to 700 beats per minute (BPM) were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 50% was achieved in this experimental investigation.

Mueller, R.; Smith, J. D.; Lippitt, T.; Schuler, J.; Nick, A.

92

The "Ethical Paradox of Communication with Extra-Terrestrial Intelligences"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological conditions required by the boundaries of our human intelligence to communicate with E.T. intelligence could put us within a situation in which one could abdicate a fundamental part of what it means to be human.

Lestel, D.

2010-04-01

93

The Possibilities of Communication with Extra-Terrestrial Civilizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CONTENTS: How many civilizations are there in the universe; Types of contacts between civilizations; Radio communication between civilizations; Radio communication between civilizations of the Earth type; Receiving information from super-civilizations. (A...

L. M. Gindilis

1966-01-01

94

The neoichnology of terrestrial arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive systematic neoichnological study was conducted to investigate the affect of substrate conditions on the morphology and survivorship of terrestrial arthropod trackways. Experiments utilized five different extant arthropods, representing a range of body forms and higher taxa: discoid cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis), emperor scorpions (Pandinus imperator), Chilean rose tarantulas (Grammostola rosea), African giant black millipedes (Archispirostreptus gigas), and common woodlice

Robert B. Davis; Nicholas J. Minter; Simon J. Braddy

2007-01-01

95

Stability of a terrestrial planet in a planetary system with a Hot Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the discovery of over 200 Extra-solar planetary systems recently, it appears that the existence of a "Hot Jupiter" in a planetary system is a fairly common event. Jupiter size planets and larger have been found at the location of orbits of terrestrial planets in our own solar system. This raises the question, under what conditions could an Earth type planet have a stable orbit in the Habitable Zone of a planetary system if a Hot Jupiter is also a part of the system? In this study I will consider a systems with three and four bodies. The star will be one solar mass. The terrestrial planet will have one earth mass, placed at one AU from the star. The other two bodies will have masses on the order that of Jupiter. One "Jupiter" will be a Hot Jupiter, with an orbit closer to the star than that of the terrestrial planet. The other "Jupiter" will be put at an orbit further out than that of the terrestrial planet. Of particular interest are orbits where the terrestrial planet is in resonance with one or both of the Jupiter size planets, to determine whether certain resonances have an effect on the stability of the Earth type planet's orbit. The stability of the Earth size planet will be explored using a Fourier Analysis of its orbital parameters based on a previously developed method called the Frequency Map Analysis (FMA). Using the FMA, the goal is to determine what are the conditions for a "stable" Earth orbit, stability being one of the keys to the development of life on an Earth type planet.

Gorman, Patrick

96

Passive Isolator Design for Jitter Reduction in the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is one of the proposed missions under NASA's Origins Program, aimed to search for habitable extra-solar planets and life beyond Earth. Currently there are two promising architectures viable for extrasolar planet detecti...

C. Blaurock K. C. Liu L. Dewell J. Alexander

2005-01-01

97

Extra Credit Crossword Puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are two crossword puzzles that I hand out for extra credit, one for the igneous half of the course and the other for the metamorphic half. The puzzles reinforce concepts, vocabulary, and mineral formulae that we have gone over in class and labs. The students *love* them, and usually end up working on them in groups. Both puzzles were created using the Discovery Channel Puzzlemaker: http://puzzlemaker.school.discovery.com.

Selverstone, Jane

98

Bounds on universal extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the bound from the electroweak data on the size of extra dimensions accessible to all the standard model fields is rather loose. These ``universal'' extra dimensions could have a compactification scale as low as 300 GeV for one extra dimension. This is because the Kaluza-Klein number is conserved and thus the contributions to the electroweak observables arise

Thomas Appelquist; Hsin-Chia Cheng; Bogdan A. Dobrescu

2001-01-01

99

Influence of water availability during incubation on hatchling size, body composition, desiccation tolerance, and terrestrial locomotor performance in the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina.  

PubMed

The effects of water availability during incubation on the water contents of neonatal snapping turtles at hatching were examined, along with the influence of hatchling water content on desiccation tolerance and terrestrial locomotor performance. The water contents of hatchlings from eggs incubated on wet substrates were both absolutely and proportionally greater than were those of hatchlings from eggs incubated on dry substrates. Hatchlings with greater water contents at hatching were able to survive longer and to lose more water before physiological performance was adversely affected by desiccation. Increased water contents in hatchlings with greater water availability during incubation may enhance survival by increasing the amount of water the animal can afford to lose before dehydration begins to adversely affect whole animal performance. PMID:10603335

Finkler, M S

100

A Theoretical Investigation of Isotopic Anomalies of Xenon in Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The abundance and isotopic composition of noble gases in meteorites is discussed in relation to the composition of the early solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites contain a unique Xenon-X, which is rich in heavy and light isotopes. Variations in the occur...

D. D. Sabu

1977-01-01

101

Measurements of H2O in the Terrestrial Mesosphere and Implications for Extra-Terrestrial Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent measurements of mesospheric water vapor and their implications for the existence of extraterrestrial sources of water are discussed. This study was prompted by the work of L. Frank and others who, based on their interpretation of transient dark spo...

J. J. Olivero

1988-01-01

102

X-ray biosignature of bacteria in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray imaging techniques at the best spatial resolution and using synchrotron facilities are put forth as powerful techniques for the search of small life forms in extraterrestrial rocks under quarantine conditions (Lemelle et al. 2003). Samples, which may be collected in situ on the martian surface or on a cometary surface, will be brought back and finally stored in a

L. Lemelle; A. Simionovici; J. Susini; P. Oger; M. Chukalina; Ch. Rau; B. Golosio; P. Gillet

2003-01-01

103

X-ray biosignature of bacteria in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray imaging techniques at the best spatial resolution and using synchrotron facilities are put forth as powerful techniques for the search of small life forms in extraterrestrial rocks under quarantine conditions (Lemelle et al. 2003). Samples, which may be collected in situ on the martian surface or on a cometary surface, will be brought back and finally stored in a container. We tested on the ID22 beamline, the possibilities of the X-ray absorption and fluorescence tomographies on sub-mm grains of NWA817 (Lemelle et al. submitted) and Tatahouine (Simionovici et al. 2001) meteorites stored in a 10 micrometer silica capillary, full of air, mimicking such containers. Studies of the X-ray microtomographies carried on reveal the positions, the 3D textures and mineralogies of the microenvironments where traces of life should be looked for in priority (with a submicrometer spatial resolution). Limitations with respect to bacterial detection are due to the difficulties to obtain information about light elements (Z <= 14), major constituents of biological and silicate samples. At this stage, traces of life were not detected, nor identified such as, on all the studied meteorites through the capillary. Theoretical developments of an internal elemental microanalysis combining X-ray fluorescence, Compton and Transmission tomographies will soon allow improvements of 3D detection of life by X-ray techniques (Golosio et al. submitted). We tested on the ID21 beamline, the possibilities of the X-ray imaging techniques on bacteria/silicate assemblages prepared in the laboratory and directly placed in the beam. The X-ray signature of a "present" bacteria on a silicate surface was defined by X-ray mapping, out of a container, as coincident micrometer and oval zones having strong P and S fluorescence lines (S-fluorescence being slightly lower than P-fluorescence) and an amino-linked sulfur redox speciation. The X-ray signature of a single bacteria can now be applied to test the bacterial origin of nanostructures observed on some meteorite surfaces. Lemelle et al. (2003a) accepted to Journal de Physique, b submitted to Am. Min., Simionovici et al. (2001) Proc. SPIE, vol 4503, ed. U. BONSE, San Diego, August. Golosio et al. submitted to Phys. Rev. B

Lemelle, L.; Simionovici, A.; Susini, J.; Oger, P.; Chukalina, M.; Rau, Ch.; Golosio, B.; Gillet, P.

2003-04-01

104

Measurements of H2O in the terrestrial mesosphere and implications for extra-terrestrial sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent measurements of mesospheric water vapor and their implications for the existence of extraterrestrial sources of water are discussed. This study was prompted by the work of L. Frank and others who, based on their interpretation of transient dark spots visible in ultraviolet images of the Earth's dayglow emission, have proposed that a large flux of small comets enters the

John J. Olivero

1988-01-01

105

Super-long anabiosis of ancient microorganisms in ice and terrestrial models for development of methods to search for life on Mars, Europa and other planetary bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful missions to Mars, Europe and other bodies of the Solar system have created a prerequisite to search for extraterrestrial life. The first attempts of microbial life detection on the Martian surface by the Viking landed missions gave no biological results. Microbiological investigations of the Martian subsurface ground ice layers seem to be more promising. It is well substantiated to

S. S. Abyzov; N. S. Duxbury; N. E. Bobin; M. Fukuchi; R. B. Hoover; H. Kanda; I. N. Mitskevich; A. L. Mulyukin; T. Naganuma; M. N. Poglazova; M. V. Ivanov

2006-01-01

106

Anisotropic extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the scenario where, in a five-dimensional theory, the extra spatial dimension has different scaling than the other four dimensions. We find background maximally symmetric solutions, when the bulk is filled with a cosmological constant and at the same time it has a three-brane embedded in it. These background solutions are reminiscent of Randall-Sundrum warped metrics, with bulk curvature depending on the parameters of the breaking of diffeomorphism invariance. Subsequently, we consider the scalar perturbation sector of the theory and show that it has certain pathologies and the striking feature that in the limit where the diffeomorphism invariance is restored, there remain ghost scalar mode(s) in the spectrum.

Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Papazoglou, Antonios; Tsoukalas, Minas

2011-07-01

107

Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.

Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC

2006-11-07

108

Qubits from extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We link the recently discovered black hole-qubit correspondence to the structure of extra dimensions. In particular we show that for toroidal compactifications of type IIB string theory simple qubit systems arise naturally from the geometrical data of the tori parametrized by the moduli. We also generalize the recently suggested idea of the attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure of GHZ-like entangled states on the event horizon, to moduli stabilization for flux attractors in F-theory compactifications on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau four-folds. Finally using a simple example we show that the natural arena for qubits to show up is an embedded one within the realm of fermionic entanglement of quantum systems with indistinguishable constituents.

Lévay, Péter

2011-12-01

109

Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

2007-12-01

110

Practicality of Using Oxygen Atom Emissions to Evaluate the Habitability of ExtraSolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has previously been proposed [Akasofu, 1999] that observation of the O(1S - 1D) green line from the atmospheres of extra-solar planets might be a marker for habitability. Guidance on this question is available within our own solar system. The green line is a dominant feature in the visible terrestrial nightglow, and the ultimate origin of its mesospheric emission is

T. G. Slanger

2005-01-01

111

Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids.  

PubMed

In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on terrestrial locomotion in Arachnida. Arachnids represent a single diverse (>100,000 species) clade containing well-defined subgroups (at both the order and subordinal levels) that vary morphologically around a basic body plan, yet exhibit highly disparate limb usage, running performance, and tarsal attachment mechanisms. Spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), and harvestmen (Opiliones) have received the most attention in the literature, while some orders have never been subject to rigorous mechanical characterization. Most well-characterized taxa move with gaits analogous to the alternating tripod gaits that characterize fast-moving Insecta - alternating tetrapods or alternating tripods (when one pair of legs is lifted from the ground for some other function). However, between taxa, there is considerable variation in the regularity of phasing between legs. Both large and small spiders appear to show a large amount of variation in the distribution of foot-ground contact, even between consecutive step-cycles of a single run. Mechanisms for attachment to vertical surfaces also vary, and may depend on tufts of adhesive hairs, fluid adhesives, silks, or a combination of these. We conclude that Arachnida, particularly with improvements in microelectronic force sensing technology, can serve as a powerful study system for understanding the kinematics, dynamics, and ecological correlates of sprawled-posture locomotion. PMID:22326455

Spagna, Joseph C; Peattie, Anne M

2012-02-08

112

One universal extra dimension in PYTHIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Universal Extra Dimensions model has been implemented in the PYTHIA generator from version 6.4.18 onwards, in its minimal formulation with one TeV-1-sized extra dimension. The additional possibility of gravity-mediated decays, through a variable number of eV-1-sized extra dimensions into which only gravity extends, is also available. The implementation covers the lowest lying Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of Standard Model particles, except for the excitations of the Higgs fields, with the mass spectrum calculated at one loop. 2?2 tree-level production cross sections and unpolarized KK number conserving 2-body decays are included. Mixing between iso-doublet and -singlet KK excitations is neglected thus far, and is expected to be negligible for all but the top sector.New version summaryProgram title: PYTHIA Version number: 6.420 Catalogue identifier: ACTU_v2_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ACTU_v2_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 79?362 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 590?900 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: CERN lxplus and any other machine with a Fortran 77 compiler Operating system: Linux Red Hat RAM: about 800 K words Word size: 32 bits Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ACTU_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 135 (2001) 238 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: At high energy collisions between elementary particles, physics beyond the Standard Model is searched for. Many models are being investigated, namely extra-dimensional models. Solution method: The Universal Extra Dimension model is implemented in the PYTHIA event generator. Reasons for new version: The Universal Extra Dimensions model has been implemented in the PYTHIA generator from version 6.4.18 onwards, in its minimal formulation with one TeV-1-sized extra dimension. The additional possibility of gravity-mediated decays, through a variable number of eV-1-sized extra dimensions into which only gravity extends, is also available. The implementation covers the lowest lying Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of Standard Model particles, except for the excitations of the Higgs fields, with the mass spectrum calculated at one loop. 2?2 tree-level production cross sections and unpolarized KK number conserving 2-body decays are included. Mixing between iso-doublet and -singlet KK excitations is neglected thus far, and is expected to be negligible for all but the top sector. Running time: 10-1000 events per second, depending on the process studied.

Elkacimi, M.; Goujdami, D.; Przysiezniak, H.; Skands, P.

2010-01-01

113

Collider Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy prob...

B. H. Lillie

2005-01-01

114

Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.

Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.

2006-10-01

115

Terrestrial Ages of Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial age, or the terrestrial residence time of a meteorite, together with its exposure history provides us with useful insight into the history of the meteorite. It is easy to observe that stony meteorites can weather quickly in humid environments. However, we find that large numbers of meteorites found in semiarid and arid environments can survive for much longer times. Meteorites in desert environments can survive for at least 50,000 yr, and there are some meteorites over 250,000 yr old from these locations. The cold and dry conditions of polar regions such as Antarctica are also good for the storage of meteorites. A considerable number of meteorites survive there for hundreds of thousands of years. Some meteorites have been found in Antarctica with ages of up to 2 m.y. In this paper, we discuss the terrestrial residence times or terrestrial ages of these meteorites. We will show the wide range of terrestrial ages from different environments.

Jull, A. J. T.

116

Collider searches for extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.

Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.

2004-12-01

117

Scientific Visualization of Extra Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 21st Century, many theoretical physicists claim that higher dimensions may indeed exist. Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, & Dvali (ADD) and Randall-Sundrum (RS), in addition to Kaluza-Klein (KK) and M-string theorists, have introduced reasonable explanations for the existence of heretofore ``invisible'' higher dimensions. Whether or not these extra dimensions actually exist is irrelevant to their contributions to the visionary conceptualization associated with novel and improved mathematical and physical analysis. Envisioning extra dimensions beyond the three of common experience is a daunting challenge for three dimensional observers. Intuition relies on experience gained in a three dimensional environment. Gaining experience with virtual four dimensional objects and virtual three manifolds in four-space on a personal computer may provide the basis for an intuitive grasp of four dimensions. This presentation is a video ``outtake'' of the author's research into ``Visualizing Extra Spatial Dimensions'' at the University of California at Irvine.

Black, Don V.

2010-10-01

118

Global Terrestrial Observing System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) is used to facilitate communication regarding world ecological research networks. There are also tools on this website to describe the three regional observation programs in Southern Africa and Central and Eastern Europe. The shared information includes data on Net Primary Production (NPP), Terrestrial Carbon Observation (TCO), Terrestrial Panel on Climate (TOPC), and Global Observation of Landcover Dynamics. Users can also access Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring Sites (TEMS), which concentrate on remote sensing data collection from over 500 individual sites located in primarily mountain or coastal regions. The TEMS program began in the early 1990's and is the international equivalent of Long Term Ecological Research sites found primarily in North America. TEMS are used to link ground and remotely sensed observations as well as to provide temporal assessment of ecological conditions. Other general data collected includes land quality, water resources, climate change, biodiversity, pollution and toxicity, global/ regional/ national environments, and international conventions.

2002-01-17

119

Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Fullerenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous?Tertiary?Boundary and Permian?Triassic?Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated

D. Heymann; L. W. Jenneskens; J. Jehli?ka; Carola Koper; E. J. Vlietstra

2003-01-01

120

In Search of Extra Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quotidian physics problems are solved in a 3-space- plus 1-time-dimensional structure. The seemingly bizzare suggestion that our universe has more physical dimensions is in reality thoroughly plausible. For string theories to make sense, extra dimensions are actually required. Recent developments offer a variety of observables that encode information from a dimensionally richer space-time. An extended experimental program, from table-top to collider and astrophysics, is being developed to explore the intriguing possibility of an extra dimensional world.

Spiropulu, Maria

2001-04-01

121

New Worlds Observer: system architecture for terrestrial planet finding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Worlds Observer (NWO) is a mission concept for the detection and characterization of extra-solar planets. It employs an external starshade and a space telescope. The starshade suppressed the parent star's light making detection of the extrasolar planet possible. This paper reviews the proposed requirements for the Terrestrial Planet Finding (TPF) mission. Using current understanding of the performance and trades inherent in the NWO architecture it is shown how to construct the allowed design space for a NWO mission.

Arenberg, Jonathan W.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Glassman, Tiffany; Lo, Amy S.; Lillie, Charles F.

2007-09-01

122

Mars: destructive and constructive processes in its crust reflecting tendencies of leveling angular momenta of tropics and extra-tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars: destructive and constructive processes in its crust reflecting tendencies of leveling angular momenta of tropics and extra-tropics. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences A globular shape of rotating celestial bodies means that their tropical and extra-tropical belts have significantly different angular momenta. But such unevenness in a single body is disturbing because it increases level of

G. G. Kochemasov

2009-01-01

123

Collider Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy problem and explain why the fermion masses a spread over many orders of magnitude. In this thesis we explore several possibilities for models with extra dimensions. First we examine constraints on the proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Schmaltz that the Standard Model fermions are localized to different positions in an extra dimension, thereby generating the hierarchy in fermion masses. We find strong constraints on the compactification scale of such models arising from flavor-changing neutral currents. Next we investigate the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum model, where the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales is generated by the warping in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we investigate the ''Higgsless'' model of electroweak symmetry breaking due to Csaki et. al., where the Higgs has been decoupled from the spectrum by taking its vacuum expectation value to infinity. We find that this model produces many distinctive features at the LHC. However, we also find that it is strongly constrained by precision electroweak observables and the requirement that gauge-boson scattering be perturbative. We then examine the model with a finite vacuum expectation value, and find that there are observable shifts to the Higgs scalar properties. Finally, in the original large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the hierarchy problem is solved by allowing gravity to propagate in a large extra dimensional volume, while the Standard Model fields are confined to 4 dimensions. We consider the case where there are a large number of extra dimensions (n {approx} 20). This model can solve the hierarchy problem without introducing a exponentially large radii for the extra dimensions, and represents a scenario that is difficult to obtain in string theory. We show that, if this scenario holds, the number of dimensions can be constrained to be larger than the number predicted by critical string theory. Searching for signals of many dimensions is then an important test of whether string theory is a good description of quantum gravity.

Lillie, Benjamin Huntington; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2006-03-10

124

Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals  

PubMed Central

Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery.

Caro, Tim

2008-01-01

125

In Search of Extra Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quotidian physics problems are solved in a 3-space- plus 1-time-dimensional structure. The seemingly bizzare suggestion that our universe has more physical dimensions is in reality thoroughly plausible. For string theories to make sense, extra dimensions are actually required. Recent developments offer a variety of observables that encode information from a dimensionally richer space-time. An extended experimental program, from table-top to

Maria Spiropulu

2001-01-01

126

Warping the universal extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

We develop the necessary ingredients for the construction of realistic models with warped universal extra dimensions. Our investigations are based on the seven-dimensional (7D) spacetime AdS{sub 5}xT{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} and we derive the Kaluza-Klein (KK) spectra for gravitons, bulk vectors, and the TeV brane localized Higgs boson. We show that, starting with a massive 7D fermion, one may obtain a single chiral massless mode whose profile is readily localized towards the Planck or TeV brane. This allows one to place the standard model fermions in the bulk and construct models of flavor as in Randall-Sundrum models. Our solution also admits the familiar KK parity of models with universal extra dimensions so that the lightest odd KK state is stable and may be a dark matter candidate. As an additional feature the AdS{sub 5} warping ensures that the excited modes on the torus, including the dark matter candidate, appear at TeV energies (as is usually assumed in models with universal extra dimensions) even though the Planck scale sets the dimensions for the torus.

McDonald, Kristian L. [Theory Group, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3 (Canada)

2009-07-15

127

Extra-articular Snapping Hip  

PubMed Central

Context: Snapping hip, or coxa saltans, is a vague term used to describe palpable or auditory snapping with hip movements. As increasing attention is paid to intra-articular hip pathologies such as acetabular labral tears, it is important to be able to identify and understand the extra-articular causes of snapping hip. Evidence Acquisition: The search terms snapping hip and coxa sultans were used in PubMed to locate suitable studies of any publication date (ending date, November 2008). Results: Extra-articular snapping may be caused laterally by the iliotibial band or anteriorly by the iliopsoas tendon. Snapping of the iliopsoas tendon usually requires contraction of the hip flexors and may be difficult to differentiate from intra-articular causes of snapping. Dynamic ultrasound can help detect abrupt tendon translation during movement, noninvasively supporting the diagnosis of extra-articular snapping hip. The majority of cases of snapping hip resolve with conservative treatment, which includes avoidance of aggravating activities, stretching, and anti-inflammatory medication. In recalcitrant cases, surgery to lengthen the iliotibial band or the iliopsoas tendon has produced symptom relief but may result in prolonged weakness. Conclusions: In treating active patients with snapping soft tissues around the hip, clinicians should recognize that the majority of cases resolve without surgical intervention, while being mindful of the potential for concomitant intra-articular and internal snapping hips.

2010-01-01

128

Primordial magnetic seed fields from extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical extra dimensions break the conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations in four dimensions. A higher-dimensional background with n contracting extra dimensions and four expanding dimensions is matched to an effectively four-dimensional standard radiation dominated universe. The resulting spectrum for the magnetic field is calculated taking into account also the momenta along the extra dimensions. Imposing constraints from observations an upper

Kerstin E. Kunze

2005-01-01

129

48 CFR 52.232-11 - Extras.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extras. 52.232-11 Section 52.232-11...Provisions and Clauses 52.232-11 Extras. As prescribed in 32.111...transportation contract is contemplated: Extras (APR 1984) Except as otherwise...

2010-10-01

130

Diterpenoids of terrestrial origin.  

PubMed

Covering January to December 2012. Previous review, Nat.Prod.Rep., 2012, 29, 890-898.This review covers the isolation and chemistry of diterpenoids from terrestrial as opposed to marine sources and includes labdanes, clerodanes, abietanes, pimaranes, kauranes, cembranes and their cyclization products. There are 169 references. PMID:23942594

Hanson, James R

2013-08-13

131

Terrestrial carbon sequestration potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel use and land use change that began over 200 years ago are driving the rapid increase in atmospheric content of CO2 and other greenhouse gases that may be impacting on climatic change. Enhanced terrestrial uptake of CO2 over the next 50 to 100 years has been suggested as a way to reclaim the 150 or more Pg carbon

METTING Blaine

132

Upwelling Terrestrial Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law is a fundamental law of physics. In this lesson, students will use this law and the near-ground air temperature to compute the hourly irradiance emitted by the surface of Earth. Then comparisons will be made with actual observations of this variable, called upwelling terrestrial radiation.

133

Altitudinal terrestrial isopod diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assessed the diversity of terrestrial isopods across an elevational and habitat gradient on Mt. Panachaiko (NW Peloponnisos, Greece). Previous knowledge on the biodiversity of this mountain was restricted to very few records of individual species, and no systematic sampling had ever been applied for any animal taxon. We selected the most representative habitat types within an altitudinal range

Spyros Sfenthourakis; Ioannis Anastasiou; Theodora Strutenschi

2005-01-01

134

Terrestrial planet formation  

PubMed Central

Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

Righter, K.; O'Brien, D. P.

2011-01-01

135

Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine

Maeve M. Moriarty; Iris Koch; Robert A. Gordon; Kenneth J. Reimer

2009-01-01

136

Extra-solar Oort cloud encounters and planetary impact rates  

SciTech Connect

Upper limits are estimated to the number density of extra-solar Oort clouds (ESOC) through which the solar system might pass and to the probable number of attendant planetary impacts by comets. All stars are assumed to have Oort clouds. The model is based on the observed stellar spatial density and the ratio of the total number density to the observed number density. It is estimated that 486 close stellar passages and 12,160 ESOC encounters may have occurred. Each encounter would have produced a shower of hyperbolic comets, with the results of 1-3 ESOC impacts with the earth. It is concluded that the great majority of terrestrial cratering events by comets have and will come from solar Oort cloud comets. 19 references.

Stern, A.

1987-01-01

137

The High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Powerful Tool for Studying the Organization of Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) makes possible the imaging of the profile of the polyaromatic layers, allowing a knowledge of carbons, such as disordered natural carbons from meteorites and from Precambrian metasediments

Rouzaud, J.-N.; Skrzypczak, A.; Bonal, L.; Derenne, S.; Quirico, E.; Robert, F.

2005-03-01

138

Theoretical investigation of isotopic anomalies of xenon in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. Final technical report, 1972--1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and isotopic composition of noble gases in meteorites is discussed in relation to the composition of the early solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites contain a unique Xenon-X, which is rich in heavy and light isotopes. Variations in the occurrence of type-X and type-Y (the normal component) noble gases are of such magnitude that neither the injection of material from

Sabu

1977-01-01

139

Theoretical Investigation of Isotopic Anomaly of Xenon in Carbonaceous Chondrites and Other Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The composition of Xe released from carbonaceous chondrites between 600 and 1000 C, particularly its isotopic trapped forms, is analyzed. Data show trapped Xe to have the following forms: Xe-124, 126, 130, 131, 132, 134, and 136. Attempts were also made t...

D. D. Sabu

1974-01-01

140

Method for identifying anomalous terrestrial heat flows  

DOEpatents

A method for locating and mapping the magnitude and extent of terrestrial heat-flow anomalies from 5 to 50 times average with a tenfold improved sensitivity over orthodox applications of aerial temperature-sensing surveys as used for geothermal reconnaissance. The method remotely senses surface temperature anomalies such as occur from geothermal resources or oxidizing ore bodies by: measuring the spectral, spatial, statistical, thermal, and temporal features characterizing infrared radiation emitted by natural terrestrial surfaces; deriving from these measurements the true surface temperature with uncertainties as small as 0.05 to 0.5 K; removing effects related to natural temperature variations of topographic, hydrologic, or meteoric origin, the surface composition, detector noise, and atmospheric conditions; factoring out the ambient normal-surface temperature for non-thermally enhanced areas surveyed under otherwise identical environmental conditions; distinguishing significant residual temperature enhancements characteristic of anomalous heat flows and mapping the extent and magnitude of anomalous heat flows where they occur.

Del Grande, Nancy Kerr (San Leandro, CA)

1977-01-25

141

A Delicate Balance: An Examination of Lehigh University's Athletic Culture and Athletic Extra-Curriculum, 1866-1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation examines the history of Lehigh University's athletic culture and extra-curriculum from 1866 to 1998 and argues that both of those institutions served as the basis for identity within the undergraduate student body. Additionally, this dissertation argues that the athletic culture and extra-curriculum established Lehigh's identity…

Smith, Courtney Michelle

2010-01-01

142

A Delicate Balance: An Examination of Lehigh University's Athletic Culture and Athletic Extra-Curriculum, 1866-1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the history of Lehigh University's athletic culture and extra-curriculum from 1866 to 1998 and argues that both of those institutions served as the basis for identity within the undergraduate student body. Additionally, this dissertation argues that the athletic culture and extra-curriculum established Lehigh's identity…

Smith, Courtney Michelle

2010-01-01

143

Can Extra Updates Delay Mixing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider Glauber dynamics (starting from an extremal configuration) in a monotone spin system, and show that interjecting extra updates cannot increase the expected Hamming distance or the total variation distance to the stationary distribution. We deduce that for monotone Markov random fields, when block dynamics contracts a Hamming metric, single-site dynamics mixes in O( n log n) steps on an n-vertex graph. In particular, our result completes work of Kenyon, Mossel and Peres concerning Glauber dynamics for the Ising model on trees. Our approach also shows that on bipartite graphs, alternating updates systematically between odd and even vertices cannot improve the mixing time by more than a factor of log n compared to updates at uniform random locations on an n-vertex graph. Our result is especially effective in comparing block and single-site dynamics; it has already been used in works of Martinelli, Toninelli, Sinclair, Mossel, Sly, Ding, Lubetzky, and Peres in various combinations.

Peres, Yuval; Winkler, Peter

2013-11-01

144

Origin of a peculiar extra U(1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of a family-independent “extra U(1)”, discovered by Barr, Bednarz, and Benesh and independently by Ma, and whose phenomenology has recently been studied by Ma and Roy, is discussed. Even though it satisfies anomaly constraints in a highly economical way, with just a single extra triplet of leptons per family, this extra U(1) cannot come from four-dimensional grand unification. However, it is shown here that it can come from a Pati-Salam scheme with an extra U(1), which explains the otherwise surprising cancellation of anomalies.

Barr, S. M.; Dorsner, I.

2005-07-01

145

A soluble calcium-binding protein from the terrestrial annelid Lumbricus terrestris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble calcium-binding proteins (SCBP) considerably different from calmodulin were purified from the body wall muscle of the earthwormLumbricus terrestris. Three isoforms were obtained with similar UV absorption spectra and amino acid compositions and an apparent molecular weight close to 20 kDa. They can be distinguished by their histidine and proline content and by their peptide maps. The tissue content, as

R. Huch; J. D'Haese; Ch. Gerday

1988-01-01

146

Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres and Biosignatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for terrestrial exoplanets - rocky worlds in orbit around stars other than the Sun - is one of humanity's most exciting science goals. The discovery of super Earths, terrestrial planets more massive than Earth, has opened a new era in exoplanet science, confirming the basic idea that our solar system is not the only planetary system to harbor terrestrial planets. Terrestrial exoplanets will expand planetary diversity, with masses and compositions likely very different from those found in our solar system. Most significantly, terrestrial exoplanets have the potential to host habitable environments on or below their solid surfaces, and are the most likely places beyond our solar system to search for signs of life. In the coming decades, instrumentation will be developed to expand our census of terrestrial exoplanets and directly characterize the atmospheres and biosignatures of these worlds. In the meantime, scientific progress in this field is made via extensive photochemical, climate, and radiative transfer modeling of terrestrial planetary environments together with remote sensing studies of solar system terrestrial planets, including Earth. This chapter provides an overview of terrestrial exoplanet atmosphere modeling techniques, a review of the scientific advances to date, and a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions.

