Sample records for extra terrestrial bodies

  1. Extra Terrestrial Lava Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes-Gautier, R.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanism has been one of the major processes shaping the surfaces of the terrestrial planets. Lava flows have been identified on the Moon, Mars, Venus, and on Juptier's moon Io. The study of extra-terrestrial lavas has largely relied on the interpretation of remotely acquired imaging, topographic and spectroscopic data. Models relating the final flow morpohology to eruption characteristics and magma chemistry have been important tools in the interpretation of these data.

  2. ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    SETI Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence I know perfectly well that at this moment the whole, The Madwoman of Chaillot #12;Options Passive SETI: Listen Active SETI: Transmit #12;Search Strategies Suppose you find a civilization. You want to communicate. How? #12;Search Strategies There are two issues: A

  3. SETI: Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    SETI: Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence I know perfectly well that at this moment the whole, The Madwoman of Chaillot #12;Search Strategies Suppose you find a civilization. You want to communicate. How? #12;Options Passive SETI: Listen Active SETI: Transmit #12;Search Strategies There are two issues: A

  4. SETI [Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Oliver

    1994-01-01

    Some critics of the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) like to bolster their arguments with what they call the Fermi Paradox. Legend has it that one day at Los Alamos, shortly after the Alamogordo test (when the first atomic bomb was exploded in the desert about 50 miles northwest of this town on July 16, 1945), Enrico Fermi abruptly broke

  5. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  6. Quarantine provisions for unmanned extra-terrestrial missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This document sets forth requirements applicable to unmanned planetary flight programs which are necessary to enable the Associate Administrator for Space Science to fulfill those responsibilities pertaining to planetary quarantine as stated in NPD 8020.7 and NPD 8020.10A. This document is specifically directed to the control of terrestrial microbial contamination associated with unmanned space vehicles intended to encounter, orbit, flyby, or otherwise be in the vicinity of extra-terrestrial solar system bodies. The requirements of this document apply to all unmanned planetary flight programs. This includes solar system exploratory missions to the major planets as well as missions to planet satellites, or to other solar system objects that may be of scientific interest. This document is not applicable to terrestrial (including lunar) missions and manned missions. NASA officials having cognizance of applicable flight programs will invoke these requirements in such directives or contractual instruments as may be necessary to assure their implementation.

  7. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    E-print Network

    Sean N. Raymond

    2008-01-16

    Terrestrial planets form in a series of dynamical steps from the solid component of circumstellar disks. First, km-sized planetesimals form likely via a combination of sticky collisions, turbulent concentration of solids, and gravitational collapse from micron-sized dust grains in the thin disk midplane. Second, planetesimals coalesce to form Moon- to Mars-sized protoplanets, also called "planetary embryos". Finally, full-sized terrestrial planets accrete from protoplanets and planetesimals. This final stage of accretion lasts about 10-100 Myr and is strongly affected by gravitational perturbations from any gas giant planets, which are constrained to form more quickly, during the 1-10 Myr lifetime of the gaseous component of the disk. It is during this final stage that the bulk compositions and volatile (e.g., water) contents of terrestrial planets are set, depending on their feeding zones and the amount of radial mixing that occurs. The main factors that influence terrestrial planet formation are the mass and surface density profile of the disk, and the perturbations from giant planets and binary companions if they exist. Simple accretion models predicts that low-mass stars should form small, dry planets in their habitable zones. The migration of a giant planet through a disk of rocky bodies does not completely impede terrestrial planet growth. Rather, "hot Jupiter" systems are likely to also contain exterior, very water-rich Earth-like planets, and also "hot Earths", very close-in rocky planets. Roughly one third of the known systems of extra-solar (giant) planets could allow a terrestrial planet to form in the habitable zone.

  8. The Opportunities and Challenges in the Use of Extra-Terrestrial Acoustics in the Exploration of the Oceans of Icy Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.; Finfer, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Acoustic radiation is the signal of choice for exploring Earth's oceans. Its potential application for the oceans of icy moons requires investigation. However acoustic technology needs to be treated with care for extra-terrestrial purposes. Instruments, calibrations, and predictive codes that have served well on Earth may require fundamental redesign for use on other worlds. However when such an assessment is achieved, acoustic signals open up the possibility of exploring volumes exceeding one million cubic kilometres in a few minutes. This paper begins at tutorial level for novice acousticians, illustrating the principles by which acoustics can be used to monitor the environment at great distances from the source, both by projecting out signals and by using natural signals of opportunity. It then progresses to calculations for a generic icy moon (which resembles, but does not model Europa), proceeding from tutorial calculations of `flat world' models to calculate the propagation times for pulses to circumpropagate around the entire moon. Given that a single emitted pulse can produce multiple arrivals from different propagation paths, the paper discusses how the structure of the received time history can be used to monitor changes in the temperature profile in the ocean, position of the water/ice layer and the asphericity of the moon during orbit.

  9. Messaging to Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Zaitsev, A

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the entire history of terrestrial civilization, only four projects involving transmitting of interstellar radio messages (IRMs) have yet been fully developed and realized. Nevertheless, we should understand a simple thing -- if all civilizations in the Universe are only recipients, and not message-sending civilizations, than no SETI searches make any sense. We present the theory and methodology of composing and transmitting of future IRMs.

  10. Messaging to Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Alexander Zaitsev

    2006-10-05

    Throughout the entire history of terrestrial civilization, only four projects involving transmitting of interstellar radio messages (IRMs) have yet been fully developed and realized. Nevertheless, we should understand a simple thing -- if all civilizations in the Universe are only recipients, and not message-sending civilizations, than no SETI searches make any sense. We present the theory and methodology of composing and transmitting of future IRMs.

  11. The extra-terrestrial vacuum-ultraviolet wavelength range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gethyn Timothy; Klaus Wilhelm; Lidong Xia

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and extra-terrestrial range at wavelengths from 10 nm to 300 nm is absorbed in the upper atmosphere by ozone, molecular and atomic oxygen, and molecular nitrogen. Observations at wavelengths down to ≈ 200 nm can be carried out from stratospheric balloons, and observations below 200 nm require space platforms operating at altitudes above 250

  12. An energy-efficient architecture for multi-hop communication between rovers and satellites in extra-terrestrial surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Irwin; Hrishikesh Venkataraman; Gabriel-Miro Muntean

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, several man-made vehicles have being sent into space to explore the extra-terrestrial bodies. As the search for water and other useful substances in the extra-terrestrial surfaces increases, this exploration activity is set to dramatically increase over the next decade (2020); with NASA planning to explore the surface of Mars, Moon and other planets and satellites.

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration ATHLETE (All-Terrain, Hex-Limbed, Extra-Terrestrial Explorer)

    E-print Network

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAfacts ATHLETE (All-Terrain, Hex-Limbed, Extra-Terrestrial-Terrain, Hex Limbed, Extra-Terrestrial Explorer, or ATHLETE vehicle, is a new approach to unloading

  14. Core Drilling For ExtraTerrestrial Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Boucher; E. Dupuis

    2000-01-01

    Space Resource Utilization involves the active identification and mining of planetary bodies for commodities ranging from platinum group metals to water, such as might be realized from a dormant comet or carbonaceous chondrite like 1998 KY26, estimated to contain over 1 million gallons of water. Some proposed ET mining processes require access to sub-surface \\

  15. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsolt Hetesi

    2010-01-01

    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and

  16. Migration & Extra-solar Terrestrial Planets: Watering the Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter-Bond, Jade C.; O'Brien, David P.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2014-04-01

    A diverse range of terrestrial planet compositions is believed to exist within known extrasolar planetary systems, ranging from those that are relatively Earth-like to those that are highly unusual, dominated by species such as refractory elements (Al and Ca) or C (as pure C, TiC and SiC)(Bond et al. 2010b). However, all prior simulations have ignored the impact that giant planet migration during planetary accretion may have on the final terrestrial planetary composition. Here, we combined chemical equilibrium models of the disk around five known planetary host stars (Solar, HD4203, HD19994, HD213240 and Gl777) with dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation incorporating various degrees of giant planet migration. Giant planet migration is found to drastically impact terrestrial planet composition by 1) increasing the amount of Mg-silicate species present in the final body; and 2) dramatically increasing the efficiency and amount of water delivered to the terrestrial bodies during their formation process.

  17. A Review of Extra-Terrestrial Mining Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; van Susante, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Outer space contains a vast amount of resources that offer virtually unlimited wealth to the humans that can access and use them for commercial purposes. One of the key technologies for harvesting these resources is robotic mining of regolith, minerals, ices and metals. The harsh environment and vast distances create challenges that are handled best by robotic machines working in collaboration with human explorers. Humans will benefit from the resources that will be mined by robots. They will visit outposts and mining camps as required for exploration, commerce and scientific research, but a continuous presence is most likely to be provided by robotic mining machines that are remotely controlled by humans. There have been a variety of extra-terrestrial robotic mining concepts proposed over the last 40 years and this paper will attempt to summarize and review concepts in the public domain (government, industry and academia) to serve as an informational resource for future mining robot developers and operators. The challenges associated with these concepts will be discussed and feasibility will be assessed. Future needs associated with commercial efforts will also be investigated.

  18. The weak force and SETH: The search for ExtraTerrestrial Homochirality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra J. MacDermott

    1996-01-01

    We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality-SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how

  19. The weak force and SETH: The search for ExtraTerrestrial Homochirality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra J. MacDermott

    1996-01-01

    We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality—SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how

  20. The child alone: Children's stories reminiscent of E. T.: The ExtraTerrestrial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argiro L. Morgan

    1985-01-01

    In the summer of 1982, a new fairy-tale creature appeared in a motion picture which completely captured the popular imagination: E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial. The film tells the story of an errant extra-terrestrial, physically repulsive by human standards, who is mistakenly abandoned by his people on a flora-gathering expedition on earth and who faces uncertainty, danger, and eventual death in an

  1. The use of extra-terrestrial oceans to test ocean acoustics students

    E-print Network

    Sóbester, András

    , as well as the risk that accompanies extra vehicular activity by astronauts. Reliable and transparent that accompanies extra vehicular activity (EVA) by astronauts [5]. Moreover, space teleoperation spins off technology to terrestrial robots for various applications [2]. There are several considerations which

  2. Constraints on extra dimensions from cosmological and terrestrial measurements

    E-print Network

    Kimball A. Milton; Ronald Kantowski; Chung Kao; Yun Wang

    2001-07-20

    If quantum fields exist in extra compact dimensions, they will give rise to a quantum vacuum or Casimir energy. That vacuum energy will manifest itself as a cosmological constant. The fact that supernova and cosmic microwave background data indicate that the cosmological constant is of the same order as the critical mass density to close the universe supplies a lower bound on the size of the extra dimensions. Recent laboratory constraints on deviations from Newton's law place an upper limit. The allowed region is so small as to suggest that either extra compact dimensions do not exist, or their properties are about to be tightly constrained by experimental data.

  3. Constraints on Extra Dimensions from Cosmological and Terrestrial Measurements

    E-print Network

    Kimball A. Milton

    2001-07-27

    If quantum fields exist in extra compact dimensions, they will give rise to a quantum vacuum or Casimir energy. That vacuum energy will manifest itself as a cosmological constant. The fact that supernova and cosmic microwave background data indicate that the cosmological constant is of the same order as the critical mass density to close the universe supplies a lower bound on the size of the extra dimensions. Recent laboratory constraints on deviations from Newton's law place an upper limit. The allowed region is so small as to suggest that either extra compact dimensions do not exist, or their properties are about to be tightly constrained by experimental data.

  4. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    E-print Network

    Raymond, Sean N

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial planets form in a series of dynamical steps from the solid component of circumstellar disks. First, km-sized planetesimals form likely via a combination of sticky collisions, turbulent concentration of solids, and gravitational collapse from micron-sized dust grains in the thin disk midplane. Second, planetesimals coalesce to form Moon- to Mars-sized protoplanets, also called "planetary embryos". Finally, full-sized terrestrial planets accrete from protoplanets and planetesimals. This final stage of accretion lasts about 10-100 Myr and is strongly affected by gravitational perturbations from any gas giant planets, which are constrained to form more quickly, during the 1-10 Myr lifetime of the gaseous component of the disk. It is during this final stage that the bulk compositions and volatile (e.g., water) contents of terrestrial planets are set, depending on their feeding zones and the amount of radial mixing that occurs. The main factors that influence terrestrial planet formation are the mass an...

  5. Flat mirror optics to study extra-solar terrestrial planets from space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Angel; J. Burge; N. Woolf

    1999-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is currently envisioned as a 75-1,000 m, interferometer with four free-flying elements to detect and obtain spectra of extra-solar Earth-like planets. Because of the ambitious nature of the mission, a low-cost, precursor interferometer capable of detecting the nearest extra-solar planets would be very beneficial. It has been argued (P. Bely et al, N. Woolf et

  6. Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence The following is from The Sixth Book of Mathematical Games from Sci-

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carl

    Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence The following is from The Sixth Book of Mathematical Games from Sci- entific American by Martin Gardner. Suppose you want to send a message to extra-terrestrials, American Mathematical Monthly 105 (1998) 640­650.) The following proposed message to extraterrestrials

  7. Searching for extra-terrestrial intelligence and the discovering of extrasolar planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Jie Wu; Dao-Han Chen

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the significance, instrumentality, and the status in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, and, in addition, the SETI program and its development, are introduced. Especial emphasis is on the discovery of extrasolar planets, its purpose, ways and means, achievement, and future.Finding extrasolar planets is one of the most popular issues at present. It will be one of the

  8. Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity May Help in Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schmidt

    1999-01-01

    One of the main strategies in Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is trying to overhearcommunications between advanced civilizations. However, there is a (seeming) problem with this approach:advanced civilizations, most probably, save communication expenses by maximally compressingtheir messages, and the notion of a maximally compressed message is naturally formalized as a messagex for which Kolmogorov complexity C(x) is close to

  9. On the relationship between extra-terrestrial radiation and surface pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Wendler; Michael Pook

    1996-01-01

    The surface pressure of an Antarctic station displays two minima, one in spring, the other in autumn. It is believed that these minima are caused by radiative forcing, as the gradient of the extra-terrestrial radiation is largest during the two equinoxes. The best correlation (r = 0.85) was obtained when the pressure lagged the radiation gradient by ten days.

  10. Physics 343 Lecture # 14: the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    Physics 343 Lecture # 14: the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence and galactic collisions about astrobiology guide our choice of search strategy. #12; Quantifying our ignorance... UC Santa scientists met in Green Bank, WV to discuss the prospect for existence and detection of extraterrestrial

  11. The implications of the discovery of extra-terrestrial life for religion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ted

    2011-02-13

    This paper asks about the future of religion: (i) Will confirmation of extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) cause terrestrial religion to collapse? 'No' is the answer based upon a summary of the 'Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey'. Then the paper examines four specific challenges to traditional doctrinal belief likely to be raised at the detection of ETI: (ii) What is the scope of God's creation? (iii) What can we expect regarding the moral character of ETI? (iv) Is one earthly incarnation in Jesus Christ enough for the entire cosmos, or should we expect multiple incarnations on multiple planets? (v) Will contact with more advanced ETI diminish human dignity? More than probable contact with extra-terrestrial intelligence will expand the Bible's vision so that all of creation--including the 13.7 billion year history of the universe replete with all of God's creatures--will be seen as the gift of a loving and gracious God. PMID:21220288

  12. Discovery of extra-terrestrial life: assessment by scales of its importance and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Almár, Iván; Race, Margaret S

    2011-02-13

    The Rio Scale accepted by the SETI Committee of the International Academy of Astronautics in 2002 is intended for use in evaluating the impact on society of any announcement regarding the discovery of evidence of extra-terrestrial (ET) intelligence. The Rio Scale is mathematically defined using three parameters (class of phenomenon, type of discovery and distance) and a ? factor, the assumed credibility of a claim. This paper proposes a new scale applicable to announcements alleging evidence of ET life within or outside our Solar System. The London Scale for astrobiology has mathematical structure and logic similar to the Rio Scale, and uses four parameters (life form, nature of phenomenon, type of discovery and distance) as well as a credibility factor ? to calculate a London Scale index (LSI) with values ranging from 0 to 10. The level of risk or biohazard associated with a purported discovery is evaluated independently of the LSI value and may be ranked in four categories. The combined information is intended to provide a scalar assessment of the scientific importance, validity and potential risks associated with putative evidence of ET life discovered on Earth, on nearby bodies in the Solar System or in our Galaxy. PMID:21220291

  13. Extra-terrestrial igneous granites and related rocks: A review of their occurrence and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Bernard

    2012-11-01

    The telluric planets and the asteroid belt display the same internal structure with a metallic inner core and a silicate outer shell. Experimental data and petrological evidence in silicate systems show that granite can be produced by extreme igneous differentiation through various types of igneous processes. On Moon, 4.4-3.9 Ga granite clasts display dry mineral assemblages. They correspond to at least 8 discrete intrusive events. Large K/Ca enrichment and low REE abundances in granite relative to KREEP are consistent with silicate liquid immiscibility, a process observed in melt inclusions within olivine of lunar basalts and in lunar meteorites. Steep-sided domes identified by remote sensing can represent intrusive or extrusive felsic formations. On Mars, black-and-white rhythmic layers observed on the Tharsis rise along the flanks of the peripheral scarps of the Tharsis Montes giant volcanoes suggest the possible eruption of felsic pyroclastites. Though no true granites were found so far in the Martian SNC meteorites, felsic glasses and mesostases were identified and a component close to terrestrial continental (granitic) crust is inferred from trace element and isotope systematics. Venus has suffered extensive volcanic resurfacing, whereas folded and faulted areas resemble terrestrial continents. Near large shield volcanoes, with dominant basaltic compositions, steep-sided domes have been interpreted as non-degassed silicic extrusions. The hypothesis of a granitic component is "tantalising". Extra-terrestrial granite is frequently found as clasts and mesostases in asteroidal meteorites. Porphyritic textures, with alkali feldspar crystals up to several centimetres in size, were observed in silicate enclaves within iron meteorites. In the chondrite clan, polymict breccias can contain granitic clasts, whose provenance is debated. One clast from the Adzhi-Bogdo meteorite yields a 4.53 ± 0.03 Ga Pb-Pb age, making it the oldest known granite in the solar system. The vast majority of granitic materials recognised so far in the extra-terrestrial record are characterised by ferroan A-type compositions, characterised by high to very high K2O and medium CaO contents, sodic varieties being exceedingly rare. Textural evidence of graphic quartz-alkali feldspar intergrowths within crystallised products suggests that they are igneous in origin and crystallised quickly from a liquid. In water-depleted to water-free environments, fluorine and chlorine can play significant roles, as their effects on liquidus temperatures and crystallising assemblages are nearly identical to those of water. The distribution of alkalis and alkaline earths cannot be related only to extensive crystal fractionation, but is likely induced by supplementary silicate liquid immiscibility. Medium-temperature silicate liquid immiscibility is well known as a mode of differentiation in experimental petrology studies at very low pressures on systems dominated by Fe, Ti, K, and P as major elements. The ultimate question is, therefore, not whether granite (s.l.) occurs in any given planetary body, but if sufficient volumes of granitic materials could have been produced to constitute stable continental nuclei.

  14. Tidal Heating of Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets and Implications for their Habitability

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The tidal heating of hypothetical rocky (or terrestrial) extra-solar planets spans a wide range of values depending on stellar masses and initial orbits. Tidal heating may be sufficiently large (in many cases, in excess of radiogenic heating) and long-lived to drive plate tectonics, similar to the Earth's, which may enhance the planet's habitability. In other cases, excessive tidal heating may result in Io-like planets with violent volcanism, probably rendering them unsuitable for life. On water-rich planets, tidal heating may generate sub-surface oceans analogous to Europa's with similar prospects for habitability. Tidal heating may enhance the outgassing of volatiles, contributing to the formation and replenishment of a planet's atmosphere. To address these issues, we model the tidal heating and evolution of hypothetical extra-solar terrestrial planets. The results presented here constrain the orbital and physical properties required for planets to be habitable.

  15. Techniques for the measurement of extra-terrestrial soft x-radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. F. Boyd; R. L. F

    1965-01-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum has no clearly defined boundaries separating one part from another. Rather has each region become associated with a name which has arisen historically. It is therefore necessary to make some fairly arbitrary decision on the region to be included in the term soft X-radiation. The study of extra-terrestrial X-radiation grew historically from photometer type measurements using metal

  16. Montana Evidence for ExtraTerrestrial Impact Event That Caused Ice-Age Mammal Die Off

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Baker; P. J. Miranda; K. E. Gibbs

    2008-01-01

    Evidence has been found in Montana for an extra-terrestrial impact event previously documented in the States of AZ, NM, NC, and SC and in Alberta and Manitoba. A mammoth fossil site dated at 11.5 ka (C14) before present (BP) was described in 1969 as the last mammoth occurrence in Montana. The mammoth remains were found in an organic-rich layer--a black

  17. The weak force and SETH: The search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality

    SciTech Connect

    MacDermott, A.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-01

    We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality{emdash}SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the {ital Z}{sup 0} boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how the resulting small excess of the more stable enantiomer may be amplified to homochirality. Titan and comets are good places to test for emerging pre-biotic homochirality, while on Mars there may be traces of homochirality as a relic of extinct life. Our calculations of the PVED show that the natural L-amino acids are indeed more stable than their enantiomers, as are several key D-sugars and right-hand helical DNA. Thiosubstituted DNA analogues show particularly large PVEDs. L-quartz is also more stable than D-quartz, and we believe that further crystal counts should be carried out to establish whether reported excesses of L quartz are real. Finding extra-terrestrial molecules of the same hand as on Earth would lend support to the universal chiral influence of the weak force. We describe a novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, which we hope to use to detect optical rotation on other planets. Moving parts are avoided by replacing the normal rotating polarizer by multiple fixed polarizers at different angles as in the eye of the bee. Even if we do not find the same hand as on Earth, finding extra-terrestrial optical rotation would be of enormous importance as it would still be the homochiral signature of life. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. The weak force and SETH: The search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDermott, Alexandra J.