Meadows, V.; Seager, S.

147

Extra-renal Roles of the WNKs.  

PubMed

Identified over a decade ago, the With-No-Lysine[K] (WNK)s have been the subsequent focus of intense research into the renal handling of Na(+) , Cl(-) , K(+) and several rare monogenetic diseases. However the potential extra-renal roles for WNKs have been less well explored. Thiazides and Gordon syndrome are known to have effects on bone mineral density, Ca(2+) and PO4 (3-) homeostasis, which were originally assumed to be an indirect effect through the kidney. However, current data suggests a complex and direct role for WNKs in the physiology of bone. The WNKs also modulate systemic blood pressure at several levels including the vascular resistance vessels where they cause vasoconstriction by altering the abundance of the transient receptor potential canonical channel (TRPC) 3 and/or phosphorylation of the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. The WNKs and many of the cation-coupled Cl(-) cotransporters they regulate are highly expressed in the central nervous system and recent work has suggested that WNK dysfunction may have a role in the development of autism, schizophrenia and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2 (HSAN2). Finally, the WNK-Sterile 20 kinase (STE20) signalling axis represents an evolutionarily ancient mechanism for maintaining osmotic homeostasis but a rapidly expanding body of evidence also shows a role in immunity and cellular regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:23662678

Siew, Keith; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

2013-05-11

148

Higgs-Like Field and Extra Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the origin of the Higgs field in the framework of the universal extra dimensions. It is shown that a Higgs-like Lagrangian can be extracted from a metric of an extra space. The way to distinguish our model and the Standard Model is discussed.

Grobov, A. V.; Rubin, S. G.

2013-07-01

149

The Utilization of Extra-Atmospheric Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of extra-atmospheric space is examined in the light of three international agreements relating to the currently developing need for regulation of use of space. The limits of extra-atmospheric space are considered. The definition of space a...

A. Kiss

1973-01-01

150

Black hole relics in large extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent calculations applying statistical mechanics indicate that in a setting with compactified large extra dimensions a black hole might evolve into a (quasi-)stable state with mass close to the new fundamental scale Mf. Black holes and therefore their relics might be produced at the LHC in the case of extra-dimensional topologies. In this energy regime, Hawking's evaporation scenario is modified

Sabine Hossenfelder; Marcus Bleicher; Stefan Hofmann; Horst Stöcker; Ashutosh V. Kotwal

2003-01-01

151

The Essential Ingredients of Extra Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents findings from a survey that set out to identify and rank order the essential ingredients of extra care housing schemes and their associated services, that was conducted among the members of the Department of Health (DH) Housing Learning and Improvement Network (LIN) during the Spring of 2006. The literature on extra care housing offers numerous definitions

Julienne Hanson; Hedieh Wojgani; Ruth Mayagoitia-Hill; Anthea Tinker; Fay Wright

152

Physics of Extra Dimensions Final Report  

SciTech Connect

We provide the final report for Csaba Csaki's OJI project on "Physics of extra dimensions". It includes the summary of results of higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking, gauge-higgs unification, AdS/QCD and holographic technicolor, and chiral lattice theories from warped extra dimensions.

Csaba Csaki

2007-12-19

153

Large Extra Dimensions and Quantum Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searches for large extra dimensions (LED) at various experiments, ranging from table-top to ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiments, are investigated within the confines of the ADD (Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali) and RS (Randall-Sandrum) models. Black hole production as a probe into extra dimensions is discussed in the context of the Pierre Auger and ATLAS experiments.

Loureiro, Karina Flavia

2007-08-01

154

Glaciopanspermia: Seeding the terrestrial planets with life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question whether life originated on Earth or elsewhere in the solar system has no obvious answer, since Earth was sterilized by the Moon-forming impact and possibly also during the LHB, about 700 Ma after the formation of the solar system. Seeding by lithopanspermia has to be considered. Possible sources of life include Earth itself, Mars, Venus (if it had a more benign climate than today) and icy bodies of the solar system. The first step of lithopanspermia is the ejection of fragments of the surface into space, which requires achieving at least escape velocity. As the velocity distribution of impact ejecta falls off steeply, attention is drawn to bodies with lower escape velocities. Ceres has had, or still has, an ocean more than 100 km deep, with hydrothermal activity at its rocky core. The possible presence of life, its relative closeness to the terrestrial planets and Ceres' low escape velocity of 510 m/s suggest that Ceres could well be a parent body for life in the solar system.Icy impact ejecta - hence glaciopanspermia - from Ceres will be subject to evaporation of volatiles. Spores may be loosened by evaporation and enter the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets as micrometeorites.The seeding of the terrestrial planets from Ceres would result in (1) detection of life in the crustal layers of Ceres; (2) a commonality of Cerean life with Terran and possible Martian and Venusian life and (3) biomarkers of Cerean life, which might be found in the ice at the Moon's poles and on the surface of other main belt asteroids.

Houtkooper, Joop M.

2011-08-01

155

Bergmann's rule and the terrestrial caecilian Schistometopum thomense (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: Do caecilians follow Bergmann's rule? Hypothesis: Bergmann's rule explains the wide variation in body sizes found among populations of the terrestrial caecilian Schistometopum thomense. Field site: This is a range-wide study incorporating most terrestrial habitats throughout the island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. Methods: We performed morphological measurements on 95 museum specimens and 187 field-collected individuals

G. John Measey; Stefan Van Dongen

2006-01-01

156

Formation of terrestrial planets in a dissipating gas disk with Jupiter and Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed N-body simulations on final accretion stage of terrestrial planets, including the eccentricity and inclination damping effect due to tidal interaction with a gas disk. We investigated the dependence on a depletion time scale of the disk, and the effect of secular perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. In the final stage, terrestrial planets are formed through coagulation of

Junko Kominami; Shigeru Ida

2004-01-01

157

Terrestrial Planet Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence of a few diehards, we may eventually have a seismic and heat flow network on Mars.

Phillips, R. J.

2008-12-01

158

Terrestrial Locomotion in Penguins: It Costs More to Waddle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energetic cost for walking is relatively higher for penguins than for other birds or for quadrupeds of similar body mass. The morphology of penguins seems to represent a compromise between aquatic and terrestrial locomotion wherein both energy economy and speed suffer when the birds move on land.

Berry Pinshow; Michael A. Fedak; Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

1977-01-01

159

Extra-articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main characteristic is persistent joint inflammation that results in joint damage and loss of function. Although RA is more common in females, extra-articular manifestations of the disease are more common in males. The extra-articular manifestations of RA can occur at any age after onset. It is characterised by destructive polyarthritis and extra-articular organ involvement, including the skin, eye, heart, lung, renal, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. The frequence of extra-articular manifestations in RA differs from one country to another. Extra-articular organ involvement in RA is more frequently seen in patients with severe, active disease and is associated with increased mortality. Incidence and frequence figures for extra-articular RA vary according to study design. Extra-articular involvement is more likely in those who have RF and/or are HLA-DR4 positive. Occasionally, there are also systemic manifestations such as vasculitis, visceral nodules, Sjögren's syndrome, or pulmonary fibrosis present. Nodules are the most common extra-articular feature, and are present in up to 30%; many of the other classic features occur in 1% or less in normal clinic settings. Sjögren's syndrome, anaemia of chronic disease and pulmonary manifestations are relatively common – in 6-10%, are frequently present in early disease and are all related to worse outcomes measures of rheumatoid disease in particular functional impairment and mortality. The occurrence of these systemic manifestations is a major predictor of mortality in patients with RA. This paper focuses on extra-articular manifestations, defined as diseases and symptoms not directly related to the locomotor system.

Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina; Tanasescu, R

2010-01-01

160

Searching for extra-dimensions at CMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible solution to the hierarchy problem is the presence of extra space dimensions beyond the three ones which are known from our everyday experience. The phenomenological ADD model of large extra-dimensions predicts a ETmiss +jet signature. Randall-Sundrum-type extra-dimensions predict di-lepton and di-jet resonances. This contribution addresses an overview of experimental issues and discovery potential for these new particles at the LHC, focusing on perspectives with the CMS detector during early data taking.

Benucci, Leonardo

2009-06-01

161

Primitive Terrestrial Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 23.3 year periodicity preserved in a 2500 million year old banded iron-formation is interpreted as reflecting the climatic influence of the lunar nodal tide, the signature of which has been detected in the modern climate. The lunar distance is deduced to have been 52 Earth radii. The influence of the lunar nodal tide is also detected in varves dating to 680 million years B.P. The implied history of Precambrian tidal friction is in excellent agreement with both more recent paleontological evidence and the long -term stability of the lunar orbit. The solar semidiurnal thermal tide was resonant with the natural period of the atmosphere when the day was (TURN)21.3 hours. This took place at the end of the Precambrian. The resonant atmospheric tide would have been large enough (.01 bar at the surface) to have influenced the weather. In contrast to lunar oceanic tides, the gravitational torque on the thermal tide accelerates the Earth's rotation rate; near resonance the opposing torques were comparable, so that the day may have been stabilized near 21.3 hours for much of the Precambrian. A sustained resonance does not conflict with the available evidence. Methane photochemistry in the primitive terrestrial atmosphere is studied using a detailed numerical model. Methane is oxidized cleanly and efficiently provided CO(,2) is more abundant than CH(,4). If CH(,4) and CO(,2) abundances are comparable, a large fraction of the methane present is polymerized, forming alkanes in the troposphere and polyacetylenes and nitriles in the upper atmosphere. Production of HCN from CH(,4) and N(,2) in the anaerobic atmosphere and its subsequent removal in rainwater could have been efficient; net production varying from .01% to 10% of the methane consumed. In the absence of a magnetic field, high ancient solar EUV and X-ray fluxes would have permitted an ocean of hydrogen to escape as a transsonic wind from a primordial accretionary greenhouse atmosphere in as little as 25 million years. The terrestrial magnetic field would have been strong enough to have prevented a freely flowing wind, reducing escape by one or two orders of magnitude with respect to an otherwise identical Venus.

Zahnle, Kevin John

1985-12-01

162

Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

163

An instrument for elemental and isotopic abundance characterization of extra-terrestrial materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples returned from the Genesis and Stardust missions of NASA's Discovery Program require quantitative analysis at sensitivities unobtainable with present instruments. This has driven development of a new generation of instruments for laser-post-ionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (laser-SNMS). Construction of a prototype time-of-flight (TOF) SNMS instrument has been completed recently at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and testing began in August 2002. This instrument is optimized for laser post-ionization of sputtered neutrals and is capable of locating and analyzing individual sub-micrometer interstellar particles on a sample stage for Stardust or determining elemental concentrations in shallow implants at ultra-trace levels for Genesis. Post-ionization can be accomplished with a variety of laser sources. These include high repetition rate tunable Ti-sapphire lasers for ultra-trace analysis of a single element and two vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light sources for simultaneous ionization of most atomic and molecular species in the sample. The two VUV lasers are an F2 laser with a fixed wavelength of 157 nm and the self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser (SASE FEL) capable of generating tunable VUV at wavelengths down to 60 nm. Fundamental physical theory of ion sputtering forms the scientific basis of the approach used to design the instrument. An ion optics design for the instrument was perfected through extensive three-dimensional computer simulations using SIMION software. Realistic sets of photo-ions were calculated using formalisms derived from sputtering theory. Their trajectories in various instrument designs were then traced by SIMION. Finally, results of the simulations were processed to estimate instrument capabilities including resolution and useful yield. This same approach proved accurate and quantitative during tests of an existing TOF SNMS instrument demonstrating the reliability of the simulation method. The completed prototype instrument and results of recent tests will be presented. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Sciences, under Contract W-31-109-ENG-38 and in part by a contract from NASA's Office of Space Science's Cosmochemistry Program.

Veryovkin, I. V.; Calaway, W. F.; Moore, J. F.; Pellin, M. J.; Savina, M. R.; King, B. V.; Petravi?, M.; Burnett, D. S.

2002-12-01

164

A summary of extremes of isotopic variations in extra-terrestrial materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this comprehensive review of current research on isotopic variations of elements in extraterrestrial materials, the variations were classified in terms of the major process involved in the modification of the iostopic composition of the element concerned. Maximum isotopic variations of each element were retrieved from publications which were available in Tokyo up to December 1985, and are presented in tabular form.

Shima, M.

1986-04-01

165

Making Friends with an Extra-Terrestrial: Conversation Skills and Friendship Formation in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A novel paradigm was developed and two studies conducted to test the contribution of six conversational skills to children's friendship formation. In study 1, 4- and 5-year-olds individually played for 30 minutes with a 2-foot-tall talking doll. The doll contained a wireless hidden receiver/speaker enabling a concealed female assistant to…

Parker, Jeffrey G.; Gottman, John M.

166

A summary of extremes of isotopic variations in extra-terrestrial materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this comprehensive review of current research on isotopic variations of elements in extraterrestrial materials, the variations were classified in terms of the major process involved in the modification of the iostopic composition of the element concerned. Maximum isotopic variations of each element were retrieved from publications which were available in Tokyo up to December 1985, and are presented in

M. Shima

1986-01-01

167

Meteorological and extra-terrestrial causes of the daily variation of cosmic ray intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The daily variations of total cosmic ray intensity and the intensities of meson and electron components have been studied\\u000a at Alimedabad with vertical geiger counter telescopes. The influence of meteorological factors on these variations has been\\u000a examined, and it has been found that appropriate barometric coefficients for correcting the cosmic ray intensities can be\\u000a obtained from a consideration of the

V. Sarabhai; U. D. Desai; R. P. Kane

1953-01-01

168

Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

169

An instrument for elemental and isotopic abundance characterization of extra-terrestrial materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples returned from the Genesis and Stardust missions of NASA's Discovery Program require quantitative analysis at sensitivities unobtainable with present instruments. This has driven development of a new generation of instruments for laser-post-ionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (laser-SNMS). Construction of a prototype time-of-flight (TOF) SNMS instrument has been completed recently at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and testing began in August

I. V. Veryovkin; W. F. Calaway; J. F. Moore; M. J. Pellin; M. R. Savina; B. V. King; M. Petravic; D. S. Burnett

2002-01-01

170

The search for extra-terrestrial sources of high energy neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of high-energy neutrino astronomy has seen rapid progress over the\\u000alast 15 years, with the development and operation of the first large-volume\\u000adetectors. Here, we review the motivation for construction of these large\\u000ainstruments and discuss what construction and physics progress has been made.

Gary C. Hill

2009-01-01

171

The search for extra-terrestrial sources of high energy neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of high-energy neutrino astronomy has seen rapid progress over the last 15 years, with the development and operation of the first large-volume detectors. Here, we review the motivation for construction of these large instruments and discuss what construction and physics progress has been made.

Gary C. Hill

2009-01-01

172

Search for Extra-Terrestrial planets: The DARWIN mission - Target Stars and Array Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DARWIN mission is an Infrared free flying interferometer mission based on the new technique of nulling interferometry. Its main objective is to detect and characterize other Earth-like planets, analyze the composition of their atmospheres and their capability to sustain life, as we know it. DARWIN is currently in definition phase. This PhD work that has been undertaken within the DARWIN team at the European Space Agency (ESA) addresses two crucial aspects of the mission. Firstly, a DARWIN target star list has been established that includes characteristics of the target star sample that will be critical for final mission design, such as, luminosity, distance, spectral classification, stellar variability, multiplicity, location and radius of the star. Constrains were applied as set by planet evolution theory and mission architecture. Secondly, a number of alternative mission architectures have been evaluated on the basis of interferometer response as a function of wavelength, achievable modulation efficiency, number of telescopes and starlight rejection capabilities. The study has shown that the core mission goals should be achievable with a lower level of complexity as compared to the current baseline configuration.

Kaltenegger, Lisa

2005-04-01

173

Hydrothermal Vent Complexes and the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal vent complexes, as have been recently identified on Earth, may also exist on Mars, and could provide important information as to the history of water on that planet. We suggest that some martian craters could be eruptive complex craters.

H. Svensen; G. Gisler; S. Polteau; A. Mazzini; S. Planke

2007-01-01

174

Oxygen Isotope Evidence for the Extra-Terrestrial Origin of the First Natural Quasicrystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SIMS oxygen-isotopic data indicate that the first naturally occurring quasicrystal is associated with a diverse assemblage of high-temperature refractory chondritic minerals (silicates and oxides) formed in the early solar system.

Guan, Y.; Bindi, L.; Eiler, J. M.; Hollister, L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Steinhardt, P. J.; Yao, N.

2011-03-01

175

Earth's Ionosphere as a Gigantic Detector of Extra-terrestrial Energetic Phenomena: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the ionospheric effects due to radiation from the transient extraterrestrial sources like Gamma Ray Bursts, Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters, Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, X-ray novae and X-ray transient sources. Gamma rays could penetrate deep in the atmosphere due to their high energy in comparison with other types of radiation. If the transient radiation from the above sources is strong enough to enhance the ionospheric ionization, VLF radio propagation could be affected. In the paper, we discuss the evidences of detection of such phenomena in VLF data and explain some of the observations using theoretical considerations.

Mondal, S. K.; Chakrabarti, S. K.

2010-10-01

176

Mass-Independent Fractionation of Extra-Terrestrial Materials: The Role of CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass-independent fractionation of oxygen in meteorites is hypothesized to have originated from CO disproportionation to give heavy CO2. This process could have initiated in dark molecular clouds and continued in the formation of the solar system.

Barcena, H. S.; Connolly, H. C.

2012-09-01

177

Combustion of Metals in Reduced-Gravity and Extra Terrestrial Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combustion of metals is a field with important practical applications in rocket propellants, high-temperature flames, and material synthesis. Also, the safe operation of metal containers in high-pressure oxygen systems and with cryogenic fuels and oxi...

M. C. Branch A. Abbud-Madrid J. W. Daily

1999-01-01

178

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in terrestrial invertebrates.  

PubMed

In this literature study, accumulation data of metals in terrestrial invertebrates were collected and compared (Arthropoda and Lumbricidae). Based on total soil concentrations and body concentrations, regression equations were calculated for each metal (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) and each taxonomic group. We also tried to find out whether or not accumulation levels of metals in Lumbricidae are representative for all of the studied terrestrial invertebrates. Taxonomic groups could be ordered according to the extent of metal accumulation. Significant differences in accumulation levels of a factor 2-12 were found between taxonomic groups. Overall, metal concentrations were high in Isopoda and low in Coleoptera. The concentrations in Lumbricidae were in between. It should be kept in mind that the data for Lumbricidae were mainly derived from laboratory experiments, while the data for other groups were derived from field studies. The internal Pb, Cd and Cu concentration increased with the soil concentration for most taxonomic groups in the order Pb > Cd > Cu. Body concentrations of Zn were quite constant over a range of soil concentrations. The differences in accumulation level between taxonomic groups show the relevance of including detailed information on feeding behaviour in risk assessment for invertebrate-eating animals. PMID:11428146

Heikens, A; Peijnenburg, W J; Hendriks, A J

2001-01-01

179

Theories with infinite volume extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories with extra dimensions provide alternative solutions and views to many fundamental problems in high energy physics. In this thesis, I investigated brane world theory with infinite volume extra dimensions. Kinetic term for the graviton is induced by the quantum corrections on the brane and 'shields' the four dimensional physics from the strong bulk gravity. Phenomenology of brane induced gravity scenario is investigate in details, as well as finite thickness effects and higher codimensions cases.

Kolanovic, Marko

180

Job Burnout, Absenteeism, and Extra Role Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to assess absenteeism and extra role behaviors as correlates of job burnout. Employees from a nuclear physics institute (N = 142) completed a survey that included the Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey (MBI-GS), self-efficacy, support by colleagues, and workload. Levels of absenteeism and extra role behaviors were provided by company records. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses were applied to a

Laura Petitta; Michele Vecchione

2011-01-01

181

Consistent ADD scenario with stabilized extra dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model with one compact extra dimension and a scalar field of Brans Dicke type in the bulk is discussed. It describes two branes with non-zero tension embedded into the space-time with flat background. This setup allows one to use a very simple method for stabilization of the size of extra dimension. It appears that the four-dimensional Planck mass is expressed only through parameters of the scalar field potentials on the branes.

Smolyakov, M. N.

2007-01-01

182

Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.

Breece, Gary Allen; Ward, Bobby J.

1996-11-01

183

Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

SciTech Connect

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

184

EFFECT OF VARIATION IN FORM ON THE COST OF TERRESTRIAL LOCOMOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mass-specific minimum cost of terrestrial locomotion (Cmu,) decreases with an increase in body mass. This generalization spans nearly eight orders of magnitude in body mass and includes two phyla. The general relationship between metabolic cost and mass is striking. However, a significant amount of unexplained interspecific variation in C^n exists at any given body mass. To determine how

ROBERT J. FULL; DANIELA A. ZUCCARELLO; ALEXA TULLIS

1990-01-01

185

Modified dispersion relations in extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been shown that the thermodynamics of a FRW universe can be fully derived using the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) in extra dimensions as a primary input. There is a phenomenologically close relation between the GUP and Modified Dispersion Relations (MDR). However, the form of the MDR in theories with extra dimensions is as yet not known. The purpose of this Letter is to derive the MDR in extra dimensional scenarios. To achieve this goal, we focus our attention on the thermodynamics of a FRW universe within a proposed MDR in an extra dimensional model universe. We then compare our results with the well-known results for the thermodynamics of a FRW universe in an extra dimensional GUP setup. The result shows that the entropy functionals calculated in these two approaches are the same, pointing to a possible conclusion that these approaches are equivalent. In this way, we derive the MDR form in a model universe with extra dimensions that would have interesting implications on the construction of the ultimate quantum gravity scenario.

Sefiedgar, A. S.; Nozari, K.; Sepangi, H. R.

2011-01-01

186

Editorial: Focus on Extra Space Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have just started. In addition to verifying the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, these experiments will probe a new energy frontier and test extensions of the SM. The existence of extra dimensions is one of the most attractive possibilities for physics beyond the SM. This focus issue contains a collection of articles addressing both theoretical and phenomenological aspects of extra-dimensional models. Focus on Extra Space Dimensions Contents Minimal universal extra dimensions in CalcHEP/CompHEP AseshKrishna Datta, Kyoungchul Kong and Konstantin T Matchev Disordered extra dimensions Karim Benakli Codimension-2 brane-bulk matching: examples from six and ten dimensions Allan Bayntun, C P Burgess and Leo van Nierop Gauge threshold corrections in warped geometry Kiwoon Choi, Ian-Woo Kim and Chang Sub Shin Holographic methods and gauge-Higgs unification in flat extra dimensions Marco Serone Soft-wall stabilization Joan A Cabrer, Gero von Gersdorff and Mariano Quirós Warped five-dimensional models: phenomenological status and experimental prospects Hooman Davoudiasl, Shrihari Gopalakrishna, Eduardo Pontón and José Santiago

Agashe, Kaustubh; Pomarol, Alex

2010-07-01

187

Solar system constraints on a Rindler-type extra-acceleration from modified gravity at large distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analytically work out the orbital effects caused by a Rindler-type extra-acceleration ARin which naturally arises in some recent models of modified gravity at large distances. In particular, we focus on the perturbations induced by it on the two-body range ? and range-rate dot rho which are commonly used in satellite and planetary investigations as primary observable quantities. The constraints obtained for ARin by comparing our calculations with the currently available range and range-rate residuals for some of the major bodies of the solar system, obtained without explicitly modeling ARin, are 1-2 × 10-13 m s-2 (Mercury and Venus), 1 × 10-14 m s-2 (Saturn), 1 × 10-15 m s-2 (Mars), while for a terrestrial Rindler acceleration we have an upper bound of 5 × 10-16 m s-2 (Moon). The constraints inferred from the planets' range and range-rate residuals are confirmed also by the latest empirical determinations of the corrections ?dot varpi to the usual Newtonian/Einsteinian secular precessions of the planetary longitudes of perihelia varpi: moreover, the Earth yields ARin <= 7 × 10-16 m s-2. Another approach which could be followed consists of taking into account ARin in re-processing all the available data sets with accordingly modified dynamical models, and estimating a dedicated solve-for parameter explicitly accounting for it. Anyway, such a method is time-consuming. A preliminary analysis likely performed in such a way by a different author yields A <= 8 × 10-14 m s-2 at Mars' distance and A <= 1 × 10-14 m s-2 at Saturn's distance. The method adopted here can be easily and straightforwardly extended to other long-range modified models of gravity as well.

Iorio, L.

2011-05-01

188

Extra prompts versus no extra prompts in self-care training of autistic children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A color-coded “extra prompt” procedure was compared to a “no extra prompt” procedure in teaching autistic children and adolescents\\u000a how to lace shoes. One randomly assigned group of 10 autistic subjects first learned to lace shoes whose laces and eyelets\\u000a were color-coded red and white, and then encountered the no extra prompt condition in which color codes could no longer

David L. Nelson; Edward Gergenti; Anthony C. Hollander

1980-01-01

189

GEOLogic: Terrestrial and Jovian Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-part example, students are given clues about properties about the terrestrial and Jovian planets respectively and asked to match up the planet with the correct equatorial radius, mean orbital velocity, and period of rotation.

Guertin, Laura

190

Contaminant Exposure in Terrestrial Vertebrates  

EPA Science Inventory

Manuscript is a critical review of the state of the science for quantifying exposures of terrestrial wildlife species to chemical contamination. It describes the unique aspects of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and threatened and endangered species. Fate and transport of ...

191

USING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS IN BIOMONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

Terrestrial plants have been used as monitors of environmental pollutants since at least the beginning of this century & have recently received attention in response to the need for ecological assessments at hazardous waste sites & monitoring pesticide damage to nontarget plants....

192

Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

CSiTE, the Department of Energy's research consortium performs fundamental research in support of new methods to enhance carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems in an environmentally acceptable manner. The goal of CSiTE is to discover and characterize links between critical pathways and mechanisms across scales from the molecular to the landscape for creating larger, longer-lasting carbon pools in terrestrial ecosystems. This

G. K. Jacobs; W. M. Post; J. D. Jastrow; R. C. Izaurralde

2002-01-01

193

Extra-oral halitosis: an overview.  

PubMed

Halitosis can be subdivided into intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis, depending on the place where it originates. Most reports now agree that the most frequent sources of halitosis exist within the oral cavity and include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal pockets, where anaerobic bacteria degrade sulfur-containing amino acids to produce the foul smelling volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), especially hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). Tongue coating is considered to be the most important source of VSCs. Oral malodor can now be treated effectively. Special attention in this overview is given to extra-oral halitosis. Extra-oral halitosis can be subdivided into non-blood-borne halitosis, such as halitosis from the upper respiratory tract including the nose and from the lower respiratory tract, and blood-borne halitosis. The majority of patients with extra-oral halitosis have blood-borne halitosis. Blood-borne halitosis is also frequently caused by odorous VSCs, in particular dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3). Extra-oral halitosis, covering about 5-10% of all cases of halitosis, might be a manifestation of a serious disease for which treatment is much more complicated than for intra-oral halitosis. It is therefore of utmost importance to differentiate between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis. Differences between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis are discussed extensively. The importance of applying odor characterization of various odorants in halitosis research is also highlighted in this article. The use of the odor index, odor threshold values and simulation of bad breath samples is explained. PMID:21386205

Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G

2010-03-02

194

Extra Dimensions (from the bottom up)  

ScienceCinema

We describe recent ideas involving latticizing or 'deconstructing' extra space time dimensions. Particles and geometry meld into the same thing. Intriguing topological beasts arise. Above all, new organizing principles for physics beyond the Standard Model come into view. Some conclusions are: (1) extra dimensions viewed through lattice/deconstruction generates new Lagrangian structures {leftrightarrow} new organizing principles; (2) replicant K-K gauge groups - G {yields} G x G x G...; (3) suggests new dynamics for EWSB, e.g., dynamical condensation via QCD, top seesaw, etc.; (4) suggests new directions for flavor physics model building; (5) dimensional descent cohomology through lattice, deconstruction; and (6) rich topological structures expected in any extra dimensional theories expected at mass scale of {approx} M{sub KK}/{alpha}.

195

Tidal evolution of extra-solar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In both our solar system and extra-solar planetary systems, tides may have a variety of effects, driving complex orbital evolution and geophysical processes. For extra-solar planets with orbits that pass very close to their host stars, tides have reduced orbital eccentricities and semi-major axes, and the rates of tidal evolution may change dramatically as orbits evolve. Understanding how the orbits have evolved and, ultimately, discerning the origins of close-in extra-solar planets require accounting for all the complexity of tidal evolution. The accompanying dissipation of tidal energy within the planets has probably also affected their internal structures. In some cases, tidal dissipation may account the apparent discrepancy between predictions and observations of the radii of extra-solar planets that transit their host stars. Evolutionary models for these planets that allow determinations of their internal structures and composition must include highly variable tidal heating rates. The same tidal evolution and heating probably also affects the orbital and geophysical properties of rocky extra-solar planets and may play a key role in determining whether such a planet can harbor life. As tides reduce a planet's semi-major axis, the planet may eventually pass so close to its host star that the star's gravity completely disrupts the planet, leading to the destruction of many planets. Tidal destruction has left a discernible signature on the distribution of extra-solar planetary orbits, and so interpretations of the distribution in terms of the origins of planets must include consideration of the effects of tidal destruction.

Jackson, Brian Kendall

196

Grazers: biocatalysts of terrestrial silica cycling.  

PubMed

Silica is well known for its role as inducible defence mechanism countering herbivore attack, mainly through precipitation of opaline, biogenic silica (BSi) bodies (phytoliths) in plant epidermal tissues. Even though grazing strongly interacts with other element cycles, its impact on terrestrial silica cycling has never been thoroughly considered. Here, BSi content of ingested grass, hay and faeces of large herbivores was quantified by performing multiple chemical extraction procedures for BSi, allowing the assessment of chemical reactivity. Dissolution experiments with grass and faeces were carried out to measure direct availability of BSi for dissolution. Average BSi and readily soluble silica numbers were higher in faeces as compared with grass or hay, and differences between herbivores could be related to distinct digestive strategies. Reactivity and dissolvability of BSi increases after digestion, mainly due to degradation of organic matrices, resulting in higher silica turnover rates and mobilization potential from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems in non-grazed versus grazed pasture systems (2 versus 20 kg Si ha(-1) y(-1)). Our results suggest a crucial yet currently unexplored role of herbivores in determining silica export from land to ocean, where its availability is linked to eutrophication events and carbon sequestration through C-Si diatom interactions. PMID:24107532

Vandevenne, Floor Ina; Barão, Ana Lúcia; Schoelynck, Jonas; Smis, Adriaan; Ryken, Nick; Van Damme, Stefan; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

2013-10-09

197

Exponentially small supersymmetry breaking from extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

The supersymmetric ''shining'' of free massive chiral superfields in extra dimensions from a distant source brane can trigger exponentially small supersymmetry breaking on our brane of order e{sup -2{pi}R}, where R is the radius of the extra dimensions. This supersymmetry breaking can be transmitted to the superpartners in a number of ways, for instance by gravity or via the standard model gauge interactions. The radius R can easily be stabilized at a size O(10) larger that the fundamental scale. The models are extremely simple, relying only on free, classical bulk dynamics to solve the hierarchy problem.

Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hall, Lawrence; Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

2001-03-01

198

NewsHour Extra: Addressing Health Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this PBS NewsHour Extra lesson plan, students take an in-depth look at the SARS epidemic, with a particular focus on pan-national public health administration. A NewsHour interview with Dr. David Heyman, Director for Communicable Diseases at the World Health Organization (WHO), forms the basis of the exercise (video, audio, and transcript available). A NewsHour Extra story on SARS provides additional material. The site also offers ideas for homework and extension activities, each designed to help students explore and understand the process by which organizations like WHO tackle new disease outbreaks.

Dufour, Joanne.

199

Electroweak symmetry breaking by extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Electroweak symmetry breaking may be naturally induced by the observed quark and gauge fields in extra dimensions without a fundamental Higgs field. The authors show that a composite Higgs doublet can arise as a bound state of (t,b){sub L} and a linear combination of the Kaluza-Klein states of t{sub R}, due to QCD in extra dimensions. The top quark mass depends on the number of active t{sub R} Kaluza-Klein modes, and is consistent with the experimental value.

Hsin-Chia Cheng; Bogdan A. Dobrescu and Christopher T. Hill

2000-05-25

200

Formation of the terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early phases of formation in the inner solar system were dominated by collisions and short-range dynamical interactions among planetesimals. But the later phases, which account for most of the differences among planets, are unsure because the dynamics are more subtle. Jupiter's influence became more important, leading to drastic clearing out of the asteroid belt and the stunting of Mars's growth. Further in, the effect of Jupiter-- both directly and indirectly, through ejection of mass in the outer solar system-- was probably to speed up the process without greatly affecting the outcome. The great variety in bulk properties of the terrestrial bodies indicate a terminal phase of great collisions, so that the outcome is the result of small-N statistics. Mercury, 65 percent iron, appears to be a residual core from a high-velocity collision. All planets appear to require a late phase of high energy impacts to erode their atmospheres: including the Earth, to remove CO2 so that its ocean could form by condensation of water. Consistent with this model is that the largest collision, about 0.2 Earth masses, was into the proto-Earth, although the only property that appears to require it is the great lack of iron in the Moon. The other large differences between the Earth and Venus, angular momentum (spin plus satellite) and inert gas abundances, must arise from origin circumstances, but neither require nor forbid the giant impact. Venus's higher ratio of light to heavy inert gases argues for it receiving a large icy impactor, about 10-6 Earth masses from far out, requiring some improbable dynamics to get a low enough approach velocity. Core formation in both planets probably started rather early during accretion. Some geochemical evidences argue for the Moon coming from the Earth's mantle, but are inconclusive. Large scale melting of the mantle by the giant impact would plausibly have led to stratification. But the "lock-up" at the end of turbulent mantle convection is a trade-off between rates: crystallization of constituents of small density difference versus overall freezing. Also, factors such as differences in melting temperatures and densities, melt compressibilities, and phase transitions may have had homogenizing effects in the subsequent mantle convection.

Kaula, William M.

1994-01-01

201

Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

1990-01-01

202

Space Physics and Terrestrial Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum guide is intended for high school teachers who are teaching solar physics, especially the effects of solar activity on terrestrial planets. The chapters discuss stellar evolution, the structure of the sun, studying the sun, and solar and terrestrial interactions. Lab activities provided include: building a spectroscope, energy transport within the sun, measuring the solar constant, luminosity of the sun and stars, seeing different wavelengths, the Earth-Sun orientation, the effect of the solar wind on the geomagnetic field, determining the rotation period of the sun, and radiation hazards in space.

2005-05-23

203

Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities.  

PubMed

In addition to its high proportion of oleic acid (which is considered as "neutral" in terms of cardioprotection), extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds, which other vegetable oils do not contain. This review critically appraises the current scientific evidence of a healthful role of olive phenols, with particular emphasis on hydroxytyrosol and related molecules. PMID:21443485

Visioli, Francesco; Bernardini, Elena

2011-01-01

204

Phenomenological implications of neutrinos in extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard Model singlet neutrinos propagating in extra dimensions induce small Dirac neutrino masses. While it seems rather unlikely that their Kaluza-Klein excitations directly participate in the observed neutrino oscillations, their virtual exchange may lead to detectable signatures in future neutrino experiments and in rare charged lepton processes. We show how these effects can be described by specific dimension-six effective operators

André de Gouvêa; Gian Francesco Giudice; Alessandro Strumia; Kazuhiro Tobe

2002-01-01

205

Phenomenological implications of neutrinos in extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard Model singlet neutrinos propagating in extra dimensions induce small Dirac neutrino masses. While it seems rather unlikely that their Kaluza–Klein excitations directly participate in the observed neutrino oscillations, their virtual exchange may lead to detectable signatures in future neutrino experiments and in rare charged lepton processes. We show how these effects can be described by specific dimension-six effective operators

André de Gouvêa; Gian Francesco Giudice; Alessandro Strumia; Kazuhiro Tobe

2002-01-01

206

Phenomenological implications of neutrinos in extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard Model singlet neutrinos propagating in extra dimensions induce small Dirac neutrino masses. While it seems rather unlikely that their Kaluza-Klein excitations directly participate in the observed neutrino oscillations, their virtual exchange may lead to detectable signatures in future neutrino experiments and in rare charged lepton processes. We show how these effects can be described by specific dimension-six effective operators

Andre de Gouvea; Gian Francesco Giudice; Alessandro Strumia; Kazuhiro Tobe

2001-01-01

207

Precision constraints on extra fermion generations.  

PubMed

There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data. PMID:20867757

Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul

2010-07-13

208

Precision Constraints on Extra Fermion Generations  

SciTech Connect

There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.

Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2010-07-16

209

Impact ejecta emplacement on terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact cratering is one of the most fundamental processes responsible for shaping the surfaces of solid planetary bodies. One of the principal characteristics of impact events is the formation and emplacement of ejecta deposits, an understanding of which is critical for planetary exploration. Current models of ejecta emplacement, however, do not account for several important observations of ejecta deposits on the terrestrial planets, in particular, the presence of more than one layer of ejecta. Furthermore, there is also no universal model for the origin and emplacement of ejecta on different planetary bodies. We present a unifying working hypothesis for the origin and emplacement of ejecta on the terrestrial planets, in which the ejecta are emplaced in a multi-stage process. The generation of the continuous ejecta blanket occurs during the excavation stage of cratering, via the conventional ballistic sedimentation and radial flow model. This is followed by the emplacement of more melt-rich, ground-hugging flows - the "surface melt flow" phase - during the terminal stages of crater excavation and the modification stage of crater formation. Minor fallback occurs during the final stages of crater formation. Several factors will affect the final morphology and character of ejecta deposits. The volatile content and cohesiveness of the uppermost target rocks will significantly affect the runout distance of the ballistically emplaced continuous ejecta blanket, with impact angle also influencing the overall geometry of the deposits (e.g., the production of the characteristic butterfly pattern seen in very oblique impacts). Ejecta deposited during the surface melt flow stage is influenced by several factors, most importantly planetary gravity, surface temperature, and the physical properties of the target rocks. Topography and angle of impact play important roles in determining the final distribution of surface melt flow ejecta deposits with respect to the source crater. This working hypothesis of ballistic sedimentation and surface melt flow provides a framework in which observations of ejecta at impact craters can be compared and placed in the context of the respective terrestrial planets.

Osinski, Gordon R.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

2011-10-01

210

Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hour...

H. W. Brandhorst

1998-01-01

211

Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and observations relating to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Venus, the earth and Mars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on comparing the basic differences and similarities between the planetary ionospheres. The review covers the plasma and electric-magnetic field environments that surround the planets, the theory leading to the creation and transport of ionization in the ionspheres, the

R. W. Schunk; A. F. Nagy

1980-01-01

212

Beam wander experiments: terrestrial path  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a set of measurements made in December 2005 by researchers from the University of Central Florida, SPAWAR's Innovative Science and Technology Experiment Facility (ISTEF), Harris Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Northrop Grumman. The experiments were conducted on the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) over terrestrial paths of 1, 2, and 5 km.

R. L. Phillips; L. C. Andrews; J. Stryjewski; B. Griffis; M. Borbath; D. Galus; G. Burdge; K. Green; C. Kim; D. Stack; C. Harkrider; D. Wayne; D. Hand; J. Kiriazes

2006-01-01

213

Behavior of (sup 89)Sr and tritium water (HTO) in a model terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of land polluted by (sup 89)Sr on water body and the immigration of HTO from water body to land were studied in a modelling terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem. The results are as follows: (1) The (sup 89)Sr in soil quickly migrated to common bean pl...

Y. Zhang S. Wang C. Chen Z. Sun F. Wang

1993-01-01

214

The Economic Potential of Terrestrial Impact Craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like concentrations of economic resources, terrestrial impact structures are the result of relatively rare geologic events. Economic resources occur in a number of terrestrial impact structures. After providing a context by briefly summarizing the salient points of the terrestrial impact record and the characteristics of impact craters, the relationship between impact craters and economic resources is explored. Approximately 25% of

R. A. F. Grieve; V. L. Masaitis

1994-01-01

215

Extra U(1)'s and new forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss possible extra U(1) gauge symmetries for extensions of the standard model, in connection with their Higgs boson sectors. The more electroweak Higgs doublets, the larger the number of extra U(1) symmetries which may be gauged. For small numbers of Higgs doublets such extra U(1) symmetries usually appear as blind to quark flavor, while this is not necessary for leptons. With only one Higgs doublet any extra U(1) generator must act on quarks and leptons as a linear combination of the baryonic and leptonic numbers B and Li with the weak hypercharge Y. With two or more Higgs doublets they may act as linear combinations of B, Li and Y with axial baryonic and/or leptonic symmetry generators. We also discuss extra U(1) groups in left-right symmetric and grand-unified theories. The corresponding neutral gauge bosons, U, in general mix with the Z bosons, and may be heavy, light, or even remain massless. The strength of the resulting interaction, of unknown range ?U = h/mUc, is proportional to 1/?U2, and also depends on the extra U(1) symmetry-breaking scale. For very light U bosons this interaction may appear as a deviation from the laws of gravitation (or electromagnetism). After mixing with the Z current the new current is then purely vectorial, in the case of a single Higgs doublet; or it also includes an axial part, which could be responsible for the direct production of U bosons in particle physics experiments, as well as for a new spin-spin force. The vector part of the current is associated with the fifth force charge Q5 = xB + yiLi + zQ, or, in the framework of grand-unified theories: Q5 = x(B - L) + zQ. We discuss, finally, some of the main physical implications of this analysis. Unité Propre du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, associée à l'Ecole Normale Supérieure et à l'Université de Paris-Sud.

Fayet, Pierre

1990-12-01

216

Resonances from two universal extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Standard model gauge bosons propagating in two universal extra dimensions give rise to heavy spin-1 and spin-0 particles. The lightest of these, carrying Kaluza-Klein numbers (1,0), may be produced only in pairs at colliders, whereas the (1,1) modes, which are heavier by a factor of {radical}2, may be singly produced. We show that the cascade decays of (1,1) particles generate a series of closely-spaced narrow resonances in the t{bar t} invariant mass distribution. At the Tevatron, s-channel production of (1,1) gluons and electroweak bosons will be sensitive to t{bar t} resonances up to masses in the 0.5-0.7 TeV range. Searches at the LHC for resonances originating from several higher-level modes will further test the existence of two universal extra dimensions.

Burdman, Gustavo; /Sao Paulo U.; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Ponton, Eduardo; /Columbia U.

2006-01-01

217

Resonances from two universal extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Standard model gauge bosons propagating in two universal extra dimensions give rise to heavy spin-1 and spin-0 particles. The lightest of these, carrying Kaluza-Klein numbers (1,0), may be produced only in pairs at colliders, whereas the (1,1) modes, which are heavier by a factor of {radical}(2), may be singly produced. We show that the cascade decays of (1,1) particles generate a series of closely-spaced narrow resonances in the tt invariant mass distribution. At the Tevatron, s-channel production of (1,1) gluons and electroweak bosons will be sensitive to tt resonances up to masses in the 0.5-0.7 TeV range. Searches at the LHC for resonances originating from several higher-level modes will further test the existence of two universal extra dimensions.

Burdman, Gustavo [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Dobrescu, Bogdan A. [Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Ponton, Eduardo [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2006-10-01

218

Casimir Energy, Extra Dimensions and Exotic Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the Casimir effect is an excellent candidate for the stabilization of the extra dimensions. It has also been suggested that the Casimir effect in higher dimensions may be the underlying phenomenon that is responsible for the dark energy which is currently driving the accelerated expansion of the universe. In this paper we suggest that, in principle, it may be possible to directly manipulate the size of an extra dimension locally using Standard Model fields in the next generation of particle accelerators. This adjustment of the size of the higher dimension could serve as a technological mechanism to locally adjust the dark energy density and change the local expansion of spacetime. This idea holds tantalizing possibilities in the context of exotic spacecraft propulsion.

Obousy, R.; Saharian, A.

219

Self-stabilization of extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

We show that the problem of stabilization of extra dimensions in Kaluza-Klein type cosmology may be solved in a theory of gravity involving high-order curvature invariants. The method suggested (employing a slow-change approximation) can work with a rather general form of the gravitational action. As examples, we consider pure gravity with Lagrangians quadratic and cubic in the scalar curvature and some more complex ones in a simple Kaluza-Klein framework. After a transition to the 4D Einstein conformal frame, this results in effective scalar field theories with certain effective potentials, which in many cases possess positive minima providing stable small-size extra dimensions. Estimates made in the original (Jordan) conformal frame show that the problem of a small value of the cosmological constant in the present Universe is softened in this framework but is not solved completely.

Bronnikov, K.A.; Rubin, S.G. [Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya St., Moscow (Russian Federation) and Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, PFUR, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya St., Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe Sh., Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

2006-06-15

220

Brane modeling in warped extra-dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five-dimensional scenarios with infinitesimally thin branes replaced by appropriate configurations of a scalar field were considered. A possibility of periodic extra dimension was discussed in the presence on non-minimal scalar-gravity coupling and a generalized Gibbons-Kallosh-Linde sum rule was found. In order to avoid constraints imposed by periodicity, a non-compact spacial extra dimension was introduced. A five dimensional model with warped geometry and two thin branes mimicked by a scalar profile was constructed and discussed. In the thin brane limit the model corresponds to a set-up with two positive-tension branes. The presence of two branes allows to address the issue of the hierarchy problem which could be solved by the standard warping of the four dimensional metric provided the Higgs field is properly localized. Stability of the background solution was discussed and verified in the presence of the most general perturbations of the metric and the scalar field.

Ahmed, Aqeel; Grzadkowski, Bohdan

2013-01-01

221

Comparison of Titan's north polar lakes with terrestrial analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of hydrocarbon lakes in the polar regions of Titan offers a unique opportunity to compare terrestrial lakes with those in an extraterrestrial setting. We selected 114 terrestrial lakes formed by different processes as analogs for comparison with the 190 Titanian lakes that we had mapped in our previous study. Using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) C-band backscatter data and the SRTM Water Body Data (SWBD), we carried out an assessment of manual mapping versus existing automated mapping techniques, and found the automated techniques to produce as good representations of the lake shorelines as the manual mapping in the terrestrial dataset. We then calculated and compared terrestrial and Titanian shoreline statistical parameters including fractal dimension, shoreline development index and an elongation index. We found different lake generation mechanisms on Earth produce “statistically different” shorelines. However, we cannot identify any one mechanism or set of mechanisms to be responsible for forming the depressions enclosing the lakes on Titan, on the basis of our statistical analyses.

Sharma, Priyanka; Byrne, Shane

2011-12-01

222

Fragmentation of metal diapirs in terrestrial magma oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to mechanisms such as impact heating, early atmospheric thermal blanketing or radioactive heating, the presence of at least one global magma ocean stage in the early histories of terrestrial planets seems unavoidable. In such a context, a key question is whether (and how much) iron diapirs provided by differentiated impactors have emulsified during their sinking towards the bottom of an early magma ocean. Addressing this problem allows one to put strong constraints on metal-silicate equilibration processes as well as heat distribution within a young terrestrial planet. Previous theoretical studies have focused on this question, however no dynamic studies have conducted a systematic exploration of the relevant parameter space corresponding to terrestrial magma oceans. We therefore perform a series of numerical experiments where we follow the sinking of iron diapirs until they fragment (or not) into smaller bodies. Metal-silicate thermal and chemical exchanges are also monitored during the sinking process. Our models include an accurate treatment of surface tension, inertial effects, as well as viscous heating and we investigate systematically the effect of rheological properties and diapir sizes on the conditions and on the consequences of metal diapir fragmentation in terrestrial magma oceans.

Samuel, H.; Rubie, D. C.; Melosh, H. J.

2010-12-01

223

The little hierarchy in Universal Extra Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the standard model in universal extra dimensions (UED) the mass of the Higgs field is driven to the cutoff of the higher-dimensional theory. This re-introduces a small hierarchy since the compactification scale 1\\/R should not be smaller than the weak scale. In this paper we study possible solutions to this problem by considering five-dimensional theories where the Higgs field

Gustavo Burdman; Alex G. Dias

2007-01-01

224

Top mode standard model with extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We critically examine a version of the top mode standard model recently cast in extra dimensions by Arkani-Hamed, Cheng, Dobrescu, and Hall, based on the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation for the D- (=6,8-) dimensional gauge theories. We find that the bulk QCD cannot have larger coupling beyond the nontrivial ultraviolet (UV) fixed point, the existence of which is supported

Michio Hashimoto; Masaharu Tanabashi; Koichi Yamawaki

2001-01-01

225

New Extra-Solar Planet - thermal state and structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last decade astronomers have found more than 160 planets orbiting stars other than our sun. All but three of them are gaseous planets. The variety of characteristics of these newly discovered planets opens a new field with questions about planetary formation, structure and evolution, as well as the possibility of existence of life beyond our solar system. Planetary formation models suggested the existence of terrestrial extra-solar planets with masses up to 10 times the mass of the Earth. In June of 2005 the first Super-Earth was discovered orbiting a star 15 light years away with a mass that is about 7.5 times the mass of the Earth and a period of 1.94 days. The composition of this planet is unknown but probably has an Earth-like composition. Astronomers believe the surface temperature ranges between ~500 K and ~700 K. Liquid water can exist at temperatures above T=400K at high pressures (above 10 MPa) allowing for the possibility of a water layer on top of a rocky core. Our work focuses on determining scaling relationships with mass, internal structure parameters and thermal state. We explore the effects of a water/icy layer above a rocky core as well as other types of compositions in determining the internal structure. This water layer may convect causing the planet to have two layer convection. We explore the effects of a layer convection mode versus whole mantle convection for a Super-Earth. Due to the closeness of this planet to its parent star we can expect substantial tidal heating that can affect the thermal state of this planet. We explore the effects of tidal heating in the internal structure of a planet. Differences in composition have much larger effects in the mass-radius relationship than the uncertainties in thermodynamic parameters of the minerals composing the planet.

Valencia, D.; O'Connell, R. J.; Sasselov, D.

2005-12-01

226

23 CFR 635.120 - Changes and extra work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Changes and extra work. 635.120 Section 635.120...Procedures § 635.120 Changes and extra work. (a) Following authorization...plans and contract provisions and all major extra work shall have formal approval...

2009-04-01

227

Who Does Extra-Credit Work in Introductory Science Courses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the first day of classes, 81% of students in an introductory biology course claimed that they would submit extra-credit work if given the opportunity. When given two chances for extra-credit work, fewer than one-fourth of students submitted one or both assignments. Students who submitted extra-credit work were more likely to attend class,…

Moore, Randy

2005-01-01

228

Primary Education in Vietnam: Extra Classes and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extra classes are increasingly observed in both developed and developing countries. In Vietnam, a country where education reforms are at their height, extra classes are proliferating and have become a concern to society and the government. Although the government has banned extra classes that are independent of school administration, teachers…

Ha, Tran Thu; Harpham, Trudy

2005-01-01

229

23 CFR 635.120 - Changes and extra work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Changes and extra work. 635.120 Section 635.120...Procedures § 635.120 Changes and extra work. (a) Following authorization...plans and contract provisions and all major extra work shall have formal approval...

2010-04-01

230

Alien Terrestrial Invertebrates of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike other groups of animals and plants, no checklist of alien terrestrial invertebrates was available in any of the European\\u000a countries until recently. Since 2002, such checklists were successively provided by Austria (Essl and Rabitsch 2002), Germany\\u000a (Geiter et al. 2002), the Czech Republic (Šefrová and Lašt? vka 2005), Scandinavia (NOBANIS 2007), the United Kingdom (Hill\\u000a et al. 2005), Switzerland

Alain Roques; Wolfgang Rabitsch; Jean-Yves Rasplus; Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde; Wolfgang Nentwig; Marc Kenis

231

Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an\\u000a intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg\\u000a of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected\\u000a microsere. Here

David O. Carter; David Yellowlees; Mark Tibbett

2007-01-01

232

Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ((Simon)); ((Royal))

2009-07-01

233

Cu-Zn isotope systematics in terrestrial basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision isotopic measurements are now possible for numerous elements thanks to MC-ICPMS (multiple collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry). Transition elements such as Cu and Zn have been shown to have variable isotopic compositions, both on terrestrial (mineralizations, oceanic particulates)(Maréchal 1999) and extra-terrestrial samples (Luck 2003). Isotopic compositions are expressed as relative deviations from standard (i.e. ?65Cu, ?66Zn, in ppm). On Earth, Cu variations on mineralizations span approximately the range -5 ppm to +5 ppm, while Zn variations are more restricted (about -0.5 ppm to +0.5 ppm). We report Cu and Zn isotopic compositions for various terrestrial samples derived from the mantle : MORBs from the 3 major oceans, and OIBs characteristic of the major end-members (EM1, EM2, HIMU and Hawaï). Zn isotopes vary according to mass-dependent fractionation law (this was checked with the three ratios : ?66Zn, ?67Zn and ?68Zn). Zn isotopic values cluster remarkably around positive values of 0.2-0.3 ppm, close to marine particulates, sediments and loess, suggesting that no significant fractionation occurs. On the other hand, Cu isotopic values cluster around 0 ppm, close to CI chondrite value, but lower than loess values. Both elements display roughly constant isotopic values on Mid-Atlantic ridge basalts (glass) collected between 100 to 600 km from Iceland. Maréchal, Telouk, Albarède (1999) Chem. Geol. 156, 251-273 Luck, BenOthman, Barrat, Albarède (2003) Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta 67, 143-151.

Ben Othman, D.; Luck, J. M.; Tchalikian, A.; Albarède, F.

2003-04-01

234

Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms dictating upper limits to animal body size are not well understood. We have analysed body length data for the largest representatives of 24 taxa of terrestrial poikilotherms from tropical, temperate and polar environments. We find that poikilothermic giants on land become two–three times shorter per each 10 degrees of decrease in ambient temperature. We quantify that this diminution of maximum body size accurately compensates the drop of metabolic rate dictated by lower temperature. This supports the idea that the upper limit to body size within each taxon can be set by a temperature-independent critical minimum value of mass-specific metabolic rate, a fall below which is not compatible with successful biological performance.

Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

2005-01-01

235

Terrestrial Planets: Volatiles Loss & Speed of Rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a close relation between orbiting frequencies of terrestrial planets and intensities of their outgassing [1]. ``Sweeping'' out volatiles of their bodies is provoked and facilitated by body shaking (wave oscillations) caused by movement of celestial bodies in elliptical orbits. Non-round orbits cause inertia-gravity warpings in all spheres of the bodies producing their tectonic granulation. The higher orbiting frequency -- the smaller tectonic granula -- more thorough interior degassing. Sizes of tectonic granulas inversely proportional to orbiting frequencies are: Mars ? R/2, Earth ? R/4, Venus ? R/6, Mercury ? R/16. The atmospheric masses increase from Mars through Earth to Venus as ˜ 0. 01 : 1 : 90 (radiogenic/primordial Ar is 3000 : 300 : 1, marking degassing intensity). Mercury in this sequence should have been even more outgassed (˜ 500 times comparative to Venus, having in mind different planetary masses [2]). But now it possesses only very weak atmosphere of noble gases, Na, K -- remnants of past significant outgassing now witnessed by a great amount of small deep structurally controlled pits (craters), lobate scarps caused by strong contraction and slow rotation. The slow rotation is due to loss of angular momentum to the atmosphere now wiped out by the solar wind. The same partitioning of angular momentum occurs at Venus: slowly rotating solid body is wrapped in rapidly rotating massive atmosphere (the solid surface exposes many features of contraction due to subsidence -- vast areas of wrinkle ridges). On the contrary to slow Mercury and Venus, Earth and Mars keep their moderate rotation corresponding to their moderate and mild degassing [3]. Still further from Sun weakly outgassed gas giants rotate very rapidly. Sun itself with slowly rotating photosphere and corresponding supergranula size ? R/60 is a strongly outgassed object (some think that Sun lost upto 10% of its original mass). In line with the established regularity between orbiting frequency and granula size, small solar granulas (1000-2000 km) could keep memory of the rapider rotation in the past before a strong degassing (mesogranulas indicate at some stage of mass loss) [3]. Thus, according to volatile loss in the Solar system there are bodies rotating rapidly -the outer planets, moderately -- Mars, Earth, slowly - Venus, Mercury, Sun. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (2003) Surprisingly rich in H2 O soils of Mars: a consequence of mild degassing // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 5, 02167, (CD-ROM); [2] Kochemasov G.G. (2003) // 38th Vernadsky-Brown microsymp. ``Topics in Comparative Planetology'', Abstr., Moscow, Oct.27-28, (CD-ROM); [3] Ibid.,Structures of the wave planetology and their projection onto the solar photosphere: why solar supergranules are 30000 km across. _

Kochemasov, G. G.

236

Out-of-body experience and autoscopy of neurological origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During an out-of-body experience (OBE), the experient seems to be awake and to see his body and the world from a location outside the physical body. A closely related experience is autoscopy (AS), which is charac- terized by the experience of seeing one's body in extra- personal space. Yet, despite great public interest and many case studies, systematic neurological

Olaf Blanke; Theodor Landis; Laurent Spinelli; Margitta Seeck

2004-01-01

237

FORMATION OF THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS FROM A NARROW ANNULUS  

SciTech Connect

We show that the assembly of the solar system terrestrial planets can be successfully modeled with all of the mass initially confined to a narrow annulus between 0.7 and 1.0 AU. With this configuration, analogs of Mercury and Mars often form from the collisional evolution of material diffusing out of the annulus under the scattering of the forming Earth and Venus analogs. The final systems also possess eccentricities and inclinations that match the observations, without recourse to dynamical friction from remnant small body populations. Finally, the characteristic assembly timescale for Earth analogs is rapid in this model and consistent with cosmochemical models based on the {sup 182}Hf-{sup 182}W isotopes. The agreement between this model and the observations suggests that terrestrial planet systems may also be formed in 'planet traps', as has been proposed recently for the cores of giant planets in our solar system and others.

Hansen, Brad M. S., E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2009-09-20

238

Crater Size Estimates for Large-Body Terrestrial Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculating the effects of impacts leading to global catastrophes requires knowledge of the impact process at very large size scales. This information cannot be obtained directly but must be inferred from subscale physical simulations, numerical simulatio...

R. M. Schmidt K. R. Housen

1988-01-01

239

In situ observations of the atmospheres of terrestrial planetary bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observations of planetary atmospheres are scarce and significantly more data are needed for the understanding of their behavior. The principal theme of this dissertation is the exploration of planetary atmospheres by means of in situ observations, focusing on investigations performed by payloads operating on the planetary surface. The contextual frame includes the whole palette of planetary exploration including definition of scientific objectives, observational strategies, scientific payload and data analysis, as well as development of technological solutions and simulation models for planetary missions. Thus approach also led to the initiation of the planetary missions MetNet and NetLander to Mars. This work contributes to both in situ atmospheric observations and atmospheric modeling, which are strongly intertwined. Modeling efforts require observations to give solid background and foundation for the simulations, and on the other hand, definition of observational strategies and instrumentation gets guidance from modeling efforts to optimize the use of mission resources, as is successfully demonstrated in this dissertation. The dissertation consists of Summary and nine original scientific publications. Publications 1 to 7 and Summary address the development of new atmospheric science payloads for exploration missions to Mars and Titan, a Saturnian moon. Actual and planned missions included are the Mars-96 Program and its Small Surface Stations and Penetrators during the years 1988-1996, PPI/HASI onboard the Cassini/Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and its moon Titan in 1989-2005, the MET-P payload onboard the Mars Polar Lander in 1997-1999, the BAROBIT instrument for the Beagle 2 lander in 2001-2003, the NetLander Mars Mission in 1997-2001 and the ongoing Mars MetNet Mission, started in 2000. Specifically, Publication 4 reviews the sensor qualification process that facilitated the use of new type of atmospheric sensors at Mars, while Publications 2 and 7, as well as Summary, address the highly successful determination of the Titan atmospheric pressure profile. Publication 8 combines in situ observations and simulations by analyzing Mars Pathfinder measurements with the help of a Martian mesoscale atmospheric model. Finally, in Publication 9 the effect of airborne dust and CO 2 on the radiative transfer in the Martian atmosphere is assessed and a new radiative transfer paramerization scheme for the mesoscale model is introduced.

Harri, Ari-Matti

2005-11-01

240

Direct imaging of extra-solar planets  

SciTech Connect

Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.

Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Macintosh, B.A.

1997-03-01

241

Extra mammary Paget's disease of the vulva  

PubMed Central

Extra mammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare condition, which affects postmenopausal women. Wide local excision may not be appropriate in elderly patients with extensive disease. It is an uncommon malignant neoplasia with a high local recurrence rate. The standard treatment is local excision of the affected area with adequate margins; however, 40~45% of cases recur after surgery within 4 years. Although surgery is currently considered the preferred primary treatment for EMPD, it has a high relapse rate due to the multifocal nature of the disease. Hence, RT in selected cases of EMPD of vulva may be beneficial.

Barmon, Debabrata; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Imchen, Lima; Sharma, Jagannath Dev

2012-01-01

242

Oral and extra-oral taste perception.  