    1996-07-01

    We propose that a search for extra-terrestrial life can be approached as a Search for Extra-Terrestrial Homochirality-SETH. Homochirality is probably a pre-condition for life, so a chiral influence may be required to get life started. We explain how the weak force mediated by the Z0 boson gives rise to a small parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers, and discuss how the resulting small excess of the more stable enantiomer may be amplified to homochirality. Titan and comets are good places to test for emerging pre-biotic homochirality, while on Mars there may be traces of homochirality as a relic of extinct life. Our calculations of the PVED show that the natural L-amino acids are indeed more stable than their enantiomers, as are several key D-sugars and right-hand helical DNA. Thiosubstituted DNA analogues show particularly large PVEDs. L-quartz is also more stable than D-quartz, and we believe that further crystal counts should be carried out to establish whether reported excesses of L quartz are real. Finding extra-terrestrial molecules of the same hand as on Earth would lend support to the universal chiral influence of the weak force. We describe a novel miniaturized space polarimeter, called the SETH Cigar, which we hope to use to detect optical rotation on other planets. Moving parts are avoided by replacing the normal rotating polarizer by multiple fixed polarizers at different angles as in the eye of the bee. Even if we do not find the same hand as on Earth, finding extra-terrestrial optical rotation would be of enormous importance as it would still be the homochiral signature of life.

  19. Fear, pandemonium, equanimity and delight: human responses to extra-terrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Albert A

    2011-02-13

    How will people respond to the discovery of extra-terrestrial life? Potentially useful resources for addressing this question include historical prototypes, disaster studies and survey research. Reactions will depend on the interplay of the characteristics of the newly found life, the unfolding of the discovery, the context and content of the message and human information processing as shaped by biology, culture and psychology. Pre-existing images of extra-terrestrials as god-like, demonic, or artificial will influence first impressions that may prove highly resistant to change. Most probably people will develop comprehensive images based on minimal information and assess extra-terrestrials in the same ways that they assess one another. Although it is easy to develop frightening scenarios, finding microbial life in our Solar System or intercepting a microwave transmission from many light years away are less likely to be met with adverse reactions such as fear and pandemonium than with positive reactions such as equanimity and delight. PMID:21220289

  20. Predicting what extra-terrestrials will be like: and preparing for the worst.

    PubMed

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2011-02-13

    It is difficult to imagine evolution in alien biospheres operating in any manner other than Darwinian. Yet, it is also widely assumed that alien life-forms will be just that: strange, un-nerving and probably repulsive. There are two reasons for this view. First, it is assumed that the range of habitable environments available to extra-terrestrial life is far wider than on Earth. I suggest, however, that terrestrial life is close to the physical and chemical limits of life anywhere. Second, it is a neo-Darwinian orthodoxy that evolution lacks predictability; imagining what extra-terrestrial life would look like in any detail is a futile exercise. To the contrary, I suggest that the outcomes of evolution are remarkably predictable. This, however, leads us to consider two opposites, both of which should make our blood run cold. The first, and actually extremely unlikely, is that alien biospheres will be strikingly similar to our terrestrial equivalent and that in such biospheres intelligence will inevitably emerge. The reasons for this revolve around the ubiquity of evolutionary convergence, the determinate structure of the Tree of Life and molecular inherency. But if something like a human is an inevitability, why do I also claim that the first possibility is 'extremely unlikely'? Simply because the other possibility is actually the correct answer. Paradoxically, we and our biosphere are completely alone. So which is worse? Meeting ourselves or meeting nobody? PMID:21220280

  1. Montana Evidence for Extra-Terrestrial Impact Event That Caused Ice-Age Mammal Die- Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. W.; Miranda, P. J.; Gibbs, K. E.

    2008-05-01

    Evidence has been found in Montana for an extra-terrestrial impact event previously documented in the States of AZ, NM, NC, and SC and in Alberta and Manitoba. A mammoth fossil site dated at 11.5 ka (C14) before present (BP) was described in 1969 as the last mammoth occurrence in Montana. The mammoth remains were found in an organic-rich layer--a black mat. The black mat contains abundant charcoal (evidence for forest fire), black carbon glass foam, plant material deposited in a pond, and unrusted iron micro-meteorites. SEM photos of iron micro-meteorites reveal fusion crusts, flow lines, and micro-impact craters--direct evidence for an extra- terrestrial origin. One 140 ?m long micro-meteorite is 96 wt.% Fe and 4% Mn. Another is 71% Fe and 29% Ti. Mammoth tusks contain rusty pits, consistent with iron micro-meteorites that were embedded and then rusted out. A sample of carbon glass in the black mat contains 62% C, 22% O, 6% Fe, 4% Ca, 4% Si, and 2% Al. At the Indian Creek Archeological Site near Townsend, MT below the cultural layers and below a 11.2 ka (C14) volcanic ash layer there are individual glass bubbles about 1 mm in diameter with micro-impact craters. The size distribution of these micro-craters resembles the size distribution of lunar craters, but at a vastly different scale. The glass contains 53% C, 33% O, 6% Ca, 4% Si, 2% Al, 1% Mg, and 0.6% K. The carbon glass and micro-meteorites suggest a comet rather a meteorite origin for the extra-terrestrial material.

  2. Chemical methods for searching for evidence of extra-terrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Pillinger, Colin

    2011-02-13

    This paper describes the chemical concepts used for the purpose of detecting life in extra-terrestrial situations. These methods, developed initially within the oil industry, have been used to determine when life began on Earth and for investigating the Moon and Mars via space missions. In the case of Mars, the Viking missions led to the realization that we had meteorites from Mars on Earth. The study of Martian meteorites in the laboratory provides tantalizing clues for life on Mars in both the ancient and recent past. Meteorite analyses led to the launch of the Beagle 2 spacecraft, which was designed to prove that life-detection results obtained on Earth were authentic and not confused by terrestrial contamination. Some suggestions are made for future work. PMID:21220284

  3. The use of extra-terrestrial oceans to test ocean acoustics students.

    PubMed

    Leighton, T G

    2012-03-01

    The existence of extra-terrestrial oceans offers the opportunities to set examination questions for which students in underwater acoustics do not already know the answers. The limited set of scenarios in Earth's oceans that can be presented to students as tractable examination questions means that, rather than properly assessing the individual scenario, students can rely on knowledge from previous examples in assessing, for example, which terms in equations are large and small, and what numerical values the answers are likely to take. The habit of adapting previous solutions with which the student is comfortable, to new scenarios, is not a safe approach to learn, as it ill equips the future scientist or engineer to identify and tackle problems which contain serious departures from their experience. PMID:22423807

  4. Simulation of a Space-Based Microlensing Survey for Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets

    E-print Network

    David P. Bennett; Sun Hong Rhie

    2002-02-01

    We show that a space-based gravitational microlensing survey for terrestrial extra-solar planets is feasible in the near future, and could provide a nearly complete picture of the properties of planetary systems in our Galaxy. We present simulations of such a survey using a 1-2m aperture space telescope with a ~2 square degree field-of-view which is used to continuously monitor ~10^8 Galactic bulge main sequence stars. The microlensing techniques allows the discovery of low mass planets with high signal-to-noise, and the space mission that we have studied are sensitive to planets with masses as low as that of Mars. By targeting main sequence source stars, which can only be resolved from space, the space-based microlensing survey is able to detect enough light from the lens stars to determine the spectral type of one third of the lens stars with detected planets, including virtually all of the F, G, and K stars which comprise one quarter of the event sample. This enables the determination of the planetary masses and separations in physical units, as well as the abundance of planets as a function of stellar type and distance from the Galactic center. We show that a space-based microlensing planet search program has its highest sensitivity to planets at orbital separations of 0.7-10 AU, but it will also have significant sensitivity at larger separations and will be able to detect free-floating planets in significant numbers. This complements the planned terrestrial planet transit missions which are sensitive to terrestrial planets at separations of =< 1 AU. Such a mission also detect ~50,000 giant planets via transits, and it is, therefore, the only proposed planet detection method that is sensitive to planets at all orbital radii.

  5. Likelihood deconvolution of diffuse prompt and extra-terrestrial neutrino fluxes in the AMANDA-II detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary C. Hill

    2008-01-01

    The unknown flux of prompt atmospheric neutrinos presents a challenging background to searches for extra-terrestrial neutrinos in high-energy detectors. Uncertainties in this flux will weaken the power of the detector to place constraints on other expected signals. A new likelihood analysis, using the full information present in event arrival directions and energy will be presented, which allows simultaneous constraints on

  6. The New Worlds Observer: a mission for high-resolution spectroscopy of extra-solar terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willard L. Simmons; Webster C. Cash; Sara Seager; Erik Wilkinson; N. Jeremy Kasdin; Robert J. Vanderbei; Naomi Chow; Erica Gralla; Johanna Kleingeld

    2004-01-01

    The New Worlds Observer (NWO) is a proposed space mission to provide high resolution spectroscopy from the far UV to the near IR of extra-solar terrestrial sized planets. The design of NWO is based on the concept of a large, space-based, pinhole camera made up of two spacecraft flying in formation. The first spacecraft is a large, thin occulting shield

  7. Searches for a diffuse flux of extra-terrestrial muon neutrinos with AMANDA-II and IceCube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kotoyo Hoshina; Jessica Hodges; Gary C. Hill

    2008-01-01

    The AMANDA-II data collected during the period 2000-03 have been analysed in a search for a diffuse flux of high-energy extra-terrestrial neutrinos from the sum of all sources in the universe. With no excess of events seen, an upper limit on an E-2 flux of E2 Phi < 8.8 x 10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 was obtained. The astrophysical implications

  8. Estimates of Evaporation From Terrestrial Surface Water Bodies Using the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ortiz; G. Goteti; J. Famiglietti

    2005-01-01

    Land surface modeling has led to significant advances in the understanding the role of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle in the Earth system. However, the representation of land surface of in these modeling approaches suffers from drawbacks such as lack of representation of terrestrial surface water bodies. These water bodies play an important role in the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles and

  9. Characteristic Times for Collisions of Minor Bodies With Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Ozernoy, L. M.

    2001-12-01

    Previous analytical calculations of characteristic times, T, for collisions of Earth-crossing objects (ECOs) and comets with the Earth were mainly based on Öpik's formulas. However, this approach becomes very inaccurate whenever the periods of a minor body and the planet are close to each other. While taking into account this situation, we also abandon the limitations of other approaches, which consider bodies moving in their orbots with an invariable velocity. When a minor body moving in an orbit with semimajor axis a collides with a planet at a distance r from the Sun, then T is larger by a factor of k = ? {2a/r -1} compared to the approximation of a constant velocity. The obtained values of T (in Myr) and k (in parenthesis) are presented in the following table. Atens & Apollos & Amors & ECOs & JFCs Venus & 106 (1.2) & 186 (1.7) & & 154 (1.5) & 2900 (2.5) Earth &15 (0.9) & 164 (1.4) & 211 (2.0) & 67 (1.1) &2200 (2.3) Mars &475 (0.4) & 4250 (0.9) &5810 (1.1)&4710 (1.0) &17000 (1.8) Note that relatively small values of T for Atens and all ECOs colliding with the Earth are due to just several Atens with small inclinations i, which were discovered during last two years. If for the Aten object having 0.1o one takes i=1o, then for collisions with Earth one gets 28 Myr for Atens and T=97 Myr for ECOs. For Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) colliding with the terrestrial planets, k>=2. For three Halley-type comets with periods between 71 and 76 yr, we obtained T=350 Gyr and k=6 (collision with Earth) and T=3500 Gyr and k=5 (collision with Mars). We have performed a series of runs of orbital evolution of resonant asteroids and JFCs and computed values of T for those runs. The results demonstrate that the effect of non-constant velocity must be taken into account, especially when semimajor axes of a minor body and a planet differ considerably. We acknowledge support of this work by NASA grant NAG5-10776, the RFP ``Astronomy", RFBR (01-02-17540), and INTAS (00-240).

  10. Extra and intracellular free iron and the carotid body responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A Daudu; Arijit Roy; Charmaine Rozanov; Anil Mokashi; Sukhamay Lahiri

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that chelation of free iron, by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), might mimic hypoxia and stimulate the carotid body was tested. We used the iron chelators, desferrioxamine (DFO, 200–400 ?M) initially, and later ciclopirox olamine (CPX, 2.5–5.0 ?M), on rat carotid body in vitro and measured chemosensory activity and [Ca2+]i in isolated cultured glomus cell clusters during normoxia

  11. Extra source implantation for suppression floating-body effect in partially depleted SOI MOSFETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Chen; Jiexin Luo; Qingqing Wu; Zhan Chai; Xiaolu Huang; Xing Wei; Xi Wang

    Silicon-on-insulate (SOI) MOSFETs offer benefits over bulk competitors for fully isolation and smaller junction capacitance. The performance of partially depleted (PD) SOI MOSFETs, though, is not good enough. Since the body is floating, the extra holes (for nMOSFETs) in this region accumulate, causing body potential arise, which of course degrades the performance of the device. How to suppress the floating-body

  12. Predicting Planets in Known Extra-Solar Planetary Systems III: Forming Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    Sean N. Raymond; Rory Barnes; Nathan A. Kaib

    2006-05-15

    Recent results have shown that many of the known extrasolar planetary systems contain regions which are stable for both Earth-mass and Saturn-mass planets. Here we simulate the formation of terrestrial planets in four planetary systems -- 55 Cancri, HD 38529, HD 37124, and HD 74156 -- under the assumption that these systems of giant planets are complete and that their orbits are well-determined. Assuming the giant planets formed and migrated quickly, then terrestrial planets may form from a second generation of planetesimals. In each case, Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos are placed in between the giant planets and evolved for 100 Myr. We find that planets form relatively easily in 55 Cnc, with masses up to 0.6 Earth masses and in some cases substantial water contents and orbits in the habitable zone. HD 38529 is likely to support an asteroid belt but no terrestrial planets of significant mass. No terrestrial planets form in HD 37124 and HD 74156, although in some cases 1-2 lone embryos survive for 100 Myr. If migration occurred later, depleting the planetesimal disk, then massive terrestrial planets are unlikely to form in any of these systems.

  13. Predicting Planets in Known Extra-Solar Planetary Systems III: Forming Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    Raymond, S N

    2004-01-01

    Recent results have shown that many of the known extrasolar planetary systems contain regions which are stable for both massless and massive test particles. We simulate the formation of terrestrial planets in four planetary systems: HD37124, HD38529, 55Cnc, and HD74156. In each case, Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos are placed in between the giant planets and evolved for 100 Myr. We find that no terrestrial planets form in HD37124 and HD74156, although in some cases 1-2 lone embryos will survive for 100 Myr. Planets form relatively easily in 55Cnc, with masses up to 0.6 Earth masses and in some cases substantial water contents. HD38529 is likely to support an asteroid belt but no terrestrial planets of significant mass.

  14. Predicted dynamos for terrestrial extra-solar planets and their influence in habitability

    E-print Network

    Gomez-Perez, Natalia; Ruedas, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we find the internal stratification for terrestrial planets with given mass-radius pairs, and use the core size and density to estimate their maximum dipolar magnetic moment. We also comment on the temporal evolution, although more information (e.g., core composition, mantle rheology and history) is crucial in determining the state of the dynamo with planetary age.

  15. First stage identification of syntactic elements in an extra-terrestrial signal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Elliott

    2011-01-01

    By investigating the generic attributes of a representative set of terrestrial languages at varying levels of abstraction, it is our endeavour to try and isolate elements of the signal universe, which are computationally tractable for its detection and structural decipherment. Ultimately, our aim is to contribute in some way to the understanding of what ‘languageness’ actually is. This paper describes

  16. Extra Low-Frequency Terrestrial Radio-Wave Field Calculations with the Zonal Harmonics Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ralph Johler; Richard L. Lewis

    1969-01-01

    Use of the zonal harmonics series for calculating the terrestrial wave guide fields directly is described. The analysis is extended to include radio waves propagating into sea water or below the earth's surface. A sample calculation of ELF radio waves is analyzed into a direct wave and a wave that has traveled the circumference of the earth. The location of

  17. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  18. Migration of Icy Bodies to the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergei, I. I.; Mather, J. C.; Marov, M. Y.

    2006-05-01

    In our opinion [1-2], some trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and planetesimals in the feeding zone of the giant planets with diameters up to 1000 km could be formed directly by the compression of large rarefied dust condensations, but not by the accretion of smaller solid planetesimals. Migration processes of small bodies from the outer regions of the solar system, including the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, could be responsible for the delivery of the original matter (mainly volatiles) to the terrestrial planets and thus to give rise to the life origin. As migration of TNOs to Jupiter's orbit was studied by several authors, we integrated the orbital evolution of 30,000 Jupiter-crossing objects under the gravitational influence of planets [3]. A few considered objects got Earth-crossing orbits with aphelion distances Q<4.2 AU and moved in such orbits for more than 1 Myr (up to tens or even hundreds of Myrs). Collisions of cometary objects with the terrestrial planets from the Encke- type orbits with aphelia located inside the orbit of Jupiter are assumed to play a greater role than direct impacts from the Jupiter-crossing orbits. It may be possible that the fraction of 1-km former TNOs among near- Earth objects (NEOs) can exceed several tens of percents or most of former TNOs that had got NEO orbits disintegrated into mini-comets and dust during a smaller part of their dynamical lifetimes if these lifetimes are not small. Our estimates show that the amount of icy planetesimals impacted on the Earth during formation of the giant planets is of the order of mass of water in the Earth oceans if the total mass of these planetesimals was about 100 Earth masses. Mars acquired more water per unit of mass of a planet than Earth. During the following 4 Gyr the effectiveness of transport was much less. We integrated [4-5] the orbital evolution of 12,000 dust particles. Probabilites of collisions of particles started from Jupiter-family comets were maximum at diameter d about 100 microns and can be smaller by several orders of magnitude for other d. These maximum probabilities can be 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the probabilities for comets which produced these particles. The dust particles could be most efficient in the delivery of organic or even biogenic matter to the Earth, because they experience substantially weaker heating when passing through the atmosphere [6]. References: [1] Ipatov S.I. (2001) LPSC, #1165. [2] Ipatov S.I. (2004) "The Search for Other Worlds", ed. by S.S. Holt and D. Deming, AIP Conference Proceedings, 713, 277-280. [3] Ipatov S.I. and Mather J.C. (2004) Annals of the New York Acad. of Sciences, 1017, 46-65. [4] Ipatov S.I., Mather J.C., and Taylor P. (2004) Annals of the New York Acad. of Sciences, 1017, 66-80. [5] Ipatov S.I. and Mather J.C. (2006) Advances in Space Research, in press. [6] Marov M.Ya. and Ipatov S.I. (2005) Solar System Research, 39, 374-380.

  19. An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jura

    2004-01-01

    The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can\\u000alead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial\\u000aplanet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can\\u000abe photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen\\u000athen may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front

  20. Extra terrestrial abiogenic organization of organic matter: The hollow spheres of the Orgueil meteorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine Rossignol-Strick; Elso S. Barghoorn

    1971-01-01

    Fragments of the Orgueil meteorite were macerated in mineral acids (HNO3-HF-HNO3) to dissolve the mineral matrix and separate the acid-resistant organic residues; a routine procedure in the extraction of pollen and spores from terrestrial sediments. Numerous spherical hollow objects were found, optically resembling the brown amorphous residual organic matrix of the meteorite. Their morphology, size-distribution, and chemical composition, revealed by

  1. An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets

    E-print Network

    Jura, M

    2004-01-01

    The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can lead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial planet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can be photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen then may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front of the host star and produce tansient, detectable ultraviolet absorption in the Lyman lines in systems older than 1 Gyr.

  2. An observational signature of evolved oceans on extra-solar terrestrial planets

    E-print Network

    M. Jura

    2004-02-25

    The increase in luminosity with time of a main sequence star eventually can lead to substantial evaporation of the oceans on an orbiting terrestrial planet. Subsequently, the gas phase water in the planet's upper atmosphere can be photodissociated by stellar ultraviolet and the resulting atomic hydrogen then may be lost in a wind. This gaseous envelope may pass in front of the host star and produce tansient, detectable ultraviolet absorption in the Lyman lines in systems older than 1 Gyr.

  3. Strategic considerations in SETI, and a microwave approach. [Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeger, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Plausible options in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and the need to reserve a suitable portion of the EM (microwave) spectrum for SETI research, are discussed. Reasons for selection of a portion of the spectrum, specifically the 'water hole' near 1.5 GHz in the terrestrial microwave window (1-25 GHz), are presented, and competition with various emitters for that band (existing satellite downlink transmissions) is discussed. SETI search policies and options are summarized in a table. Speculative considerations guiding initial phases of the SETI pursuit are discussed.

  4. Simulation of a Space-Based Microlensing Survey for Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets

    E-print Network

    Bennett, D P; Bennett, David P.; Rhie, Sun Hong

    2000-01-01

    The gravitational microlensing technique can be used to carry out a sensitive survey of planets ranging in mass from giant planets down to Mars-mass planets. This requires photometric monitoring of a large number of stars ($\\sim 10^8$) with high angular and temporal resolution. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) is a 1.5m space based telescope with a large field-of-view that has recently been submitted to NASA's Discovery competition to carry out such a extra-solar planet search survey. We present a simulation of the baseline GEST mission, and we use this simulation to determine GEST's extra-solar planet detection sensitivity. We find that GEST will be sensitive to planets down to the mass of Mars, and will detect 100 Earth-mass planets at 1 AU if every star has such a planet. GEST's highest sensitivity is at separations of 0.7-10 AU, but it will also have significant sensitivity at larger separations and will be able to detect free-floating planets in significant numbers. GEST will also be able t...

  5. First stage identification of syntactic elements in an extra-terrestrial signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John

    2011-02-01

    By investigating the generic attributes of a representative set of terrestrial languages at varying levels of abstraction, it is our endeavour to try and isolate elements of the signal universe, which are computationally tractable for its detection and structural decipherment. Ultimately, our aim is to contribute in some way to the understanding of what 'languageness' actually is. This paper describes algorithms and software developed to characterise and detect generic intelligent language-like features in an input signal, using natural language learning techniques: looking for characteristic statistical "language-signatures" in test corpora. As a first step towards such species-independent language-detection, we present a suite of programs to analyse digital representations of a range of data, and use the results to extrapolate whether or not there are language-like structures which distinguish this data from other sources, such as music, images, and white noise.

  6. Impact seismology on terrestrial planets and Small bodies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Le Feuvre, M.; Gudkova, T.; Kawamura, T.; Garcia, R. F.; Johnson, C. L.; Yamada, R.; Weber, R. C.; Blitz, C.

    2010-12-01

    On planetary bodies without atmosphere (e.g. the Moon, Jovian satellites, small bodies) or a planet with a weak atmosphere such as Mars, impacts of meteoroids are high potential seismic sources. During the Apollo seismic experiment on the Moon, impacts related seismic events were used to constrain the crustal structure, including estimates of lateral variations. (Chenet et al, EPSL, 2006) Moreover, the location and time of present-day lunar surface impacts with masses larger than about 1 kg can now be determined, as impacts generate light flashes observed from Earth with modest telescopes. The location of larger impacts (> 100 kg) can also be detected by High Resolution Optical Orbital cameras. As soon as they are located by these non-seismic methods, impacts become the only seismic sources that can be used by a single seismic station on a planet for inverting the interior structure. We review and present in this paper the main characteristics of the seismic source generated by an impact, in both amplitude and cutoff frequency, and compare these signals to shallow moonquakes as detected by Apollo. We focus on the largest impacts on the Moon, and show that they have a relatively low frequency cutoff frequency (< 1 Hz) associated with the shock wave generated during the impact. Both this cutoff frequency and the amplitude of the seismic wave allow us to constrain the mass and velocity of the impactor (Gudkova et al, Icarus, 2010, Kawamura et al, 2010). We then present mass-frequency models of impacts on the Moon from Apollo observations, and extrapolate these models to other planets and planetary bodies (Mars, Jovian satellites and small bodies). This allow us to constrain not only the expected amplitude of the micro-seismic noise associated with continuous impacts on airless planets (called the meteoritic hum, Lognonné et al, 2009) but also the expected detection frequency of impacts on future seismological missions, such as Moon missions (e.g. SELENE2, ILN, Lunette) or Mars missions (e.g. GEMS, NF or MarsNext). By using statistical simulation, the expected resolution in the seismic velocities models resulting from these future missions can be computed, and we illustrate this for the Moon (Yamada et al., 2010). We finally present and discuss new or exotic challenges such as impact seismology on small bodies or in-situ detection of the electromagnetic signals associated with impacts.

  7. Crater size estimates for large-body terrestrial impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Robert M.; Housen, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    Calculating the effects of impacts leading to global catastrophes requires knowledge of the impact process at very large size scales. This information cannot be obtained directly but must be inferred from subscale physical simulations, numerical simulations, and scaling laws. Schmidt and Holsapple presented scaling laws based upon laboratory-scale impact experiments performed on a centrifuge (Schmidt, 1980 and Schmidt and Holsapple, 1980). These experiments were used to develop scaling laws which were among the first to include gravity dependence associated with increasing event size. At that time using the results of experiments in dry sand and in water to provide bounds on crater size, they recognized that more precise bounds on large-body impact crater formation could be obtained with additional centrifuge experiments conducted in other geological media. In that previous work, simple power-law formulae were developed to relate final crater diameter to impactor size and velocity. In addition, Schmidt (1980) and Holsapple and Schmidt (1982) recognized that the energy scaling exponent is not a universal constant but depends upon the target media. Recently, Holsapple and Schmidt (1987) includes results for non-porous materials and provides a basis for estimating crater formation kinematics and final crater size. A revised set of scaling relationships for all crater parameters of interest are presented. These include results for various target media and include the kinematics of formation. Particular attention is given to possible limits brought about by very large impactors.

  8. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial quadrupeds, which is important for a wide range of paleobiological studies (including growth rates, metabolism, and energetics) and meta-analyses of body size evolution. PMID:22781121

  9. Elucidating differences in metal absorption efficiencies between terrestrial soft-bodied and aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Owsianiak, Miko?aj; Veltman, Karin; Hauschild, Michael Z; Hendriks, A Jan; Steinmann, Zoran J N; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-10-01

    It is unknown whether metal absorption efficiencies in terrestrial soft-bodied species can be predicted with the same metal properties as for aquatic species. Here, we developed models for metal absorption efficiency from the dissolved phase for terrestrial worms and several aquatic species, based on 23 metal physicochemical properties. For the worms, the absorption efficiency was successfully related to 7 properties, and is best predicted with the ionic potential. Different properties (8 in total) were found to be statistically significant in regressions predicting metal absorption in aquatic species, with the covalent index being the best predictor. It is hypothesized that metal absorption by soft-bodied species in soil systems is influenced by the rate of metal supply to the membrane, while in aquatic systems accumulation is solely determined by metal affinity to membrane bound transport proteins. Our results imply that developing predictive terrestrial bioaccumulation and toxicity models for metals must consider metal interactions with soil solids. This may include desorption of a cation bound to soil solids through ion exchange, or metal release from soil surfaces involving breaking of metal-oxygen bonds. PMID:25048944

  10. Imprinted expression in cystic embryoid bodies shows an embryonic and not an extra-embryonic pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kulinski, Tomasz M.; Casari, M. Rita T.; Guenzl, Philipp M.; Wenzel, Daniel; Andergassen, Daniel; Hladik, Anastasiya; Datlinger, Paul; Farlik, Matthias; Theussl, H. -Christian; Penninger, Josef M.; Knapp, Sylvia; Bock, Christoph; Barlow, Denise P.; Hudson, Quanah J.

    2015-01-01

    A large subset of mammalian imprinted genes show extra-embryonic lineage (EXEL) specific imprinted expression that is restricted to placental trophectoderm lineages and to visceral yolk sac endoderm (ysE). Isolated ysE provides a homogenous in vivo model of a mid-gestation extra-embryonic tissue to examine the mechanism of EXEL-specific imprinted gene silencing, but an in vitro model of ysE to facilitate more rapid and cost-effective experiments is not available. Reports indicate that ES cells differentiated into cystic embryoid bodies (EBs) contain ysE, so here we investigate if cystic EBs model ysE imprinted expression. The imprinted expression pattern of cystic EBs is shown to resemble fetal liver and not ysE. To investigate the reason for this we characterized the methylome and transcriptome of cystic EBs in comparison to fetal liver and ysE, by whole genome bisulphite sequencing and RNA-seq. Cystic EBs show a fetal liver pattern of global hypermethylation and low expression of repeats, while ysE shows global hypomethylation and high expression of IAPEz retroviral repeats, as reported for placenta. Transcriptome analysis confirmed that cystic EBs are more similar to fetal liver than ysE and express markers of early embryonic endoderm. Genome-wide analysis shows that ysE shares epigenetic and repeat expression features with placenta. Contrary to previous reports, we show that cystic EBs do not contain ysE, but are more similar to the embryonic endoderm of fetal liver. This explains why cystic EBs reproduce the imprinted expression seen in the embryo but not that seen in the ysE. PMID:25912690

  11. The search for extra-solar terrestrial planets: techniques and technology. Proceedings. Conference, Boulder, CO (USA), 14 - 17 May 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Shull; H. A. Thronson Jr.; S. A. Stern

    1996-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: search for extrasolar terrestrial planets, techniques, technology, planetary atmosphere evolution, solar system evolution, photometric search, radial velocity searches, photon-noise limit, astrometric searches, OSI mission, GAIA mission, ground-based interferometry, FRESIP mission, DARWIN project, and public involvement in extrasolar planet detection.

  12. Body mass explains characteristic scales of habitat selection in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jason T; Anholt, Brad; Volpe, John P

    2011-01-01

    Niche theory in its various forms is based on those environmental factors that permit species persistence, but less work has focused on defining the extent, or size, of a species’ environment: the area that explains a species’ presence at a point in space. We proposed that this habitat extent is identifiable from a characteristic scale of habitat selection, the spatial scale at which habitat best explains species’ occurrence. We hypothesized that this scale is predicted by body size. We tested this hypothesis on 12 sympatric terrestrial mammal species in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. For each species, habitat models varied across the 20 spatial scales tested. For six species, we found a characteristic scale; this scale was explained by species’ body mass in a quadratic relationship. Habitat measured at large scales best-predicted habitat selection in both large and small species, and small scales predict habitat extent in medium-sized species. The relationship between body size and habitat selection scale implies evolutionary adaptation to landscape heterogeneity as the driver of scale-dependent habitat selection. PMID:22393519

  13. BODY HYDRATION AND HAEMOLYMPH OSMOLALITY AFFECT FEEDING AND ITS NEURAL CORRELATE IN THE TERRESTRIAL GASTROPOD, UMAX MAXIMUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CURTIS B. PHIFER; DAVID J. PRIOR

    SUMMARY 1. When terrestrial slugs (Limax maximus) are dehydrated to 65—70 % of their initial body weight (IBW) their feeding responsiveness is greatly decreased. 2. There is a 90 % decrease in feeding responsiveness when slugs are injected with hyperosmotic mannitol solution that raises the haemolymph osmolality to that of slugs dehydrated to 65-70 % IBW (i.e. 200 mosmolkg\\

  14. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope: A Proposed Space-Based Microlensing Survey for Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets

    E-print Network

    David P. Bennett; Sun Hong Rhie

    2000-03-08

    We present a conceptual design for a space based Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) which will use the gravitational microlensing technique to detect extra solar planets with masses as low as that of Mars at all separations >~ 1 AU. The microlensing data would be collected by a diffraction limited, wide field imaging telescope of ~ 1.5m aperture equipped with a large array of red-optimized CCD detectors. Such a system would be able to monitor $\\sim 2\\times 10^8$ stars in $\\sim 6$ square degrees of the Galactic bulge at intervals of 20-30 minutes, and it would observe $\\sim 12000$ microlensing events in three bulge seasons. If planetary systems like our own are common, GEST should be able to detect $\\sim 5000$ planets over a 2.5 year lifetime. If gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn are rare, then GEST would detect $\\sim 1300$ planets in a 2.5 year mission if we assume that most planetary systems are dominated by planets of about Neptune's' mass. Such a mission would also discover $\\sim 100$ planets of an Earth mass or smaller if such planets are common. This is a factor of $\\sim 50$ better than the most ambitious ground based programs that have been proposed. GEST will also be sensitive to planets which have been separated from their parent stars.

  15. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST): A Search for Terrestrial Extra-solar Planets via Gravitational Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, D. P.; Clampin, M.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A.; Gould, A.; Horne, K.; Horner, S.; Jewitt, D.; Langston, G.; Lauer, T.; Lumsdaine, A.; Minniti, D.; Peale, S.; Rhie, S. H.; Shao, M.; Stevenson, R.; Tenerelli, D.; Tytler, D.; Woolf, N.

    2000-12-01

    GEST is a comprehensive extra-solar planet search mission sensitive to planets with masses as low as that of Mars. GEST will monitor the Galactic bulge for 8 months per year for three years to detect planets via gravitational microlensing and transits. GEST's microlensing survey will detect low-mass planets at separations of > 0.6 AU via high signal-to-noise variations of gravitational microlensing light curves. These planetary signals do not require follow-up observations to confirm the planetary interpretation, and they yield direct measurements of the star:planet mass ratio. GEST will be able to detect 100 Earth-mass planets at 1 AU (assuming 1 such planet per star) and will detect its first Earth-mass planets within a few months of launch. The GEST microlensing survey is the only proposed planet search program sensitive to old, free-floating planets. GEST's transit survey will search ~ 108 Galactic bulge stars for giant planets at separations of < 30 AU, and it is anticipated that more than 50,000 new giant planets will be discovered. When the Galactic bulge is not visible, GEST will survey ~ 1200 square degrees for Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and operate a Participating Scienctist Program (PSP) with observational programs selected via competitive proposals. The KBO survey should discover 100,000 new KBOs.

  16. N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation under the influence of a hot Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Ogihara, Masahiro [Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Boulevard de l'Observatoire, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: omasahiro@oca.eu, E-mail: ogihara@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the formation of multiple-planet systems in the presence of a hot Jupiter (HJ) using extended N-body simulations that are performed simultaneously with semianalytic calculations. Our primary aims are to describe the planet formation process starting from planetesimals using high-resolution simulations, and to examine the dependences of the architecture of planetary systems on input parameters (e.g., disk mass, disk viscosity). We observe that protoplanets that arise from oligarchic growth and undergo type I migration stop migrating when they join a chain of resonant planets outside the orbit of an HJ. The formation of a resonant chain is almost independent of our model parameters, and is thus a robust process. At the end of our simulations, several terrestrial planets remain at around 0.1 AU. The formed planets are not equal mass; the largest planet constitutes more than 50% of the total mass in the close-in region, which is also less dependent on parameters. In the previous work of this paper, we have found a new physical mechanism of induced migration of the HJ, which is called a crowding-out. If the HJ opens up a wide gap in the disk (e.g., owing to low disk viscosity), crowding-out becomes less efficient and the HJ remains. We also discuss angular momentum transfer between the planets and disk.

  17. Influence of Water Availability during Incubation on Hatchling Size, Body Composition, Desiccation Tolerance, and Terrestrial

    E-print Network

    Finkler, Michael S.

    , Desiccation Tolerance, and Terrestrial Locomotor Performance in the Snapping Turtle Chelydra serpentina incubation has been examined extensively, es- pecially in the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

  18. Extra Terrestrial Environmental Chamber Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.

    2008-01-01

    A vacuum chamber designed to simulate the dusty environment on the Moon or Mars has been built for Goddard Space Flight Center. The path from concept to delivery is reviewed, with lessons learned and pitfalls highlighted along the way.

  19. Diet Effect Study On Terrestrial Snail Body Tissues and Shell Carbonates In Experimental Conditions: Applications To Paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metref, S.; Rousseau, D.-D.; Bentaleb, I.; Labonne, M.; Vianey-Liaud, M.; Moussa, I.

    The isotopic analysis of different materials yielded original elements to understanding the ecosystems and the paleoenvironments. Although most of the studies on fossil material was interpreted through the modern conditions at the vicinity of the fossil record, no precise analysis of the impact of the diet and precipitation was carried out in order to justify such assumptions. Here we present the results of the influence of diet and water on the carbone and oxygen isotope compositions of the body tissues and shell aragonite of terrestrial mollusk shells, a particularly accurate climate indicator. Our experiment consists of individuals from hatched eggs of Helix aspersa raised in our laboratory. Three groups of snails were fed on lettuce (C3 plant), corn (C4 plant) and mixed diet (C3+C4). They were sprayed at the same time with 3 different water in order to estimate the influence of continental effect. To estimate the paleotemperature changes, the hatched snails groups were placed in three rooms adjusted automatically to different temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the d13C of the shells is a good record of the isotopic composition of the snail body tissue, and therefore a good record of diet, and the d18O a good record of precipitations in relation with temperature change.

  20. Body hydration and haemolymph osmolality affect feeding and its neural correlate in the terrestrial gastropod, Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    Phifer, C B; Prior, D J

    1985-09-01

    When terrestrial slugs (Limax maximus) are dehydrated to 65-70% of their initial body weight (IBW) their feeding responsiveness is greatly decreased. There is a 90% decrease in feeding responsiveness when slugs are injected with hyperosmotic mannitol solution that raises the haemolymph osmolality to that of slugs dehydrated to 65-70% IBW (i.e. 200 mosmol kg-1 H2O). The duration of the Feeding Motor Programme (FMP) that can be recorded from an isolated CNS-lip preparation is reduced by increasing the osmolality of the saline bathing the preparation. The osmolality of the saline that can modify the FMP corresponds to that of the haemolymph of a slug dehydrated to 65-70% IBW. The pattern of the motor programme is not affected. A gradual increase in saline osmolality which temporally mimics the progressive increase in haemolymph osmolality of a dehydrating slug also causes a decrease in the duration of the FMP. The neural network underlying the FMP appears to adapt to hyperosmotic saline since the duration of FMP bouts gradually returns to normal levels after long-term exposure (6-8 h). PMID:3937884

  1. Beyond Earth: Using Google Earth to Visualize Other Planetary Bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hancher; R. Beyer; M. Broxton; N. Gorelick; E. Kolb; M. Weiss-Malik

    2008-01-01

    Virtual globes have revolutionized the way we visualize and understand the Earth, but there are other planetary bodies that can be visualized as well. We will demonstrate the use of Google Earth, KML, and other modern mapping tools for visualizing data that's literally out of this world. Extra-terrestrial virtual globes are poised to revolutionize planetary science, bring an exciting new

  2. Interactions of Water and Energy Mediate Responses of High-Latitude Terrestrial Ecosystems to Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Subin, Zachary Marc

    2012-01-01

    effects of other extra-tropical terrestrial surface forcingsExtra-Tropical Surface Properties 9 What Mechanisms Could Cause Large, Positive High-Latitude Terrestrialterrestrial rather than ocean cooling. One such difference is that extra-

  3. Directly interacting extra-terrestrial technological communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Viewing

    1975-01-01

    The nature and distribution of intelligence in the galaxy is considered both in terms of the very great amounts of time that may have been available to the oldest civilisations which may exist and the capabilities of advanced, but not esoteric, technology. The effect of a 'multiplying' factor-colonisation-leads to a galactic scenario in which, by the present time, such older

  4. The Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tarter

    1998-01-01

    Aliens abound on the movie screens, but in reality we are still trying to find out if we share our universe with other sentient creatures. Intelligence is very difficult to define, and impossible to directly detect over interstellar distances. Therefore, SETI, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, is actually an attempt to detect evidence of another distant technology. If we find

  5. Searching for extra-terrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gindilis, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The probability of radio interchange with extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed. Difficulties constitute absorption, scattering, and dispersion of signals by the rarified interstellar medium as well as the deciphering of received signals and convergence of semantic concept. A cybernetic approach considers searching for signals that develop from astroengineering activities of extraterrestrial civilizations.

  6. ON THE EFFECT OF GIANT PLANETS ON THE SCATTERING OF PARENT BODIES OF IRON METEORITE FROM THE TERRESTRIAL PLANET REGION INTO THE ASTEROID BELT: A CONCEPT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Scott, Edward R. D., E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu [Hawaii Institute for Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    In their model for the origin of the parent bodies of iron meteorites, Bottke et al. proposed differentiated planetesimals, formed in 1-2 AU during the first 1.5 Myr, as the parent bodies, and suggested that these objects and their fragments were scattered into the asteroid belt as a result of interactions with planetary embryos. Although viable, this model does not include the effect of a giant planet that might have existed or been growing in the outer regions. We present the results of a concept study where we have examined the effect of a planetary body in the orbit of Jupiter on the early scattering of planetesimals from the terrestrial region into the asteroid belt. We integrated the orbits of a large battery of planetesimals in a disk of planetary embryos and studied their evolutions for different values of the mass of the planet. Results indicate that when the mass of the planet is smaller than 10 M{sub Circled-Plus }, its effects on the interactions among planetesimals and planetary embryos are negligible. However, when the planet mass is between 10 and 50 M{sub Circled-Plus }, simulations point to a transitional regime with {approx}50 M{sub Circled-Plus} being the value for which the perturbing effect of the planet can no longer be ignored. Simulations also show that further increase of the mass of the planet strongly reduces the efficiency of the scattering of planetesimals from the terrestrial planet region into the asteroid belt. We present the results of our simulations and discuss their possible implications for the time of giant planet formation.

  7. Enrichment of Non-Terrestrial L-Proteinogenic Amino Acids by Aqueous Alteration on the Tagish Lake Meteorite Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Herd, Christopher D. K.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids found in three distinct fragments of the Tagish Lake C2-type carbonaceous chondrite were investigated via liquid chromatography fluorescence detection time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Large L-enantiomeric excesses (L(sub ee) approx. 43 to 59%) of the a-hydrogen aspartic and glutamic amino acids were measured in Tagish Lake, whereas alanine, another alpha-hydrogen protein amino acid, was found to be nearly racemic (D approx. L) using both techniques. Carbon isotope measurements of D- and L-aspartic acid and D- and L-alanine in Tagish Lake fall well outside of the terrestrial range and indicate that the measured aspartic acid enantioenrichment is indigenous to the meteorite. Alternate explanations for the Lexcesses of aspartic acid such as interference from other compounds present in the sample, analytical biases, or terrestrial amino acid contamination were investigated and rejected. These results can be explained by differences in the solid-solution phase behavior of aspartic acid, which can form conglomerate enantiopure solids during crystallization, and alanine, which can only form racemic crystals.

  8. Measuring feeding traits of a range of litter-consuming terrestrial snails: leaf litter consumption, faeces production and scaling with body size.