PubMed

Of the five basic taste qualities, the molecular mechanisms underlying sweet, bitter, and umami (savory) taste perception have been extensively elucidated, including the taste receptors and downstream signal transduction molecules. Recent studies have revealed that these taste-related molecules play important roles not only in the oral cavity but also in a variety of tissues including the respiratory tract, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, kidney, testes, and brain. This review covers the current knowledge regarding the physiological roles of taste-related molecules in the oral and extra-oral tissues. PMID:22963927

Yamamoto, Kurumi; Ishimaru, Yoshiro

2012-09-02

243

Extra-Credit Problems in Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities comprise a series of 20 practical math applications in space science. Students looking for additional challenges in math and physical science can use these as extra credit. The problems are authentic glimpses of modern engineering issues that arise in designing satellites to work in space. Each word problem has background information providing insight into the basic phenomena of the sun-Earth system, specifically space weather. The one-page assignments are accompanied by one-page teachers guides with answer keys.

2007-01-01

244

Large Extra Dimension and Dark Matter Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If our space has the large extra dimensions as proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali (ADD), then gravity would start to deviate from Newtonian gravity and be greatly enhanced in sub-millimeter scales. Here we show that in the ADD scenario, gravity could play an important role (compared to the weak interaction) in the interactions between dark matter particles and the electron. We find that for typical WIMP dark matter, such dark matter-electron ``gravitational'' scattering cross section may be much larger than the dark matter-nucleon cross section constrained by current dark matter experiments.

Qin, Bo; Starkman, Glenn D.; Silk, Joseph

2008-01-01

245

Moon and Terrestrial Planets: Unresolved Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exploration during Apollo began the documentation of the evolution of the Moon and of its importance in understanding the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets. This revolution in planetary geology continues as a vigorous and vibrant arena for discovery and debate for new generations of geoscientists. Although much has been learned and, indeed, resolved in lunar science, we are left with major questions unresolved. One fundamental question is that of the origin of the Moon. A large consensus has developed in the planetary science community that the Moon was created by the "giant impact" of a Mars-sized asteroid on the Earth after the accretion of the Earth was largely complete and differentiation had begun. A minority, however, questions this consensus hypothesis because of increasing indications that the lower mantle of the Moon may be largely undifferentiated. If the issue of the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system can be resolved through new modeling studies, then capture of a co-orbiting planetesimal may be an important alternative to a "giant impact". Another important question, particularly in consideration of the terrestrial and Martian surface environments during the first 0.8 billion years of Earth history, is the impact record of that period as recorded on the Moon. Again, a large consensus has developed that the 50 or so large and very large impact basins identified on the Moon were created over a very short "cataclysm" between about 3.9 and 3.8 billion years ago. Here also, a minority suggests that this period of large basin formation, although distinct in lunar history, took place over several hundred million years and that the apparent cataclysm is an artifact of sampling the effects of the last few basin-forming impacts. Either way, a previously unavailable source of impactors appeared somewhere in the solar system and greatly affected terrestrial environments at the time the precursors to life were appearing on Earth. Additional unresolved questions raised by lunar exploration and study include 1) the effect of chondritic proto-cores on the timing of core formation in the terrestrial planets, 2) the number of extremely large basin-forming events (lunar diameters >2000 km) and the potential for proto-continents being formed by the differentiation of their melt sheets on water-rich planets, 3) effect of clays produced by the weathering of the debris and glass produced by pervasive asteroid and cometary impacts, 4) the many details of the differentiation of magma oceans, and 5) the processes governing the evolution of the lunar regolith. Finally, there is the question of when humans shall return to the Moon. On the one hand, the use of this unique and accessible planetary body as a scientific resource has barely begun. On the other hand, the Helium-3 fusion energy resources and deep space travel consumables that remain untapped in the lunar regolith hardly can be ignored in the face of human and environmental challenges on Earth and the species' desire to go to Mars. On both hands, it is time we took another walk on the Moon. 30 years going on 40 is long enough to think about what once was possible.

Schmitt, H. H.

2002-12-01

246

Solar System Bodies and “Primitiveness”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planets and small bodies. Besides the Sun, which represents about 99.85% of its mass, the present day solar system include large bodies, i.e., the\\u000a four terrestrial planets, the four giant planets, and Pluto, which is probably not a planet, but rather an object from the\\u000a Edgeworth–Kuiper belt of comets captured by Neptune; more than 130 satellites of the planets. Jupiter,

Michel Maurette

2006-01-01

247

MODIS-Derived Terrestrial Primary Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems\\u000a not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food,\\u000a fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of all the acronyms\\u000a is available in the

Maosheng Zhao; Steven Running; Faith Ann Heinsch; Ramakrishna Nemani

248

The Extra-Zodiacal Explorer (EZE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a mission architecture study designed to substantially increase the potential science performance of the NASA SMD Astrophysics Explorer Program for all AO offerors working within the near-UV to far-infrared spectrum. We have demonstrated that augmentation of Falcon 9 Explorer launch services with a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage can deliver a 700 kg science observatory payload to an extra-Zodiacal orbit. This new capability enables up to 10X increased photometric sensitivity and 150X increased observing speed relative to a Sun-Earth L2 or Earth-trailing orbit with no increase in telescope aperture. All enabling SEP stage technologies for this launch service augmentation have reached sufficient readiness (TRL-6) for Explorer Program application in conjunction with the Falcon 9. We demonstrate that enabling Astrophysics Explorers to reach extra-zodiacal orbit will allow this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development time systems; thus, providing a means to realize major science objectives while increasing the SMD Astrophysics portfolio diversity and resiliency to external budget pressure. The SEP technology employed in this study has applicability to SMD Planetary competed missions and aligns with NASA in-space propulsion technology road map objectives and associated flight demonstration planning.

Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, S. W.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Kruk, J. W.; Thronson, H. A.

2012-01-01

249

Flavor structure of warped extra dimension models  

SciTech Connect

We recently showed that warped extra-dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV Kaluza-Klein (KK) masses lead to striking signals at B factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B physics. We also briefly study other new physics signatures that arise in rare K decays (K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu}), in rare top decays [t{yields}c{gamma}(Z,gluon)], and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates such as K{sub S}{pi}{sup 0} and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, {approx}3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a 'CP problem' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal.

Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218-2686 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); High Energy Theory Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2005-01-01

250

Search for extra-solar planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of different observational techniques are used today for the detection of planets beyond our solar system. Most of them are indirect methods, based on dynamical or photometric effects induced by the planet and measured on the parent star. The most successful technique so far has been the Doppler (radial-velocity) method, based on precise measurements of small variations in the radial velocity of the parent star. About one hundred extra-solar planets have been discovered by this technique. Other methods are based on astrometric measurements, direct imaging, photometry, interferometry and gravitational microlensing. Some of these techniques are already able to produce positive results, but many of them are future projects needing more advanced instrumentation. In this paper the most important techniques for extra-solar planet detection will be reviewed and their results summarized. In the second part, two different projects carried out at Mt John University Observatory, Lake Tekapo, New Zealand will be presented, both involved in planet hunting. One is the HERCULES radial-velocity programme and the other is the MOA microlensing project.

Skuljan, J.

2003-10-01

251

Relicensing: Adding an extra stage of consultation  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the value of getting public feedback about its hydro facilities, Montana Power Company is voluntarily going one step beyond FERC's prescribed three-stage consultation process during relicensing of its Missouri-Madison hydro project. Montana Power's attempt to get all the players in the game led the utility to add an extra step to FERC's three-step consultation process for relicensing a hydro project. The additional step gave the utility an opportunity to learn more about the needs and concerns of the public and resource agencies. Simultaneously, it allowed the public an opportunity to gain a better understanding of Montana Power, the project, relicensing, and hydroelectricity in general. The three steps of FERC's consultation process require the applicant to meet with agencies and the public; to perform studies and write a draft application; and to file a final application with FERC and the consulting agencies. The public is given a chance to make comments about the project at each stage of the process. Montana Power started the relicensing process for its Missouri-Madison Project (FERC No. 2188) in the summer of 1989. The license for the project will expire in November 1994. After completing the meetings with the agencies and the public in the first step, Montana Power decided to add an extra stage of consultation with the agencies and public before writing the draft application.

Sullivan, M.G. (Montana Power Company, Butte, MT (United States))

1992-09-01

252

Extra Pay for Extra Duties of Teachers, 1974-75. ERS Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a system-by-system listing of extra pay for athletic and nonathletic extracurricular teacher activities. The data is drawn from the information supplied in connection with the Educational Research Service "National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, 1974-75." Table 1 shows the number of school systems reporting…

Stieber, Gertrude N.

253

Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected microsere. Here we review the processes associated with the introduction of cadaver-derived carbon and nutrients into soil from forensic and ecological settings to show that cadaver decomposition can have a greater, albeit localised, effect on belowground ecology than plant and faecal resources. Cadaveric materials are rapidly introduced to belowground floral and faunal communities, which results in the formation of a highly concentrated island of fertility, or cadaver decomposition island (CDI). CDIs are associated with increased soil microbial biomass, microbial activity (C mineralisation) and nematode abundance. Each CDI is an ephemeral natural disturbance that, in addition to releasing energy and nutrients to the wider ecosystem, acts as a hub by receiving these materials in the form of dead insects, exuvia and puparia, faecal matter (from scavengers, grazers and predators) and feathers (from avian scavengers and predators). As such, CDIs contribute to landscape heterogeneity. Furthermore, CDIs are a specialised habitat for a number of flies, beetles and pioneer vegetation, which enhances biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems.

Carter, David O.; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

2007-01-01

254

The Emergence of Terrestrial Hydrometeorology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Encyclopaedia of Atmospheric Sciences and Astrogeology Langbein (1967) defined hydroclimatology as "the study of the influence of climate upon the waters of the land", and hydrometeorology is study of short term processes and phenomena within this climatology. But this definition is now outdated because it implies too passive a role for land surface influences on the overlying atmosphere. Over the subsequent decades research has demonstrated that proper understanding of land surface hydrology requires investigations of the hydrometeorological processes that couple terrestrial surfaces and the atmosphere. These investigations include the development and calibration of land surface models; mesoscale field experiments, that considered heterogeneity in land surface cover and investigated their aggregate representation; studies of how coupling processes relate to the concept of potential evaporation, and how estimates of irrigated crop water requirement can be updated; application of remotely sensed data and the simplifying benefits of in-plant linkages between water vapor and carbon exchange mechanisms; and the potential benefits of now-feasible area-average soil moisture measurement. This lecture reviews such investigations in the area of terrestrial hydrometeorology with some emphasis on those that have involved the speaker's participation, and argues for the creation for a new branch of scientific education focused on the subject area that lies at the interface between hydrology and meteorology.

Shuttleworth, W. J.

2011-12-01

255

Higher in vitro resistance to oxidative stress in extra-pair offspring.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is considered to act as a universal physiological constraint in life-history evolution of animals. This should be of interest for extra-pair paternity behaviour, and we tested here the prediction that offspring arising from extra-pair matings of female great tits show higher resistance to oxidative stress than within-pair offspring. Resistance to oxidative stress, measured as the whole blood resistance to a controlled free-radical attack, was significantly higher for extra-pair offspring as predicted although these were not heavier or in better body condition than within-pair offspring. Since resistance to oxidative stress has been suggested to enhance survival and reproductive rates, extra-pair offspring with superior resistance to oxidative stress, be it through maternal effects or paternal inheritance, may achieve higher fitness and thus provide significant indirect fitness benefits to their mothers. In addition, because oxidative stress affects colour signals and sperm traits, females may also gain fitness benefits by producing sons that are more attractive (sexy-sons hypothesis) and have sperm of superior quality (sexy-sperm hypothesis). Heritability of resistance to oxidative stress as well as maternal effects may both act as proximate mechanisms for the observed result. Disentangling these two mechanisms would require an experimental approach. Future long-term studies should also aim at experimentally testing whether higher resistance to oxidative stress of EP nestlings indeed translates into fitness benefits to females. PMID:21899636

Losdat, S; Helfenstein, F; Saladin, V; Richner, H

2011-09-07

256

Terrestrial isopods -- a good choice for toxicity testing of pollutants in the terrestrial environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial isopods are suitable invertebrates for testing the relative toxicities of chemicals present in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial isopods respond in numerous ways to elevated concentrations of chemicals in their food, but only a few of these responses can be used as toxicological endpoints. The most suitable are changes in reproduction, food consumption, moult cycle duration, and structure of the

Damjana Drobne

1997-01-01

257

New aspects of physics with extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several contemporary problems of fundamental physics including the gauge-hierarchy and cosmological constant problems can be addressed within the so-called ``brane world'' theories. Our primary focus is the investigation of the low energy consequences of such theories. We first consider the Kaluza-Klein scenario in which gravity propagates in the 4 + n dimensional bulk of spacetime and the Standard Model particles are confined to a 3-brane. We calculate the gauge boson self-energy corrections arising from the exchange of virtual gravitons and present our results in the STU-formalism. We find that the new physics contributions to S, T and U decouple in the limit that the string scale MS goes to infinity. The oblique parameters constrain the lower limit on MS. Taking the quantum gravity cutoff to be M S, S-parameter constraints impose MS > 1.55 TeV for n = 2 at the 1? level. T-parameter constraints impose MS > 1.25 (0.75) TeV for n = 3 (6). Next, we examine the cosmology and hierarchy of scales in models with branes immersed in a five-dimensional curved spacetime subject to radion stabilization. When the radion field is time-independent and the inter-brane spacing is stabilized, the universe can naturally find itself in the radiation-dominated epoch. This feature is independent of the form of the stabilizing potential. We recover the standard Friedmann equations without assuming a specific form for the bulk energy-momentum tensor. In the models considered, if the observable brane has positive tension, a solution to the hierarchy problem requires the presence of a negative tension brane somewhere in the bulk. We find that the string scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. Finally, we present static solutions to Einstein's equations corresponding to the most general network of N orthogonal families of (2 + N)-branes in (4 + N)- dimensional AdS spacetimes. The bulk cosmological constant can take a different value in each cell enclosed by intersecting branes and the extra dimensions can be compact or noncompact. In each family of branes the inter-brane spacing is arbitrary. The extra dimensions may be any or all of the manifolds, R1 R1Z2, S1 and S1Z 2. Only when the extra dimensions are R1 or/and R1Z2, can networks consisting solely of positive tension branes be constructed.

Marfatia, Danny Mukund

258

The extra-atmospheric mass of small meteoroids of the Prairie and Canada bolide camera networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing methods for determining the extra-atmospheric mass of meteor bodies from observations of their movement in the atmosphere allow a certain arbitrariness. Active attempts to overcome the discrepancy between the results of calculations based on different approaches often lead to physically incorrect conclusions. A way out is to laboriously accumulate the estimates and computation results and to consistently remove ambiguities. To correctly interpret the observed brightness of a meteor, one should use contemporary methods and the results of physical studies of the emitting gas. In the present work, the extra-atmospheric masses of small meteoroids of the Prairie and Canada bolide camera networks were calculated from the observed braking. It turned out that, in many cases, the conditions of movement of meteor bodies in the atmosphere corresponded to a free molecular airflow about a body. The so-called dynamic mass of the bodies was estimated from the real densities of the meteoroid material, which corresponded to monolithic water ice and stone, and for the proper values of the product of the drag coefficient and shape factor. When producing the trial function for the body trajectories in the "velocity-altitude" variables, we did not allow for fragmentation explicitly, since it is less probable for small meteoroids than for large ones. As before, our estimates differ substantially from the photometric masses published in the corresponding tables.

Popelenskaya, N. V.; Stulov, V. P.

2008-04-01

259

Irreversible evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Comparative studying of tectonomagmatic evolution of the Earth and the Moon shows that cardinal irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes occurred at middle stages of their evolution; very likely such changes took place on other terrestrial planets (Venus, Mars and Mercury). As a result, primordial crusts of the planets were in considerable degree replaced by secondary basaltic ones. The established succession of events on the Earth could be provided by a combination of two independent factors: (1) it was originally heterogeneous and 2) its downward heating was followed by the cooling of its outer shells. As a result the primary iron core material was long time remained untouched and was involved into global tectonomagmatic processes at ca. 2.4-2.3 Ga. We concluded about a similar scenario for the evolution of Moon and other terrestrial planets. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and Moon) was studied. What did major stages of their irreversible evolution occur before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries [1], solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas occurred with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the magma oceans on the Earth and the Moon, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: sialic on the Earth and basic (anorthosite) on the Moon.

Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

2008-09-01

260

Chemical impurity produces extra compound eyes and heads in crickets  

SciTech Connect

A chemical impurity isolated from commercially purchased acridine causes cricket embryos to develop extra compound eyes, branched antennae, extra antennae, and extra heads. Purified acridine does not produce similar duplications of cricket heads or head structures nor do the substituted acridines proflavine, acriflavine, or acridine orange. A dose-response relation exists such that the number and severity of abnormalities increase with increasing concentration of the teratogen.

Walton, B.T.

1981-04-03

261

Multistate dark matter from spherical extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a new model which uses an Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali type braneworld scenario to produce a multistate theory of dark matter. Compactification of the extra dimensions onto a sphere leads to the association of a single complex scalar in the bulk with multiple Kaluza-Klein towers in an effective four-dimensional theory. A mutually interacting multistate theory of dark matter arises naturally within which the dark matter states are identified with the lightest Kaluza-Klein particles of fixed magnetic quantum number. These states are protected from decay by a combination of a global U(1) symmetry and the continuous rotational symmetry about the polar axis of the spherical geometry. We briefly discuss the relic abundance calculation and investigate the spin-independent elastic scattering off nucleons of the lightest and next-to-lightest dark matter states.

Winslow, Peter T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Theory Group, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Sigurdson, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ng, John N. [Theory Group, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2010-07-15

262

Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:22869805

Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

2012-09-13

263

Long-term solar-terrestrial observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the fall of 1985, the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) created a panel to study the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data. The panel comprised specialists in all four areas that constitute solar-ter...

1988-01-01

264

ECOREGIONAL ASSESSMENT EQUATORIAL PACIFIC: TERRESTRIAL COMPONENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the Terrestrial component of this Ecoregional Assessment is to identify priority conservation sites within the terrestrial ecosystems in the Equatorial Pacific region. With this purpose, a portfolio of sites was identified, including information available for decision makers and stake-holders for natural resources, such as biodiversity, soils, vegetation cover and others. The methodology, developed by The Nature

G. Pinos

265

Exploring The Detectability of Terrestrial Exoplanet Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 400+ extrasolar planets that have been discovered to date, the vast majority are massive gas giants. This is largely due to the inherent difficulty of detecting terrestrial planets, which are small and faint by comparison. Both NASA and ESA have proposed mission concepts for space-based observatories (Terrestrial Planet Finder [TPF] and Darwin, respectively) capable of detecting these planets

Nicole Evans; V. S. Meadows; S. D. Domagal-Goldman

2011-01-01

266

Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly trans- ferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent

Hamish I. McCallum; Armand Kuris; C. Drew Harvell; Kevin. D. Lafferty; Garriet W. Smith; James Porter

2004-01-01

267

Thin Film Solar Cells for Terrestrial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of the project are to develop a terrestrial version of the CdS thin film solar cell that is demonstrably amenable to low cost mass production, and to establish data on the lifetime of such cells under the expected conditions of terrestrial use. ...

F. A. Shirland W. J. Biter E. W. Greeneigh T. P. Brody

1975-01-01

268

The geophysical signature of terrestrial impact craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major tool in the initial recognition and study of terrestrial impact craters, ?20% of which are buried beneath postimpact sediments, is geophysics. The general geophysical character of terrestrial impact craters is compiled and outlined with emphasis on its relation to the impact process and as an aid to the recognition of additional impact craters. The most common and conspicuous

M. Pilkington; R. A. F. Grieve

1992-01-01

269

Extra echo spaces: ultrasonography and computerised tomography correlations.  

PubMed Central

Among the echocardiograms of 844 patients of the International Goodwill Hospital from January 1980 to April 1981, 700 showed clinically inexplicable extra echo spaces. Fifty of the 700 had computerised tomography of their hearts which showed the extra echo spaces to be caused either by anterior or posterior subepicardial fat. Six of the 50 cases had both fat and pericardial effusions, which are difficult to differentiate echocardiographically unless follow-up clinical observations are performed. Subepicardial fat deposits are reasonable explanations for the extra echo spaces frequently observed by echocardiography: they correlate well with clinical findings. Subepicardial fat should be recognised as the cause of such extra echo spaces. Images

Wada, T; Honda, M; Matsuyama, S

1982-01-01

270

Methane production in terrestrial arthropods  

SciTech Connect

The authors have screened more than 110 representatives of the different taxa of terrestrial arthropods for methane production in order to obtain additional information about the origins of biogenic methane. Methanogenic bacteria occur in the hindguts of nearly all tropical representatives of millipedes (Diplopoda), cockroaches (Blattaria), termites (Isoptera), and scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae), while such methanogens are absent from 66 other arthropod species investigated. Three types of symbiosis were found: in the first type, the arthropod's hindgut is colonized by free methanogenic bacteria; in the second type, methanogens are closely associated with chitinous structures formed by the host's hindgut; the third type is mediated by intestinal anaerobic protists with intracellular methanogens. Such symbiotic associations are likely to be a characteristic property of the particular taxon. Since these taxa represent many families with thousands of species, the world populations of methane-producing arthropods constitute an enormous biomass. The authors show that arthropod symbionts can contribute substantially to atmospheric methane.

Hackstein, J.H.P.; Stumm, C.K. (Catholic Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1994-06-07

271

Solar-Terrestrial Ontology Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of an interdisciplinary virtual observatory (the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory; VSTO) as a scalable environment for searching, integrating, and analyzing databases distributed over the Internet requires a higher level of semantic interoperability than here-to-fore required by most (if not all) distributed data systems or discipline specific virtual observatories. The formalization of semantics using ontologies and their encodings for the internet (e.g. OWL - the Web Ontology Language), as well as the use of accompanying tools, such as reasoning, inference and explanation, open up both a substantial leap in options for interoperability and in the need for formal development principles to guide ontology development and use within modern, multi-tiered network data environments. In this presentation, we outline the formal methodologies we utilize in the VSTO project, the currently developed use-cases, ontologies and their relation to existing ontologies (such as SWEET).

McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Middleton, D.; Garcia, J.; Cinquni, L.; West, P.; Darnell, J. A.; Benedict, J.

2005-12-01

272

Thrash, flip, or jump: the behavioral and functional continuum of terrestrial locomotion in teleost fishes.  

PubMed

Moving on land versus in water imposes dramatically different requirements on the musculoskeletal system. Although many limbed vertebrates, such as salamanders and prehistoric tetrapodomorphs, have an axial system specialized for aquatic locomotion and an appendicular system adapted for terrestrial locomotion, diverse extant teleosts use the axial musculoskeletal system (body plus caudal fin) to move in these two physically disparate environments. In fact, teleost fishes living at the water's edge demonstrate diversity in natural history that is reflected in a variety of terrestrial behaviors: (1) species that have only incidental contact with land (such as largemouth bass, Micropterus) will repeatedly thrash, which can roll an individual downhill, but cannot produce effective overland movements, (2) species that have occasional contact with land (like Gambusia, the mosquitofish, which evade predators by stranding themselves) will produce directed terrestrial movement via a tail-flip jump, and (3) species that spend more than half of their lives on land (like the mudskipper, Periopthalmus) will produce a prone-jump, a behavior that allows the fish to anticipate where it will land at the end of the flight phase. Both tail-flip and prone jumps are characterized by a two-phase movement consisting of body flexion followed by extension-a movement pattern that is markedly similar to the aquatic fast-start. Convergence in kinematic pattern between effective terrestrial behaviors and aquatic fast starts suggests that jumps are an exaptation of a neuromuscular system that powers unsteady escape behaviors in the water. Despite such evidence that terrestrial behaviors evolved from an ancestral behavior that is ubiquitous among teleosts, some teleosts are unable to move effectively on land-possibly due to morphological trade-offs, wherein specialization for one environment comes at a cost to performance in the other. Indeed, upon emergence onto land, gravity places an increased mechanical load on the body, which may limit the maximum size of fish that can produce terrestrial locomotion via jumping. In addition, effective terrestrial locomotor performance may require a restructuring of the musculoskeletal system that directly conflicts with the low-drag, fusiform body shape that enhances steady swimming performance. Such biomechanical trade-offs may constrain which teleost species are able to make the evolutionary transition to life on land. Here, we synthesize the current knowledge of intermittent terrestrial locomotion in teleosts and demonstrate that extant fishes represent an important model system for elucidating fundamental evolutionary mechanisms and defining the physiological constraints that must be overcome to permit life in both the aquatic and terrestrial realms. PMID:23704366

Gibb, Alice C; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Hsieh, S Tonia

2013-05-23

273

Mars: destruction of the tropical belt and building up extra tropics is a physical requirement of angular momentum equilibration between zones with different distances to the rotation axis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often observed a sensible difference in appearance and structure between tropical and extra-t ropical zones of various heavenly bodies including rocky and gas planets, satellites and Sun (Fig. 6) compels to look for a common reason of such phenomenon [1-3]. All bodies rotate and their spherical shape makes zones at different lat itudes to have differing angular momenta as a distance to the rotation axis diminishes gradually from the equator to the poles (Fig. 1) (this is felt particularly when one launches rockets into space -preferable cheaper launches are from the equatorial regions - Kourou in the French Guyana is better than Baikonur in Kazakhstan). One of remarkable changes occurs at tropics. As a total rotating planetary body tends to have angular momenta of its tectonic blocks equilibrated it starts mechanisms leveling this basic physical property. At tropical zones (bulged also due to the rotation ellipsoid) the outer shell - crust as a consequence tends to be destroyed, sunk, subsided and shrunk; a density of crust material changes; the atmosphere reacts changing chemistry and structure; in terrestrial anthroposphere man looses its mass and stature (well known pygmioidness process). Ext ratropical belts, on the contrary, tend to add material and increase radius. Thus, a body tends to be like a cucumber but mighty gravity always makes it globular. According to the Le Chatelier rule mechanisms with opposing tendencies also begin to act. However, traces of this cosmic "struggle" very often are seen on surfaces of heavenly bodies as structurally distinguished tropical and extra-t ropical zones (Fig. 1, 6) [1-3]. At Mars the widespread "enigmatic" chaotic and fretted terrains at the highland-lowland boundary could be considered as traces of the crust destruction along the wide tropical belt (Fig. 2-4). A system of hillocks and their relics, mesas, ridges, cliffs and separating them depressions or plains (deep up to 1-2 km) is controlled by a crosscutting tectonics or makes a complicated mix (Fig. 3, 4). Prevailing subsidence here is characteristic. The depressions were used and additionally sculptured by moving ices and flowing waters in the past of martian geologic history. On the contrary, wide extra -tropical belts of pedestal craters with broad effusions of fluid-rich material (Fig. 5) obviously help to mend defective momentum. A comparison with Earth is to the point. There also the wide planetary long tropical zone is marked by destruction of the crust. It is demonstrated by development of numerous islands of the Malay Archipelago (the Sunda Isls., Maluku Isls., Philippines) between the Southeastern Asia and Australia. In Africa and South America huge depressions of the Congo and Amazon Rivers develop where the Archean crust is subsided to depths of more than 2 km. In the Pacific along the equator numerous islands of Micronesia occur (massive corals mark subsiding basaltic summits). Subsidence of the basaltic oceanic crust is followed by an intensive folding and faulting of basalt and sedimentary layers as a larger mass must be held by a smaller space (a planetary radius is diminishing). The central Atlantic is very demonstrative in this sense suffering huge transform fault zones being replaced by more quite tectonics to the north and south where basaltic effusions (plateau-basalts) form large provinces. This addition of dense basalts to the upper crust level helps to increase angular momentum of the extra-t ropical blocks. Recent results from the DAWN mission show that the mini-planet Vesta also has the same structurally deformed equatorial belt. But at Vesta the equatorial belt is subsided and faulted (broken by tight series of parallel grabens) having been squeezed into smaller space because of diminishing planetary radius (Fig. 6) Thus, Mars, as other planetary bodies, suffers a fundamental re-building of its wide topical zone (supertectonics) as a necessary natural response to the angular momentum adjustment (equilibrat ion) of its different latitude belts (tropics and extra-tropics). Th

Kochemasov, G. G.

2012-09-01

274

The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic

Virginia Abdala; Adriana S. Manzano; Anthony Herrel

2008-01-01

275

A multiparameter wearable physiologic monitoring system for space and terrestrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, unobtrusive and wearable, multiparameter ambulatory physiologic monitoring system for space and terrestrial applications, termed LifeGuard, is presented. The core element is a wearable monitor, the crew physiologic observation device (CPOD), that provides the capability to continuously record two standard electrocardiogram leads, respiration rate via impedance plethysmography, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, ambient or body temperature, three axes of

Carsten W. Mundt; Kevin N. Montgomery; Usen E. Udoh; Valerie N. Barker; Guillaume C. Thonier; Arnaud M. Tellier; Robert D. Ricks; Robert B. Darling; Yvonne D. Cagle; Nathalie A. Cabrol; Stephen J. Ruoss; Judith L. Swain; John W. Hines; Gregory T. A. Kovacs

2005-01-01

276

Seasonality of reproduction in the three largest terrestrial rodents of French Guiana forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the main life history of the three largest terrestrial rodents of French Guiana forest: the acouchy (Myoprocta exilis), the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) and the paca (Agouti paca), using data collected during several years. There were noticeable differences among the species in sexual maturation and degree of seasonality in reproduction. Percentage of pregnant females, births and juveniles, and body

G. Dubost; O. Henry; P. Comizzoli

2005-01-01

277

Formation of terrestrial planets in close binary systems: The case of alpha Centauri A  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present the possible existence of planets around the stars of a close binary system is still matter of debate. Can planetary bodies form in spite of the strong gravitational perturbations of the companion star? We study in this paper via numerical simulation the last stage of planetary formation, from embryos to terrestrial planets in the alpha Cen system, the

M. Barbieri; F. Marzari; H. Scholl

2002-01-01

278

Internal Representation and Memory Formation of Odor Preference Based on Oscillatory Activities in a Terrestrial Slug  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The terrestrial slug "Limax" exhibits a highly developed ability to learn odors with a small nervous system. When a fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow (LY), is injected into the slug's body cavity after odor-taste associative conditioning, a group of neurons in the procerebral (PC) lobe, an olfactory center of the slug, is labeled by LY. We examined…

Sekiguchi, Tatsuhiko; Furudate, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tetsuya

2010-01-01

279

Diversity of terrestrial avifauna in response to distance from the shoreline of the Salton Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large aquatic bodies influence surrounding terrestrial ecosystems by providing water and nutrients. In arid landscapes, the increased primary productivity that results may greatly enhance vertebrate biodiversity. The Salton Sea, a large saline lake in the Colorado Desert of southern California, provides nutrients in the form of hundreds of thousands of dead fish carcasses, brine flies, and chemical compounds through windborne

M. B. Mendelsohn; W. I. Boarman; R. N. Fisher; S. A. Hathaway

2007-01-01

280

Internal Representation and Memory Formation of Odor Preference Based on Oscillatory Activities in a Terrestrial Slug  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The terrestrial slug "Limax" exhibits a highly developed ability to learn odors with a small nervous system. When a fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow (LY), is injected into the slug's body cavity after odor-taste associative conditioning, a group of neurons in the procerebral (PC) lobe, an olfactory center of the slug, is labeled by LY. We examined…

Sekiguchi, Tatsuhiko; Furudate, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tetsuya

2010-01-01

281

Astronomers Report Discovery of New Extra-solar Planets: Four Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are feeling alone in the universe, this news from 2000 of the search for new planets might inspire you. This account is from the popular space science Website, Space.com. It chronicles the latest detection of at least nine possible planetary bodies orbiting stars outside of our solar system. The text includes a discussion of how detection of wobble behavior is used in the search for extra-solar planets and plans for future planet hunts. This site also features links to Websites of the observatories involved in extra-solar planet detection, related Space.com stories, a diagram of Doppler shift due to stellar wobble and a table of the nine planet candidates's size and distance from Earth.

Weinstock, Maia.

2000-01-01

282

On the rise of turbulent plumes: Quantitative effects of variable entrainment for submarine hydrothermal vents, terrestrial and extra terrestrial explosive volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum height reached by a turbulent plume rising in a stratified environment is a key tool to estimate the flux released at its source, particularly for large-scale flows because flux can often be very hard to measure directly. This height is known to be mainly controlled by the stratification of the ambient fluid, source buoyancy flux, and the efficiency

G. Carazzo; E. Kaminski; S. Tait

2008-01-01

283

Energetic Strategies of Terrestrial Vertebrates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise investigates the difference in metabolic response of representative endotherms (mice) and ectotherms (green anoles) to temperature changes and ecological consequences are studied through behavior and preferred body temperature in a temperature gradient.

Kathy Winnett-Murray (Hope College;); K. Greg Murray (Hope College;); Lori Hertel (Hope College;); Christopher C. Barney (Hope College;)

2000-01-01

284

Presence of microorganisms in flavoured extra-virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a study on the presence of microorganisms in the flavoured extra-virgin olive oils. The microbiological analysis of the commercial extra-virgin olive oils flavoured with lemon, oregano, garlic and red chilli pepper indicated the presence of a dif- ferent type of microflora according to the ingredient. Moulds were present in all of the types of commercial flavoured olive

G. CIAFARDINI; B. A. ZULLO; G. PECA

2004-01-01

285

The Impact of Daily Extra Credit Quizzes on Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined whether offering daily extra credit quizzes predicted exam performance in an advanced psychology course (n = 36). Results revealed that extra credit performance was a strong predictor of exam performance, above and beyond gender, college grade point average, and ACT scores. In addition, results suggested that nearly half of…

Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

2006-01-01

286

19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean kilogram shall be filed in...

2013-04-01

287

Canonical Extra Mixing in Low-Mass Red Giants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the latest observational data on the evolutionary variations of the surface chemical composition in low-mass metal-poor stars, both in the field and in globular clusters, to constrain the basic properties of extra mixing in upper red giant branch (RGB) stars. Two different models of extra mixing have been incorporated into a stellar evolution code: a parametrical diffusion

Pavel A. Denissenkov; Don A. VandenBerg

2003-01-01

288

The role of Clouds in Emitted, Reflected and Transmitted Spectra of Terrestrial Exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two objectives of the NASA-Terrestrial Planet Finder and ESA-Darwin missions are to characterize the environments of terrestrial planets outside of our solar system and to search for life on these planets. These objectives will be met by measuring the disk-averaged spectra of the radiation reflected or emitted from these planets. Clouds play a significant role in determining these spectra. For Earth, water clouds can reduce the infrared emission by up to 50 and increase the visible reflectance by up to 400%. The disk-averaged spectra of a cloudy planet are also very sensitive to the observed planetary phase. For Earth, we see up to 40% increases of the solar albedo from the gibbous phase to the fully illuminated phase. Moreover, clouds strongly modify the strength of absorption features due to tropospheric trace gases and may impact the detectability of surface biosignatures in the visible (Tinetti et al.,2005). Stellar occultation might provide another effective method for probing the atmospheres of Earth-size extrasolar planets in the not too distant future. In the transmission spectra of terrestrial planets in transit, clouds act, to a first order approximation, as an optically thick layer at a given altitude. A uniform cloud layer will effectively increase the apparent radius of the planet and yield information only about atmospheric components existing above the clouds. The altitude where the cloud deck occurs, changes for Venus-like, Earth-like or highly-condensable-volatile rich planets (Ehrenreich et al.,2005). The radiative properties of clouds are strongly dependent on the chemical species that condense or freeze (e.g. water for present-day Earth, methane for Titan etc.), the particle size distributions present and particle shapes. Therefore, an understanding of aerosol and cloud microphysics on extra-solar terrestrial planets is necessary to properly interpret the spectra of terrestrial planets, emitted, reflected or transmitted. This work was supported by NASA-Astrobiology Institute/Caltech/CNRS.

Tinetti, G.; Yung, Y. L.; Ehrenreich, D.; Meadows, V. S.; Crisp, D.; Kahn, B.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

2005-12-01

289

[Dark respiration of terrestrial vegetations: a review].  

PubMed

The source and sink effect of terrestrial plants is one of the hotspots in terrestrial ecosystem research under the background of global change. Dark respiration of terrestrial plants accounts for a large fraction of total net carbon balance, playing an important role in the research of carbon cycle under global climate change. However, there is little study on plant dark respiration. This paper summarized the physiological processes of plant dark respiration, measurement methods of the dark respiration, and the effects of plant biology and environmental factors on the dark respiration. The uncertainty of the dark respiration estimation was analyzed, and the future hotspots of related researches were pointed out. PMID:24066565

Sun, Jin-Wei; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing

2013-06-01

290

Higgs production in a warped extra dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the Higgs-boson production cross section at the LHC are an important tool for studying electroweak symmetry breaking at the quantum level, since the main production mechanism gg ? h is loop-suppressed in the Standard Model (SM). Higgs production in extra-dimensional extensions of the SM is sensitive to the Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of the quarks, which can be exchanged as virtual particles in the loop. In the context of the minimal Randall-Sundrum (RS) model with bulk fields and a brane-localized Higgs sector, we derive closed analytical expressions for the gluon-gluon fusion process, finding that the effect of the infinite tower of virtual KK states can be described in terms of a simple function of the fundamental (5D) Yukawa matrices. Given a specific RS model, this will allow one to easily constrain the parameter space, once a Higgs signal has been established. We explain that discrepancies between existing calculations of Higgs production in RS models are related to the non-commutativity of two limits: taking the number of KK states to infinity and removing the regulator on the Higgs-boson profile, which is required in an intermediate step to make the relevant overlap integrals well defined. Even though the one-loop gg ? h amplitude is finite in RS scenarios with a brane-localized Higgs sector, it is important to introduce a consistent ultraviolet regulator in order to obtain the correct result.

Carena, Marcela; Casagrande, Sandro; Goertz, Florian; Haisch, Ulrich; Neubert, Matthias

2012-08-01

291

LHC Signals from Warped Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

We study production of Kaluza-Klein gluons (KKG) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the framework of a warped extra dimension with the Standard Model (SM) fields propagating in the bulk. We show that the detection of KK gluon is challenging since its production is suppressed by small couplings to the proton's constituents. Moreover, the KK gluon decaysmostly to top pairs due to an enhanced coupling and hence is broad. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that for MKKG<~;; 4 TeV, 100 fb-1 of data at the LHC can provide discovery of the KK gluon. We utilize a sizeable left-right polarization asymmetry from the KK gluon resonance to maximize the signal significance, and we explore the novel feature of extremely highly energetic"top-jets." We briefly discuss how the detection of electroweak gauge KK states (Z/W) faces a similar challenge since their leptonic decays ("golden" modes) are suppressed. Our analysis suggests that other frameworks, for example little Higgs, which rely on UV completion via strong dynamics might face similar challenges, namely (1) Suppressed production rates for the new particles (such as Z'), due to their"lightfermion-phobic" nature, and (2) Difficulties in detection since the new particles are broad and decay predominantly to third generation quarks and longitudinal gauge bosons.

Agashe, K.; Belyaev, A.; Krupovnickas, T.; Perez, G.; Virzi, J.

2006-12-06

292

[Extra echo spaces: what do they represent?].  

PubMed

The echocardiographic diagnosis of pericardial effusion is based on the assumption that "echo-free spaces" observed behind the posterior wall of the left ventricle are surrounded by epicardium and pericardial echoes. However, inexplicable extra echo spaces (EES) which may either be echo-dense or echo-free are observed in many asymptomatic patients. These EES often show no changes in their sizes or contours during lengthy follow-up studies. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that subepicardial fat rather than effusions may be the cause of such EES. According to this hypothesis, a border zone of myocardium and subepicardial fat produces a linear echo which has been misinterpreted as an epicardial echo. Furthermore, a dense, broad band-like echo behind the posterior wall of the left ventricle believed to be a pericardial echo is a fusion echo caused by epicardium, pericardium and pleura. Differentiating EES as due either to subepicardial fat or pericardial effusion is difficult echocardiographically; however, CT scans can differentiate them due to their differing CT values. The echocardiographic diagnosis of pericardial effusion is more easily made among young patients who do not have appreciable subepicardial fat, or massive pericardial effusions causing pendulum-like movements of the heart. PMID:6520440

Wada, T

1984-01-01

293

Carbon stabilization on terrestrial landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While terrestrial climate models view C budgets through time-slices of environmental reconstructions, yet during climate transitions, pervasive geomorphic response to climate likely dictate the direction and magnitude of C exchange. Geomorphic processes therefore act as disturbance events that have the potential to create large feedbacks to climate regulation through carbon burial or carbon release. Quantifying the rates of carbon accumulation in various types of deposits allows us to assess intensities of C burial, whereas the spatial extent and timing of geomorphic processes allows us to quantify the net impact on atmospheric CO2 budgets. Mechanisms and forms of C that are buried or stored lend insights into the longevity of these geomorphic events that dictate land-atmosphere C exchange. Chronosequences of fluvial, loess, and coastal deposits dated by various chronologic tools were used to calculate carbon intensities, or accumulation rates, into soil and deep sediment. Vertical cores of peat and permafrost provide such rates through direct aging of organic carbon preserved in the cores. Rates of input to soil and surface sediment varied by 4 orders of magnitude, which reflects variations in both plant production and decomposition over various timescales of decades to millennia. In general, shallow and shorterm rates are higher than deep, longterm rates. Based on the soil property that best predicts C storage and turnover, we hypothesize different mechanisms of stabilization for selected soil profiles: For example clay content, free iron oxides, freezing temperatures were key in C stabilization within the upper meter of Alfisols, Ultisols, and Cryosols, respectively.

Harden, Jennifer W.; Lawrence, Corey; Trumbore, Susan; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Vanoost, Kristof

2010-05-01

294

Terrestrial isopods -- a good choice for toxicity testing of pollutants in the terrestrial environment  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial isopods are suitable invertebrates for testing the relative toxicities of chemicals present in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial isopods respond in numerous ways to elevated concentrations of chemicals in their food, but only a few of these responses can be used as toxicological endpoints. The most suitable are changes in reproduction, food consumption, moult cycle duration, and structure of the digestive glands. These responses are able to provide accurate indications of sublethal toxicity. Toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods could be much more reliable through the use of positive controls. A positive control with a reference toxicant could also be supplemented by a reference endpoint. The most suitable reference endpoint is change of food consumption rate. Toxicity testing with terrestrial isopods is a very promising method for fast, routine, and inexpensive laboratory determination of the relative toxicities of chemicals in the terrestrial environment.

Drobne, D. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Biology

1997-06-01

295

The NASA-Lewis Terrestrial Photovoltaics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research and technology efforts on solar cells and arrays having relevance to terrestrial uses are outline. These include raising cell efficiency, developing the FEP-covered module concept, and exploring low cost cell concepts. Solar cell-battery power sy...

D. T. Bernatowicz

1973-01-01

296

High Efficiency, Long Life Terrestrial Solar Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evalua...

T. Chao S. Khemthong R. Ling S. Olah

1977-01-01

297

Data of Solar Terrestrial Interest, August 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Routine observations of solar-terrestrial interest, collected at the following stations of the Scientific Group for Space Research are presented for August 1971: (1) Agia Paraskevi ionospheric station temporarly housed at the Democritus Nuclear Research C...

D. J. Ilias D. P. Elias

1971-01-01

298

Data of Solar Terrestrial Interest, July 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Routine observations of solar-terrestrial interest, collected at the following stations of the Scientific Group for Space Research are presented for July 1971: (1) Agia Paraskevi ionospheric station temporarly housed at the Democritus Nuclear Research Cen...

D. J. Ilias D. P. Elias

1971-01-01

299

Preliminary Testing of Mycoleptodiscus terrestris Formulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note reports preliminary results of bioassays of dried formulations of Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Gerd.) Ostazeski (Mt) for management of the submersed macrophyte, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle (hydrilla).

J. F. Shearer

2009-01-01

300

Supporting Tools of Solar-Terrestrial Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar-terrestrial science is pursued by individuals and teams of workers situated in academia, research institutes, industry, and government laboratories. Progress in the field is made in various ways, but publication of results in scientific journals is ...

1989-01-01

301

New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of temperate climate pest snails and slugs in the United States and collaborating terr...

2008-01-01

302

Data Base of Terrestrial Impact Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Database of Terrestrial Impact Structures leads to Natural Resources Canada's interactive global database of impact structures, complete with photographs and summary information. For those interested in learning more about Impact Craters, this is a fine starting point.

1997-01-01

303

Tightly integrated sensor-based terrestrial LiDAR georeferencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Georeferencing of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data is typically performed by using scanner target points occupying control points in the project area. This necessitates intensive field labor and extra, often cumbersome equipment. A method for georeferencing scan data using two GPS antennas firmly mounted on the optical head of a LiDAR scanner has been developed. By adding a dual GPS antenna apparatus to the scanner setup, thereby supplanting the use of multiple ground control points scattered throughout the project, we mitigate not only the problems associated with georeferencing but also induce a more efficient set up procedure while maintaining a practical level of precision. This study is an extension of the dual GPS antenna method by creating a process for a simultaneous network adjustment of multiple scanner stations. By exploiting additional sensor information from a scanner-mounted camera and point cloud matching techniques, an integrated adjustment of observations from this sensor suite is developed. Further, the technique is tested on two distinct data sets. The testing consists of comparison with conventional techniques and different combinations of the novel, more autonomous methods. Analysis includes the investigation of precision, accuracy, efficiency, and conditioning under different configurations of the system. The test results indicate that centimeter-level accuracy at a scanner-point distance of 40 meters can be achieved using only imagery and scanner-mounted GPS data, and that under certain circumstances, the autonomous methods were able to approach the same level of precision as the conventional data-driven method.

Wilkinson, Benjamin E.

304

Carbon-14 terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon-14 terrestrial ages of four Yamato meteorites are measured and compared with the C-14 terrestrial ages of eighteen meteorites from Victoria Land. The youngest Yamato meteorite, Y-75102, is 4300 + or - 1000 yr; the oldest, Y-74459, is 24,000 + or - 2000 yr. The Yamato meteorite site is collecting recent falls, less than 25,000 yr, at a more rapid rate than the Victoria Land sites.

Fireman, E. L.

1983-12-01

305

Parallel Computing for Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial ecosystems are a primary component of research on global environmental change. Observational and modeling research on terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale, however, has lagged behind their counterparts for oceanic and atmospheric systems, largely because the unique challenges associated with the tremendous diversity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems. There are 8 major types of terrestrial ecosystem: tropical rain forest, savannas, deserts, temperate grassland, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra, and chaparral. The carbon cycle is an important mechanism in the coupling of terrestrial ecosystems with climate through biological fluxes of CO{sub 2}. The influence of terrestrial ecosystems on atmospheric CO{sub 2} can be modeled via several means at different timescales. Important processes include plant dynamics, change in land use, as well as ecosystem biogeography. Over the past several decades, many terrestrial ecosystem models (see the 'Model developments' section) have been developed to understand the interactions between terrestrial carbon storage and CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere, as well as the consequences of these interactions. Early TECMs generally adapted simple box-flow exchange models, in which photosynthetic CO{sub 2} uptake and respiratory CO{sub 2} release are simulated in an empirical manner with a small number of vegetation and soil carbon pools. Demands on kinds and amount of information required from global TECMs have grown. Recently, along with the rapid development of parallel computing, spatially explicit TECMs with detailed process based representations of carbon dynamics become attractive, because those models can readily incorporate a variety of additional ecosystem processes (such as dispersal, establishment, growth, mortality etc.) and environmental factors (such as landscape position, pest populations, disturbances, resource manipulations, etc.), and provide information to frame policy options for climate change impact analysis.

Wang, Dali [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Berry, Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

306

Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity in a changing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent analyses of Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity data, in combination with molecular biological studies, have created\\u000a a new paradigm that long-term persistence and regional isolation are general features of most of the major groups of Antarctic\\u000a terrestrial biota, overturning the previously widely assumed view of a generally recent colonisation history. This paradigm,\\u000a as well as incorporating a new and much longer

Peter Convey

307

LandingNav: a precision autonomous landing sensor for robotic platforms on planetary bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased interest in the exploration of extra terrestrial planetary bodies calls for an increase in the number of spacecraft landing on remote planetary surfaces. Currently, imaging and radar based surveys are used to determine regions of interest and a safe landing zone. The purpose of this paper is to introduce LandingNav, a sensor system solution for autonomous landing on planetary bodies that enables landing on unknown terrain. LandingNav is based on a novel multiple field of view imaging system that leverages the integration of different state of the art technologies for feature detection, tracking, and 3D dense stereo map creation. In this paper we present the test flight results of the LandingNav system prototype. Sources of errors due to hardware limitations and processing algorithms were identified and will be discussed. This paper also shows that addressing the issues identified during the post-flight test data analysis will reduce the error down to 1-2%, thus providing for a high precision 3D range map sensor system.

Katake, Anup; Bruccoleri, Chrisitian; Singla, Puneet; Junkins, John L.

2010-01-01

308

Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

2005-02-07

309

Lorentz Violation in Warped Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Higher dimensional theories which address some of the problematic issues of the Standard Model(SM) naturally involve some form of D = 4 + n-dimensional Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). In such models the fundamental physics which leads to, e.g., field localization, orbifolding, the existence of brane terms and the compactification process all can introduce LIV in the higher dimensional theory while still preserving 4-d Lorentz invariance. In this paper, attempting to capture some of this physics, we extend our previous analysis of LIV in 5-d UED-type models to those with 5- d warped extra dimensions. To be specific, we employ the 5-d analog of the SM Extension of Kostelecky et al. which incorporates a complete set of operators arising from spontaneous LIV. We show that while the response of the bulk scalar, fermion and gauge fields to the addition of LIV operators in warped models is qualitatively similar to what happens in the flat 5-d UED case, the gravity sector of these models reacts very differently than in flat space. Specifically, we show that LIV in this warped case leads to a non-zero bulk mass for the 5-d graviton and so the would-be zero mode, which we identify as the usual 4-d graviton, must necessarily become massive. The origin of this mass term is the simultaneous existence of the constant non-zero AdS{sub 5} curvature and the loss of general co-ordinate invariance via LIV in the 5-d theory. Thus warped 5-d models with LIV in the gravity sector are not phenomenologically viable.

Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

2011-08-11

310

Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.  

PubMed

It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present. PMID:12321764

Black, M

1998-01-01

311

Effective field theories of warped extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation I consider phenomenological and theoretical aspects of the Randall-Sundrum compactifications of Anti-de Sitter space. In the first part of this work I study a generalization of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) scenario with arbitrary brane tensions and its supersymmetric extension. In the original RS model the brane tensions are tuned with the cosmological constant of the bulk. The distance between the branes, which sets the hierarchy between the Planck and the electro-weak scale, is a modulus of the compactification. In the "detuned" RS model instead, the distance between the branes is fixed at the classical level. From the low energy effective theory point of view a potential is generated which stabilizes the radius of the extra dimension. In the supersymmetric case it is shown that supersymmetry can be broken spontaneously by a non-trivial Wilson line for the graviphoton. This effect vanishes in the tuned limit of the model. In the second part of this thesis, inspired by the AdS/CFT ideas, I study and develop a renormalization group approach for the RS model. In this formalism the branes are movable in the five-dimensional bulk. By changing the location of the branes a flow for the brane-localized couplings is generated (even at the classical level). This "brane running" method can be used in two ways. I first describe how this formalism allows to compute correlations function in the full AdS/CFT correspondence and apply this technique to holographic computations in the Randall-Sundrum scenario with one or two branes. After extending the brane running approach to gauge theories and gravity, I then employ this method to compute effective theories in the RS scenario.

Redi, Michele

312

The decoding problem: do we need to search for extra terrestrial intelligence in order to search for extraterrestrial intelligence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a widespread and perhaps uncritically accepted assumption on the part of SETI researchers and popularizers that we could tell what an ETI might be trying to tell us. We raise difficulties for this assumption. If the assumption is abandoned, a lot follows. We might even be able to argue, in a novel way, that SETI will be utterly

Neil W. Tennant

1993-01-01

313

Where did Terrestrial Life Begin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. MACFIE'S letter (NATURE, January 26, p. 107) accepts the common idea that the surface of the earth was formerly very hot-an assumption which is probably not well founded. If the earth was formed by accumulation of meteoric matter, it began its existence as a cold body the interior of which afterwards became heated by condensation, aided by atomic disintegration,

F. J. Allen

1922-01-01

314

The Compositional Diversity of Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The details of the formation of the terrestrial planets are long-standing questions in the geological, planetary and astronomical sciences, with the discovery of extrasolar planetary systems placing even greater emphasis on these questions. Here we present simulations of the bulk compositions of simulated terrestrial planets in extrasolar planetary systems. These simulations incorporate both giant planet migration into the dynamical simulations and a variety of ices, clathrates and hydrates into the chemical modeling, providing us with a more inclusive view of extrasolar terrestrial planet formation. We find that a diverse range of extrasolar terrestrial planets are produced, ranging from bulk elemental compositions similar to that of Earth to those that are enriched in elements such as C and Si, producing planets with compositions unlike anything we have previously observed. Giant planet migration significantly alters the composition of the final terrestrial planet by redistributing material throughout the system. Simulated terrestrial planets produced within the migration simulations are found to contain larger amounts of Mg-silicate species and hydrous material. These variations in composition will greatly influence planetary processes such as plate tectonics, planetary interior structure and the primary atmospheric composition.

Carter-Bond, J. C.; O'Brien, D. P.

2011-12-01

315

Update on terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites are one of the few parameters that will help us to understand the meteorite concentration mechanism on blue-ice fields. Traditionally, terrestrial ages were determined on the basis of {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase, which has an uncertainty of about 70 ky. For young meteorites (< 40 ky), the terrestrial age is usually and most accurately determined using {sup 14}C in the stone phase. In recent years two methods have been developed which are independent of shielding effects, the {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method and the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 36}Cl method. These methods have reduced the typical uncertainties in terrestrial ages by a factor of 2, to about 30 ky. The {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method is quite dependent on the exposure age, which is unknown for most Antarctic meteorites. The authors therefore also attempt to use the relation between {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl/{sup 26}Al to derive a terrestrial age less dependent on the exposure age. The authors have measured the concentrations of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase of {approximately} 70 Antarctic meteorites, from more than 10 different ice-fields, including many new ones. They then discuss the trends in terrestrial ages of meteorites from different ice-fields.

Welten, K C; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W

2000-01-14

316

Effects of reference objects and extra-retinal information about pursuit eye movements on curvilinear path perception from retinal flow.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that when traveling on a circular path, observers use the rotation in the retinal velocity field for path curvature estimation and recover their path of forward travel relative to their perceived instantaneous heading (L. Li, & J. C. K. Cheng, 2011). Here, we examined the contribution of reference objects and extra-retinal information about pursuit eye movements to curvilinear path perception. In Experiment 1, the display simulated an observer traveling on a circular path over a textured ground with and without tall posts while looking at a fixed target on the future path, along heading, or along a fixed axis in the world. We found that reference objects did not help path perception. In Experiment 2, extra-retinal signals about pursuit eye movements were introduced in two viewing conditions: one that corresponded to the natural case of traveling on a circular path when the body orientation is aligned with the instantaneous heading and one that corresponded to the unnatural case of traveling when the body orientation is fixed relative to the world. We found that extra-retinal signals support accurate path perception only for the natural case of self-motion when the body orientation is aligned with heading such that pursuit compensation helps stabilize the heading in the body-centric coordinate system. PMID:22410585

Cheng, Joseph C K; Li, Li

2012-03-12

317

Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Presence of Extra Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) model, the parameter ?0 whose square root, multiplied by Planck length lp, approximates the minimum measurable distance, varies with energy scales. Since the minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories, we investigate the models based on the GUP and one extra dimension, compactified with radius ?. We obtain an inspiring relation . This relation is also consistent with the predictions at Planck scale and the usual quantum mechanics scale. We also estimate the application range of the GUP model. It turns out that the minimum measurable length is exactly the compactification radius of the extra dimension.

Mu, Ben-Rong; Wu, Hou-Wen; Yang, Hai-Tang

2011-09-01

318

BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book Black holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions written by Kirill A Bronnikov and Sergey G Rubin has been published recently by World Scientific Publishing Company. The authors are well known experts in gravity and cosmology. The book is a monograph, a considerable part of which is based on the original work of the authors. Their original point of view on some of the problems makes the book quite interesting, covering a variety of important topics of the modern theory of gravity, astrophysics and cosmology. It consists of 11 chapters which are organized in three parts. The book starts with an introduction, where the authors briefly discuss the main ideas of General Relativity, giving some historical remarks on its development and application to cosmology, and mentioning some more recent subjects such as brane worlds, f(R)-theories and gravity in higher dimensions. Part I of the book is called 'Gravity'. Chapters two and three are devoted to the Einstein equations and their spherical symmetric black hole solutions. This material is quite standard and can be found in practically any book on General Relativity. A brief summary of the Kerr metric and black hole thermodynamics are given in chapter four. The main part of this chapter is devoted to spherically symmetric black holes in non-Einstein gravity (with scalar and phantom fields), black holes with regular interior, and black holes in brane worlds. Chapters five and six are mainly dedicated to wormholes and the problem of their stability. Part II (Cosmology) starts with discussion of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker and de Sitter solutions of the Einstein equations and their properties. It follows by describing a `big picture' of the modern cosmology (inflation, post-inflationary reheating, the radiation-dominated and matter-dominated states, and modern stage of the (secondary) inflation). The authors explain how the inflation models allow one to solve many of the long-standing problems of cosmology, such as flatness of the Universe, the horizon problem and isotropy of cosmological microwave background. All this material is covered in chapter seven. Chapter eight contains brief discussion of several popular inflation models. Chapter nine is devoted to the problem of the large-scale structure formation from initial quantum vacuum fluctuation during the inflation and the spectrum of the density fluctuations. It also contains remarks on the baryonic asymmetry of the Universe, baryogenesis and primordial black holes. Part III covers the material on extra dimensions. It describes how Einstein gravity is modified in the presence of one or more additional spatial dimensions and how these extra dimensions are compactified in the Kaluza–Klein scheme. The authors also discuss how extra dimensions may affect low energy physics. They present examples of higher-dimensional generalizations of the gravity with higher-in-curvature corrections and discuss a possible mechanism of self-stabilization of an extra space. A considerable part of the chapter 10 is devoted to cosmological models with extra dimensions. In particular, the authors discuss how extra dimensions can modify 'standard' inflation models. At the end of this chapter they make several remarks on a possible relation of the value of fundamental constants in our universe with the existence of extra dimensions. Finally, in chapter 11 they demonstrate that several observable properties of the Universe are closely related with the special value of the fundamental physical constants and their fine tuning. They give interesting examples of such fine tuning and summarize many other cases. The book ends with discussion of a so-called 'cascade birth of universes in multidimensional spaces' model, proposed by one of the authors. As is evident from this brief summary of topics presented in the book, many interesting areas of modern gravity and cosmology are covered. However, since the subject is so wide, this inevitably implies that the selection of the topics and level of their presentation in many cases reflects the authors' o

Frolov, Valeri P.

2013-10-01

319

46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...customs officers and employees, while performing...shall receive extra compensation to be paid by the...

2011-10-01

320

7 CFR 457.105 - Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.105 Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. The extra long staple cotton crop insurance...

2009-01-01

321

46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel...SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...

2010-10-01

322

46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel...SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian...

2009-10-01

323

7 CFR 457.105 - Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.105...REGULATIONS § 457.105 Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. The extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions for the...

2013-01-01

324

DNA Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Diversity in Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758 (Clitellata): Resurrection of L. herculeus (Savigny, 1826)  

PubMed Central

The widely studied and invasive earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758 has been the subject of nomenclatural debate for many years. However these disputes were not based on suspicions of heterogeneity, but rather on the descriptions and nomenclatural acts associated with the species name. Large numbers of DNA barcode sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I obtained for nominal L. terrestris and six congeneric species reveal that there are two distinct lineages within nominal L. terrestris. One of those lineages contains the Swedish population from which the name-bearing specimen of L. terrestris was obtained. The other contains the population from which the syntype series of Enterion herculeum Savigny, 1826 was collected. In both cases modern and old representatives yielded barcode sequences allowing us to clearly establish that these are two distinct species, as different from one another as any other pair of congeners in our data set. The two are morphologically indistinguishable, except by overlapping size-related characters. We have designated a new neotype for L. terrestris. The newly designated neotype and a syntype of L. herculeus yielded DNA adequate for sequencing part of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The sequence data make possible the objective determination of the identities of earthworms morphologically identical to L. terrestris and L. herculeus, regardless of body size and segment number. Past work on nominal L. terrestris could have been on either or both species, although L. herculeus has yet to be found outside of Europe.

James, Samuel W.; Porco, David; Decaens, Thibaud; Richard, Benoit; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Erseus, Christer

2010-01-01

325

7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

326

29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An...

2013-07-01

327

Kids May Not Offset Extra Exercise At School  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Kids may not offset extra exercise at school (*this news item will not be ... 2013) Monday, August 12, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Exercise for Children School Health By Kerry Grens NEW ...

328

Feynman's derivation of Maxwell equations and extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that Feynman's derivation of Maxwell equations admits a\\u000ageneralization to the case of extra spatial dimensions. The generalization is\\u000aunique and is only possible in seven dimensional space.

Z. K. Silagadze

2001-01-01

329

The progress of exploring extra-solar planetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advance of the space exploring, the study of the extra-solar planetary systems becomes an interesting topic since such system may exist the life or even the modern civilization. In this paper we give a brief introduction on the discovery of extra-solar planetary systems, and discuss the feasibility of detection techniques and methods developed in recent years. In particular, we present detailed interpretations of the results by the radial velocity method. With the launch of some specific small satellites, we can predict the discovery of a large number of candidates of the extra-solar planetary systems. We can expect that the exploring of extra-solar planetary systems will have a prospective era in the near future.