    PubMed

    Astor, Tina; Lenoir, Lisette; Berg, Matty P

    2015-07-01

    Plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to energy and nutrient cycling above- and belowground. Terrestrial gastropods can affect this process in various ways: they consume and fragment leaf litter and create suitable habitats for microorganisms through the production of faeces and mucus. We assessed the contributions of ten litter-feeding terrestrial snail species to leaf litter mass loss and checked whether consumption rate and faeces production scale with body size (i.e. shell size and shape), which may indicate that morphological traits can serve as proxies for consumption rate. Additionally, we compared the consumption rates of a subset of these species among litter types of two plant species which differ in resource quality (Fraxinus excelsior and Betula pendula). These snail species differed in their litter consumption rates. Consumption rates differed between the two litter types, whereas the rank order of litter consumption by the different species was independent of litter quality. Consumption rate and faeces production were positively related to shell size, whereas relative consumption rate and faeces production were related to shell shape, with more elongated snail species having lower relative consumption rates and faeces production rates. Our results show that easily measurable morphological traits scale with the feeding traits of snails, and represent useful proxies for consumption rate and faeces production, which are laborious to measure. Thus, estimated potential total consumption rates of snail communities along environmental gradients may be inferred from shell-size distributions. Our study contributes to a systematic trait-based evaluation of the importance of gastropods to litter decomposition. PMID:25698139

  9. Terrestrial sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Charlie Byrer

    2008-03-10

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  10. KINEMATIC AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF THE BODY AXIS DURING TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC LOCOMOTION IN THE SALAMANDER AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARRY M. FROLICH; ANDREW A. BIEWENER

    1992-01-01

    Summary Aquatic neotenic and terrestrial metamorphosed salamanders {Ambystoma tigrinum) were videotaped simultaneously with electromyographic (EMG) recording from five epaxial myotomes along the animal's trunk during swimming in a flow tank and trotting on a treadmill to investigate axial function during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion. Neotenic and metamorphosed individuals swim using very similar axial wave patterns, despite significant differences in axial

  11. Climate and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets around other Stars

    E-print Network

    Forget, François

    extraterrestrial intelligent life directly by looking for radio signals. The ``Search for Extra­Terrestrial@lmd.jussieu.fr). Abstract. The recent discovery of extra­solar giant planets, the quest for extraterrestrial radio Intelligence'' (SETI) programs involve sev­ eral major radio­telescopes around the world. The main SETI project

  12. TERRESTRIAL ECOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial ecotoxicology is the study of how environmental pollutants affect land-dependent organisms and their environment. It requires three elements: (1) a source, (2) a receptor, and (3) an exposure pathway. This article reviews the basic principles of each of each element...

  13. Influence of Water Availability during Incubation on Hatchling Size, Body Composition, Desiccation Tolerance, and Terrestrial Locomotor Performance in the Snapping Turtle [ITAL]Chelydra serpentina[\\/ITAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Finkler

    1999-01-01

    The effects of water availability during incubation on the water contents of neonatal snapping turtles at hatching were exam- ined, along with the influence of hatchling water content on desiccation tolerance and terrestrial locomotor performance. The water contents of hatchlings from eggs incubated on wet substrates were both absolutely and proportionally greater than were those of hatchlings from eggs incubated

  14. 15. PALEOLIMNOLOGY OF EXTREME COLD TERRESTRIAL AND EXTRATERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    E-print Network

    Priscu, John C.

    15. PALEOLIMNOLOGY OF EXTREME COLD TERRESTRIAL AND EXTRATERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS 475 R. Pienitz, M understanding of life's origins on our planet and other extraterrestrial bodies. Liquid water is essential

  15. The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Recent CANGAROO observations of extra-galactic objects

    E-print Network

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Recent CANGAROO observations of extra-galactic objects K) Solar-Terrestrial Env. Lab., Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan (14) NAO, Mitaka, Tokyo 181 of Physics, Osaka City Univ., Osaka, Osaka 558-8585, Japan Abstract This report outlines recent notable extra

  16. Influence of water availability during incubation on hatchling size, body composition, desiccation tolerance, and terrestrial locomotor performance in the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Finkler, M S

    1999-01-01

    The effects of water availability during incubation on the water contents of neonatal snapping turtles at hatching were examined, along with the influence of hatchling water content on desiccation tolerance and terrestrial locomotor performance. The water contents of hatchlings from eggs incubated on wet substrates were both absolutely and proportionally greater than were those of hatchlings from eggs incubated on dry substrates. Hatchlings with greater water contents at hatching were able to survive longer and to lose more water before physiological performance was adversely affected by desiccation. Increased water contents in hatchlings with greater water availability during incubation may enhance survival by increasing the amount of water the animal can afford to lose before dehydration begins to adversely affect whole animal performance. PMID:10603335

  17. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph Observatory summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Virginia; Levine-Westa, Marie; Kissila, Andy; Kwacka, Eug; Hoa, Tim; Dumonta, Phil; Lismana, Doug; Fehera, Peter; Cafferty, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Creating an optical space telescope observatory capable of detecting and characterizing light from extra-solar terrestrial planets poses technical challenges related to extreme wavefront stability. The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph design team has been developing an observatory based on trade studies, modeling and analysis that has guided us towards design choices to enable this challenging mission. This paper will describe the current flight baseline design of the observatory and the trade studies that have been performed. The modeling and analysis of this design will be described including predicted performance and the tasks yet to be done.

  18. Long-term impacts of even-aged timber management on abundance and body condition of terrestrial amphibians in Northwestern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Karraker; H. H. Welsh Jr

    2006-01-01

    Conservation needs for amphibians in managed timberlands may differ based upon the species present and the timber harvesting methods employed. Clearcuts have been documented to be detrimental to amphibians but the impacts of associated silvicultural edges and alternative harvesting treatments are not well understood. The primary objective of this study was to determine if amphibian abundances and body condition differed

  19. On communications with extra-terrestrial or alien intelligences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Haviland

    1975-01-01

    The discussion deals with two questions: assuming a signal has been detected, does the signal contain a message. If so, how can it be deciphered. The concept of the message as a statistical variate is explained. When the suspected sequence of elements is examined for randomness, if any departure from randomness is found, the presence of a message is indicated.

  20. Satellite Radiotomography of Ionospheric Responces to Extra-Terrestrial Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyn, Viacheslav; Padokhin, Artem; Andreeva, Elena; Tereshchenko, Evgeny; Nesterov, Ivan; Vorontsov, Artem

    Our work addresses the study of the response of the atmosphere and ionosphere to a variety of external forcing such as solar flares and particle precipitation. Particle precipitation plays important role in the system of magnetosphere-ionosphere- atmosphere coupling during geomagnetic storms. Using radio tomographic imaging of the ionosphere based on navigational satellite systems (Parus/Transit and GPS/GLONASS) we present and discuss the examples illustrating ionospheric effects caused by particle precipitations detected by DMSP satellites. It is shown that the spatial structure of corpuscular ionization in the tomographic images is qualitatively close to latitudinal distribution of the precipitating particles. The distributions of ionospheric plasma observed during strong geomagnetic disturbances and particle precipitations have multiple extrema and wave-like structures with a spatial scale ranging from a few dozens to a few hundreds of kilometers; the characteristic sizes of latitudinal variations in the corresponding corpuscular flows widely vary from a few degrees to a few dozens degrees latitude. The obtained experimental results are in good agreement with the results of the numeric modelling of the AGW generation by volumetric sources. We also present the comparison of the effects of ionization of the ionosphere by a series of intense X-class solar flares during the 23rd and 24th solar cycles based on the data of satellite navigation and augumentation systems (GPS/GLONASS and SBAS). The analysis shows that the intensity of the ionospheric effects estimated from the variations in total electron content is barely related to the intensity of the X-ray flare for the X-class events. The amplitude of variations in the ionization of the upper atmosphere is mainly controlled by the intensity of variations in solar EUV radiation, which is not always correlated to the X-Ray radiation during flares. The authors acknowledge the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants ? 13-05-01122, 14-05-31445, 14-05-00855, 14-05-10069), grants of the President of Russian Federation (MK-2670.2014.5) and Lomonosov Moscow State University Program of Development.

  1. Cosmic ray produced nitrogen in extra terrestrial matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Mathew; S. V. S. Murty

    1993-01-01

    Production rates of15N by both solar cosmic rays (SCR) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have been calculated for moon, as well as meteorites of various\\u000a sizes. Our production rates of15N which considered both the reaction channels16O(p, pn)15O and16O(p, 2p)15N separately are about 30% higher than those by Reedy (1981) who considered only the channel16O(p, pn)15O and used an empirical scaling

  2. Diffuse, global and extra-terrestrial solar radiation for Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. A. Hawlader

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, equations have been developed to estimate diffuse fraction of the hourly, daily and monthly global insolation on a horizontal surface. These correlations are expressed in terms of Kd, the ratio of diffuse-to-total radiation, and KT, the clearness index. The hourly correlation equations, show a fairly similar trend to that of Orgill and Hollands (1) and Spencer (5)

  3. The measurement of extra-terrestrial radio wave emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Hagen

    1949-01-01

    Not Available Printing Options Send high resolution image to Level 2 Postscript Printer Send low resolution image to Level 2 Postscript Printer Send low resolution image to Level 1 Postscript Printer Get high resolution PDF image Get low resolution PDF Send 300 dpi image to PCL Printer Send 150 dpi image to PCL Printer More Article Retrieval Options HELP for

  4. Raman spectroscopic studies of carbon in extra-terrestrial materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Macklin; Donald Brownlee; Sherwood Chang; Ted Bunch

    1990-01-01

    The measurements obtained here indicate ways in which micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to elucidate structural characteristics and distribution of carbon in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Existing information about structurally significant aspects of Raman measurements of graphite is combined with structurally relevant findings from the present micro-Raman studies of carbons prepared by carbonization of polyvinylidine chloride (PVDC) at

  5. Extra-terrestrial nuclear power stations : transportation and operation

    E-print Network

    Kane, Susan Christine

    2005-01-01

    Many challenges exist when considering nuclear power to provide electricity for bases on the Moon or Mars, including launch safety, landing safety, deployment, control, and protecting the astronauts from radiation. Examples ...

  6. Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence Donna M. Jurdy

    E-print Network

    Jurdy, Donna M.

    #12;#12;#12;#12;H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds (1898) #12;Viking composite Mars mid 70's #12;#12;#12;#12;Hidden Water on Mars Liquid water can not exist on the surface at present. It would evaporate due to low atmospheric pressure. But there is strong evidence for liquid water in the past: Outflow channels from sudden

  7. A SETI experiment. [Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to increase the probability of contact in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), it has been proposed to search more intensively in certain regions of the electromagnetic spectrum ('the water hole'). The present paper describes a similar narrowing of the search in the time domain. Application of this strategy results in the SETI experiments searching for signals from the Tau Ceti system late in 1986 and early in 1987, and from the Epsilon Eridani system in mid 1988.

  8. Application of MODTRAN ™ to ExtraTerrestrial Planetary Atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence S. Bernstein; Alexander Berk; Robert L. Sundberg

    MODTRAN ™ (1) is a widely used radiative-transfer (RT) code for computing the transmission and emission of the Earth's atmosphere. However, the RT algorithms used in MODTRAN ™ are generally applicable to any layered atmosphere, and, in principle, can be applied to any planetary atmosphere. The primary modification required for this application is the development of the appropriate spectral properties

  9. Extra-terrestrial Life in the Milky Way Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal J.

    2014-09-01

    Are we alone? Along with questions about black holes, this is one of the questions most commonly asked of astrophysicists. While the simple answer is that we don't know, logical and rational exploration of the question can be illuminating and a very good way to introduce non-scientists to the "scientific worldview." This short essay is based on a class for students not majoring in science, which I have taught for nearly forty years at the University of Texas at Austin.

  10. Problem of searching for extra-terrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambartsumyan, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Possible criteria characterizing extraterrestrial civilizations and their detection are: (1) deduction of their existence by evaluating astronomical prerequisites for the development of life in remote planetary systems; (2) detection and communication with extraterrestrial civilizations; and (3) the problem of language and content of information in transmitted signals.

  11. Systems Engineering for the Kepler Mission: A Search for Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    Systems Engineering for the Kepler Mission: A Search for Terrestrial Planets Riley Duren*a , Karen, extra-solar planets, Kepler mission, validation & verification, performance modeling * riley.m.duren

  12. The range of validity of the two-body approximation in models of terrestrial planet accumulation. II - Gravitational cross sections and runaway accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.; Cox, L. P.

    1985-01-01

    The validity of the two-body approximation in calculating encounters between planetesimals has been evaluated as a function of the ratio of unperturbed planetesimal velocity (with respect to a circular orbit) to mutual escape velocity when their surfaces are in contact (V/V-sub-e). Impact rates as a function of this ratio are calculated to within about 20 percent by numerical integration of the equations of motion. It is found that when the ratio is greater than 0.4 the two-body approximation is a good one. Consequences of reducing the ratio to less than 0.02 are examined. Factors leading to an optimal size for growth of planetesimals from a swarm of given eccentricity and placing a limit on the extent of runaway accretion are derived.

  13. Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Mills, L. Scott

    Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation Steven W. Running and L. Scott Mills RFF REPORT ............................... 16 Expected Future Ecosystem Trends ................................................................................................................................................................ 27 #12; RUNNING AND MILLS 1 Terrestrial Ecosystem Adaptation Steven W. Running and L. Scott

  14. A numerical treatment of melt/solid segregation - Size of the eucrite parent body and stability of the terrestrial low-velocity zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Stolper, E. M.; Hays, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Crystal sinking to form cumulates and melt percolation toward segregation in magma pools can be treated with modifications of Stokes' and Darcy's laws, respectively. The velocity of crystals and melt depends, among other things, on the force of gravity (g) driving the separations and the cooling time of the environment. The increase of g promotes more efficient differentiation, whereas the increase of cooling rate limits the extent to which crystals and liquid can separate. The rate at which separation occurs is strongly dependent on the proportion of liquid that is present. The observation of cumulates and segregated melts among the eucrite meteorites is used as a basis for calculating the g (and planet size) required to perform these differentiations. The eucrite parent body was probably at least 10-100 km in radius. The earth's low velocity zone (LVZ) is shown to be unstable with respect to draining itself of excess melt if the melt forms an interconnecting network. A geologically persistent LVZ with a homogeneous distribution of melt can be maintained with melt fractions only on the order of 0.1% or less.

  15. Physics From Extra Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Pran Nath

    2000-12-06

    A brief review of the recent developments in the physics from extra dimensions is given with a focus on the effects of Kaluza-Klein excitations in the Standard Model sector. It is shown that the current accurate data on the Fermi constant and on other electro-weak parameters puts a lower bound on the scale of extra dimensions of $\\sim$ 3 TeV, and thus the observation of such dimensions lies beyond the reach of accelerators in the near future. The correction to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon from extra dimensions is discussed and one finds that with the current limit on the scale of extra dimensions from the Fermi constant, the correction to $g_{\\mu}-2$ does not compete with the potentially large contributions from the supersymmetric electro-weak correction. The possibility of generating Kaluza-Klein excitations associated with large radius compactifications at the LHC is discussed. It is shown that if such excitations are indeed produced their resonance structure will encode information on the number of compactified dimensions as well as on the nature of the specific orbifold compactification. A brief discussion of difficulties such as rapid proton decay that one encounters in theories with large radius compactifications is given.

  16. Extra Dimensions and ``Branes''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundrum, Raman

    2011-04-01

    We do not yet know the nature of fundamental physics above the weak scale, but we are about to probe it this decade. It may come in the form of a few new weakly-coupled particles, captured by ordinary Feynman diagrams in standard spacetime, or alternatively in the form of large ``towers'' of new elementary or composite states, requiring a different set of concepts and analytic tools. Extra spatial dimensions provide the simplest, but very rich, class of such possibilities. I will explain how extra-dimensions can provide an elegant and intuitive geometrization of subtle physics, in particular flowing from the powerful AdS/CFT correspondence. This geometrization allows one to ``view'' central issues ranging from electroweak, grand unified, strongly-coupled, flavor, supersymmetry, or collider physics, in terms of the overlap of extra-dimensional wavefunctions, the curvature (``warping'') of the higher dimensional spacetime, and ``branes'' (3-dimensional defects). I will illustrate the kind of physics and experimental signals that flow from the most plausible extra-dimensional scenarios.

  17. A theoretical investigation of isotopic anomalies of xenon in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabu, D. D.

    1977-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of noble gases in meteorites is discussed in relation to the composition of the early solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites contain a unique Xenon-X, which is rich in heavy and light isotopes. Variations in the occurrence of type-X and type-Y (the normal component) noble gases are of such magnitude that neither the injection of material from a nearby supernova nor presence of presolar grains can account for the anomalies in meteorites. Therefore, it is suggested that the entire solar system may have condensed from the debris of a single local supernova.

  18. X-ray biosignature of bacteria in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lemelle; A. Simionovici; J. Susini; P. Oger; M. Chukalina; Ch. Rau; B. Golosio; P. Gillet

    2003-01-01

    X-ray imaging techniques at the best spatial resolution and using synchrotron facilities are put forth as powerful techniques for the search of small life forms in extraterrestrial rocks under quarantine conditions (Lemelle et al. 2003). Samples, which may be collected in situ on the martian surface or on a cometary surface, will be brought back and finally stored in a

  19. Measurements of H2O in the terrestrial mesosphere and implications for extra-terrestrial sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivero, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements of mesospheric water vapor and their implications for the existence of extraterrestrial sources of water are discussed. This study was prompted by the work of L. Frank and others who, based on their interpretation of transient dark spots visible in ultraviolet images of the Earth's dayglow emission, have proposed that a large flux of small comets enters the Earth's upper atmosphere each day. To date, however, analysis does not conclusively refute or support the idea of an external source.

  20. Extra Credit Problem Set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sarah Brownlee

    This problem set was assigned at the end of the year as a way for the students to get some extra credit and to help them study for the final exam. The problem set has 3 parts: 1) Strain: finding S1 and S3, measuring angular shear, and determining coaxial vs. noncoaxial deformation, 2) Calculating surface stresses on an inclined surface, and 3) Mohr stress circles.

  1. Extra Credit Crossword Puzzles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jane Selverstone

    These are two crossword puzzles that I hand out for extra credit, one for the igneous half of the course and the other for the metamorphic half. The puzzles reinforce concepts, vocabulary, and mineral formulae that we have gone over in class and labs. The students *love* them, and usually end up working on them in groups. Both puzzles were created using the Discovery Channel Puzzlemaker: http://puzzlemaker.school.discovery.com.

  2. TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terrestrial Habitats Project at the Western Ecology Division (Corvallis, OR) is developing tools and databases to meet the needs of Program Office clients for assessing risks to wildlife and terrestrial ecosystems. Because habitat is a dynamic condition in real-world environm...

  3. Earth and the Terrestrial

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Earth and the Geology of the Terrestrial Planets (Bennett et al. Ch. 9) #12; Terrestrial planets the Sun, rotation affects erosion Crater density can indicate surface age Earth has a unique geology: ­ P-waves: compressional waves ­ S-waves: shear waves S-waves cannot pass through liquid ­ Earth

  4. Evolution of Terrestrial Atmospheres

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    O'Connell, Robert W.

    This lecture compares terrestrial atmospheres as well as discusses atmospheric processes, atmospheric equilibrium, and the atmospheric development of Mars, Venus, and Earth. It ends with a discussion of natural and unnatural climatic changes.

  5. Terrestrial Impact Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.

    Emphasis is placed on the nature of terrestrial impact structures, the criteria for their identification, and their contribution to constraining formational processes and cratering rate estimates. The relationship of large-scale impact to Earth history is also considered.

  6. Way of life Extra material

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    Ubiquity Way of life Extra material Ubiquity of multilevel models and how to understand them better material Making more use of existing information The problem: not enough data to estimate effects Way of life Extra material Making more use of existing information The problem: not enough data

  7. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons to a future volume. Our authors have taken on the task to look at climate on the terrestrial planets in the broadest sense possible — by comparing the atmospheric processes at work on the four terrestrial bodies, Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan (Titan is included because it hosts many of the common processes), and on terrestrial planets around other stars. These processes include the interactions of shortwave and thermal radiation with the atmosphere, condensation and vaporization of volatiles, atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and aerosol formation, and the role of the surface and interior in the long-term evolution of climate. Chapters herein compare the scientific questions, analysis methods, numerical models, and spacecraft remote sensing experiments of Earth and the other terrestrial planets, emphasizing the underlying commonality of physical processes. We look to the future by identifying objectives for ongoing research and new missions. Through these pages we challenge practicing planetary scientists, and most importantly new students of any age, to find pathways and synergies for advancing the field. In Part I, Foundations, we introduce the fundamental physics of climate on terrestrial planets. Starting with the best studied planet by far, Earth, the first chapters discuss what is known and what is not known about the atmospheres and climates of the terrestrial planets of the solar system and beyond. In Part II, Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Dynamics, we focus on the processes that govern atmospheric motion and the role that general circulation models play in our current understanding. In Part III, Clouds and Hazes, we provide an in-depth look at the many effects of clouds and aerosols on planetary climate. Although this is a vigorous area of research in the Earth sciences, and very strongly influences climate modeling, the important role that aerosols and clouds play in the climate of all planets is not yet well constrained. This section is intended to stimulate further research on this critical subject. The study of climate involves much more than

  8. Experimental Tribulus terrestris poisoning in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; V. Ebrahim-pour; A. N. Mohebi

    2004-01-01

    Seven, 1–2-year-old native goats were fed dried Tribulus terrestris from Sabzevar district of Khorasan province for 8 weeks. Two goats showed clinical signs of toxicity including weight loss, depression, ruminal stasis, icterus and elevation of body temperature. Haematological and biochemical trails revealed a declining of packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma total protein and elevation of total and direct bilirubin,

  9. Global terrestrial carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.M.; Cramer, W.P.; Dixon, R.K.; Leemans, R.; Neilson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle. The uncertainty arises from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on natural ecosystems. Despite these limitations, a number of studies have estimated current and future patterns of terrestrial carbon storage. Future estimates focus on the effects of a climate change associated with a doubled atmospheric concentration of CO2. Available models for examining the dynamics of terrestrial carbon storage and the potential role of forest management and landuse practices on carbon conservation and sequestration are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  10. Ergogenic effects of Tribulus terrestris supplementation in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislaw Poprzecki; Aleksandra Zebrowska; Jaroslaw Cholewa; Adam Zajac; Zbigniew Waskiewicz

    The main objective of this research project was to evaluate the effects of Tribulus terrestris supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and serum hormone profile in men. The research material in- cluded 24 competitive basketball players (age- 26.2±3.4 years, body height 191.2±6.7 cm, body mass- 91.5±9.8 kg) divided into 3 groups of 8 subjects each. One group received a supplement

  11. GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, arising from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO, on natural eco...