Liu, Yu-Juan; Zhao, Gang

2005-09-01

330

Survival of yeasts inoculated in flavoured extra virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of four strains of yeast belonging to the speciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida wickerhamii, Candida boidinii andWilliopsis californica was studied in extra virgin olive oil flavoured with garlic, lemon, oregano and red chilli pepper. The ingredients used in\\u000a the doses of 1%, 5% and 10% profoundly modified the habitat of the extra virgin olive oil, reducing drastically, in 90 days

Gino Ciafardini; Biagi Angelo Zullo; Alfredo D’Amico; Giuseppe Cioccia; Lucia Maiuro

2006-01-01

331

Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP) mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may

Sjouke A Kingma; Michelle L Hall; Gernot Segelbacher; Anne Peters

2009-01-01

332

Early Formation of Terrestrial Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early (?4.5 Ga) Formation of Terrestrial Crust T.M. Harrison1, A.K. Schmitt1, M.T. McCulloch2, and O.M. Lovera1 1Department of Earth and Space Sciences and IGPP, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; 2Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601 AUSTRALIA Large deviations in ?repsilonHf(T) from bulk silicate Earth seen in >4 Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been interpreted as reflecting a major differentiation of the silicate Earth at ca. 4.4 to 4.5 Ga. We have expanded the characterization of 176Hf/177Hf (Hf) in Hadean zircons by acquiring a further 116 laser ablation Lu-Hf measurements on 87 grains with ion microprobe 207Pb/206Pb ages up to 4.36 Ga. Most measurements employed concurrent Lu-Hf and 207Pb/206Pb analyses, permitting assessment of the use of ion microprobe data to characterize the age of the volumetrically larger domain sampled by laser drilling. Our new results confirm and extend the earlier observation of significant negative deviations in ?repsilonHf(T) throughout the Hadean, although no positive ?repsilonHf(T) values were documented in this study. These data yields an essentially uniform spectrum of single-stage model ages between 4.54 and 4.20 Ga for extraction of the zircons' protoliths from a chondritic reservoir. We derived the full error propagation expression for a parameter, ?repsilono, which measures the difference of a sample from solar system initial (Hf) (Hfo), and from this conclude that data plotting close to (Hfo), are statistically meaningful and consistent with silicate differentiation at 4.540±0.006 Ga. ?18O and Ti thermometry for these Hadean zircons show little obvious correlation with initial (Hf), consistent with their derivation through fusion of a broad suite of crustal rock types under near water-saturated conditions. Together with the inclusion assemblage and other isotopic and trace element data obtained from these ancient zircons, our results indicate essentially continuous derivation of crust from the mantle from 4.5 to 4.2 Ga, concurrent with recycling into the mantle and internal crustal re-working. These results represent further evidence that by 4.35 Ga, portions of the crust had taken on continental characteristics.

Harrison, T. M.; Schmitt, A. K.; McCulloch, M. T.; Lovera, O. M.

2007-12-01

333

Evaluation of extra capsular lymph node involvement in patients with extra-hepatic bile duct cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors for extra-hepatic bile duct carcinoma (ExHBDC). Extra capsular lymph node involvement (ExCLNI) is the extension of cancer cells through the nodal capsule into the perinodal fatty tissue. The prognostic impact of ExCLNI has been shown to be significant mainly in head and neck malignancies. Recently, the prognostic impacts of ExCLNI have evaluated in gastrointestinal malignancies. However no data is available regarding the incidence and prognostic significance of extra-capsular lymph node involvement (ExCLNI) in resectable ExHBDCs. The aim of the present study is first to evaluate the incidence of ExCLNI in surgically-treated ExHBDCs and second, to determine the prognostic impact of ExCLNI in patients with surgically-treated ExHBDCs. Methods A total of 228 patients (110 cases of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and 118 cases of distal cholangiocarcinoma) with surgically-treated ExHBDCs were included in this retrospective study. ExCLNI was defined as the extension of cancer cells through the nodal capsule into the perinodal fatty tissue. The existence of ExCLNI and its prognostic value were analyzed as a subgroup of lymph node metastasis. Results ExCLNI was detected in only 22% of patients with lymph node metastasis of surgically-treated ExHBDC. The presence of ExCLNI correlated with distal cholangiocarcinoma (p?=?0.002). On univariate analysis for survival, perineural invasion, vascular invasion, histological grade, and lymph node metastasis were statistically significant factors. On multivariate analysis, only lymph node metastasis was identified as a significant independent prognostic factor in patients with resectable ExHBDC. Subgroups of lymph node metastasis including the presence of ExCLNI, location of lymph node metastasis, and the number of lymph node metastasis had no statistically significant impact on survival. Conclusion ExCLNI was present in only 22% of the LNM (7% of overall patients) in patients with surgical treated ExHBDCs. And ExCLNI would have no impact on the survival of patients with surgically-treated ExHBDCs.

2012-01-01

334

Supporting tools of solar-terrestrial science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar-terrestrial science is pursued by individuals and teams of workers situated in academia, research institutes, industry, and government laboratories. Progress in the field is made in various ways, but publication of results in scientific journals is the principal means of assuring that the knowledge gained from research is available to the public, now and in the future. In general, much of the research in the field is made via careful evaluation of data viewed in the context of fundamental physical principles as set forth in theoretical and analytical models, and computer simulations of physical processes. In addition, there is accumulation of knowledge expressed in the development of empirical or phenomenological models. Experience gained over the past three decades of solar-terrestrial research indicated that advances in the field require a diversity of resources and that the health of the entire discipline depends upon a balance among these. To maintain the health of the discipline, NASA and other federal funding agencies concerned with solar-terrestrial research must work together to insure that the following resources are available in reasonable measure to support solar-terrestrial research endeavors: ground-based facilities; balloons and rockets; spaceborne experiments; information networks; computational resources; models of solar terrestrial processes; data bases and archives; and research students.

1989-09-01

335

Purification of the extra-cellular domain of Nipah virus glycoprotein produced in Escherichia coli and possible application in diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycoprotein (G) of Nipah virus (NiV) is important for virus infectivity and induction of the protective immunity. In this study, the extra-cellular domain of NiV G protein was fused with hexahistidine residues at its N-terminal end and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression under transcriptional regulation of T7 promoter yielded insoluble protein aggregates in the form of inclusion bodies.

Majid Eshaghi; Wen Siang Tan; Wai Kit Chin; Khatijah Yusoff

2005-01-01

336

Mast cell tryptase and photoaging: possible involvement in the degradation of extra cellular matrix and basement membrane proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mast cells are widely distributed in the connective tissue of the body, but are particularly prominent in tissues such as\\u000a skin. An increased number of mast cells can be found in the dermis under inflammatory conditions and ultraviolet (UV) exposed\\u000a skin. Previous investigations have identified matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as key enzymes in the degradation of extra\\u000a cellular matrix (ECM). This

Arunasiri Iddamalgoda; Quang Trong Le; Kenichi Ito; Kiyotaka Tanaka; Hiroyuki Kojima; Hiroshi Kido

2008-01-01

337

Solar system constraints on a Rindler-type extra-acceleration from modified gravity at large distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analytically work out the orbital effects caused by a Rindler-type extra-acceleration ARin which naturally arises in some recent models of modified gravity at large distances. In particular, we focus on the perturbations induced by it on the two-body range rho and range-rate dot rho which are commonly used in satellite and planetary investigations as primary observable quantities. The constraints

L. Iorio

2011-01-01

338

Early Giant Planet Migration in the Solar System: Geochemical and Cosmochemical Implications for Terrestrial Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new terrestrial planet formation model (Walsh et al., this meeting) explores the effects of a two-stage, inward-then-outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn, as found in numerous hydrodynamical simulations of giant planet formation (Masset & Snellgrove 2001, Morbidelli & Crida 2007, Pierens & Nelson 2008). Walsh et al. show that the inward migration of Jupiter truncates the disk of planetesimals and embryos in the terrestrial planet region. Subsequent accretion in that region then forms a realistic system of terrestrial planets, in particular giving a low-mass Mars, which has been difficult to reproduce in simulations with a self-consistent set of initial conditions (see, eg. Raymond et al. 2009). Additionally, the outward migration of the giant planets populates the asteroid belt with distinct populations of bodies, with the inner belt filled by bodies originating inside of 3 AU, and the outer belt filled with bodies originating from beyond the giant planets. From a geochemical and cosmochemical point of view, this scenario differs significantly from the "standard model" in which essentially all of the material in the inner Solar System initially formed there. Specifically, the assumption that the current radial distribution of material in the inner Solar System is reflective of the primordial distribution of material in that region is no longer necessary. This is important for understanding the chemical and isotopic diversity of the inner Solar System as inferred from studies of the terrestrial planets, asteroids, and meteorites, as well as for understanding the origin of Earth's water. We will discuss the geochemical and cosmochemical implications of this model in relation to available constraints, as well as to previous models of terrestrial planet formation. Masset & Snellgrove (2001), MNRAS 320, L55. Morbidelli & Crida (2007), Icarus 191, 158. Pierens & Nelson (2008), A&A 482, 333. Raymond et al. (2009), Icarus 203, 644.

O'Brien, David P.; Walsh, K. J.; Morbidelli, A.; Raymond, S. N.; Mandell, A. M.; Bond, J. C.

2010-10-01

339

Planetary geology and terrestrial analogs in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2011 PERC Planetary Geology Field Symposium;Kitakyushu City, Japan, 5-6 November 2011 In spite of the extremely diverse geological settings that exist in Asia, relatively little attention has previously been paid to this region in terms of terrestrial analog studies for planetary application. Asia is emerging as a major center of studies in planetary geology, but no attempt had been made in the past to organize a broadly based meeting that would allow planetary geologists in Asia to meet with ones from more advanced centers, such as the United States and Europe, and that would include the participation of many geologists working primarily on terrestrial research. The Planetary Exploration Research Center (PERC) of the Chiba Institute of Technology hosted the first planetary geology field symposium in Asia to present results from recent planetary geology studies and to exchange ideas regarding terrestrial analogs (http://www.perc.it-chiba.ac.jp/meetings/pgfs2011/index.html).

Komatsu, Goro; Namiki, Noriyuki

2012-04-01

340

Debris from terrestrial planet formation: the Moon-forming collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the evolution of debris created in the giant impacts expected during the final stages of terrestrial planet formation. The starting point is the debris created in a simulation of the Moon-forming impact. The dynamical evolution is followed for 10 Myr including the effects of Earth, Venus, Mars and Jupiter. The spatial distribution evolves from a clump in the first few months to an asymmetric ring for the first 10 kyr and finally becoming an axisymmetric ring by about 1 Myr after the impact. By 10 Myr after the impact 20 per cent of the particles have been accreted on to Earth and 17 per cent on to Venus, with 8 per cent ejected by Jupiter and other bodies playing minor roles. However, the fate of the debris also depends strongly on how fast it is collisionally depleted, which depends on the poorly constrained size distribution of the impact debris. Assuming that the debris is made up of 30 per cent by mass mm-cm-sized vapour condensates and 70 per cent boulders up to 500 km, we find that the condensates deplete rapidly on ˜1000 yr time-scales, whereas the boulders deplete predominantly dynamically. By considering the luminosity of dust produced in collisions within the boulder-debris distribution we find that the Moon-forming impact would have been readily detectable around other stars in Spitzer 24 ?m surveys for around 25 Myr after the impact, with levels of emission comparable to many known hot dust systems. The vapour condensates meanwhile produce a short-lived, optically thick, spike of emission. We use these surveys to make an estimate of the fraction of stars that form terrestrial planets, FTPF. Since current terrestrial planet formation models invoke multiple giant impacts, the low fraction of 10-100 Myr stars found to have warm (>rsim150 K) dust implies that FTPF?10 per cent. For this number to be higher, it would require that either terrestrial planets are largely fully formed when the protoplanetary disc disperses, or that impact generated debris consists purely of sub-km objects such that its signature is short-lived.

Jackson, Alan P.; Wyatt, Mark C.

2012-09-01

341

Body Image  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Body Image Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to a woman's happiness and wellness. Read ... Body Image email updates. Enter email address Submit Body Image news September 27, 2013 - Stem Cells From Fat ...

342

Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: Pollutants tend to simplify plant and animal communities by causing a progressive loss of species. At the extreme, this leads to erosion and loss of soil fertility. Weedy, broadly adapted species increase. Among animals, carnivorous species and groups are often the first to suffer. This is partly because of their exposure at the top of the food chain, and partly, it appears, because of physiological differences. Species differences in susceptibility are abundant and are often critical. One result is that when one pest is controlled another is likely to flare up. Resistance appears commonly in insects and is known in other fast-breeding forms, including fishes, frogs, and rodents. Resistant individuals can carry toxicant loads that make them dangerous food for other animals. Some groups, including mollusks and annelids, are naturally resistant to many organohalogens and tend to accumulate them. Animals such as birds may carry lipophilic pollutants in large amounts with apparent safety until forced to draw upon their fat. They may then suffer delayed mortality, and no doubt suffer reproductive or behavioral effects at sublethal levels. Lipophilic pollutants in the brain rise when body lipids decrease and fall when body lipids increase. Mutagenesis can be caused by some common pollutants and the mutagenic properties of most chemicals are far too little known. Fortunately, common pesticides are not likely to be strong mutagens. Mutagenicity may be affecting certain long-lived and slow-breeding species in the wild, but most species have enough population turnover to swamp an occasional mutagenic event. Behavioral changes can be caused by relatively low levels of contaminants, but it is often hard to demonstrate them without using high dosages. Reproduction may or may not be affected adversely by low exposures. At certain exposures that are below the toxic levels of a chemical, a biostimulatory effect is to be expected. Food chain accumulations definitely do occur when persistent chemicals enter organisms that eliminate them poorly. However, loss of chemicals in the food chain must be more common than accumulation. The great concentration from water to aquatic organism is chiefly a physical phenomenon, not a food chain effect, but it affords high starting levels for these chains. Terrestrial food chains often start at a high level with heavily contaminated, struggling prey. Litter feeders are another important base. Vegetation may be contaminated enough to be dangerous to animals that eat it. Dermal and respiratory routes of intoxication occur in the wild, but the oral route is far more important at most times and places. The organisms that govern soil fertility and texture are affected more by cultivation than by pesticides. Above ground, growing knowledge of resistance, species differences, and biological controls is leading to integrated control, in which use of chemicals is limited and specific. We do not know what is happening to most nontarget invertebrates. Amphibians and reptiles may be killed by applications of insecticides, but are not highly sensitive and can carry large residues. Effects of these residues on reproduction are little known. Heavy kills of birds by pesticides still occur in the field. Fish-eating and bird-eating birds also undergo shell thinning and related reproductive troubles in many areas, sometimes to the point of population decline and local or regional extermination. DDE most often correlates with shell thinning in the wild and in experiments. No other known chemical approaches DDE in causing severe and lasting shell thinning. Herbivorous birds seem to be largely immune to this effect. It is uncertain how much dieldrin and PCBs contribute to embryotoxicity in carnivorous birds. Mammals may be killed by the more toxic pesticides, but some of the commonest small rodents are so resistant, and lose their residues so rapidly, that they are of little

Stickel, W.H.

1975-01-01

343

Extra-tropical cyclone and climate (Alfred Wegener Medal lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extra-tropical cyclones play a key role in the climate system in effectively transporting heat, water vapour and momentum towards higher latitudes. The main energy source of extra-tropical cyclones is the available potential energy of the atmosphere first recognized by Max Margules in the beginning of the last century but clarified much later in a series of papers by Edward Lorenz. With the assumption that the initial state is well determined present weather prediction models are able to predict the development of extra-tropical systems several days in advance and this is one of the reasons to the large improvement in weather forecasting in recent years. Whilst our knowledge of extra-tropical cyclones has continued to improve several questions requires a better scientific understanding. One of these is the mutual interaction between transient cyclones and the large-scale quasi-stationary pattern of the atmospheric circulation such as blocking. Another important issue is the possible change in extra-tropical cyclones in a warmer climate. This might come about through changes in the storm tracks or in changes in extreme cyclones. In my presentation I will present some recent results based on the assessment of storm tracks and the evolution of cyclones in high-resolution global models in the present and future climate using a Lagrangean approach.

Bengtsson, L.

2009-04-01

344

Realistic Field Theories on Submanifolds of Compact Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis, they study various physical models which assume the existence of spatial dimensions beyond the familiar three. While everyday observation suggests only three dimensions, there is no shortage of potential explanations for how extra dimensions could have escaped detection for so long. For instance, the extra dimensions could be compact, curled into a microscopic volume so that you can never move far in the extra dimensions without ending up back where you started. Or, the elements of everyday experience could be trapped on a three-dimensional membrane floating in a higher dimensions space. The models studied in this thesis each use both of these mechanisms in tandem, with electrons, photons, quarks, and the like being confined to a three-dimensional membrane that sits in a space with compact extra dimensions. Gravitons (and perhaps other new types of particles) could travel beyond the three-dimensional membrane, so they can feel the effects of the higher-dimensional space, but because the extra dimensions are compactified on a small scale, the effects are subtle.

Mirabelli, E.

2005-04-05

345

Correlations between cosmic strings and extra relativistic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent observation that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) may prefer a neutrino excess has triggered a number of works studying this possibility. The effect obtained by the noninteracting massless neutrino excess could be mimicked by some extra radiation component in the early Universe, such as a cosmological gravitational wave background. Prompted by the fact that a possible candidate to source those gravitational waves would be cosmic strings, we perform a parameter fitting study with models which consider both cosmic strings and the effective number of neutrinos as free parameters, using CMB and non-CMB data. We find that there is a correlation between cosmic strings and the number of extra relativistic species and that strings can account for all the extra radiation necessary. In fact, CMB data prefer strings at a 2? level, paying the price of a higher extra radiation component. CMB data also give a moderate preference for a model with ns=1. The inclusion of non-CMB data lowers the preference both for strings and for the extra relativistic species.

Lizarraga, Joanes; Sendra, Irene; Urrestilla, Jon

2012-12-01

346

Extra-abdominal Periosteal Desmoid Tumor of the Third Toe.  

PubMed

Extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumors are uncommon nonmetastatic tumors of the extremities with a propensity for local recurrence. Lesions in the distal extremities are rare; a majority of extra-abdominal lesions occur in more proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities. This article reports a patient with an extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumor in the toe. A 37-year-old woman had a mass in her left third distal phalanx that was originally noted 3 years prior to presenting to the authors' institution. She reported the mass expanded during pregnancy. The toe was red and elongated and had expanded to approximately the same size as her great toe. The plantar aspect of the toe was thick and callused, and the toenail was slightly elevated. Marginal excision with retention of the nail was performed without complication. The mass was determined to be an extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumor and was successfully removed without recurrence. To date, the patient remains asymptomatic, with no pain and complete sensation in her third toe. Although extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumors have been identified in the extremities, to the authors' knowledge none have been reported as far distal as the toe. Identifying this lesion in the distal extremity will allow a hasty diagnosis and treatment in future cases of similar presentation. Knowledge of the existence of this type of tumor in the distal extremity may also assist in narrowing differential diagnoses. PMID:24025015

Saleem, Omar; Sayres, Stephanie; O'Malley, Martin

2013-09-01

347

Radion cosmology in theories with universal extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the cosmology of models with universal extra dimensions, where the Standard Model degrees of freedom live in a (4+n)-dimensional brane, with n compact and small extra spatial dimensions. In these models, the simplest way to obtain the conventional four-dimensional Planck scale starting with a low string scale is to also have some larger extra dimensions, where only gravity propagates. In such theories, dimensional reduction generically leads to at least two radion fields, one associated with the total volume of the extra spatial dimensions and the other with the ratio of the sizes of the small and large extra dimensions. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the radion fields on cosmology. We emphasize various aspects of radion physics such as radion coupling to the Standard Model fields, bare and dressed radion masses during inflation, dynamical stabilization of radions during and after inflation, radion decay lifetime and its late dominance in the thermal history of the universe as well as its quantum fluctuations during inflation. We argue that models where the radion plays the role of an inflaton or the inflaton is a brane scalar field run into problems. We then present a successful inflation model with bulk scalar fields that seems to have all the desired properties. We also briefly discuss the possibility of radions as cold dark matter candidate.

Mazumdar, Anupam; Mohapatra, R. N.; Pérez-Lorenzana, A.

2004-06-01

348

Body Image  

MedlinePLUS

... and confident in your body. Body Image and Eating Disorders People with negative body image have a greater likelihood of developing an eating disorder and are more likely to suffer from feelings ...

349

The Role of Extra-Credit Assignments in the Teaching of World Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The granting of extra credit is a hotly debated topic in all fields of education. Teachers are reluctant to offer extra credit for fear of inflating grades, but students are persistent in their demands for extra-credit points to which they have become accustomed. This article considers extra-credit assignments in the teaching of world languages.…

Alley, David

2011-01-01

350

Blood, Sweat, and Trivia: Faculty Ratings of Extra-Credit Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a study of psychology faculty who rated each of 39 extra-credit opportunities based on their of the item, educational value and the likelihood that all students would be able to complete the opportunity. Percentage of respondents using extra credit; Positive correlations between rated educational value an use of extra credit; Most commonly used extra-credit opportunities.

Hill G. William IV; Joseph J. Palladino; James A. Eison

1993-01-01

351

Classifying Solid Planetary Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinct solar system (SS) solid planetary objects are defined in terms of dynamic and solid state characteristics. This includes Keplerian orbits, self gravitation, upper and lower mass limits that effect planet shape, integrity, and equation of state. Criteria are based on parameters that vary with pressure and temperature such as bulk modulus (?), rigidity (?), density (?), within major and dwarf planets and irregular objects (IO). Rotation offsets gravitation pressure effects. In accordance with recent IAU guidelines planetary bodies are divided into cis- and trans-Neptunian major and dwarf planets with solid cores and (smaller) IO. Cis-Neptunian bodies include terrestrial and large gaseous planets, planetary moons, asteroids, and main-belt comets within Neptune's orbit. New classes of objects beyond Neptune (trans-Neptunian objects or TNOs) similar to Pluto include Kuiper belt and Oort cloud objects, i.e. short and long period comets, and scattered disk objects that are IO if they are not large enough to have a gravitationally (spheroid) dominated shape. There may also be hitherto undetected TNOs such as asteroid parent bodies that may be (sub-dwarf) proto-planets. Physical criteria discussed here for defining solid SS planetary bodies are also likely applicable to exoplanets.

Remo, John L.

2007-02-01

352

Cold adaptation of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber , to subnivean environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber, was susceptible to subzero temperature: both freezing and chilling were injurious. The level of cold hardiness against chilling and freezing showed different patterns in their seasonal variation. The lower lethal temperature causing 50% mortality, an indicator of the tolerance to chilling, ranged from-1.37°C in August to-4.58°C in December. The whole body supercooling point, the absolute

K. Tanaka; T. Udagawa

1993-01-01

353

Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A number of recent studies have linked developmental, physiological, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal\\u000a combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to\\u000a coal ash. In the current study we compare total body concentrations of 20 trace elements in adult southern toads, Bufo terrestris, inhabiting coal ash settling basins with

W. A. Hopkins; M. T. Mendonça; C. L. Rowe; J. D. Congdon

1998-01-01

354

Exploring Extra-Solar Planetary Interiors: New Chemistry at Extreme Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and transport properties of silicate and oxide melts at extreme pressures and temperatures are critical for understanding early planetary evolution and the aftermath of late-stage giant impacts such as that believed to have formed the Moon. Here we report on a suite of laser-driven shock experiments on major mineral phases of significance to the terrestrial mantle and extra-solar rocky planets SiO2, MgO and MgSiO3. Experiments on two polymorphs of SiO2 were used to validate experimental technique and are compared to previous results. We extend Hugoniot equation of state measurements for MgO and MgSiO3 to 6.4 and 9.5 Mbar, respectively, constraining controversial predications for the ultra-high pressure melt curves. Experiments on amorphous and crystalline MgSiO3 starting materials show the first evidence of a liquid-liquid phase transition with a volume reduction of 5-8% near 3.5 Mbar and over a range of temperature of at least 7000 K, suggesting the potential for unexpectedly complex chemistry in silicate liquids. Transport properties are extracted from time-resolved optical reflectivity data and imply that the distinction between silicate and metallic constituents are blurred in deep planetary interiors with potential implications for coupling across the present-day core-mantle boundary.

Spaulding, Dylan

2011-06-01

355

Outlooks for GaAs terrestrial photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the use of GaAs photovoltaic devices as an alternative to Si devices for large scale terrestrial power generation is presented. A review of the structure and the operational advantages and limitations of p-n homojunction, heterostructure, semitransparent Schottky barrier, and drift field types of photovoltaic devices is given. Operational parameters, technology, materials economy, capacity, and cost performance of

J. M. Woodall; H. J. Hovel

1975-01-01

356

Terrestrial analogs of possible Martian habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four environmental factors are responsible for the apparent absence of life on or near the surface of Mars: radiation, reactive oxidants, aridity and low temperature. The three latter factors are also present in terrestrial environments that approximate, although do not reach, the intensity of Martian conditions. Nor do they occur together in the same environments, yet they allow studying the

E. I. Friedmann

2006-01-01

357

Effects of acid precipiitation on terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains papers presented at a NATO Advanced Research Institute, sponsored by their Eco-Sciences Panel, on the Effects of Acid Precipitation on Vegetation and Soils, held May 22-26, 1978, at Toronto. The Advanced Research Institute was held specifically to bring together international experts to present, examine and debate the scientific research relevant to such terrestrial ecosystems. The identification of

T. C. Hutchinson; M. Havas

1980-01-01

358

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE TERRESTRIAL SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

A current view is presented of the microbial ecology of the terrestrial subsurface by considering primarily the ecology of shallow aquifer sediments. The properties of the aquifer sediments and groundwater determine their ability to support microbial life and control the abundanc...

359

Terrestrial and space techniques in earthquake research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report is given on an international workshop which was held to discuss recent advances in experimental techniques for the monitoring of crustal dynamics in earthquake zones. Experts from countries throughout the world, who are concerned with earthquakes and earthquakes disaster prevention, participated and discussed various terrestrial as well as space techniques presently applied or most likely to become applicable

A. Vogel

1979-01-01

360

Terrestrial Planet Finder: technology development plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of humanity's oldest questions is whether life exists elsewhere in the universe. The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission will survey stars in our stellar neighborhood to search for planets and perform spectroscopic measurements to identify potential biomarkers in their atmospheres. In response to the recently published President's Plan for Space Exploration, TPF has plans to launch a visible-light coronagraph

Christian A. Lindensmith

2004-01-01

361

Terrestrial Planet Finder: Technology Development Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of humanity's oldest questions is whether life exists elsewhere in the universe. The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission will survey stars in our stellar neighborhood to search for planets and perform spectroscopic measurements to identify potential biomarkers in their atmospheres. In response to the recently published President's Plan for Space Exploration, TPF has plans to launch a visible-light coronagraph

Chris Lindensmith

362

Terrestrial plant biopolymers in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vascular land plant biopolymers lignin and cutin were surveyed in the surface sediments of coastal and open ocean waters by controlled alkaline CuO oxidation\\/reaction. Two contrasting oceanic regimes were studied: the northwest Mediterranean (NWM) Sea, which receives significant particulate terrigenous debris through riverine discharge; and the northeast Atlantic (NEA) Ocean, with poorly characterised terrestrial carbon inputs. In the NWM

Mark A. Gough; R. Fauzi; C. Mantoura; Martin Preston

1993-01-01

363

Monogenetic volcanoes of the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogenetic volcanic activity has produced cinder cones and small shield volcanoes on the earth, moon, and Mars. Extraterrestrial cinder cones have median volumes only 25% as large as average terrestrial cinder cones, implying that their magma chambers are smaller and shallower (1 km depth vs 3 km). Ejection velocities for lunar and Martian cinder cones range from 20 to 70

C. A. Wood

1979-01-01

364

Calibration of Solar Cells in Terrestrial Sunlight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of calibrating solar cells in sunlight is described. This method has been used for at least 15 years, and produces a value of the solar cell's short circuit current for any predetermined space of terrestrial condition. The main advantage of this ...

M. A. H. Davies C. Goodbody

1991-01-01

365

Subsolidus convective cooling histories of terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsolidus convective cooling histories of terrestrial planets evolving from hot initial states are investigated quantitatively. A simple analytic model simulating average heat flux from a vigorously convecting mantle and incorporating a mantle viscosity proportional to mantle temperature and a lithosphere which thickens as the planet cools is employed. Heat flux from the convecting mantle is calculated on the basis

G. Schubert; P. Cassen; R. E. Young

1979-01-01

366

Geomorphological processes on terrestrial planetary surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of photographic explorations of the moon, Mars, and Mercury on studies of terrestrial surface processes is studied, with attention given to volcanic features, eolian erosion, ground ice and permafrost, and sapping as a geomorphological process. Finally, the ongoing deformation of the earth's crust is considered with reference to seismic activity and micromorphology, seismic activity recorded by microstratigraphy, microchronology,

R. P. Sharp

1980-01-01

367

Transposer systems for digital terrestrial television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK digital terrestrial television (DTT) network has completed its first phase of roll-out, with over 70% of the population now able to receive all six digital multiplexes. Whilst this is an impressive achievement, the current analogue TV network can cover 99.7% of the UK population and digital satellite systems can boast virtually 100% coverage, so DTT still has some

Peter B. Kenington; Keith Hayler; Peter Moss; David J. Edwards; Alan P. Jenkins; Mark Johnstone

2001-01-01

368

Terrestrial analog studies for Martian patterned ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recurring problem in understanding Martian patterned ground is explaining its large size. Terrestrial patterned ground in Swedish Lapland offers an analog that may help explain this. In cold, arid regions with strong winds, polygonal features are accentuated paralled to the dominant wind direction. Preliminary results of a comparison between Martian polygonal troughs and dominant wind directions suggests a good

L. A. Rossbacher

1985-01-01

369

Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed diversity of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has long been debated whether dinosaurs were part of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR), from 125-80 Myr ago, when flowering plants, herbivorous and

Graeme T. Lloyd; Katie E. Davis; Davide Pisani; James E. Tarver; Marcello Ruta; Manabu Sakamoto; David W. E. Hone; Rachel Jennings; Michael J. Benton

2008-01-01

370

The Carbon Cycles of Chinese Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes of Chinese terrestrial carbon storage depend not only on biogeochemical and climatological processes, but also on human activities and their interaction with carbon cycle. China,covering about 133.7 million hectares of forested land, has climate regimes ranging from tropical, to subtropical, temperate and cold temperate zones, and from southeast to northwest humid, semi arid and arid zones. A long

C. Peng; J. Fang; Z. Guo; H. Wu

2002-01-01

371

Snowmelt monitoring with Terrestrial Laser Scanner Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of satellite data has caused an increasing need for validation data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are potential methods of gaining information on vast areas at remote locations. We have investigated the snowmelt 2009 using stationary and mobile TLS during the SNORTEX -campaign (Snow Reflectance Transition Experiment) in several locations in Finnish Lapland

Kati Anttila; Sanna Kaasalainen; Harri Kaartinen; Anssi Krooks; Terhikki Manninen; Panu Lahtinen; Aku Riihelä; Niilo Siljamo; Laura Thölix; Tuure Karjalainen

2010-01-01

372

Early Terrestrial Arthropods: A Fragmentary Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest unequivocal terrestrial fossils are uppermost Silurian (Pridoli) myriapods, presumed to be pioneer decomposers. Descendants of their marine ancestors may be discernible in the Cambrian lobopod Aysheaia (recently challenged). Known euthycarcinoids are too late except as survivors from such a lobopod ancestry. Unique arthropods are also known from Cambrian and Ordovician lake deposits, but shed no light on origin

W. D. I. Rolfe

1985-01-01

373

CHANGE DETECTION VIA TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper an algorithm for the detection of changes based on terrestrial laser scanning data. Detection of changes has been a subject for research for many years, seeing applications such as motion tracking, inventory-like comparison and deformation analysis as only a few examples. One of the more difficult tasks in the detection of changes is performing informed

Reem Zeibak; Sagi Filin

2007-01-01

374

Plate tectonics on the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plate tectonics is largely controlled by the buoyancy distribution in oceanic lithosphere, which correlates well with the lithospheric age. Buoyancy also depends on compositional layering resulting from pressure release partial melting under mid-ocean ridges, and this process is sensitive to pressure and temperature conditions which vary strongly between the terrestrial planets and also during the secular cooling histories of the

P van Thienen; N. J Vlaar; A. P van den Berg

2004-01-01

375

First RHESSI terrestrial gamma ray flash catalog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a summary of data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF) catalog. We describe the RHESSI search algorithm and discuss its limitations due to its design emphasis on cleanliness rather than completeness. This search algorithm has identified 820 TGFs between March of 2002 and February of 2008. Radiation damage to

B. W. Grefenstette; D. M. Smith; B. J. Hazelton; L. I. Lopez

2009-01-01

376

76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides...supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit...

2011-08-12

377

77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides...supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES:...

2012-03-27

378

Metric theory of gravity with torsion in an extra dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a theory of gravity with a hidden extra dimension and metric-dependent torsion. A set of physically motivated constraints are imposed on the geometry so that the torsion stays confined to the extra dimension and the extra dimension stays hidden at the level of four-dimensional geodesic motion. At the kinematic level, the theory maps onto general relativity, but the dynamical field equations that follow from the action principle deviate markedly from the standard Einstein equations. We study static spherically symmetric vacuum solutions and homogeneous-isotropic cosmological solutions that emerge from the field equations. In both cases, we find solutions of significant physical interest. Most notably, we find positive mass solutions with naked singularity that match the well-known Schwarzschild solution at large distances but lack an event horizon. In the cosmological context, we find an oscillatory scenario, in contrast to the inevitable singular big bang of the standard cosmology.

Shankar, Karthik H.; Balaraman, Anand; Wali, Kameshwar C.

2012-07-01

379

Constitutional Basis of Longevity in the Cetacea: Do the Whales and the Terrestrial Mammals Obey the Same Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The maximum lifespans in captivity for terrestrial mammalian species can be estimated by means of a multiple linear regression of logarithm of lifespan (L) on the logarithm of adult brain weight (E) and body weight (S). This paper describes the applicatio...

G. A. Sacher

1978-01-01

380

Proposal for periodic verifications of electromedical devices integrated to terrestrial Technical Ambulance Inspection (TAI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Argentina, electromedical devices may only be commercialized if they meet safety and performance requirements established by current regulations, ensuring their safety and intended performance when leaving the Factory. However, during usage, natural wearing and overloading may change this condition, especially if used in extra hospital services performed by ambulances, which are likely to be subjected to rough handling conditions and hitting. This proposal explains the chosen methodology to address the periodic verification activities of electro medical devices within the process of terrestrial Technical Ambulance Inspection (TAI). Among the results stand out the set of methods for verification and the lists used to record the outcome of this evaluation. Outstanding conclusions include that the operations meet the conditions of an analogous mechanism to that of a Technical Vehicle Inspection (existing for other vehicles), and that the same working structure can be used as a basis for making a manual of procedures for a TAI.

Del Aguila Heidenreich, R.; Vanella, O.; Bruni, R.; Taborda, R.

2011-12-01

381

Terrestrial Television Broadcasting in China: Technologies and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will discuss the two main terrestrial television broadcasting systems widely used in China. One is the China\\u000a Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (CTTB) standard which is named as “Frame structure, channel coding and modulation for\\u000a digital television terrestrial broadcasting system”. It was issued in August 2006 as a mandatory standard for traditional\\u000a terrestrial broadcasting and had been put into execution

Wenjun Zhang; Yunfeng Guan; Xiaokang Yang; Weiqiang Liang

2010-01-01

382

Super-Earths: a new class of planetary bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super-Earths, a class of planetary bodies with masses ranging from a few Earth-masses to slightly smaller than Uranus, have recently found a special place in the exoplanetary science. Being slightly larger than a typical terrestrial planet, super-Earths may have physical and dynamical characteristics similar to those of Earth whereas unlike terrestrial planets, they are relatively easier to detect. Because of

Nader Haghighipour

2011-01-01

383

Extra forces evoked during electrical stimulation of the muscle or its nerve are generated and modulated by a length-dependent intrinsic property of muscle in humans and cats.  

PubMed

Extra forces or torques are defined as forces or torques that are larger than would be expected from the input or stimuli, which can be mediated by properties intrinsic to motoneurons and/or to the muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether extra forces/torques evoked during electrical stimulation of the muscle or its nerve with variable frequency stimulation are modulated by muscle length/joint angle. A secondary aim was to determine whether extra forces/torques are generated by an intrinsic neuronal or muscle property. Experiments were conducted in 14 able-bodied human subjects and in eight adult decerebrate cats. Torque and force were measured in human and cat experiments, respectively. Extra forces/torques were evoked by stimulating muscles with surface electrodes (human experiments) or by stimulating the nerve with cuff electrodes (cat experiments). In humans and cats, extra forces/torques were larger at short muscle lengths, indicating that a similar regulatory mechanism is involved. In decerebrate cats, extra forces and length-dependent modulation were unaffected by intrathecal methoxamine injections, despite evidence of increased spinal excitability, and by transecting the sciatic nerve proximal to the nerve stimulations. Anesthetic nerve block experiments in two human subjects also failed to abolish extra torques and the length-dependent modulation. Therefore, these data indicate that extra forces/torques evoked during electrical stimulation of the muscle or nerve are muscle length-dependent and primarily mediated by an intrinsic muscle property. PMID:21490198

Frigon, Alain; Thompson, Christopher K; Johnson, Michael D; Manuel, Marin; Hornby, T George; Heckman, C J

2011-04-13

384

Discrimination of supersymmetry and universal extra dimensions at hadron colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We contrast the experimental signatures of low-energy supersymmetry and the model of Universal Extra Dimensions and discuss various methods for their discrimination at hadron colliders. We study the discovery reach of the Tevatron and the LHC for level 2 Kaluza-Klein modes, which would indicate the presence of extra dimensions. We find that with 100fb-1 of data the LHC will be able to discover the ?2 and Z2 KK modes as separate resonances if their masses are below 2 TeV. We also investigate the possibility to differentiate the spins of the superpartners and KK modes by means of the asymmetry method of Barr.

Datta, Aseshkrishna; Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.

2005-11-01

385

Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r?0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.

Maziashvili, Michael

2013-03-01

386

Universal Extra Dimension models with right-handed neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Relic abundance of dark matter is investigated in the framework of universal extra dimension (UED) models with right-handed neutrinos. These models are free from the KK graviton problem in the minimal UED model. The first KK particle of the right-handed neutrino is a dark matter candidate in this framework. When ordinary neutrino masses are large enough such as the degenerate mass spectrum case, the dark matter relic abundance can increase significantly. The scale of the extra dimension consistent with cosmological observations can be 500 GeV in the minimal setup of UED models with right-handed neutrinos.

Matsumoto, Shigeki [Institute for International Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama, 338-8570 (Japan); Senami, Masato [ICRR, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2008-04-21

387

What does SN1987A say about extra dimensions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a tremendous progress in the last decade in our efforts to confront the String-inspired ideas with experiments or observations. There are two approaches to this problem. One is to use the LHC data and other is to use astronomical data. Among the latter, using SN1987A data for placing the constraints on the models of extra dimensions is very popular. In this poster, we consider all the possible energy loss mechanisms of SN1987A and study the constraints they place on the number and size of extra dimensions and the higher dimensional Planck scale in the ADD scenario. )

Veerahanumak, Satheeshkumar

2010-02-01

388

Hip arthroscopy for extra-articular hip disease.  

PubMed

The increasing popularity and success of hip arthroscopy has led to the development of related techniques for treating hip pathologies external to the joint proper. These minimally invasive endoscopic procedures serve in a diagnostic role to complement clinical evaluations and offer a therapeutic alternative to traditional open techniques. The indications for extra-articular hip endoscopy continue to expand. Recent literature describes applications for treating greater trochanteric pain syndrome, internal snapping hip, deep gluteal syndrome, and subspine impingement and for diagnosing and treating extra-articular sources of hip pain in patients who have undergone hip arthroplasty. PMID:23881610

Reich, Michael S; Shannon, Claire; Tsai, Eugene; Salata, Michael J

2013-09-01

389

Linking Terrestrial and Marine Conservation Planning and Threats Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system

HEATHER TALLIS; ZACH FERDAÑA; ELIZABETH GRAY

2008-01-01

390

Evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How the terrestrial solid planetary bodies were developed? What major stages of their irreversible evolution took place before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries (1929), solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas took place with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the oceans on the Moon and the Earth, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: mafic on the Moon and sialic on the Earth. Geological evolution of the Earth began 4 Ga ago from appearance of Archean granite-greenstone terranes (GGT) and divided them granulite belts. Mantle-derived magmatism of high-Mg komatiite-basaltic series was located in greenstone belts, which formed irregular network within GGTs and composed 10-15 The sharp change of the magmatic activity with appearance in global scale of geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts occurred in interval 2.3-2.0 Ga ago. Such melts was typical for Phanerozoic within-plate magmatism and linked with thermochemical mantle plumes of the second generation, which ascended from the liquid core-mantle boundary (CMB). It was followed by plate tectonic appearance 2 Ga ago and from this particular time such tectonic regime has existed till now. From this particular time, ancient Earth's continental crust began to involved in subduction processes and interchange by secondary oceanic crust which forms about 70Where this geochemical-enriched material was conserved and how it was activated? We suggest that such situation could be possible only in case when (1) accretion of the Earth was heterogeneous, and (2) warming of the Earth occurred downwards, from surface to core. It was, probably, a result of moving inwards a wave of deformations, accompanied by emission of heat. At the first stage the wave went through depleted (in result of directed solidification of magma ocean) mantle and led to appearance of mantle superplumes of the first generation. At the second stage it reached iron core, melted it, which led to appearance of mantle supeplumes of the second generation (thermochemical), enriched in fluids, Fe, Ti, alcalies, incompatible elements, etc. Material of such superplumes could rich more shallow levels and led to active interactions of their extended heads with solid lithosphere, which caused changing of tectonic activity character. We suggest that terrestrial planets were developed at the same, but shortened scenario, and more quick. At the Moon the earliest magmatism of highlands were close to terrestrial early Paleoproterozoic SHMS and at the boundary 3.9-3.8 Ga ago was changed by maria magmatism, close in composition to MORB and OIB. By analogy with the Earth, we suggest that maria magmatism was linked with ascending of thermochemical superplumes, generated at the lunar CMB, when it's liquid iron core was yet existed. Ancient planums on Mars and tesseras at the Venus among vast planides, composed by basaltic flows can also evidence about two stages of their development. Judging on absence of magnetic field, their liquid cores ("energetic hearts") are of no consequence and they are dead bodies now. Work was supported by grant RFBR 07-05-00496

Sharkov, Evgenii

391

Body Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Body composition refers to the types and amounts of tissues which make up the body. The most acceptable method for assessing body composition is underwater weighing. A subcutaneous skinfold provides a quantitative measurement of fat below the skin. The skinfold technique permits a valid estimate of the body's total fat content. (JN)

Mayhew, Jerry L.

1981-01-01

392

A girl with spina bifida, an extra leg, and ectopic intestinal loops--a "foetus in foetu" or a whim of the neural crest?  

PubMed

This article describes a girl with an extra leg attached to her lower back, combined with a spina bifida and a myelomeningocele. Despite lacking sensory or motor functions, the leg grew proportionately with the rest of the body. The bony structures were almost normal. A cross section showed fat tissue with some centrally situated blood vessels, nerve bundles, and muscular fragments. Proximally, an isolated colon loop was found. The extra leg and intestine respected the dorsal fascia, without connection with the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The finding is discussed with reference to existing hypotheses for limb formation. PMID:17684699

Lende, G; Wendemu, W; Mørk, S; Wester, K

2007-08-09

393

Results of extremely low birth weight infants randomized to receive extra enteral calcium supply  

PubMed Central

Background Bone mineral deficiency continues to occur in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants despite formulas enriched in Ca and P. Objective This study tested whether extra enteral Ca supplementation increases bone mineral content (BMC) and prevents dolichocephalic head flattening and myopia in ELBW infants. Study design Infants 401–1000 birth weight receiving enteral feeds were randomized to receive feeds supplemented with Ca-gluconate powder, or pure standard feeds. Main outcome measures were the excretion of Ca and P by weekly spot urine measurements, the degree of dolichocephalic deformation (fronto-occipital to biparietal diameter ratio, FOD/BPD) at 36 weeks postmenstrual age and the BMC (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) at discharge. Cycloplegic refraction was measured at 18–22 months corrected age. Results Ninety-nine ELBW infants with a gestational age of 26 weeks (23–31) [Median (minimum-maximum)] were randomized at a postnatal age of 12 days (5–23) weighing 790g (440–1700). Urinary Ca excretion increased, P excretion decreased in the Ca supplemented group. Total body BMC was 89.9 ± 2.4 g (mean ± SE) in the supplemented group and 85.2 ± 2.6 g in the control group (p= 0.19). The FOD/BPD was 1.50 (1.13–1.69, mean ± SD) and 1.47 (1.18–1.64) in the supplemented and control groups, and the refraction 0.98 ± 1.23 and 1.40 ± 1.33 dpt. (p=0.68), respectively in 64 ELBW infants (79% of survivors) at 2-year-follow-up. Conclusions Extra enteral Ca supplementation did not change BMC, head shape or refraction. The decreased P excretion may reflect P deficiency in infants receiving extra Ca, preventing improved bone mineral accretion.

Carroll, William F.; Fabres, Jorge; Nagy, Tim R.; Frazier, Marcela; Roane, Claire; Pohlandt, Frank; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Thome, Ulrich H.

2011-01-01

394

Evaluation of snow models in terrestrial biosphere models using ground observation and satellite data: impact on terrestrial ecosystem processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow is important for water management, and an important component of the terrestrial biosphere and climate system. In this study, the snow models included in the Biome-BGC and Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) terrestrial biosphere models are compared against ground and satellite observations over the Columbia River Basin in the US and Canada and the impacts of differences in

Kazuhito Ichii; Michael A. White; Petr Votava; Andrew Michaelis; Ramakrishna R. Nemani

2007-01-01

395

Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the important features in each program. The space community which was impressed by the light-weight and reliability of photovoltaics drove much of the early development. Even up to today, nearly every satellites and other scientific space probe that has been launched has included some solar power. However, since the cost of these power systems were only a small fraction of the satellite and launch cost, the use of much of this technology for the terrestrial marketplace was not feasible. It was clear that the focus of the terrestrial community would be best served by reducing costs. This would include addressing a variety of manufacturing issues and raising the rate of production. Success in these programs and a resulting globalization of effort resulted in major strides in the reduction of PV module costs and increased production. Although, the space community derived benefit from some of these advancements, its focus was on pushing the envelope with regard to cell efficiency. The gap between theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies for silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide became almost non-existent. Recent work by both communities have focused on the development thin film cells of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 and CdTe. These cells hold the promise of lower costs for the terrestrial community as well as possible flexible substrates, better radiation resistance, and higher specific power for the space community. It is predicted that future trends in both communities will be directed toward advances through the application of nanotechnology. A picture is emerging in which the space and terrestrial solar cell communities shall once again share many common goals and, in fact, companies may manufacture both space and terrestrial solar cells in III-V materials and thin film materials. Basic photovoltaics research including these current trends in nanotechnology provides a valuable service for both worlds in that fundamental understanding of cell processes is still vitally important, particularly with new materials or new cell structures. It is entirely possible that one day we might have one solar array design that will meet the criteria for success in both space and on the Earth or perhaps the Moon or Mars.

Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith

2002-10-01

396

8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

397

Exploring Small Extra Dimensions at the Large Hadron Collider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many models that include small extra space dimensions predict graviton states which are well separated in mass, and which can be detected as resonances in collider experiments. It has been shown that the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider can identify such narrow states up to a mass of 2080 GeV in the decay mode $Gightarrow e^+e^-$, using a

Benjamin C. Allanach; Kosuke Odagiri; Matt J. Palmer; M. Andy Parker; Ali Sabetfakhri; Bryan R. Webber

2002-01-01

398

EXTRA-HEPATIC CANCER SUPPRESSES NUCLEAR RECEPTOR REGULATED DRUG METABOLISM  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the mechanisms by which tumors situated in extra-hepatic sites can cause profound changes in hepatic drug clearance, contributing to altered drug response and chemotherapy resistance. Experimental Design We studied in wild type or transgenic CYP3A4 reporter mice implanted with the murine Engelbreth–Holm–Swarm sarcoma, changes in nuclear receptor and hepatic transcription factor expression and/or function, particularly related to CYP3A gene regulation. Results Repression of hepatic CYP3A induction was dramatic and associated with reduced levels of C/EBP? isoforms and impaired PXR and CAR function. Unexpectedly, extra-hepatic tumors strongly reduced nuclear accumulation of RXR? in hepatocytes, providing a potential explanation for impaired function of nuclear receptors that rely on RXR? dimerization. Profiling revealed 38 nuclear receptors were expressed in liver with 14 showing between 1.5 and 4 fold reduction in expression in livers of tumour-bearing animals, including Car, Tr?, Lxr?, Ppar?, Err?/?, Reverb?/? and Shp. Altered Ppar? and ? induction of target genes provided additional evidence of perturbed hepatic metabolic control elicited by extra-hepatic tumors. Conclusions Extra-hepatic malignancy can affect hepatic drug metabolism by nuclear receptor re-localization and decreased receptor expression and function. These findings could aid the design of intervention strategies to normalize drug clearance and metabolic pathways in cancer patients at risk of chemotherapy-induced toxicity or cancer cachexia.

Kacevska, Marina; Downes, Michael R.; Sharma, Rohini; Evans, Ronald M.; Clarke, Stephen J.; Liddle, Christopher; Robertson, Graham R.

2011-01-01

399

Anomaly driven signatures of extra U(1)'s  

SciTech Connect

Anomaly cancellation between different sectors of a theory may mediate new interactions between gauge bosons. Such interactions lead to observable effects both at precision laboratory experiments and at accelerators. Such experiments may reveal the presence of hidden sectors or hidden extra dimensions.

Antoniadis, Ignatios [CERN PH-TH, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland) and CPHT, UMR du CNRS 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Boyarsky, Alexey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, FSB/ITP/LPPC, BSP, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Ruchayskiy, Oleg [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, FSB/ITP/LPPC, BSP, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2010-02-10

400

The functional significance of the extra-pyramidal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

(A review of recent literature.) The extra-pyramidal systems have received by no means the attention given the pyramidal in years past; and the clinical observations and histopathological studies that have been given the former reveal a wealth of extraordinarily complicated and sometimes conflicting findings. The corpus striatum has been studied by different methods. Localized stimulation had led to mainly negative

F. T. Rogers

1927-01-01

401

Social competence of the feebleminded under extra-institutional care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study calls attention to the impracticability of placing all the feebleminded under institutional care and to the desirability of developing extra-institutional programs to provide social supervision and conditions of living in the community which will render the feebleminded most effective at the least cost and the least hazard.

Edgar A. Doll; S. Geraldine Longwell

1937-01-01

402

Large Extra Dimensions:. Becoming Acquainted with an Alternative Paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a colloquium style pedagogical introduction to the paradigm of large extra dimensions. This talk was delivered at various universities including UCLA (1999), Technion (2000), DESY (2001), University of Pisa (2001), UBC (2002), NYU (2002), University of Nantes (2003), Bern University (2003), Max-Planck Institute/Munich University (2003), University of Padova (2003), University of Minnesota (2005).

Shifman, M.

403

Large Extra Dimensions Becoming acquainted with an alternative paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a colloquium style pedagogical introduction to the paradigm of large extra dimensions. This talk was delivered at various universities including UCLA (1999), Technion (2000), DESY (2001), University of Pisa (2001), UBC (2002), NYU (2002), University of Nantes (2003), Bern University (2003), Max-Planck Institute/Munich University (2003), University of Padova (2003), University of Minnesota (2005).

Shifman, M.

2010-01-01

404

Low energy physics and properties of extra space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of low energy physics formation in the framework of multidimensional gravity is discussed. It is shown that a wide set of parameters of a primary theory could lead to the observable Universe. Quantum fluctuations of extra space metric and its consequent classical evolution play an important role in this process.

Rubin, Sergey G.

2013-02-01

405

Chemical changes in extra virgin argan oil after thermal treatment.  

PubMed

Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180 degrees C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating. PMID:23472453

Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

2013-01-01

406

Haemorrhoids and joint hypermobility: a new extra-articular association.  

PubMed

An association has been demonstrated between haemorrhoids and joint hypermobility. Reasons for this are discussed. Many performing artists are hypermobile and the extra-articular features of joint hypermobility should not be forgotten or underestimated as a potential constraint upon performance. PMID:23423440

Yousif, Uqba N; Bird, Howard A

2013-02-20

407

Are Extra Classes the Success behind High Performance and Marks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extra classes have been a fixture in the educational system in India. They pre-date all existing educational programmes and examinations. Yet more recently the justification and reasons for the maintenance of these classes have been called into question. There have been unsubstantiated claims that in some cases the classes have been "organized"…

Santhi, N.

2011-01-01

408

Local and extra-local orientations in the metropolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate over the “community question” has generated several perspectives on the sources of ties to the territorial community in modern society. This paper attempts to empirically assess the utility of each model for predicting the number of ties to the local community and extra-local area, using data on voluntary association memberships in Seattle. Results indicate that the “community of

R. S. Oropesa

1987-01-01

409

Health-Promoting Physical Activity and Extra-Curricular Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the percentage of time in which school pupils coached by teachers were engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during extra-curricular sport practices. Three secondary purposes of the study were to determine (a) the percentage of time allocated by teachers for pupils…

Curtner-Smith, Matthew; Sofo, Seidu; Chouinard, Jeremy; Wallace, Sheila

2007-01-01

410

Baseline-dependent neutrino oscillations with extra-dimensional shortcuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In extra-dimensional scenarios oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos can be governed by a new resonance in the oscillation amplitude. This resonance results when cancellation occurs between two phase differences, the usual kinematic one coming from the neutrino mass-squared difference, and a geometric one coming from the difference in travel times of the sterile neutrino through the bulk relative to

Sebastian Hollenberg; Octavian Micu; Heinrich Paes; Thomas J. Weiler

2009-01-01

411

7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U...Extra Fancyâ consists of apples of one variety (except...free from decay, internal browning, internal breakdown, soft...core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from...

2010-01-01

412

7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U...Extra Fancyâ consists of apples of one variety (except...free from decay, internal browning, internal breakdown, soft...core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from...

2009-01-01

413

Extra-team Connections for Knowledge Transfer between Staff Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As organizations implement novel health promotion programs across multiple sites, they face great challenges related to knowledge management. Staff social networks may be a useful medium for transferring program-related knowledge in multi-site implementation efforts. To study this potential, we focused on the role of extra-team connections (ties…

Ramanadhan, Shoba; Wiecha, Jean L.; Emmons, Karen M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2009-01-01

414

Lesson of the Heart: An Extra-Credit Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher candidates need to have a passion for teaching and a drive to do whatever is necessary even when it is uncomfortable, uncommon, or hard. Such efforts should not be considered extra, but essential. A purposeful, focused enthusiasm for one's students, a belief in their potential, along with heartfelt compassion and the perseverance to work…

Lehman, Linda L.

2012-01-01

415

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.

416

The Extra Strand of the Maori Science Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper comments on the process of re-development of the Maori-medium Science (Putaiao) curriculum, as part of overall curriculum development in Aotearoa New Zealand. A significant difference from the English Science curriculum was the addition of an "extra strand" covering the history and philosophy of science. It is recommended that this…

Stewart, Georgina

2011-01-01

417

Extra Vitamin D Doesn't Cut High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Extra vitamin D doesn't cut high blood pressure: study (*this news item will not be available ... 2013) Wednesday, August 14, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages High Blood Pressure Seniors' Health Vitamin D By Andrew M. Seaman ...

418

Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite…

Alwitt, Linda F.

419

Extra ‘‘strange’’ modes in ion implanted lithium niobate waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extra ‘‘strange’’ mode has been observed in the extraordinary index mode spectrum of certain optical waveguides produced by He+ ion implantation in LiNbO3. This behaves differently to the normal modes contained within the main optical well of the waveguide, for example when observed at varying wavelengths or after surface polishing. The mode has been shown to be a real

L. Zhang; P. J. Chandler; P. D. Townsend

1991-01-01

420

Extra-Library Information Programs in Selected Federal Agencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The committee's primary objectives were to evaluate the adequacy of the relationship of Federal libraries to other information activities in the government and to determine the role of the library in a total, integrated information system. A statement in considerable detail of the origin and development of extra-library information programs was…

Conaway, O. B., Jr.

421

46 CFR Sec. 8 - Extra work and changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 8 Extra work and...Change Order as provided in Article 6 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract. (c) A supplemental...completion date as provided in Article 27 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

2012-10-01

422

Surface adsorption of metals onto the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the isopod Porcellio scaber is negligible compared to absorption in the body  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terrestrial organisms, bioaccumulation is usually based on a summation of the amount of metal adsorbed to the body wall and absorbed into the body. The relative proportions of metal adsorption and absorption are usually not quantified. In this study, the distinction between adsorbed and absorbed metals was investigated in two different terrestrial species exposed to metals for 2 weeks.

Martina G. Vijver; Hubert Th. Wolterbeek; Jos P. M. Vink; Cornelis A. M. van Gestel

2005-01-01

423

Body Piercing  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review the current information on medical complications, psychological implications, and legislative issues related to body piercing, a largely unregulated industry in the United States. METHODS We conducted a MEDLINE search of English language articles from 1966 until May 1998 using the search terms “body piercing” and “ear piercing.” Bibliographies of these references were reviewed for additional citations. We also conducted an Internet search for “body piercing” on the World Wide Web. MAIN RESULTS: In this manuscript, we review the available body piercing literature. We conclude that body piercing is an increasingly common practice in the United States, that this practice carries substantial risk of morbidity, and that most body piercing in the United States is being performed by unlicensed, unregulated individuals. Primary care physicians are seeing growing numbers of patients with body pierces. Practitioners must be able to recognize, treat, and counsel patients on body piercing complications and be alert to associated psychological conditions in patients who undergo body piercing.

Koenig, Laura M; Carnes, Molly

1999-01-01

424

Frame-Based Immobilization and Targeting for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frame-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), such as that conducted with Elekta’s Stereotactic Body Frame, can provide an extra measure of precision in the delivery of radiation to extracranial targets, and facilitates secure patient immobilization. In this paper, we review the steps involved in optimal use of an extra-cranial immobilization device for SBRT treatments. Our approach to using frame-based SBRT

Bryan C.. Murray; Kenneth Forster; Robert Timmerman

2007-01-01

425

The Formation and Habitability of ExtraSolar Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative numerical program, developed to model the formation of the terrestrial planets and asteroids of our solar System (Wetherill 1992), has been extended to include a more general range of stellar and preplanetary nebular parameters, as may be expected elsewhere in the Galaxy and Universe. The results of about 500 new simulations of planetary formation are reported. It is

G. W. Wetherill

1996-01-01

426

Solar-Terrestrial Data Integration using Ontologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data-integration across a number of disciplines is a key requirement to be facilitated by virtual observatories and in particular the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory(VSTO). Our experience to date indicates that semantic interoperability is a viable and robust approach. We have encodings for the VSTO ontology in OWL - the Web Ontology Language - using both open-source and commercial tools and have implemented a number of use-cases. We aim to demonstrate data-integration between solar atmospheric data (e.g. coronal mass ejections), and the resulting impacts on the terrestrial ionosphere (e.g.aurora). In this presentation, we outline the methodologies, the developed use-cases, ontologies and their current implementation.

Cinquini, L.; McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Benedict, J.; Darnell, T.; Middleton, D.; Garcia, J.; West, P.

2006-05-01

427

Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Scour Visualizaton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examination of spatio-temporal variations of a terrestrial surface requires high-resolution measurements. Surface Examining Imager (SExI) developed by the University of Iowa Lidar Group is a terrestrial laser measurement system capable of spatially profiling a relatively small area (<20m^2) with mm-scale resolution. It was designed to be simple, affordable, and robust. Because the system employs line of sight principles, two SExIs can be deployed to scan the same area from different positions to see behind surface features and increase spatial resolution. Snell's law of refraction has been applied to underwater datasets to obtain a bathymetric survey for use in sediment scour visualization. This technique has been paired with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to overlay surface velocity profiles on a raster image of the bathymetry.

Plenner, S.; Eichinger, W. E.

2011-12-01

428

Intermittent plasma fluctuation in the terrestrial foreshock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper the intermittent plasma fluctuation in the terrestrial foreshock is studied, using the FGM magnetic records of the Cluster mission. It is argued that the intermittent state of the plasma regime can be adequately measured in certain space and time through the fourth statistical moments, i.e. the flatness of the incremental magnetic records. It is emphasized that using the simultaneous multi-spacecraft observations, the intermittency can be revealed not only in temporal, but also in spatial scale. By computing the flatness along the orbit of the Cluster mission we present the spatial variation of the intermittent state of the foreshock plasma in terms of the distance from the terrestrial bow shock (BS) and the angle of incidence of the IMF line to the BS normal. The relation between the level of intermittent plasma state and the varying solar wind parameters (bulk speed, Alfvén Mach number, dynamic pressure) is also studied.