  12. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  13. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  14. NATIVE TERRESTRIAL INVERTEBRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne C. Gagn

    The fint collections of terrestrial invertebrates from the Hawaiian Islands were made during Captain James Cook's voyages in 1778 and 1779. Little of this material was examined scientifically other than by Fabricius (1792-1794), who described the large ichneumon wasp Eclltllromorphufuscator and the vespid hornet Odynem radulu from these collections. The ultimate disposition of specimens, and which ones subsequently survived, became

  15. Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

  16. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maeve M. Moriarty; Iris Koch; Robert A. Gordon; Kenneth J. Reimer

    2009-01-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine

  17. Nitrogen inputs accelerate phosphorus cycling rates across a wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    cycles of P mineralizing enzyme activities (phosphatase enzymes) across a wide variety of terrestrial phosphatase activity, from the tropics to the extra-tropics, both on plant roots and in bulk soils Phytologist (2012) 193: 696­704 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03967.x Key words: extracellular enzyme, meta

  18. Translating Extra-Nuclear Steroid Receptor Signaling to Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ellis R

    2014-01-01

    The existence and function of extra-nuclear steroid receptors (SR) to rapidly modulate signal transduction is now acknowledged as present in cells and organs throughout the body. Work over the past 15 years has defined key mechanisms that are required for sex steroid receptors to traffic to the plasma membrane, but mechanisms of localization in other cell organelles such as mitochondria is still unclear. Signaling by membrane-localized SR has now been reported to impact many aspects of adult organ functions, while the roles in organ development are under investigation. In hormone-responsive cancers, both extra-nuclear and nuclear sex steroid receptors appear to collaborate in the regulation of some key genes that promote malignancy. Here I review what is understood about the impact of extra-nuclear steroid receptor signaling to mitigate or promote disease processes. PMID:24752388

  19. Collisional Evolution of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnor, C.; Asphaug, E.

    2004-12-01

    The terrestrial planets are generally thought to have formed via the collisional accumulation of rocky bodies. The characteristics of the planets produced by this process are, to a large degree, determined by their collisional evolution, and their associated differentiation and thermal evolution. Studies of planet formation and planetary collisional evolution have typically been conducted separately. Most works of late-stage planet formation use perfectly inelastic mergers to model collisions (e.g. Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999, Chambers 2001, Levison & Agnor 2003), with certain recognized inadequacies, notably prohibitively large spin angular momentum acquired as a planet grows. To date, studies of the collisional evolution of terrestrial planets has focused on determining the efficacy of single impacts to account for particular planetary characteristics and the formation of satellites (e.g. Benz et al. 1988, Canup & Asphaug 2001, Canup 2004). It has been recognized for some time (Wetherill 1985) that the final characteristics (e.g. spin state, bulk composition, isotopic age) of an accreting planet are determined not by the last or single largest collision but by all of the major collisional encounters in a planet's history (Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999). As demonstrated by our impact models, each major impact changes the silicate to metal ratio, the thermal state, and the spin state, and sets the stage for the subsequent collision. We are studying collisional dynamics and outcomes common to the late stage of terrestrial planet formation. We use smooth particle hydrodynamics model collisions in an effort to identify the range of impact dynamics that allow for accretion (i.e. mass growth instead of mass loss). In our initial study we found that for dynamical environments typical of most late stage accretion models, about half of all collisions between equal mass planetary embryos do not result in accumulation into a larger embryo (Agnor & Asphaug 2004). We will present new results of collisions for a variety of mass ratios and will discuss the cumulative affect of giant impacts and non-accretionary collisions on planetary characteristics (e.g. Mercury's collisional mantle loss and bulk composition, planetary spin states) and the extent to which collisional processes may account for planetary heterogeneity.

  20. Extra force in brane worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youm, Donam

    2000-10-01

    By carefully analyzing the geodesic motion of a test particle in the bulk of brane worlds, we identify an extra force which is recognized in a spacetime of one lower dimension as a nongravitational force acting on the particle. Such extra force acts on the particle in such a way that the conventional particle mechanics in one lower dimension is violated, thereby hinting at the higher-dimensional origin of embedded spacetime in the brane world scenario. We obtain the explicit equations describing the motion of the bulk test particle as observed in one lower dimension for general gravitating configurations in brane worlds and identify the extra nongravitational force acting on the particle measured in one lower dimension.

  1. Thermal evolutions of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Hsui, A. T.; Johnston, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for the thermal evolution of the moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, and hypothetical minor planets, with consideration of conduction, solid-state convection, and differentiation. A variety of geological, geochemical and geophysical data is used to constrain both the present-day temperatures and the thermal histories of the planetary interiors. The data imply that the planets were heated during or shortly after formation and that all the terrestrial planets started differentiating early in their history. The size of the planet is the primary factor in determining its present-day thermal state. A planetary body with radius less than 1000 km is unlikely to reach melting, given heat source concentrations similar to terrestrial values and in the absence of intensive early heating.

  2. Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Lemmens

    \\u000a Since the early 2000s terrestrial laser scanning has evolved from a research and development (R&D) topic to a geo-data technology,\\u000a which is commercially offered by a multitude of land surveying companies and other service providers all over the world. The\\u000a technology is primarily used for the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) information of a variety of topographic and\\u000a industrial objects.

  3. Terrestrial Exoplanet Light Curves

    E-print Network

    Eric Gaidos; Nicholas Moskovitz; Darren M. Williams

    2005-11-23

    The phase or orbital light curves of extrasolar terrestrial planets in reflected or emitted light will contain information about their atmospheres and surfaces complementary to data obtained by other techniques such as spectrosopy. We show calculated light curves at optical and thermal infrared wavelengths for a variety of Earth-like and Earth-unlike planets. We also show that large satellites of Earth-sized planets are detectable, but may cause aliasing effects if the lightcurve is insufficiently sampled.

  4. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Harms, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article.

  5. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Jan Harms

    2015-07-21

    The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article.

  6. Extra Logica door Joost Engelfriet

    E-print Network

    Engelfriet, Joost

    Extra Logica door Joost Engelfriet Supplement bij het boek Logica voor informatici Dit manuscript bevat, hoofdstuks-gewijs, een aantal aanvullingen op en toevoe- gingen aan het boek \\Logica voor 10 van het boek! De tentamenstof bestaat uit Hoofdstukken 1 t/m 11 van het boek, en dit Supplement

  7. Bergmann's rule and the terrestrial caecilian Schistometopum thomense (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. John Measey; Stefan Van Dongen

    2006-01-01

    Question: Do caecilians follow Bergmann's rule? Hypothesis: Bergmann's rule explains the wide variation in body sizes found among populations of the terrestrial caecilian Schistometopum thomense. Field site: This is a range-wide study incorporating most terrestrial habitats throughout the island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. Methods: We performed morphological measurements on 95 museum specimens and 187 field-collected individuals

  8. Title of Dissertation: Planetesimal Evolution and the Formation of Terrestrial Planets

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    Abstract Title of Dissertation: Planetesimal Evolution and the Formation of Terrestrial Planets Zo simulations of planet formation have used extrapolations of impact experiments in the strength regime to model are presented from a dozen direct N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation with various initial

  9. Solar terrestrial observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Eight basic solar-terrestrial scientific objectives that benefit from the Shuttle/Platform approach and a program of measurements for each are discussed. The objectives are to understand: (1) solar variability, (2) wave-particle processes, (3) magnetosphere-ionosphere mass transport, (4) the global electric circuit, (5) upper atmospheric dynamics, (6) middle atmospheric chemistry and energetics, (7) lower atmospheric turbidity, and (8) planetary atmospheric waves. A two stage approach to a multidisciplinary payload is developed: an initial STO, that uses a single platform in a low-Earth orbit, and an advanced STO that uses two platforms in differing orbits.

  10. Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D.W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these ecosystems. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.

  11. Does Terrestrial Carbon Subsidize Production of Estuarine Fish Larvae?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study shows important connections between terrestrial, riverine and marine energy sources in supporting larval fish production across an estuarine ecosystem in Chesapeake Bay, VA. It adds to a growing body of evidence that across ecosystem energy-exchanges play an important ...

  12. Kinematics of Terrestrial Locomotion in Mole Cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; He Huang; Xiangyang Liu; Luquan Ren

    2011-01-01

    The fore leg of mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) has developed into claw for digging and excavating. As the result of having a well-suited body and appendages for living underground, mole cricket still needs to manoeuvre on land in some cases with some kinds of gait. In this paper, the three-dimensional kinematics information of mole cricket in terrestrial walking was recorded

  13. How Do I Get Rid of Extra Skin After Weight Loss?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skin After Weight Loss? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Body Image & Self-Esteem > How Do I Get Rid of Extra ... TOPIC Why Exercise Is Wise Nutrition & Fitness Center Body Image and Self-Esteem Strength Training Stretch Marks Contact Us Print ...

  14. Terrestrial Insect Ingestion by Filter Feeding Caddisfly Larvae, Brachycentrus americanus (Trichoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayuko Ohkawa; Tomiko Ito

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial insect ingestion by larvae of the caddisfly, Brachycentrus americanus, was observed for the first time. The caddisfly larvae caught the large moth larvae in the water current, tore the exoskeleton of the larvae, and ingested the body contents.

  15. The Lunar Inclination as a Monitor of Late Stage Terrestrial Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, K.; Morbidelli, A.

    2015-02-01

    We have identified a mechanism that can naturally reproduce the lunar orbital excitation and sets direct constraints on the number and mass of remnant bodies in the terrestrial planet region at the time of the Moon-forming giant impact.

  16. Utility Terrestrial Biodiversity Issues

    PubMed

    BREECE; WARD

    1996-11-01

    / Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Utilities; Rights-of-way; Terrestrial; Management PMID:8895401

  17. Hubble Extra Solar Planet Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proposed third-generation Hubble instrument for extra-solar planet detection, the Hubble Extra-Solar Planet Interferometer (HESPI). This instrument would be able to achieve starlight cancellation at the 10 exp 6 to 10 exp 8 level, given a stellar wavefront with phase errors comparable to the present Hubble telescope wavefront. At 10 exp 6 starlight cancellation, HESPI would be able to detect a Jupiter-like planet next to a star at a distance of about 10 parsec, for which there are about 400 candidate stars. This paper describes a novel approach for starlight suppression, using a combination of active control and single-mode spatial filters, to achieve starlight suppression far below the classical limit set by scattering due to microsurface imperfections. In preliminary lab experiments, suppression by a factor of 40 below the classical scatter limit due to optical wavefront errors has been demonstrated.

  18. SOLAR PHYSICS AND TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    SOLAR PHYSICS AND TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Solar-Terrestrial Interactions from the charged particles that reach the planet steadily as part of the solar wind and the much it will be deflected into a circular or spiral path by the Lorentz Force. Most charged particles in the solar wind

  19. Extra-articular hip endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Verhelst, L.; Guevara, V.; De Schepper, J.; Van Melkebeek, J.; Pattyn, C.; Audenaert, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy. PMID:23610664

  20. Extra-articular Snapping Hip

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Context: Snapping hip, or coxa saltans, is a vague term used to describe palpable or auditory snapping with hip movements. As increasing attention is paid to intra-articular hip pathologies such as acetabular labral tears, it is important to be able to identify and understand the extra-articular causes of snapping hip. Evidence Acquisition: The search terms snapping hip and coxa sultans were used in PubMed to locate suitable studies of any publication date (ending date, November 2008). Results: Extra-articular snapping may be caused laterally by the iliotibial band or anteriorly by the iliopsoas tendon. Snapping of the iliopsoas tendon usually requires contraction of the hip flexors and may be difficult to differentiate from intra-articular causes of snapping. Dynamic ultrasound can help detect abrupt tendon translation during movement, noninvasively supporting the diagnosis of extra-articular snapping hip. The majority of cases of snapping hip resolve with conservative treatment, which includes avoidance of aggravating activities, stretching, and anti-inflammatory medication. In recalcitrant cases, surgery to lengthen the iliotibial band or the iliopsoas tendon has produced symptom relief but may result in prolonged weakness. Conclusions: In treating active patients with snapping soft tissues around the hip, clinicians should recognize that the majority of cases resolve without surgical intervention, while being mindful of the potential for concomitant intra-articular and internal snapping hips. PMID:23015936

  1. NAAP ExtraSolar Planets 1/10 ExtraSolar Planets Student Guide

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Name: NAAP ­ ExtraSolar Planets 1/10 ExtraSolar Planets ­ Student Guide Background Material, Center of Mass, and ExtraSolar Planet Detection. Question 1: Label the positions on the star's orbit be moving. #12;NAAP ­ ExtraSolar Planets 2/10 Part I: Exoplanet Radial Velocity Simulator Introduction Open

  2. Are extra-pair males different from cuckolded males? A case study and a meta-analytic examination.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Schroeder, Julia; Winney, Isabel; Burke, Terry; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-04-01

    Traditional models for female extra-pair matings assume that females benefit indirectly from extra-pair mating behaviour. Under these so-called adaptive models, extra-pair males are hypothesized to have more compatible genotypes, larger body size, exaggerated ornaments or to be older than cuckolded males. Alternatively, ('nonadaptive') models that consider female extra-pair matings to be a by-product posit that female extra-pair mating can be maintained even if there is no benefit to females. This could happen if, for example, males gained fitness benefits from extra-pair mating, while female and male extra-pair mating behaviours were genetically correlated. Extra-pair males are also expected to be older and larger if this improves their ability to convince or coerce females to mate. We investigated whether a female's extra-pair mates differed from her cuckolded mate in both genetic and phenotypic traits by analysing data from an insular house sparrow population. We found that extra-pair males were older than cuckolded males, consistent with both models. However, in contrast to the expectations from from adaptive models, extra-pair and cuckolded males were of similar genetic relatedness, and hence expected compatibility, with the female, and had comparable body size and secondary sexual traits. We also updated previous meta-analyses examining differences between extra-pair and cuckolded males. The meta-analytic results matched results from our house sparrow case study. Although we cannot completely exclude indirect benefits for females, nonadaptive models may better explain female extra-pair matings. These neglected alternative models deserve more research attention, and this should improve our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. PMID:25706253

  3. Non-mass-dependent Isotopic Fractionation Processes: Mechanisms and Recent Observations in Terrestrial and Extra-terrestrial Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. H.

    2003-12-01

    There were several key observations, which were made almost around the same time, that led to studies in the fields of stable isotope geochemistry and cosmochemistry. First, it was the physicochemical formalism for isotope effects, particularly the determination of the position of equilibrium in isotopic exchange reactions. Urey (1947) and Bigeleisen and Mayer (1947) demonstrated that the position of isotope exchange in a chemical reaction may be calculated with high precision. The difference in chemical behavior for isotopically substituted molecules in this specific instance arises from quantum mechanical effects. The vibrating molecule is energetically represented as a harmonic oscillator. Thus, in the case of isotopic substituted molecules, the quantized energy levels vary with the heavier species possessing lower vibrational frequencies. As a result, the isotopically substituted molecules possess slightly stronger bond strengths, which can be calculated with high precision. These can also be measured spectroscopically. Furthermore, since vibrational frequencies are temperature dependent, the partitioning of isotopes between two molecules is temperature dependent and the observed isotopic differences may be used as a temperature index for the equilibrium process of interest.This phenomenon forms the basis for the formulations of Urey (1947) and Bigeleisen and Mayer (1947) for the temperature dependence of isotopic exchange between two molecules. With the nearly simultaneous development of the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer by Nier et al. (1947), the potential for application of stable isotopes was created. Other isotopic fractionation processes are observed in kinetics, diffusion, evaporation-condensation, crystallization, and biology (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation, sulfate reduction, and transpiration). The concomitant isotopic fractionations can also be used to provide details of the relevant process.Although, the conventional isotope effects vary widely in the physicochemical basis for their origin, they all are dependent upon relative isotopic mass differences. The first quantitative discussion of the mass dependence of isotope effects was given by Hulston andThode (1965), who showed that conventional isotope effects alter the isotope ratios in a manner strictly dependent upon relative mass differences. Specifically, the changes in ?33S and ?34S are shown to be highly correlated such that the change in ?33S is half that of ?34S. The mass range in the ?33S is 1 amu (33-32 amu) and for ?34S is 2 amu (34-32 amu). Thus,?33S?0.5?34Sis observed and arises due to the magnitude of the relative isotopic mass differences. The focus of the paper of Hulston and Thode was to utilize meteoritic stable-isotope-ratio measurements as a mechanism to resolve nuclear (nucleosynthetic or spallogenic) processes from non-nuclear processes. The fundamental assumption in this work was, based upon the assumption that all conventional physicochemical processes produce correlated mass-dependent arrays, that any deviation from this relation must reflect a nuclear process. The core assumption for this assertion was that any physical or chemical process may not lead to a variance in stable isotope ratio that does not depend upon mass differences.Clayton et al. (1973) observed that the high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) present in the carbonaceous chondrite Allende possess an oxygen isotope composition of ?17O??18O, rather than the expected mass-dependent ?17O?0.5?18O. It was suggested that this anomalous isotopic composition must derive from a nuclear, rather than chemical process. In general, an equality ?17O=?18O may arise in two ways, either by alteration of 17O and 18O by equal amounts or, by addition/subtraction of pure 16O. Models for supernova processes had shown that for certain conditions, essentially pure 16O is produced. Clayton et al. argued that it is unlikely that 17O and 18O would be equally altered, thus the supernova event was deemed the most plausible mechanism to a

  4. Theoretical investigation of isotopic anomalies of xenon in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. Final technical report, 1972--1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabu

    1977-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of noble gases in meteorites is discussed in relation to the composition of the early solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites contain a unique Xenon-X, which is rich in heavy and light isotopes. Variations in the occurrence of type-X and type-Y (the normal component) noble gases are of such magnitude that neither the injection of material from

  5. Theoretical investigation of isotopic anomaly of xenon in carbonaceous chondrites and other terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabu, D. D.

    1974-01-01

    The composition of Xe released from carbonaceous chondrites between 600 and 1000 C, particularly its isotopic trapped forms, is analyzed. Data show trapped Xe to have the following forms: Xe-124, 126, 130, 131, 132, 134, and 136. Attempts were also made to explain the Xe anomaly by mass fractionation as well as determine the relationship between metoritic trapped Xe and solar Xe.

  6. Effects of geophysical extra-terrestrial and terrestrial physical stimuli on living organisms - Effects of gravity fields on living organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The biologic effects of greatly reduced gravity resulting from space flight are examined. Aspects of U.S. space biology during the period from 1960 to 1972 are discussed, giving attention to the Discoverer satellites, the Gemini series, the OV1-4 satellite, the biosatellite project, the orbiting frog otolith experiment, and the Apollo program. Other studies considered are related to the effects of galactic particles on nonproliferating cells, a recoverable tissue culture experiment, cell cycle maintenance in human lung cells, and effects of space flight on circadian rhythms. Viking will land on the planet Mars in 1975 in search for life forms.

  7. Fibered nulling telescope for extra-solar coronagraphy.

    PubMed

    Hénault, François

    2009-04-01

    A family of fibered nulling telescopes is described, based on the joint use of several recent suggested or demonstrated techniques, namely, pupil densification, multiaxial recombination and single-mode fiber modal filtering, and the use of a fully symmetric beam splitter arrangement. The concept seems appropriate for the realization of a spaceborne nulling telescope, searching for Jupiter-like extra-solar planets and a precursor of future missions, such as Darwin or terrestrial planet finder interferometer (TPF-I). However, it is generally not possible to satisfy at the same time two major requirements, being the depth and size of the central nulling area, and the global throughput for the observed planet. PMID:19340231

  8. Higgs bosons in extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiros, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a mass mH?125 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custodial SU(2)R symmetry is gauged and protects the T parameter. By further enlarging the bulk gauge symmetry one can find models where the Higgs is identified with the fifth component of gauge fields and for which the Higgs potential along with the Higgs mass can be dynamically determined by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism.

  9. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breece, Gary Allen; Ward, Bobby J.

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.

  10. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

  11. Exploring Extra Dimensions in Spectroscopy Experiments

    E-print Network

    Feng Luo; Hongya Liu

    2006-05-24

    We propose an idea in spectroscopy to search for extra spatial dimensions as well as to detect the possible deviation from Newton's inverse-square law at small scale, and we take high-Z hydrogenic systems and muonic atoms as illustrations. The relevant experiments might help to explore more than two extra dimensions scenario in ADD's brane world model and to set constraints for fundamental parameters such as the size of extra dimensions.