Kovács, P.; Vadász, G.; Heilig, B.

2012-04-01

429

Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although herbivory probably first appeared over 300 million years ago, it only became established as a common feeding strategy during Late Permian times. Subsequently, herbivory evolved in numerous lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, and the acquisition of this mode of feeding was frequently associated with considerable evolutionary diversification in those lineages. This book represents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of herbivory in land-dwelling amniote tetrapods in recent years. In Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates, leading experts review the evolutionary history and structural adaptations required for feeding on plants in the major groups of land-dwelling vertebrates, especially dinosaurs and ungulate mammals. As such, this volume will be the definitive reference source on this topic for evolutionary biologists and vertebrate paleontologists.

Sues, Hans-Dieter

2000-08-01

430

The precambrian evolution of terrestrial life.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early appearance of life on Earth suggests that under appropriate environmental conditions the probability of chemical evolution proceeding to the point of biogenesis may be reasonably high. Most of biological history has been the history of microorganisms, with tissue-grade plants and animals characterizing only the most recent 15% or so of the fossil record. Intelligent life has occupied only the latest instant in geological time. The time table of terrestrial evolution is governed more by the particulars of our planet's physical and biological history than by some universal tempo of evolutionary change. One aspect of terrestrial life that is likely to be universal is the organization of populations into efficient biogeochemical systems.

Knoll, A. H.

431

The Geochronology of Terrestrial Meteorite and Cometary Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochronology has become a crucial part of the debate over the influx of extraterrestrial material and its long term importance to terrestrial life. Many of the known terrestrial craters have ages attached to them, but all too often the ages are imprecise and unfortunately some are inaccurate. Despite these problems the database of measured ages has been used to support hypotheses of clustering and periodicity in the impact record, and compare ages with those for mass extinctions in the fossil record. Over 170 craters have been identified on the Earth's surface, but the ages of less than half are known to better than 10 million years. The crucial question of peak eruption ages for large igneous provinces (LIPs) formed during the Palaeozoic, such as Deccan and the Siberian Traps, has been resolved using radiometric dating techniques such as Ar-Ar and U-Pb dating. The precision of measured ages for LIPs is better than 1% in most cases, but the precision and accuracy of ages determined for impact events is very variable. The ages of the largest 5 known terrestrial impact craters (>100 km diameter) have been established using radiometric dating techniques such as Ar-Ar and U-Pb and are known to precisions of better than 1%. However, the ages of many smaller craters, even some over 50 km in diameter, are less well constrained. It is the record of these smaller impacts which is littered with low precision ages, inaccurate ages and impacts whose age is constrained only by the age of the target rock and the youngest overlying sediments. Why is the record of smaller impacts so poorly constrained? The main reason is the scarcity of samples and post impact alteration. The largest impacts form significant quantities of melt and which remain liquid for sufficiently long to coalesce and form conventional igneous bodies. It is these bodies which have been dated using radiometric dating techniques, often U-Pb dating of zircon crystallized from the melt. Smaller impacts form little or no melt and where present, they are heterogeneous mixtures of melt and host rock clasts of all sizes. The task of dating such samples is often made more difficult by alteration as a result of post impact hydrothermal activity. In addition, unlike LIPs, samples of impact melt are often rare even within the crater. Ar-Ar dating has become the technique of choice for these samples since both furnace heating and laser heating extraction techniques lend themselves to analysis of small heterogeneous samples. Ar-Ar analysis has been used to separate and identify components such as host rock clasts and the effects of later alteration, to reveal precise ages for the impacts. The Ar-Ar technique can also be used to determine argon loss in the host rock as a result of heating during the impact, and measure the remnants of host rock Ar dissolved in melt which can also indicate the rapidity of melt formation and freezing. In fact the geochronology of impacts is fast improving area and although more work is required before we can determine whether impacts fall randomly, with a periodicity, or in clusters, there are some strong indications of future directions. Some apparent clusters of impacts appear to warrant further study, whereas others may disappear as new geochronological data is acquired. In particular the long known 450-500 Ma asteriod break-up event seems to have a terrestrial corollary in a mid-Ordovician cluster of impacts.

Kelley, S. P.

2003-12-01

432

Global methane emissions from terrestrial plants.  

PubMed

Recent measurements suggest that the terrestrial plant community may be an important source of methane with global contributions between 62 and 236 Tg CH4 y(-1). If true, terrestrial plants could rival wetlands as being the largest global source of methane forcing us to rethink the methane budget. While further measurements are needed to confirm the methane release rates from this source and their dependencies, in this work we use the preliminary measurements to assess the potential impact of the methane release from this source globally. Using novel techniques we extrapolate the initially reported chamber measurements to the global scale and calculate the global methane emissions from the terrestrial plant community to be in the range 20 to 69 Tg CH4 y(-1). The spread in emissions is largely due to the sensitivity of the global flux to the prescribed temperature dependence of the plant emission rate, which is largely unknown. The spread of calculated emissions is in good agreement with the upper limit imposed on the source during the late pre-industrial period, which we estimate to range from 25 to 54 Tg CH4 y(-1) during the years 0 to 1700 A.D. using the published atmospheric delta13CH4 record. In addition, if we assume that plant emissions have been constant at the mean value of 45 Tg CH4 y(-1), we find that the methane release from wildfires and biomass burning during the pre-industrial span 0-1000 A.D. must be near 12 Tg CH4 y(-1), which would be in better agreement with previous estimates of the pyrogenic source during this time than a methane budget missing the plant source. We conclude that methane release from the terrestrial plant community as presently understood does not require major innovations to the global methane budget. PMID:17612186

Butenhoff, Christopher L; Khalil, M Aslam Khan

2007-06-01

433

Terrestrial interface architecture (DSI\\/DNI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 64-kbit\\/s digital speech interpolation (DSI)\\/digital noninterpolation (DNI) equipment interfaces the TDMA satellite system with the terrestrial network. This paper provides a functional description of the 64-kbit\\/s DSI\\/DNI equipment built at Comsat Laboratories in conformance with the Intelsat TDMA\\/DSI system specification, and discusses the theoretical and experimental performance of the DSI system. Several DSI-related network and interface issues are discussed,

J. H. Rieser; M. Onufry

1985-01-01

434

Benhamycin, novel alkaloid from terrestrial Streptomyces sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

During our screening for bioactive natural compounds from microorganisms, a novel alkaloid has been isolated from a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. isolate NR12, and named as benhamycin (1). This was along with the known metabolites, uracil, thymine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2?-deoxyuridin, tryptophol, indolyl-3-carboxylic acid, and indolyl-3-carbaldehyde. Chemical structure of the novel compound was determined by detailed analysis of its spectroscopic data (extensive

Mohamed Shaaban; Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz

2007-01-01

435

Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.

436

Terrestrial adaptations in the Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenaway, P. 2003. Terrestrial adaptations in the Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda). In: Lemaitre, R., and Tudge, C.C. (eds), Biology of the Anomura. Proceedings of a symposium at the Fifth International Crustacean Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 July 2001. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 60(1): 13-26. In this review, morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to life on land by anomurans are considered. The most

PETER GREENAWAY

2003-01-01

437

Long-period solar-terrestrial variability  

SciTech Connect

Studies aimed at extending the record of solar-terrestrial variability to longer periods are discussed in a critical review of US research from the period 1987--1990. Sections are devoted to the sunspot index, radioactive carbon studies, a potential climate connection between radiocarbon changes and the solar irradiance cycle, Be-10 studies, geological laminae, solar neutrino counts, and the construction of data sets. Also included is a selective bibliography. 66 refs.

Sonett, C.P. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

438

The Nitrogen Cycle in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycle comprises soil, plant and animal pools that contain relatively small quantities of biologically\\u000a active N, in comparison to the large pools of relatively inert N in the lithosphere and atmosphere, but that nevertheless\\u000a exert a substantial influence on the dynamics of the global biogeochemical N cycle. After carbon (ca. 400 g kg?1) and oxygen (ca.

Ann McNeill; Murray Unkovich

439

Analysis of terrestrial solar radiation exergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Candau’s definition of radiative exergy, the exergy of the extraterrestrial and the terrestrial solar radiation are computed and compared by using the solar spectral radiation databank developed by Gueymard. The results show that within the spectrum region from 0.28 to 4.0 ?m, the total energy quality factor (i.e., the exergy-to-energy ratio) of extraterrestrial solar radiation is about 0.9292,

S. X. Chu; L. H. Liu

2009-01-01

440

Optical SETI with NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's space-borne nulling interferometer (the Terrestrial Planet Finder—TPF) will look for the traces of early life in the infrared spectra of extrasolar planets, beginning in roughly 2010. We point out that this instrument, as currently envisioned, will also be sensitive to deliberate laser transmissions from a technologically advanced civilization. A kilowatt-class infrared laser with a 10-m beam director would produce

Andrew Howard; Paul Horowitz

2001-01-01

441

Lunar reflections of terrestrial radio leakage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial radio leakage as reflected off the moon has been observed with the Arecibo antenna. The authors find that military radars and television transmitters are main contributors in the 150 - 500 MHz range, as predicted in the model of Sullivan et al. (1978). The earth indeed is revealing itself (eventually) to any interstellar eavesdropper with an Arecibo-like antenna at distances up to 30 light years, and with a Cyclops-like system up to fifteen times farther.

Sullivan, W. T., III; Knowles, S. H.

442

Plate tectonics on the terrestrial planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Plate tectonics is largely controlled by the buoyancy distribution in oceanic lithosphere, which correlates well with the lithospheric age. Buoyancy,also depends,on compositional,layering resulting from pressure release partial melting under mid-ocean ridges, and this process is sensitive to pressure and temperature conditions which vary strongly between the terrestrial planets and also during the secular cooling histories of the planets. In

P. Van Thienen; N. j. Vlaar; A. p. Van Den Berg

443

Building Blocks of the Terrestrial Planets: Mineralogy of Hungaria Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deciphering the mineralogy of the Hungaria asteroids has the potential to place constraints on the material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. Among asteroids with semi-major axes interior to the main-belt (e.g., Hungarias, Mars-crossers, and near-Earth asteroids), only the Hungarias are located in relatively stable orbital space. Hungaria asteroids have likely resided in this orbital space since the planets completed their migration to their current orbits. The accretion and igneous differentiation of primitive asteroids appears to be a function of chronology and heliocentric distance. However, differentiated bodies that originated in the terrestrial planet region were either accreted or scattered out of this region early in solar system history. Thus, the Hungaria asteroids represent the closest reservoir of in situ material to the terrestrial planet region from early in solar system history. We present VISNIR 0.45-2.45 µm) and NIR spectra 0.65-2.45 µm) spectra of 24 Hungaria group (objects in similar orbital space) asteroids. Our NIR data (17 objects) were acquired using the InfraRed Telescope Facility and was supplemented with available visible data. Spectra of seven objects were obtained from the MIT-UH-IRTF survey. We distinguish our sample between Hungaria family (presumed fragments of parent 434 Hungaria; 2 objects) and Hungaria background (group minus family 22 objects) asteroids using proper orbital elements. The classification of each asteroid is determined using the taxonomy of Bus-DeMeo. We find that S- and S-subtypes are prevalent among the Hungaria background population (17/22). Spectral band parameters measurements (i.e., Band I and Band II centers and depths, and Band Area Ratio) indicate that eight of these S-types are analogous with undifferentiated ordinary chondrites (SIV “boot” of S-subtypes plot). Mafic silicate mineral abundances and compositions derived for these SIV asteroids mainly correlate with L chondrites. However, one object is an SIII subtype (possible ureilite analog), while two asteroids are SVI subtypes (possible primitive achondrite analog). Family member 6447 Terrycole is a Xe-type, consistent with the taxonomic classification of the parent 434 Hungaria.

Lucas, Michael; Emery, J. P.

2013-10-01

444

The Carbon Cycles of Chinese Terrestrial Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes of Chinese terrestrial carbon storage depend not only on biogeochemical and climatological processes, but also on human activities and their interaction with carbon cycle. China,covering about 133.7 million hectares of forested land, has climate regimes ranging from tropical, to subtropical, temperate and cold temperate zones, and from southeast to northwest humid, semi arid and arid zones. A long history of agricultural exploitation, forest management practice, rapid change in land use, forestry policies, and economic growth suggest that Chinese terrestrial ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycles. Our recent results suggest that total carbon storage in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems is about 144 Pg C, including 7.3 Pg C in vegetation and 136.7 Pg C in soil. Chinese forests released about 0.68 Pg C between 1949 and 1980. Forest carbon storage has increased significantly after the late 1970s from 4.38 to 4.75 Pg C by 1998, mainly due to forest expansion and regrowth. Total organic carbon storage in soils in China is estimated to be about 70.31 Pg, representing 4.7%\\ of the world storage. The results also indicated that a soil organic carbon loss of 7.1 Pg was primarily due to human activity, in which the loss in organic horizons has contributed to 77%\\. This total loss of soil organic carbon in China induced by land use represents 9.5%\\ of the world's soil organic carbon decrease.

Peng, C.; Fang, J.; Guo, Z.; Wu, H.

2002-12-01

445

Evaluating scale and roughness effects in urban flood modelling using terrestrial LIDAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper evaluates the results of benchmark testing a new inertial formulation of the St. Venant equations, implemented within the LISFLOOD-FP hydraulic model, using different high resolution terrestrial LiDAR data (10 cm, 50 cm and 1 m) and roughness conditions (distributed and composite) in an urban area. To examine these effects, the model is applied to a hypothetical flooding scenario in Alcester, UK, which experienced surface water flooding during summer 2007. The sensitivities of simulated water depth, extent, arrival time and velocity to grid resolutions and different roughness conditions are analysed. The results indicate that increasing the terrain resolution from 1 m to 10 cm significantly affects modelled water depth, extent, arrival time and velocity. This is because hydraulically relevant small scale topography that is accurately captured by the terrestrial LIDAR system, such as road cambers and street kerbs, is better represented on the higher resolution DEM. It is shown that altering surface friction values within a wide range has only a limited effect and is not sufficient to recover the results of the 10 cm simulation at 1 m resolution. Alternating between a uniform composite surface friction value (n = 0.013) or a variable distributed value based on land use has a greater effect on flow velocities and arrival times than on water depths and inundation extent. We conclude that the use of extra detail inherent in terrestrial laser scanning data compared to airborne sensors will be advantageous for urban flood modelling related to surface water, risk analysis and planning for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) to attenuate flow.

Ozdemir, H.; Sampson, C. C.; de Almeida, G. A. M.; Bates, P. D.

2013-10-01

446

Body Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

Neufeld, K. Allen

1989-01-01

447

Body Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)|

Neufeld, K. Allen

1989-01-01

448

Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial consumer reliance on a stream resource subsidy.  

PubMed

Because nutrient enrichment can increase ecosystem productivity, it may enhance resource flows to adjacent ecosystems as organisms cross ecosystem boundaries and subsidize predators in recipient ecosystems. Here, we quantified the biomass and abundance of aquatic emergence and terrestrial spiders in a reference and treatment stream that had been continuously enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus for 5 years. Because we previously showed that enrichment increased secondary production of stream consumers, we predicted that aquatic emergence flux would be higher in the treatment stream, subsequently increasing the biomass and abundance of terrestrial spiders. Those increases were predicted to be greatest for spiders specializing on aquatic emergence subsidies (e.g., Tetragnathidae). By adding a (15)N stable isotope tracer to both streams, we also quantified nitrogen flow from the stream into the riparian community. Emergence biomass, but not abundance, was higher in the treatment stream. The average body size of emerging adult insects and the relative dominance of Trichoptera adults were also greater in the treatment stream. However, spider biomass did not differ between streams. Spiders also exhibited substantially lower reliance on aquatic emergence nitrogen in the treatment stream. This reduced reliance likely resulted from shifts in the body size distributions and community composition of insect emergence that may have altered predator consumption efficiency in the treatment stream. Despite nutrient enrichment approximately doubling stream productivity and associated cross-ecosystem resource flows, the response of terrestrial predators depended more on the resource subsidy's characteristics that affected the predator's ability to capitalize on such increases. PMID:21647783

Davis, John M; Rosemond, Amy D; Small, Gaston E

2011-06-07

449

Body Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccine: How Many Doses? Connect With Us: Social Media Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth About Body Basics KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Body Basics > About Body Basics Print A A A Text Size Remember the biology class you had in high school? Well, even if you do, lots of new ...

450

On the formation of terrestrial planets in hot-Jupiter systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: There are numerous extrasolar giant planets which orbit close to their central stars. These "hot-Jupiters" probably formed in the outer, cooler regions of their protoplanetary disks, and migrated inward to ˜ 0.1 AU. Since these giant planets must have migrated through their inner systems at an early time, it is uncertain whether they could have formed or retained terrestrial planets. Aims: We present a series of calculations aimed at examining how an inner system of planetesimals/protoplanets, undergoing terrestrial planet formation, evolves under the influence of a giant planet undergoing inward type II migration through the region bounded between 5-0.1 AU. Methods: We have previously simulated the effect of gas giant planet migration on an inner system protoplanet/planetesimal disk using a N-body code which included gas drag and a prescribed migration rate. We update our calculations here with an improved model that incorporates a viscously evolving gas disk, annular gap and inner-cavity formation due to the gravitational field of the giant planet, and self-consistent evolution of the giant's orbit. Results: We find that ?60% of the solids disk survives by being scattered by the giant planet into external orbits. Planetesimals are scattered outward almost as efficiently as protoplanets, resulting in the regeneration of a solids disk where dynamical friction is strong and terrestrial planet formation is able to resume. A simulation that was extended for a few Myr after the migration of the giant planet halted at 0.1 AU, resulted in an apparently stable planet of ˜ 2 moplus forming in the habitable zone. Migration-induced mixing of volatile-rich material from beyond the "snowline" into the inner disk regions means that terrestrial planets that form there are likely to be water-rich. Conclusions: .We predict that hot-Jupiter systems are likely to harbor water-abundant terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. These planets may be detected by future planet search missions.

Fogg, M. J.; Nelson, R. P.

2007-01-01

451

Auroral Spectra as a Tool for Detecting Extra-Etrrestrial Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most prominent emissions from the aurora is the greenish-white light from oxygen atoms, while the Jovian aurora contains atomic hydrogen emissions. The oxygen emission, the so-called "green line" (557.7 nm), of the terrestrial aurora, arises mostly from the fact that plants release abundant free oxygen into the atmosphere by the photosynthesis process. Thus, the green line shows that plant life exists on Earth. It was recently reported that Upsilon Andromedae, has three planets. This star is a solar-type star. This discovery and many others in recent years are significant because they show the planetary system, like the solar system, is not quite unique. It is expected that a number of stars are accompanied by several planets, and it may not be too long before the aurora on such planets can be discovered. One possible way to detect plant life on such planets is to examine their auroral emissions. If the strong line emission at 557.7 nm and other UV/EUV emissions from oxygen can be detected among other emissions in the planetary aurora, the possibility of the presence of plant life is high. Further, if plant life exists, animal life, whether lower or higher, can also exist there. The Earth-like auroral processes leading to the oxygen emissions require, in addition to plant life, both stellar wind and planetary magnetism. It is highly probable that solar-type stars have stellar wind. If such a planet does not have a strong dipole-like magnetic field, the stellar wind can cause atmospheric glow in which the oxygen emissions may be present. In any case, if the oxygen emissions are detected in the planetary auroral spectra, the possibility of plant life there is high. The dissociation of CO2 can also release oxygen. However, if the condition of the planets is similar to that of the Earth, its contribution is very small. It is expected that auroral science will evolve in a variety of ways in the future. It is suggested that the subject dealt with here is such an example. It is hoped that auroral science could contribute to search for extra-terrestrial life, one of the ultimate human endeavors.

Akasofu, S.; Lummerzheim, D.; Frey, H. U.

2001-12-01

452

Oxygen isotopic composition of opaline phytoliths: Potential for terrestrial climatic reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Opaline mineralized bodies are produced by many terrestrial plants and accumulate in certain soils and archaeological sites. Analyses of the oxygen isotopic compositions of these so-called phytoliths from stems and leaves of wheat plants grown in a greenhouse showed a linear relationship with stem and leaf water isotopic compositions and hence, indirectly, rain water isotopic composition. Analyses of wheat plants grown in fields showed that stem phytoliths isotopic composition directly reflects the seasonal air temperature change, whereas leaf phytoliths isotopic composition reflects both temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and the oxygen isotopic composition of stem phytoliths were related by an equation similar to that proposed for marine opal. Oxygen isotopic compositions of fossil phytoliths, and in particular those from stems, could be valuable for reconstructing past terrestrial climate change.

Shahack-Gross, R.; Weiner, S.; Shemesh, A.; Yakir, D. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

1996-10-01

453

Cytological evidence for triploid males and females in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris.  

PubMed

The presence of both triploid males and females in Bombus terrestris was detected by distinct chromosome observation. These cytological features are novel among the higher Hymenopteran insects. We thus strictly applied the complementary sex determination (CSD) model previously proposed for Hymenopteran insects. Three out of 60 sibling queens that were mated with diploid males produced both triploid males and females, and founded colonies. The male to female ratio of the bees which emerged from the fertilized eggs of the queens was approximately 1 to 1. Thus we reconfirm that the sex in B. terrestris is determined by a single multi-allelic locus. The body size of the triploid males was smaller than that of the diploid and haploid males. We found hatched eggs laid by one triploid female (worker). One of these developed into a 3rd instar larva, however most of the triploid individuals were sterile. PMID:15125635

Ayabe, Tokiyo; Hoshiba, Hidehiro; Ono, Masato

2004-01-01

454

Primary Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of Retroperitoneum  

PubMed Central

Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. More rarely neoplasms with histology and immunohistochemistry similar to GISTs may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract ( omentum, mesentery and retroperitoneum) and are so-called Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (EGISTs). EGISTs arising in the retroperitoneum are extremely rare: to date, only 58 cases have been reported in the literature. Case report We herein report a case of a primary EGIST of the retroperitoneum surgically treated. The pre-operative radiological evaluation showed a retroperitoneal mass, placed in left paravertebral region. Results Morphological and immunohistochemical features led to a diagnosis of extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (intermediate-low risk form). Conclusions As a result of the rarity of reports of primary EGISTs of retroperitoneum we need to analyze the data of reported cases in order to gain a better understanding about the pathogenesis, prognosis and optimal treatment of this disease.

Casella, Claudio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; D'Adda, Filippo; Codazzi, Manuela; Salerni, Bruno

2012-01-01

455

Supersymmetry breaking, fermion masses and a small extra dimension.  

SciTech Connect

We present a supersymmetric model in which the observed fermion masses and mixings are generated by localizing the three generations of matter and the two Higgs fields at different locations in a compact extra dimension. Supersymmetry is broken by the shining method and the breaking is communicated to standard model fields via gaugino mediation. Quark masses, CKM-mixing angles and the {mu} term are generated with all dimensionless couplings of {Omicron}(1). All dimensionful parameters are of order the five-dimensional Planck scale except for the size of the extra dimension which is of order the GUT scale. The superpartner spectrum is highly predictive and is found to have a neutralino LSP over a wide range of parameter space. The resulting phenomenology and interesting extensions of the model are briefly discussed.

Kaplan, D. E.; Tait, T. M. P.; High Energy Physics

2000-06-01

456

Study on Extra Heavy Oil Gasification Reaction Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the viewpoints of global environment and energy security, raising the thermal efficiency of a thermal power plant and the diversification of fuel are issues that must be resolved as soon as possible. As to resolving these two issues, it is very effective that extra heavy oil is used in a gas-steam combined cycle power generation system. Accordingly, in order to establish technology for supporting to rationally design and operate a gasifier using extra heavy oil, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) targeted at clarifying significant phenomena in a gasifier, improving the accuracy of numerical analytical technique under development and verifying the technique. This report describes the major specifications of “Research Gasifier for Liquid Fuel” constructed in 1999 and the results of studies in respect to the reaction process in the gasifier based on OrimulsionTM (Trademark of BITOR) gasification tests in 2000.

Kidoguchi, Kazuhiro; Hara, Saburo; Ashizawa, Masami; Inumaru, Jun

457

Precision electroweak constraints on universal extra dimensions revisited  

SciTech Connect

We reconsider the constraints on universal extra dimensions models arising from precision electroweak data. We take into account the subleading contributions from new physics (expressed in terms of the X,Y,... variables), as well as two-loop corrections to the standard model {rho} parameter. For the case of one extra dimension, we obtain a lower bound on the inverse compactification scale M=R{sup -1} of 600 GeV (at 90% confidence level), with a Higgs mass of 115 GeV. However, in contradiction to recent claims, we find that this constraint is significantly relaxed with increasing Higgs mass, allowing for compactification scales as low as 300 GeV. LEP II data does not affect significantly these results.

Gogoladze, Ilia [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Macesanu, Cosmin [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

2006-11-01

458

A comparative study on extra-corporal circulation control.  

PubMed

Hydraulic models of the human circulatory system allow simulation of hemodynamics in a standardized setting. In this work we use such a model to compare concurrent control strategies for extra-corporal circulation control. Patients suffering from cardio-vascular diseases under extra-corporal circulation can benefit from an automated regulation. The control task is to keep either the pump flow or the pressure in the cardio-vascular system at a constant target value, despite any parameter variations or external perturbations. We implement four control strategies that seem favorable for our task: a Proportional-Integral Controller, a H(?)-Controller, a PI-Fuzzy Controller and a Model Reference Adaptive Controller. The methods are compared quantitatively and their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. PMID:22255287

Baumgartner, Benedikt; Mendoza, Alejandro; Eichhorn, Stefan; Schreiber, Ulrich; Knoll, Alois

2011-01-01

459

Higgs-Dilaton cosmology: Are there extra relativistic species?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent analyses of cosmological data suggest the presence of an extra relativistic component beyond the Standard Model content. The Higgs-Dilaton cosmological model predicts the existence of a massless particle - the dilaton - associated with the spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale invariance and undetectable by any accelerator experiment. Its ultrarelativistic character makes it a suitable candidate for contributing to the effective number of light degrees of freedom in the Universe. In this Letter we analyze the dilaton production at the (p)reheating stage right after inflation and conclude that no extra relativistic degrees of freedom beyond those already present in the Standard Model are expected within the simplest Higgs-Dilaton scenario. The elusive dilaton remains thus essentially undetectable by any particle physics experiment or cosmological observation.

García-Bellido, Juan; Rubio, Javier; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

2012-12-01

460

Large extra dimensions and decaying Kaluza-Klein recurrences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest the possibility that in Arkani-Hamed Dimopoulos Dvali (ADD)-type brane-world scenarios the higher Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of the graviton may decay to lower ones owing to a breakdown of the conservation of extra dimensional “momenta” and study its implications for astrophysics and cosmology. We give an explicit realization of this idea with a bulk scalar field ?, whose nonzero KK modes acquire vacuum expectation values. This scenario helps to avoid constraints on large extra dimensions that come from gamma ray flux bounds in the direction of nearby supernovae as well as those coming from a diffuse cosmological gamma ray background. It also relaxes the very stringent limits on the reheat temperature of the Universe in ADD models.

Mohapatra, R. N.; Nussinov, S.; Pérez-Lorenzana, A.

2003-12-01

461

46 CFR 9.1 - Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel. 9.1 Section 9.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... § 9.1 Extra compensation; Coast Guard civilian personnel....

2012-10-01

462

78 FR 47214 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance...Insurance Regulations, Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to make the ELS Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions consistent...

2013-08-05

463

76 FR 32067 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop...Insurance Regulations, Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to remove all references to the Daily Spot Cotton Quotation and replace the...

2011-06-03

464

75 FR 70850 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop...Insurance Regulations, Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to remove all references to the Daily Spot Cotton Quotation and replace the...

2010-11-19

465

Body Weight and Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have

Marion P. Olmsted; Traci McFarlane

2004-01-01

466

Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumours: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Extra-abdominal desmoid lesions, otherwise known as aggressive fibromatosis, are slow-growing benign lesions which may be encountered in clinical practice. Recent controversies exist regarding their optimal treatment. Given their benign nature, is major debulking surgery justified, or is it worth administering chemotherapy for a disease process which unusually defies common teaching and responds to such medications? We present a literature review of this particular pathology discussing the aetiology, clinical presentation, and various current controversies in the treatment options.

Molloy, A. P.; Hutchinson, B.; O'Toole, G. C.

2012-01-01

467

Extra-articular features in early rheumatoid disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and two patients who presented with rheumatoid disease within the first year of onset were studied prospectively every four months for a mean 4.5 years to assess the incidence of extra-articular features. The features that seemed to be common in the early stages included hand-muscle wasting, carpal tunnel syndrome, lymphadenopathy, non-specific ankle swelling, and rheumatoid nodules, and to

A Fleming; S Dodman; J M Crown; M Corbett

1976-01-01

468

Exploring the universal extra dimension at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides supersymmetry, the other prime candidate of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), crying out for verification at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is extra-dimension. To hunt for effects of Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of known fermions and bosons is very much in the agenda of the LHC. These KK states arise when the SM particles penetrate in the extra space-like dimension(s). In this paper, we consider a 5d scenario, called ‘Universal Extra Dimension’, where the extra space coordinate, compactified on an orbifold S/Z, is accessed by all the particles. The KK number (n) is conserved at all tree level vertices. This entails the production of KK states in pairs and renders the lightest KK particle stable, which leaves the detector carrying away missing energy. The splitting between different KK flavors is controlled by the zero mode masses and the bulk- and brane-induced one-loop radiative corrections. We concentrate on the production of an n=1 KK electroweak gauge boson in association with an n=1 KK quark. This leads to a signal consisting of only one jet, one or more leptons and missing p. For definiteness we usually choose the inverse radius of compactification to be R=500 GeV, which sets the scale of the lowest lying KK states. We show on a case-by-case basis (depending on the number of leptons in the final state) that with 10 fb-1 integrated luminosity at the LHC with s=14 TeV this signal can be detected over the SM background by imposing appropriate kinematic cuts. We record some of the expectations for a possible intermediate LHC run at s=10 TeV and also exhibit the integrated luminosity required to obtain a 5? signal as a function of R.

Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Datta, Anindya; Majee, Swarup Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

2009-11-01

469

On a time-dependent extra spatial dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the usual brane-world scenario matter fields are confined to the\\u000afour-dimensional spacetime, called a 3-brane, embedded in a higher-dimensional\\u000aspace, usually referred to as the bulk spacetime. In this paper we assume that\\u000athe 3-brane is a de Sitter space; there is only one extra spatial dimension,\\u000aassumed to be time dependent. By using the form of the brane-world

Peter K. F. Kuhfittig

2006-01-01

470

Citrullination in extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have been detected with high specificity in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and citrullination of proteins may play a key role in the pathogenesis of RA. We therefore investigated the presence of citrullination in two extra-articular manifestations of RA, interstitial pneumonia (IP) and rheumatoid nodules. Methods. Open-lung biopsy specimens from patients with RA-associated IP

T. Bongartz; T. Cantaert; S. R. Atkin