  12. GEOLogic: Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Guertin

    In this two-part example, students are given clues about properties about the terrestrial and Jovian planets respectively and asked to match up the planet with the correct equatorial radius, mean orbital velocity, and period of rotation.

  13. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Showman, Adam P; Merlis, Timothy M; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical and dynamical conditions, only a small fraction of which have yet been explored in detail. Our approach is to lay out the fundamental dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation on terrestrial planets--broadly defined--and show how they can provide a foundation for understanding the atmospheric behavior of these worlds. We first survey basic atmospheric dynamics, including the role of geostrophy, baroclinic instabilities, and jets in the strongly rotating regime (the "extratropics") and the role of the Hadle...

  14. Fish out of water: terrestrial jumping by fully aquatic fishes.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Alice C; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Pace, Cinnamon M; Long, John H

    2011-12-01

    Many teleosts that live at the water's edge will voluntarily strand themselves to evade predators or escape poor conditions-this behavior has been repeatedly observed in the field for killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes). Although most killifishes are considered fully aquatic and possess no obvious morphological specializations to facilitate terrestrial locomotion, individuals from several different species have been observed moving across land via a "tail flip" behavior that generates a terrestrial jump. Like aquatic fast starts, terrestrial jumps are produced by high-curvature lateral flexion of the body (stage one), followed by contralateral flexion of the posterior body (stage two). Here, terrestrial jumps and aquatic fast starts are quantified for two littoral teleosts: Gambusia affinis (a killifish, Cyprinodontiformes) and Danio rerio (a small carp, Cypriniformes) to determine if the tail flip is produced by other (non-killifish) teleosts and to test the null hypothesis that the tail flip is a fast start behavior, performed on land. Both Danio and Gambusia produce tail flip-driven terrestrial jumps, which are kinematically distinct from aquatic escapes and characterized by (1) a prolonged stage one, during which the fish bends, lifting and rolling the center of mass over the caudal peduncle, and (2) a relatively brief stage two, wherein the caudal peduncle pushes against the substrate to launch the fish into the aerial phase. The ability of these fully aquatic fishes to employ the same structure to produce distinct kinematic patterns in disparate environments suggests that a new behavior has evolved to facilitate movement on land and that anatomical novelty is not a prerequisite for effective terrestrial locomotion. PMID:21972177

  15. Extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Extra-solar planet detection has been a goal of astronomers for many decades. This paper describes current efforts in planet detection using interferometric techniques. At present, the Mark III long baseline interferometer has been operational for a number of years. The Mark III has achieved significant improvement in astrometric accuracy in two areas, wide angle astrometry and double star astrometry. Two new interferometers are being developed. The first is a direct combination IR interferometer, an upgrade of the UCB IR heterodyne interferometer. The second is the Keck Interferometer Array. This instrument, to be operational at the end of the decade will be a major interferometric facility, with the capability to combine coherently the light from the two 10-meter Keck telescopes as well as four 1.5-meter movable outrigger telescopes. The last project directed at planet detection is OSI, a space-based long-baseline interferometer with a planned astrometric accuracy of 1-10 microarcsec.

  16. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe Oxidation State of Vanadium in Spinel-Melt Pairs; 44) Testing the Magma Ocean Hypothesis Using

  17. Unraveling the chemical space of terrestrial and meteoritic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Kanawati, Basem; Ruf, Alexander; Quirico, Eric; Bonal, Lydie; Beck, Pierre; Gabelica, Zelimir

    2015-04-01

    In terrestrial environments natural organic matter (NOM) occurs in soils, freshwater and marine environments, in the atmosphere and represents an exceedingly complex mixture of organic compounds that collectively exhibits a nearly continuous range of properties (size-reactivity continuum). In these materials, the "classical" biogeosignatures of the (biogenic and geogenic) precursor molecules, like lipids, lignins, proteins and natural products have been attenuated, often beyond recognition, during a succession of biotic and abiotic (e.g. photo- and redox chemistry) reactions. Because of this loss of biochemical signature, these materials can be designated non-repetitive complex systems. The access to extra-terrestrial organic matter is given i.e. in the analysis of meteoritic materials. Numerous descriptions of organic molecules present in organic chondrites have improved our understanding of the early interstellar chemistry that operated at or just before the birth of our solar system. However, many molecular analyses are so far targeted toward selected classes of compounds with a particular emphasis on biologically active components in the context of prebiotic chemistry. Here we demonstrate that a non-targeted ultrahigh-resolution molecular analysis of the solvent-accessible organic fraction of meteorite extracted under mild conditions allows one to extend its indigenous chemical diversity to tens of thousands of different molecular compositions and likely millions of diverse structures. The description of the molecular complexity provides hints on heteroatoms chronological assembly, shock and thermal events and revealed recently new classes of thousands of novel organic, organometallic compounds uniquely found in extra-terrestrial materials and never described in terrestrial systems. This high polymolecularity suggests that the extraterrestrial chemodiversity is high compared to terrestrial relevant biological and biogeochemical-driven chemical space. (ultra)High resolution analytical approaches will be presented in their application to unravel the chemical nature and organic signatures in bio-geosystems and especially in selected chondritic (organic and ordinary) and achondritic meteorites. We will focus on thermal effects in CM types of materials and describe the effect of shock events on the changes in chemodiversity and the formation of unique novel organic compounds using high magnetic field ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (12 Tesla ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry - ICR-FT/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Cryo 800MHz NMR).

  18. Solar system constraints on a Rindler-type extra-acceleration from modified gravity at large distances

    SciTech Connect

    Iorio, L., E-mail: lorenzo.iorio@libero.it [Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (M.I.U.R.), Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society (F.R.A.S.), viale Unità d'Italia 68, 70125 Bari (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    We analytically work out the orbital effects caused by a Rindler-type extra-acceleration A{sub Rin} which naturally arises in some recent models of modified gravity at large distances. In particular, we focus on the perturbations induced by it on the two-body range ? and range-rate ?-dot which are commonly used in satellite and planetary investigations as primary observable quantities. The constraints obtained for A{sub Rin} by comparing our calculations with the currently available range and range-rate residuals for some of the major bodies of the solar system, obtained without explicitly modeling A{sub Rin}, are 1–2 × 10{sup ?13} m s{sup ?2} (Mercury and Venus), 1 × 10{sup ?14} m s{sup ?2} (Saturn), 1 × 10{sup ?15} m s{sup ?2} (Mars), while for a terrestrial Rindler acceleration we have an upper bound of 5 × 10{sup ?16} m s{sup ?2} (Moon). The constraints inferred from the planets' range and range-rate residuals are confirmed also by the latest empirical determinations of the corrections ?dot varpi to the usual Newtonian/Einsteinian secular precessions of the planetary longitudes of perihelia varpi: moreover, the Earth yields A{sub Rin} ? 7 × 10{sup ?16} m s{sup ?2}. Another approach which could be followed consists of taking into account A{sub Rin} in re-processing all the available data sets with accordingly modified dynamical models, and estimating a dedicated solve-for parameter explicitly accounting for it. Anyway, such a method is time-consuming. A preliminary analysis likely performed in such a way by a different author yields A ? 8 × 10{sup ?14} m s{sup ?2} at Mars' distance and A ? 1 × 10{sup ?14} m s{sup ?2} at Saturn's distance. The method adopted here can be easily and straightforwardly extended to other long-range modified models of gravity as well.

  19. A numerical study on collisions of icy bodies using SPH method combined with GRAPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, M.; Genda, H.; Ida, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have worked on the collisions of icy bodies using Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) method combined with Gravity PipE (GRAPE) in order to understand the basic behavior of icy bodies during impacts. Collisions of Mars-size rocky bodies have been investigated well, because those collisions are related to the origin of the moon and the formation of the terrestrial planets. On the other hand, collisions of icy bodies have not been studied yet, although these collisions would frequently occur in the solar and extra-solar systems, such as the formation of icy exoplanets. Through our research, we figure out the effect of ice during impact in detail. Our SPH code has two special features. First, GRAvity PipE computer (GRAPE) is used, which calculates the gravitational force of each particle up to 100 times faster than usual computers. Second, SESAME equation of state database is used to build a realistic model, taking into account the effect of phase change. In this research, we focused on differences and similarities between collisions of icy bodies and those of rocky ones, such as a merging criterion. Agnor & Asphaug (2004) have shown that a collision of rocky Mars-size protoplanets leads to an inelastic collision when its relative velocities are smaller than 1.4-1.5v, 1.1-1.2v, 1.1-1.2v when its impact angles are 30, 45, and 60 degrees, respectively. Here, v means escape velocity. The same calculations for icy bodies are performed in our numerical code. They have shown that the merging criterion of icy bodies is the same as that of rocky bodies. In addition to the merging criterion, we also clarify the relationship between impact parameters and the change of solid, liquid/vapor mass ratio due to impacts.

  20. Grazers: biocatalysts of terrestrial silica cycling

    PubMed Central

    Vandevenne, Floor Ina; Barão, Ana Lúcia; Schoelynck, Jonas; Smis, Adriaan; Ryken, Nick; Van Damme, Stefan; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Silica is well known for its role as inducible defence mechanism countering herbivore attack, mainly through precipitation of opaline, biogenic silica (BSi) bodies (phytoliths) in plant epidermal tissues. Even though grazing strongly interacts with other element cycles, its impact on terrestrial silica cycling has never been thoroughly considered. Here, BSi content of ingested grass, hay and faeces of large herbivores was quantified by performing multiple chemical extraction procedures for BSi, allowing the assessment of chemical reactivity. Dissolution experiments with grass and faeces were carried out to measure direct availability of BSi for dissolution. Average BSi and readily soluble silica numbers were higher in faeces as compared with grass or hay, and differences between herbivores could be related to distinct digestive strategies. Reactivity and dissolvability of BSi increases after digestion, mainly due to degradation of organic matrices, resulting in higher silica turnover rates and mobilization potential from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems in non-grazed versus grazed pasture systems (2 versus 20 kg Si ha?1 y?1). Our results suggest a crucial yet currently unexplored role of herbivores in determining silica export from land to ocean, where its availability is linked to eutrophication events and carbon sequestration through C–Si diatom interactions. PMID:24107532

  1. Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, G. K.; Post, W. M.; Jastrow, J. D.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2002-05-01

    CSiTE, the Department of Energy's research consortium performs fundamental research in support of new methods to enhance carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems in an environmentally acceptable manner. The goal of CSiTE is to discover and characterize links between critical pathways and mechanisms across scales from the molecular to the landscape for creating larger, longer-lasting carbon pools in terrestrial ecosystems. This paper will present results relevant to increasing the biophysical potential of terrestrial C sequestration, but in addition will illustrate the importance of an integrative analysis in assessing this technological option (as well as all sequestration options). Our integrative approach involves six steps: (1) Identify promising technologies, (2) Understand controls on basic mechanisms at the site scale, (3) Perform sensitivity analyses over the range of applicable conditions (model, lab or field experiments), (4) Full C and greenhouse gas accounting, (5) Environmental impacts, and (6) Economic analysis including rate of adoption and cost tradeoffs. Many estimates of the potential contributions of sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems to the control of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration have been rather modest. Indeed, there are many uncertainties and ancillary issues (permanence, land availability, water supply, etc) that must be considered. However, terrestrial ecosystems have not been viewed to-date as a "technology" to be implemented. Rather, the emphasis has been on the promotion of practices that are likely to be implemented for other benefits. It may be possible to use the attributes of terrestrial ecosystems to a greater extent in sequestering carbon. In this paper, we will discuss how a technology view of terrestrial ecosystems may alter the estimated contributions. Examples to be addressed include changing land use, shifting agricultural methods, manipulating soil properties, and altering soil microbial systems.

  2. Physics of Extra Dimensions Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Csaba Csaki

    2007-12-19

    We provide the final report for Csaba Csaki's OJI project on "Physics of extra dimensions". It includes the summary of results of higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking, gauge-higgs unification, AdS/QCD and holographic technicolor, and chiral lattice theories from warped extra dimensions.

  3. Demulsification of Extra Heavy Crude Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. R. Xu; J. Y. Yang; B. L. Zhang; J. S. Gao

    2007-01-01

    The demulsification of orimulsion, an extra heavy crude oil, was studied by a PDY-1 instrument of electric demulsification. Some commercial demulsifiers, including P, RN, and RB series demulsifiers, were tested; however, their dewatering efficiency was unsatisfactory. ZQ series demulsifiers were synthesized and applied. It is pointed out that the ZQX3 series demulsifier had satisfactory dewatering ability for extra heavy crude

  4. Efficient extra material critical area algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard A. Allan; Anthony J. Walton

    1999-01-01

    Two algorithms that calculate the critical areas of integrated circuit mask layout for extra material defects are presented. The first algorithm generates a set of edges that define the critical area of the layout for a given defect size. The second algorithm generates the set of fault critical area edges. These identify all possible extra material circuit faults that can

  5. Terrestrial planet composition: simulation and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter-Bond, J.; Bolmont, E.; Raymond, S.

    2014-03-01

    As direct detection and examination of terrestrial exoplanets is not yet possible, we must persue alternative methods to constarin the types of planets likely to be found within extrasolar planetary systems and thus guide future missions. Such studies cannot be undertaken by transit surveys. Instead, secondary sources must be utilized. In addition to simultions of terrestrial planet formation, based on spectroscopic observations of known stars, observations of polluted white dwarfs (e.g. Jura, M., & Xu, S. (2012); Gaensicke et al., (2013)) and simulations of the pollution of migrating gas giants may be utilized to determine the composition of solid bodies withn extrasolar planetary systems. Observations of polluted white dwarfs (e.g. Jura, M., & Xu, S. (2012); Gaensicke et al., (2013)) will be compared to simulations of the bulk composition of terrestrial planets (Carter-Bond et al. (2012)). Combining dynamical simulations of Carter-Bond et al. (2012) and Raymond et al. (2006) with spectrally-derived abundances for 15 planet-forming elements (H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni), bulk compositions for simulated terrestrial planets have been obtained. This is the first time that compositional simulations can be compared with observations (albeit of a proxy for solid composition) and will be crucial for placing constraints on both the true diversity of planetary compositions expected to exist in extrasolar planetary systems and the simulations currently utilized. Simulations of the change in composition resulting from pollution of a gas giant as it migrates through a planetary system will also be presented. These simulations represent an as-yet untested approach to determining the solid composition within a planetary system. By simulating the amount and composition of material accreted by the gas giant (following Carter-Bond et al. (2012)), we will be able to determine what effect, if any, the accretion of solid material during migration has on giant planet composition. This study represents the first attempt at untangling what fraction of the observed composition is primordial and what fraction has been accreted and may, ultimately, provide further limitation on the composition of solids within extrasolar planetary systems. Such a study is especially timely, given the rising number of spectral observations of transiting giant planets and their unusual implications (e.g. Madhusudhan et al. (2011)).

  6. ELF and VLF observations of ionospheric disturbances caused by extra-terrestrial origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Hobara, Y.; Raulin, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Terasawa, T.

    2013-05-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio wave propagates within the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, and hence measurement of the VLF amplitude and phase can be utilized to study physics of phenomena taking place in the lower ionosphere below about 100 km. Observation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radio wave is also a powerful tool to investigate ionospheric phenomena such as lightning. Here we present ELF and VLF observations of ionospheric disturbances caused by extraterrestrial phenomena. Cosmological Gamma-ray bursts has already been known as the origin of ionospheric disturbances. In addition to this, "magnetar" flares has also been recognized to affect the Earth's ionosphere. Ordinary neutron stars possess magnetic fields of about 10^12 Gauss, while magnetars are considered to have extremely strong magnetic fields of about 10^15 G. Some of the magnetars emit short-duration (~0.1 s) gamma-ray bursts repeatedly in active phases, thereby they are named as "Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs)". As rare events, SGRs emit exceptionally bright gamma-ray flares "giant flares", whose peak fluxes exceed those of X-class large solar flares by several order of magnitudes. Recent sensitive measurement of ELF and VLF radio waves can observe ionospheric disturbances caused by these short-repeated and giant flares. Namely, we have found that transient ELF radio wave and Schumann resonance were caused by SGR giant flares in 2004. The emission mechanism is still unclear, but similarity of nuclear detonation in 1960's might give some hints to unveil the emission mechanism. Interesting application of VLF measurement of magnetar flare is that we can deduce the gamma-ray spectrum from VLF data. Intensive astronomical X-ray and gamma-ray observations have been performed by satellites in space using very sensitive detectors. Since SGR giant flare emits huge X-ray/gamma-ray flux, such sensitive detectors are affected by severe saturation problems and precise measurement is very difficult. In my presentation, we present how we deduce the photon spectrum from the VLF data. Using Monte Carlo method, we modeled ionization of lower ionosphere, and obtained altitude profile of electron number density. We then utilized Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to simulate VLF propagation. The altitude profile and simulated amplitude change differs depending on the energy spectrum. Therefore, by comparing simulation results with the observation, we can infer the source spectrum as an inverse problem.

  7. Making Friends with an Extra-Terrestrial: Conversation Skills and Friendship Formation in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jeffrey G.; Gottman, John M.

    A novel paradigm was developed and two studies conducted to test the contribution of six conversational skills to children's friendship formation. In study 1, 4- and 5-year-olds individually played for 30 minutes with a 2-foot-tall talking doll. The doll contained a wireless hidden receiver/speaker enabling a concealed female assistant to converse…

  8. Search for Extra-Terrestrial planets: The DARWIN mission - Target Stars and Array Architectures

    E-print Network

    Lisa Kaltenegger

    2005-04-22

    The DARWIN mission is an Infrared free flying interferometer mission based on the new technique of nulling interferometry. Its main objective is to detect and characterize other Earth-like planets, analyze the composition of their atmospheres and their capability to sustain life, as we know it. DARWIN is currently in definition phase. This PhD work that has been undertaken within the DARWIN team at the European Space Agency (ESA) addresses two crucial aspects of the mission. Firstly, a DARWIN target star list has been established that includes characteristics of the target star sample that will be critical for final mission design, such as, luminosity, distance, spectral classification, stellar variability, multiplicity, location and radius of the star. Constrains were applied as set by planet evolution theory and mission architecture. Secondly, a number of alternative mission architectures have been evaluated on the basis of interferometer response as a function of wavelength, achievable modulation efficiency, number of telescopes and starlight rejection capabilities. The study has shown that the core mission goals should be achievable with a lower level of complexity as compared to the current baseline configuration.

  9. The search for extra-terrestrial sources of high energy neutrinos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary C. Hill

    2009-01-01

    The field of high-energy neutrino astronomy has seen rapid progress over the\\u000alast 15 years, with the development and operation of the first large-volume\\u000adetectors. Here, we review the motivation for construction of these large\\u000ainstruments and discuss what construction and physics progress has been made.

  10. The search for extra-terrestrial sources of high energy neutrinos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary C. Hill

    2009-01-01

    The field of high-energy neutrino astronomy has seen rapid progress over the last 15 years, with the development and operation of the first large-volume detectors. Here, we review the motivation for construction of these large instruments and discuss what construction and physics progress has been made.

  11. Meteorological and extra-terrestrial causes of the daily variation of cosmic ray intensity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sarabhai; U. D. Desai; R. P. Kane

    1953-01-01

    Summary  The daily variations of total cosmic ray intensity and the intensities of meson and electron components have been studied\\u000a at Alimedabad with vertical geiger counter telescopes. The influence of meteorological factors on these variations has been\\u000a examined, and it has been found that appropriate barometric coefficients for correcting the cosmic ray intensities can be\\u000a obtained from a consideration of the

  12. Search for Extra-Terrestrial planets: The DARWIN mission - Target Stars and Array Architectures

    E-print Network

    Kaltenegger, L

    2005-01-01

    The DARWIN mission is an Infrared free flying interferometer mission based on the new technique of nulling interferometry. Its main objective is to detect and characterize other Earth-like planets, analyze the composition of their atmospheres and their capability to sustain life, as we know it. DARWIN is currently in definition phase. This PhD work that has been undertaken within the DARWIN team at the European Space Agency (ESA) addresses two crucial aspects of the mission. Firstly, a DARWIN target star list has been established that includes characteristics of the target star sample that will be critical for final mission design, such as, luminosity, distance, spectral classification, stellar variability, multiplicity, location and radius of the star. Constrains were applied as set by planet evolution theory and mission architecture. Secondly, a number of alternative mission architectures have been evaluated on the basis of interferometer response as a function of wavelength, achievable modulation efficienc...

  13. An instrument for elemental and isotopic abundance characterization of extra-terrestrial materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Veryovkin; W. F. Calaway; J. F. Moore; M. J. Pellin; M. R. Savina; B. V. King; M. Petravic; D. S. Burnett

    2002-01-01

    Samples returned from the Genesis and Stardust missions of NASA's Discovery Program require quantitative analysis at sensitivities unobtainable with present instruments. This has driven development of a new generation of instruments for laser-post-ionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (laser-SNMS). Construction of a prototype time-of-flight (TOF) SNMS instrument has been completed recently at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and testing began in August

  14. A summary of extremes of isotopic variations in extra-terrestrial materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shima

    1986-01-01

    In this comprehensive review of current research on isotopic variations of elements in extraterrestrial materials, the variations were classified in terms of the major process involved in the modification of the iostopic composition of the element concerned. Maximum isotopic variations of each element were retrieved from publications which were available in Tokyo up to December 1985, and are presented in

  15. Two systems analyses of SETI. [microwave Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machol, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of receiving and identifying a single microwave signal transmitted by extraterrestrial intelligent beings is analyzed in the cases where the signal is designed to catch our attention and the signal is designed for internal purposes of another civilization. Six variables which yield uncertainty as to the exact signal which should be searched for are described: polarization, modulation, flux level, direction, frequency (including bandwidth and drift rate), and time. It is shown that if all reasonable variations of these parameters are to be examined sequentially for 1000 seconds, the search would take over a million times longer than the age of the Universe. Ways to simplify the search are considered, including widening the frequency bin, selecting specific targets, cutting the observation time, using a Fourier transform device for data processing, and building larger antennas as well as better low-noise receivers.

  16. Sliding GAIT Algorithm for the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Julie; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The design of a surface robotic system typically involves a trade between the traverse speed of a wheeled rover and the terrain-negotiating capabilities of a multi-legged walker. The ATHLETE mobility system, with both articulated limbs and wheels, is uniquely capable of both driving and walking, and has the flexibility to employ additional hybrid mobility modes. This paper introduces the Sliding Gait, an intermediate mobility algorithm faster than walking with better terrain-handling capabilities than wheeled mobility.

  17. Genetics Indicates Extra-terrestrial Origins for Life: The First Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Rhawn; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-10-01

    Some of the defining characteristics of life include its ability to replicate and reproduce itself and its genome whilst maintaining a capacity for evolution. Life, as we know it, requires genetic information and no fewer than 382 genes. Thus, the origins of life can be estimated by determining duplication rates beginning with the first gene. Conversely, an approximate date for the origin of the first gene can be estimated based on the time frame in which life appeared on Earth and then evolved. Data from genomics and molecular biology indicate that all modern organisms originated from an ensemble of prokaryotic genes dating back to the first appearance of life on Earth over 4.2 billion years ago (bya), which means life was present on Earth from almost the beginning. There are two main models for the origins of eukaryotes on Earth, "genetic merger" which postulates that eukaryotes evolved between 3 bya to 2 bya following the merger of two species of prokaryote, and "deep roots" which posits that eukaryotes and prokaryotes appeared on Earth at the same time. However, neither model can explain how or when the first genes evolved. To arrive at an estimate for the time frame in which the first gene was fashioned, genetic analysis based on the genetic merger and deep roots models and at different ages for the establishment of life on Earth, were carried out. The correspondence between total gene numbers of various organisms and time of their putative origin over the course of evolutionary history was analysed. Be it the merger or deep roots model, and within the experimental uncertainties in the relevant data, four separate analyses indicates that the origins of the first gene extends backwards in time by an estimated 10 to 14 billion years (10.5<14.5 bya) and thus during a time frame which overlaps and is consistent with estimated ages offered in support of the Big Bang model of the origin of this universe. This does not mean that life began 10-14 billion years ago, but rather that the first gene was fashioned billions of years before the creation of Earth.

  18. TimeBounded Kolmogorov Complexity May Help in Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    celestial objects like galaxies, quasars, etc. However, it would be a waste of energy to send a pure signal. Since most modern measuring devices have binary output, we can assume that the signal x is a binary sequence, i.e., a word in a binary alphabet f0; 1g. By a compression, intuitively, we mean a pair

  19. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  20. Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

  1. Higgs boson decay constraints on a model with a universal extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anindya; Patra, Ayon; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the impact of the latest data on Higgs boson branching ratios on the minimal model with a universal extra dimension. Combining constraints from vacuum stability requirements with these branching ratio measurements we are able to make realistic predictions for the signal strengths in this model. We use these to find a lower bound of 1.3 TeV on the size parameter R-1 of the model at 95% confidence level, which is far more stringent than any other terrestrial bound obtained till now and is compatible with the dark matter constraints from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data.

  2. Mass hierarchies from two extra dimensions

    E-print Network

    B. F. Riley

    2009-04-07

    The string, MSSM GUT, weak and QCD scales, and the Rydberg constant, correspond to the positions of AdS domain wall intersections in a two-dimensional extra space of infinite extent. The domain walls lie along and parallel to the sides of cells which tile the extra space. The cells are four-sided with parallel opposite sides of lengths Rln(pi/2) and Rln(pi), where R is the AdS radius of curvature. Particle masses correspond to the positions of domain walls. We represent the extra space graphically.

  3. The oldest caseid synapsid from the Late Pennsylvanian of Kansas, and the evolution of herbivory in terrestrial vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Robert R; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of amniotes (fully terrestrial vertebrates) led to major changes in the structure and hierarchy of terrestrial ecosystems. The first appearance of herbivores played a pivotal role in this transformation. After an early bifurcation into Reptilia and Synapsida (including mammals) 315 Ma, synapsids dominated Paleozoic terrestrial vertebrate communities, with the herbivorous caseids representing the largest vertebrates on land. Eocasea martini gen. et sp. nov., a small carnivorous caseid from the Late Carboniferous, extends significantly the fossil record of Caseidae, and permits the first clade-based study of the origin and initial evolution of herbivory in terrestrial tetrapods. Our results demonstrate for the first time that large caseid herbivores evolved from small, non-herbivorous caseids. This pattern is mirrored by three other clades, documenting multiple, independent, but temporally staggered origins of herbivory and increase in body size among early terrestrial tetrapods, leading to patterns consistent with modern terrestrial ecosystem. PMID:24739998

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a prominent role in the global carbon (C) cycle. errestrial ecosystems are currently accumulating C and it appears feasible to manage existing terrestrial (forest, agronomic, desert) ecosystems to maintain or increase C storage. orest ecosystems ca...

  5. The present thermal state of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozer, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The thermal state of bodies is discussed as an aspect of their internal dynamics for bodies of roughly meteoritic composition in the range of sizes of planetary objects. The rheological behaviour of planetary material is assumed to be represented by a Newtonian viscosity varying exponentially with temperature, and only the consistency of this assumption with the elastic view of the planets is considered. It is shown that for the whole range of physically plausible values of the material parameters, the temperature distribution associated with a solution to the problem of internal dynamics for bodies with external radii larger than about 800 km departs significantly from that predicted on conduction theory arguments. For bodies in the range of sizes of the terrestrial planets, the viscosity-temperature relationship plays a dominant role in setting the absolute temperature of the central regions.

  6. Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms

    PubMed Central

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms dictating upper limits to animal body size are not well understood. We have analysed body length data for the largest representatives of 24 taxa of terrestrial poikilotherms from tropical, temperate and polar environments. We find that poikilothermic giants on land become two–three times shorter per each 10 degrees of decrease in ambient temperature. We quantify that this diminution of maximum body size accurately compensates the drop of metabolic rate dictated by lower temperature. This supports the idea that the upper limit to body size within each taxon can be set by a temperature-independent critical minimum value of mass-specific metabolic rate, a fall below which is not compatible with successful biological performance. PMID:16191647

  7. Terrestrial Behavior of Ateles spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina J. Campbell; Filippo Aureli; Colin A. Chapman; Gabriel Ramos-Fernández; Kim Matthews; Sabrina E. Russo; Scott Suarez; Laura Vick

    2005-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) are well known for their highly arboreal lifestyle, spending much of their time in the highest levels of the canopy and rarely venturing to the ground. To investigate terrestriality by Ateles and to illuminate the conditions under which spider monkeys venture to the ground, we analyzed ad libitum data from 5 study sites, covering 2 species

  8. Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Koch; H. A. Mooney

    1996-01-01

    This book is a summary of the current research which addresses the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on terrestrial ecosystems and an identification of significant unresolved issues. Chapters address the carbon dioxide effects on trees and forests, unmanaged herbaceous ecosystems, and crops. Included are experimental studies, conceptual models, general mathematical models, dynamic simulation models.

  9. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Schunk; A. F. Nagy

    1980-01-01

    The theory and observations relating to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Venus, the earth and Mars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on comparing the basic differences and similarities between the planetary ionospheres. The review covers the plasma and electric-magnetic field environments that surround the planets, the theory leading to the creation and transport of ionization in the ionspheres, the

  10. Furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E De Combarieu; N Fuzzati; M Lovati; E Mercalli

    2003-01-01

    An HPLC-ELSD-ESI-MS method has been developed for the analysis of the steroidal saponins in the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris. Protodioscin, a new saponin (5,6-dihydroprotodioscin, neoprotodioscin) and their respective sulfates were detected. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectral analysis.

  11. Extra-adrenal paraganglioma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Hau; Chen, Yen-Lin; Kao, Hao-Lun; Lin, Shih-Chung; Lee, Chiao-Hua; Huang, Guo-Shu; Chang, Wei-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas, or paragangliomas, are rare tumours that may develop from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells, and most occur in the organ of Zuckerkandl. Extra-adrenal paraganglioma of the prostate is extremely rare. We report a 53-year-old man with hypertension and lower urinary tract symptoms, who was initially diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large heterogenously enhancing mass in the prostate, imprinting the right distal ureter and urinary bladder. Before surgical intervention, CT-guided biopsy of the prostatic mass was performed and the result of histologic examination confirmed extra-adrenal paraganglioma. He underwent radical prostatectomy, partial cystectomy and right ureteroneocystostomy. The patient recovered and his blood pressure returned within normal range after surgical removal of the prostate tumour. In this article, we stress that the rarity of prostatic paraganglioma, preoperative localization and imaging-guided biopsy were useful in determining the surgical strategy. PMID:23766843

  12. Origin and Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets: Chapter 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C.

    2004-11-01

    The rocky terrestrial planets of our solar system exhibit enormous diversity. We now know some of the constraints that created this diversity and can focus our exploration efforts to explore dimensions related to each. The Moon, asteroids, and perhaps Mercury represent Chapter 1 of the story. These bodies carry the history of the formative first 600 My, but have remained relatively inactive as planets since. Mars, on the other hand, continued to evolve actively for a few billion years and represents Chapter 2, the middle years when fluvial and large-scale volcanic processes were active but then dissipated. The current recycling Martian deserts record this former heyday of long long ago. Chapter 3 is our Goldilocks group, Venus and Earth, which have the right balance of materials to continue to evolve as an active planet for over 4 billion years, although clearly in different directions. Other solar systems may have a 4th chapter of terrestrial planet evolution, or no terrestrial planets at all, so we would do well to extract all the information we can from the terrestrial planets to which we have access. I will examine the important Chapter 1 in more detail and leave the remaining Chapters to others. Chapter 1 represents the beginning. After all, if there were no Chapter 1, what is there?

  13. Radiative isotropic cosmologies with extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Iba-acute-accentez, J.; Verdaguer, E.

    1986-08-15

    We solve Einstein's equations in an n-italic-dimensional vacuum with the simplest ansatz leading to a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) four-dimensional space time. We show that the FRW model must be of radiation. For the open models the extra dimensions contract as a result of cosmological evolution. For flat and closed models they contract only when there is one extra dimension.

  14. In situ observations of the atmospheres of terrestrial planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti

    2005-11-01

    Direct observations of planetary atmospheres are scarce and significantly more data are needed for the understanding of their behavior. The principal theme of this dissertation is the exploration of planetary atmospheres by means of in situ observations, focusing on investigations performed by payloads operating on the planetary surface. The contextual frame includes the whole palette of planetary exploration including definition of scientific objectives, observational strategies, scientific payload and data analysis, as well as development of technological solutions and simulation models for planetary missions. Thus approach also led to the initiation of the planetary missions MetNet and NetLander to Mars. This work contributes to both in situ atmospheric observations and atmospheric modeling, which are strongly intertwined. Modeling efforts require observations to give solid background and foundation for the simulations, and on the other hand, definition of observational strategies and instrumentation gets guidance from modeling efforts to optimize the use of mission resources, as is successfully demonstrated in this dissertation. The dissertation consists of Summary and nine original scientific publications. Publications 1 to 7 and Summary address the development of new atmospheric science payloads for exploration missions to Mars and Titan, a Saturnian moon. Actual and planned missions included are the Mars-96 Program and its Small Surface Stations and Penetrators during the years 1988-1996, PPI/HASI onboard the Cassini/Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and its moon Titan in 1989-2005, the MET-P payload onboard the Mars Polar Lander in 1997-1999, the BAROBIT instrument for the Beagle 2 lander in 2001-2003, the NetLander Mars Mission in 1997-2001 and the ongoing Mars MetNet Mission, started in 2000. Specifically, Publication 4 reviews the sensor qualification process that facilitated the use of new type of atmospheric sensors at Mars, while Publications 2 and 7, as well as Summary, address the highly successful determination of the Titan atmospheric pressure profile. Publication 8 combines in situ observations and simulations by analyzing Mars Pathfinder measurements with the help of a Martian mesoscale atmospheric model. Finally, in Publication 9 the effect of airborne dust and CO 2 on the radiative transfer in the Martian atmosphere is assessed and a new radiative transfer paramerization scheme for the mesoscale model is introduced.

  15. Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Arneth; S. P. Harrison; S. Zaehle; K. Tsigaridis; S. Menon; P. J. Bartlein; J. Feichter; A. Korhola; M. Kulmala; D. O'Donnell; G. Schurgers; S. Sorvari; T. Vesala

    2010-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is a key regulator of atmospheric chemistry and climate. During past periods of climate change, vegetation cover and interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere changed within decades. Modern observations show a similar responsiveness of terrestrial biogeochemistry to anthropogenically forced climate change and air pollution. Although interactions between the carbon cycle and climate have been a central

  16. Editorial: Focus on Extra Space Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Pomarol, Alex

    2010-07-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have just started. In addition to verifying the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, these experiments will probe a new energy frontier and test extensions of the SM. The existence of extra dimensions is one of the most attractive possibilities for physics beyond the SM. This focus issue contains a collection of articles addressing both theoretical and phenomenological aspects of extra-dimensional models. Focus on Extra Space Dimensions Contents Minimal universal extra dimensions in CalcHEP/CompHEP AseshKrishna Datta, Kyoungchul Kong and Konstantin T Matchev Disordered extra dimensions Karim Benakli Codimension-2 brane-bulk matching: examples from six and ten dimensions Allan Bayntun, C P Burgess and Leo van Nierop Gauge threshold corrections in warped geometry Kiwoon Choi, Ian-Woo Kim and Chang Sub Shin Holographic methods and gauge-Higgs unification in flat extra dimensions Marco Serone Soft-wall stabilization Joan A Cabrer, Gero von Gersdorff and Mariano Quirós Warped five-dimensional models: phenomenological status and experimental prospects Hooman Davoudiasl, Shrihari Gopalakrishna, Eduardo Pontón and José Santiago

  17. Amino acid compositional shifts during streptophyte transitions to terrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Richard W; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-02-01

    Across the streptophyte lineage, which includes charophycean algae and embryophytic plants, there have been at least four independent transitions to the terrestrial habitat. One of these involved the evolution of embryophytes (bryophytes and tracheophytes) from a charophycean ancestor, while others involved the earliest branching lineages, containing the monotypic genera Mesostigma and Chlorokybus, and within the Klebsormidiales and Zygnematales lineages. To overcome heat, water stress, and increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which must have accompanied these transitions, adaptive mechanisms would have been required. During periods of dehydration and/or desiccation, proteomes struggle to maintain adequate cytoplasmic solute concentrations. The increased usage of charged amino acids (DEHKR) may be one way of maintaining protein hydration, while increased use of aromatic residues (FHWY) protects proteins and nucleic acids by absorbing damaging UV, with both groups of residues thought to be important for the stabilization of protein structures. To test these hypotheses we examined amino acid sequences of orthologous proteins representing both mitochondrion- and plastid-encoded proteomes across streptophytic lineages. We compared relative differences within categories of amino acid residues and found consistent patterns of amino acid compositional fluxuation in extra-membranous regions that correspond with episodes of terrestrialization: positive change in usage frequency for residues with charged side-chains, and aromatic residues of the light-capturing chloroplast proteomes. We also found a general decrease in the usage frequency of hydrophobic, aliphatic, and small residues. These results suggest that amino acid compositional shifts in extra-membrane regions of plastid and mitochondrial proteins may represent biochemical adaptations that allowed green plants to colonize the land. PMID:21153633

  18. Beyond Earth: Using Google Earth to Visualize Other Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancher, M.; Beyer, R.; Broxton, M.; Gorelick, N.; Kolb, E.; Weiss-Malik, M.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual globes have revolutionized the way we visualize and understand the Earth, but there are other planetary bodies that can be visualized as well. We will demonstrate the use of Google Earth, KML, and other modern mapping tools for visualizing data that's literally out of this world. Extra-terrestrial virtual globes are poised to revolutionize planetary science, bring an exciting new dimension to science education, and allow users to explore the increasingly breathtaking imagery being sent back to Earth by modern planetary science satellites. We will demonstrate several uses of the latest Google Earth and KML features to visualize planetary data. Global maps of planetary bodies---not just visible imagery maps, but also terrain maps, infra-red maps, minerological maps, and more---can be overlaid on the Google Earth globe using KML, and a number of sources are already making many such maps available. Coverage maps show the polygons that have been imaged by various satellite sensors, with links to the imagery and science data. High-resolution regionated ground overlays allow you to explore the most breathtaking imagery at full resolution, in its geological context, just as we have become accustomed to doing with Earth imagery. Panoramas from landed missions to the Moon and Mars can even be embedded, giving users a first-hand experience of other worlds. We will take you on a guided tour of how these features can best be used to visualize places other than the Earth, and provide pointers to KML from many sources---ourselves and others---that users can build on in constructing their own KML content of other planetary bodies. Using this paradigm for sharing geospatial data will not only enable planetary scientists to more easily build and share data within the scientific community, but will also provide an easy platform for public outreach and education efforts, and will easily allow anyone to layer geospatial information on top of planetary data.

  19. Error analysis of penetrator impacts on bodies without atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Penetrators are missile shaped objects designed to implant electronic instrumentation in various of surface materials with a nominal impact speed around 150 m/sec. An interest in the application of this concept to in situ subsurface studies of extra terrestrial bodies and planetary satellites exists. Since many of these objects do not have atmospheres, the feasibility of successfully guiding penetrators to the required near-zero angle-of-attack impact conditions in the absence of an atmosphere was analyzed. Two potential targets were included, i.e., the moon and Mercury and several different penetrator deployment modes were involved. Impact errors arising from open-loop and closed-loop deployment control systems were given particular attention. Successful penetrator implacement requires: (1) that the impact speed be controlled, nominally to 150 m/sec, (2) that the angle of attack be in range 0 deg - 11 deg at impact, and (3) that the impact flight path angle be with 15 deg of vertical.

  20. FORMATION OF THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS FROM A NARROW ANNULUS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Brad M. S., E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2009-09-20

    We show that the assembly of the solar system terrestrial planets can be successfully modeled with all of the mass initially confined to a narrow annulus between 0.7 and 1.0 AU. With this configuration, analogs of Mercury and Mars often form from the collisional evolution of material diffusing out of the annulus under the scattering of the forming Earth and Venus analogs. The final systems also possess eccentricities and inclinations that match the observations, without recourse to dynamical friction from remnant small body populations. Finally, the characteristic assembly timescale for Earth analogs is rapid in this model and consistent with cosmochemical models based on the {sup 182}Hf-{sup 182}W isotopes. The agreement between this model and the observations suggests that terrestrial planet systems may also be formed in 'planet traps', as has been proposed recently for the cores of giant planets in our solar system and others.

  1. Two sapogenins from tribulus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Xin Xu; Hai-Sheng Chen; Wen-Yong Liu; Zheng-Bing Gu; Hua-Qing Liang

    1998-01-01

    Studies on the constituents of Tribulus terrestris L. led to the isolation of two new steroidal sapogenins, (5?, 25R)-spirostan-3,6,12-trione and 25R-spirostan-4-ene-3,6,12-trione, together with five known steroidal sapogenins, tigogenin, hecogenin, gitogenin, hecogenone, and 25R-spirostan-4-ene-3,12-dione. The structures of the new sapogenins were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence, especially 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques.

  2. Natural organobromine in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that bromine undergoes biogeochemical cycling involving natural formation and degradation of organobromine compounds in marine systems. In the terrestrial environment, where background bromine levels tend to be low, the biogeochemistry of this element remains largely unexamined. We traced the path of bromine through plant growth, senescence, and decay of leaf litter on the forest floor. Using sensitive X-ray spectroscopic techniques, we show that all bromine in humified plant material, organic-rich surface soils, and isolated humic substances is bonded to carbon. Analysis of bromide-enriched plants suggests that bromide absorbed by the growing plants ultimately converts to organobromine when the plant litter decays. Application of isolated chloroperoxidase, a halogenating enzyme, to healthy plant material results in extensive bromination, with organobromine formed preferentially over organochlorine. The relative ease of bromide oxidation appears to promote biogeochemical transformations of Br from inorganic to organic forms, leading to its incorporation into soil organic matter through enzymatic processes related to plant litter decomposition. In combination with low concentration and susceptibility to leaching and plant uptake, natural bromination processes lead to the exhaustion of inorganic bromide in surface soils, making organic matter a reservoir of bromine in the terrestrial environment. This study provides the first detailed look into the terrestrial bromine cycle and lays the foundation for future studies of natural organobromine degradation, which may shed light on the fate of anthropogenic organobromine pollutants in the soil environment.

  3. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ((Simon)); ((Royal))

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  4. Split fermions in extra dimensions and exponentially small cross sections at future colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Grossman, Yuval [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)] [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)] [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    2000-06-01

    We point out a dramatic new experimental signature for a class of theories with extra dimensions, where quarks and leptons are localized at slightly separated parallel ''walls'' whereas gauge and Higgs fields live in the bulk of the extra dimensions. The separation forbids direct local couplings between quarks and leptons, allowing for an elegant solution to the proton decay problem. We show that scattering cross sections for collisions of fermions which are separated in the extra dimensions vanish exponentially at energies high enough to probe the separation distance. This is because the separation puts a lower bound on the attainable impact parameter in the collision. We present cross sections for two body high energy scattering and estimate the power with which future colliders can probe this scenario, finding sensitivity to inverse fermion separations of order 10-70 TeV. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Exponentially small supersymmetry breaking from extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hall, Lawrence; Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-03-01

    The supersymmetric ''shining'' of free massive chiral superfields in extra dimensions from a distant source brane can trigger exponentially small supersymmetry breaking on our brane of order e{sup -2{pi}R}, where R is the radius of the extra dimensions. This supersymmetry breaking can be transmitted to the superpartners in a number of ways, for instance by gravity or via the standard model gauge interactions. The radius R can easily be stabilized at a size O(10) larger that the fundamental scale. The models are extremely simple, relying only on free, classical bulk dynamics to solve the hierarchy problem.

  6. NewsHour Extra: Addressing Health Mysteries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dufour, Joanne.

    In this PBS NewsHour Extra lesson plan, students take an in-depth look at the SARS epidemic, with a particular focus on pan-national public health administration. A NewsHour interview with Dr. David Heyman, Director for Communicable Diseases at the World Health Organization (WHO), forms the basis of the exercise (video, audio, and transcript available). A NewsHour Extra story on SARS provides additional material. The site also offers ideas for homework and extension activities, each designed to help students explore and understand the process by which organizations like WHO tackle new disease outbreaks.

  7. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2010) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17027.x The interplay of chaos between the terrestrial and giant planets

    E-print Network

    Danforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    between the terrestrial and giant planets Wayne B. Hayes,1,2 Anton V. Malykh1 and Christopher M. Danforth3 observations. First, we look at the system of Sun + four Jovian planets as an isolated five-body system the four inner terrestrial planets and several post-Newtonian corrections such as general relativity

  8. Thermoacoustic dosimetry of electron beam in extra field

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinichenko, A.I.; Kresnin, Yu.A.; Popov, G.F. [Kharkiv State Univ. (Ukraine)

    1996-12-31

    The theoretical basis is elaborated for thermoacoustic dosimetry of electron beam by one-dimensional (1-D) thin target TT in extra thermal and electromagnetic fields. The basic equation joining the deposited energy distribution to the stress wave amplitude in the case when the generation coefficient is function of temperature and coordinate in material permits realizing nonlinear thermoacoustic dosimetry with regulated sensitivity. Some variants of joint employment of the thermoacoustic dosimeter and electromagnetic scanner/splitter are considered. The first variant consists in beam scanning along 1-D dosimeter body to create the moving thermoacoustic source. This regime may be used for dosimetry of long beams. The second variant consists in spectral decomposition of the beam in electromagnetic field before its directing to the dosimeter. Principle of operation for some termoelastic dosimeters on the base of 1-D TTs is considered.

  9. Irreversible evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Comparative studying of tectonomagmatic evolution of the Earth and the Moon shows that cardinal irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes occurred at middle stages of their evolution; very likely such changes took place on other terrestrial planets (Venus, Mars and Mercury). As a result, primordial crusts of the planets were in considerable degree replaced by secondary basaltic ones. The established succession of events on the Earth could be provided by a combination of two independent factors: (1) it was originally heterogeneous and 2) its downward heating was followed by the cooling of its outer shells. As a result the primary iron core material was long time remained untouched and was involved into global tectonomagmatic processes at ca. 2.4-2.3 Ga. We concluded about a similar scenario for the evolution of Moon and other terrestrial planets. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and Moon) was studied. What did major stages of their irreversible evolution occur before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries [1], solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas occurred with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the magma oceans on the Earth and the Moon, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: sialic on the Earth and basic (anorthosite) on the Moon.

  10. MODIS-Derived Terrestrial Primary Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maosheng Zhao; Steven Running; Faith Ann Heinsch; Ramakrishna Nemani

    \\u000a Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems\\u000a not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food,\\u000a fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of all the acronyms\\u000a is available in the

  11. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  12. Hierarchies without symmetries from extra dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nima Arkani-Hamed; Martin Schmaltz

    2000-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the standard model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ``stuck'' at different

  13. Exploring Warped Compactifications of Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabholkar, Sujan

    In 1920s, the concept of extra dimensions was considered for the first time to unify gravity and electromagnetism. Since then there have been many developments to understand the unification of fundamental forces using extra dimensions. In this thesis, we study this idea of extra dimensions in higher dimensional gravity theories such as String Theory or Supergravity to make connections with cosmology. We construct a family of non-singular time-dependent solutions of a six-dimensional gravity with a warped geometry. The warp factor is time-dependent and breaks the translation invariance along one of the extra directions. Our solutions have the desired property of homogeneity and isotropy along the non-compact space. These geometries are supported by matter that does not violate the null energy condition. These 6D solutions do not have a closed trapped surface and hence the Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems do not apply to these solutions. These solutions are constructed from 7D locally flat solution by performing Kaluza-Klein reduction. We also study warped compactifications of string/M theory with the help of effective potentials for the construction of de Sitter vacua. The dynamics of the conformal factor of the internal metric is explored to investigate instabilities. The results works the best mainly in the case of a slowly varying warp factor. We also present interesting ideas to find AdS vacua of N=1 flux compactifications using smooth, compact toric manifolds as internal space.

  14. Functionaalanalyse 2006/7 Extra opgaven

    E-print Network

    Hanssmann, Heinz

    Functionaalanalyse 2006/7 Extra opgaven A). Lees in het boek van je keuze de behandelde stof na]: het hele boek. [Dieudonn´e]: hoofdstukken 5­7 en 11, bovendien de secties 3.14­3.17 uit hoofdstuk 3

  15. Functionaalanalyse 2006/7 Extra opgaven

    E-print Network

    Hanssmann, Heinz

    Functionaalanalyse 2006/7 Extra opgaven A). Lees in het boek van je keuze de behandelde stof na]: het hele boek. [Dieudonnâ??e]: hoofdstukken 5--7 en 11, bovendien de secties 3.14--3.17 uit hoofdstuk 3

  16. Precision Constraints on Extra Fermion Generations

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2010-07-16

    There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.

  17. Signals For Extra Dimensions at the VLHC

    E-print Network

    Rizzo, T G

    2001-01-01

    A brief overview of the signatures for several different models with extra dimensions at the stage II, $\\sqrt s=175-200$ TeV VLHC is presented. In all cases the search reaches for these models in the Drell-Yan channel are found to be in the range of 15-80 TeV.

  18. Signals for Extra Dimensions at VLHC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Rizzo; Thomas G

    2001-01-01

    A brief overview of the signatures for several different models with extra dimensions at the stage II,âs = 175 - 200 TeV VLHC is presented. In all cases the search reaches for these models in the Drell-Yan channel are found to be in the range of 15-80 TeV.

  19. Signals For Extra Dimensions at the VLHC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Rizzo

    2001-01-01

    A brief overview of the signatures for several different models with extra dimensions at the stage II, $\\\\sqrt s=175-200$ TeV VLHC is presented. In all cases the search reaches for these models in the Drell-Yan channel are found to be in the range of 15-80 TeV.

  20. Signals for Extra Dimensions at VLHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2001-08-27

    A brief overview of the signatures for several different models with extra dimensions at the stage II,{radical}s = 175 - 200 TeV VLHC is presented. In all cases the search reaches for these models in the Drell-Yan channel are found to be in the range of 15-80 TeV.

  1. Signals For Extra Dimensions at the VLHC

    E-print Network

    Thomas G. Rizzo

    2001-08-28

    A brief overview of the signatures for several different models with extra dimensions at the stage II, $\\sqrt s=175-200$ TeV VLHC is presented. In all cases the search reaches for these models in the Drell-Yan channel are found to be in the range of 15-80 TeV.

  2. Internal Representation and Memory Formation of Odor Preference Based on Oscillatory Activities in a Terrestrial Slug

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiguchi, Tatsuhiko; Furudate, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" exhibits a highly developed ability to learn odors with a small nervous system. When a fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow (LY), is injected into the slug's body cavity after odor-taste associative conditioning, a group of neurons in the procerebral (PC) lobe, an olfactory center of the slug, is labeled by LY. We examined…

  3. Simple Non-Coriolis Treatments for Explaining Terrestrial East-West Deflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Presents two simple methods of calculating the respective terrestrial westward and eastward displacements of a vertically projected and a perpendicularly dropped body which give due emphasis to physical principles, including Kepler's law, conservation of angular momentum, and nonrotating coordinate system with origin at the earth's center. (CC)

  4. Thrash, flip, or jump: the behavioral and functional continuum of terrestrial locomotion in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Alice C; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Hsieh, S Tonia

    2013-08-01

    Moving on land versus in water imposes dramatically different requirements on the musculoskeletal system. Although many limbed vertebrates, such as salamanders and prehistoric tetrapodomorphs, have an axial system specialized for aquatic locomotion and an appendicular system adapted for terrestrial locomotion, diverse extant teleosts use the axial musculoskeletal system (body plus caudal fin) to move in these two physically disparate environments. In fact, teleost fishes living at the water's edge demonstrate diversity in natural history that is reflected in a variety of terrestrial behaviors: (1) species that have only incidental contact with land (such as largemouth bass, Micropterus) will repeatedly thrash, which can roll an individual downhill, but cannot produce effective overland movements, (2) species that have occasional contact with land (like Gambusia, the mosquitofish, which evade predators by stranding themselves) will produce directed terrestrial movement via a tail-flip jump, and (3) species that spend more than half of their lives on land (like the mudskipper, Periopthalmus) will produce a prone-jump, a behavior that allows the fish to anticipate where it will land at the end of the flight phase. Both tail-flip and prone jumps are characterized by a two-phase movement consisting of body flexion followed by extension-a movement pattern that is markedly similar to the aquatic fast-start. Convergence in kinematic pattern between effective terrestrial behaviors and aquatic fast starts suggests that jumps are an exaptation of a neuromuscular system that powers unsteady escape behaviors in the water. Despite such evidence that terrestrial behaviors evolved from an ancestral behavior that is ubiquitous among teleosts, some teleosts are unable to move effectively on land-possibly due to morphological trade-offs, wherein specialization for one environment comes at a cost to performance in the other. Indeed, upon emergence onto land, gravity places an increased mechanical load on the body, which may limit the maximum size of fish that can produce terrestrial locomotion via jumping. In addition, effective terrestrial locomotor performance may require a restructuring of the musculoskeletal system that directly conflicts with the low-drag, fusiform body shape that enhances steady swimming performance. Such biomechanical trade-offs may constrain which teleost species are able to make the evolutionary transition to life on land. Here, we synthesize the current knowledge of intermittent terrestrial locomotion in teleosts and demonstrate that extant fishes represent an important model system for elucidating fundamental evolutionary mechanisms and defining the physiological constraints that must be overcome to permit life in both the aquatic and terrestrial realms. PMID:23704366

  5. Tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic style of each terrestrial planet, referring to the thickness and division of its lithosphere, can be inferred from surface features and compared to models of planetary thermal history. Factors governing planetary tectonic evolution are planet diameter, chemistry, and external and internal heat sources, all of which determine how a planet generates and rids itself of heat. The earth is distinguished by its distinct, mobile plates, which are recycled into the mantle and show large-scale lateral movements, whereas the moon, Mars, and Mercury are single spherical shells, showing no evidence of destruction and renewal of the lithospheric plates over the latter 80% of their history. Their smaller volume to surface area results in a more rapid cooling, formation, and thickening of the lithosphere. Vertical tectonics, due to lithospheric loading, is controlled by the local thickness and rheology of the lithosphere. Further studies of Venus, which displays both the craterlike surface features of the one-plate planets, and the rifts and plateaus of earth, may indicate which factors are most important in controlling the tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets.

  6. The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in Earth and planetary science, by conducting innovative research using space technology. The Laboratory's mission and activities support the work and new initiatives at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Laboratory's success contributes to the Earth Science Directorate as a national resource for studies of Earth from Space. The Laboratory is part of the Earth Science Directorate based at the GSFC in Greenbelt, MD. The Directorate itself is comprised of the Global Change Data Center (GCDC), the Space Data and Computing Division (SDCD), and four science Laboratories, including Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics, Laboratory for Atmospheres, and Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes all in Greenbelt, MD. The fourth research organization, Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), is in New York, NY. Relevant to NASA's Strategic Plan, the Laboratory ensures that all work undertaken and completed is within the vision of GSFC. The philosophy of the Laboratory is to balance the completion of near term goals, while building on the Laboratory's achievements as a foundation for the scientific challenges in the future.

  7. Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Carter, David O; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected microsere. Here we review the processes associated with the introduction of cadaver-derived carbon and nutrients into soil from forensic and ecological settings to show that cadaver decomposition can have a greater, albeit localised, effect on belowground ecology than plant and faecal resources. Cadaveric materials are rapidly introduced to belowground floral and faunal communities, which results in the formation of a highly concentrated island of fertility, or cadaver decomposition island (CDI). CDIs are associated with increased soil microbial biomass, microbial activity (C mineralisation) and nematode abundance. Each CDI is an ephemeral natural disturbance that, in addition to releasing energy and nutrients to the wider ecosystem, acts as a hub by receiving these materials in the form of dead insects, exuvia and puparia, faecal matter (from scavengers, grazers and predators) and feathers (from avian scavengers and predators). As such, CDIs contribute to landscape heterogeneity. Furthermore, CDIs are a specialised habitat for a number of flies, beetles and pioneer vegetation, which enhances biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:17091303

  8. Can polar bears use terrestrial foods to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, Karyn D.; Robbins, Charles T.; Nelson, Lynne; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased land use by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) due to climate-change-induced reduction of their sea-ice habitat illustrates the impact of climate change on species distributions and the difficulty of conserving a large, highly specialized carnivore in the face of this global threat. Some authors have suggested that terrestrial food consumption by polar bears will help them withstand sea-ice loss as they are forced to spend increasing amounts of time on land. Here, we evaluate the nutritional needs of polar bears as well as the physiological and environmental constraints that shape their use of terrestrial ecosystems. Only small numbers of polar bears have been documented consuming terrestrial foods even in modest quantities. Over much of the polar bear's range, limited terrestrial food availability supports only low densities of much smaller, resident brown bears (Ursus arctos), which use low-quality resources more efficiently and may compete with polar bears in these areas. Where consumption of terrestrial foods has been documented, polar bear body condition and survival rates have declined even as land use has increased. Thus far, observed consumption of terrestrial food by polar bears has been insufficient to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities but can have ecological consequences for other species. Warming-induced loss of sea ice remains the primary threat faced by polar bears.

  9. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide an...

  10. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide an...

  11. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide an...

  12. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide an...

  13. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide an...

  14. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Restrictions in extra service. 332.4 Section 332.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.4 Restrictions in extra service....

  15. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Restrictions in extra service. 332.4 Section 332.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.4 Restrictions in extra service....

  16. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true Restrictions in extra service. 332.4 Section 332.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.4 Restrictions in extra service....

  17. 20 CFR 332.4 - Restrictions in extra service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true Restrictions in extra service. 332.4 Section 332.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.4 Restrictions in extra service....

  18. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaltens

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. Free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source

  19. JONATHAN CODDINGTON Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    1994 JONATHAN CODDINGTON Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation ROBERT K. The organization of terrestrial biodiversity 102 3. Richness and complementarity 103 (a) Concepts 103 (b global biodiversity require that we make the most of what we know through the use of estimation

  20. Collisional Evolution of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnor, C. B.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2003-05-01

    The currently accepted model for the formation of terrestrial planets describes their growth as the collisional accumulation of rocky or sometimes molten planetesimals. The characteristics of the planets produced by this process are, to a large degree, determined by their collisional evolution, and their associated differentiation and thermal evolution. Studies of planet formation and planetary collisional evolution have typically been conducted separately. Most works of late-stage planet formation use perfectly inelastic mergers to model collisions (e.g. Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999, Chambers 2001, Levison & Agnor 2003), with certain recognized inadequacies, notably rotationally unstable spin rates acquired as a planet grows. Do planets really accrete in this manner? On the other hand, most of the work studying the collisional evolution of terrestrial planets has focused on determining the efficacy of single impacts to account for particular planetary characteristics and the formation of satellites (e.g. Benz et al. 1988, Canup & Asphaug 2001). It has been recognized for some time (Wetherill 1985) that the final characteristics (e.g. spin state, bulk composition, isotopic age) of an accreting planet are determined not by the last or single largest collision (Agnor, Canup & Levison 1999) but by all of the major collisional encounters in a planet's history. As demonstrated in our impact models, each major impact changes the silicate to metal ratio, the thermal state, and the spin state, and sets the stage for subsequent collisions. We have commenced a detailed study of collision dynamics and outcomes common to the late stage of terrestrial planet accretion. We are modeling collisions using smooth particle hydrodynamics to examine, primarily, the regimes of impact that truly allow for accretion (i.e. mass accumulation instead of mass loss). We are also studying the cumulative affect of giant impacts on major planetary characteristics (such as composition and spin) and the extent to which collisional processes may account for planetary heterogeneity. One initial outcome of this study, to be presented, is whether, and under which circumstances, the use of perfectly inelastic collisions in late stage accretion studies is appropriate.

  1. Energetic Strategies of Terrestrial Vertebrates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathy Winnett-Murray (Hope College; )

    2000-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the difference in metabolic response of representative endotherms (mice) and ectotherms (green anoles) to temperature changes and ecological consequences are studied through behavior and preferred body temperature in a temperature gradient.

  2. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by ?2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  3. Terrestrial Planet Formation at Home and Abroad

    E-print Network

    Raymond, Sean N; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Morishima, Ryuji; Walsh, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    We review the state of the field of terrestrial planet formation with the goal of understanding the formation of the inner Solar System and low-mass exoplanets. We review the dynamics and timescales of accretion from planetesimals to planetary embryos and from embryos to terrestrial planets. We discuss radial mixing and water delivery, planetary spins and the importance of parameters regarding the disk and embryo properties. Next, we connect accretion models to exoplanets. We first explain why the observed hot Super Earths probably formed by in situ accretion or inward migration. We show how terrestrial planet formation is altered in systems with gas giants by the mechanisms of giant planet migration and dynamical instabilities. Standard models of terrestrial accretion fail to reproduce the inner Solar System. The "Grand Tack" model solves this problem using ideas first developed to explain the giant exoplanets. Finally, we discuss whether most terrestrial planet systems form in the same way as ours, and high...

  4. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Forget, Francois

    2013-01-01

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance to optimize future telescopic observations, or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To first order, climate primarily depends on 1) The atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; 2) The incident stellar flux; 3) The tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes which are difficult to model: origins of volatile, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry. We discuss physical constraints which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using Global Climate Models analogous to the ones developed to sim...

  5. Steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gong Wu; Shanhao Jiang; Fuxiang Jiang; Dayuan Zhu; Houming Wu; Shaokai Jiang

    1996-01-01

    In addition to hecogenin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl(1 ? 4)-?-d-galactopyranoside, two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris L. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence, especially 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, the structures of the new saponins were established as 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[{?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 3)}{?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5?-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3?,26-diol and 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[rm[{?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 3){?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5?-furostan-12-one-3?,22,26-triol.

  6. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  7. Methane production in terrestrial arthropods.

    PubMed Central

    Hackstein, J H; Stumm, C K

    1994-01-01

    We have screened more than 110 representatives of the different taxa of terrestrial arthropods for methane production in order to obtain additional information about the origins of biogenic methane. Methanogenic bacteria occur in the hindguts of nearly all tropical representatives of millipedes (Diplopoda), cockroaches (Blattaria), termites (Isoptera), and scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae), while such methanogens are absent from 66 other arthropod species investigated. Three types of symbiosis were found: in the first type, the arthropod's hindgut is colonized by free methanogenic bacteria; in the second type, methanogens are closely associated with chitinous structures formed by the host's hindgut; the third type is mediated by intestinal anaerobic protists with intracellular methanogens. Such symbiotic associations are likely to be a characteristic property of the particular taxon. Since these taxa represent many families with thousands of species, the world populations of methane-producing arthropods constitute an enormous biomass. We show that arthropod symbionts can contribute substantially to atmospheric methane. Images PMID:8202505

  8. Stellar evolution and large extra dimensions

    E-print Network

    S. Cassisi; V. Castellani; S. Degl'Innocenti G. Fiorentini; B. Ricci

    2000-02-08

    We discuss in detail the information on large extra dimensions which can be derived in the framework of stellar evolution theory and observation. The main effect of large extra dimensions arises from the production of the Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of the graviton. The KK-graviton and matter interactions are of gravitational strength, so the KK states never become thermalized and always freely escape. In this paper we first pay attention to the sun. Production of KK gravitons is incompatible with helioseismic constraints unless the 4+n dimensional Planck mass M_s exceeds 300 Gev/c^2. Next we show that stellar structures in their advanced phase of H burning evolution put much more severe constraints, M_s > 3-4 TeV/c^2, improving on current laboratory lower limits.

  9. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  10. Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2003-01-01

    The solar magnetic field is constantly generated beneath the surface of the Sun by the solar dynamo. To balance this flux generation, there is constant dissipation of magnetic flux at and above the solar surface. The largest phenomenon associated with this dissipation is the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has provided remarkable views of the corona and CMEs, and served to highlight how these large interplanetary disturbances can have terrestrial consequences. STEREO is the next logical step to study the physics of CME origin, propagation, and terrestrial effects. Two spacecraft with identical instrument complements will be launched on a single launch vehicle in November 2007. One spacecraft will drift ahead and the second behind the Earth at a separation rate of 22 degrees per year. Observation from these two vantage points will for the first time allow the observation of the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and the coronal structures where they originate. Each STEREO spacecraft carries a complement of 10 instruments, which include (for the first time) an extensive set of both remote sensing and in-situ instruments. The remote sensing suite is capable of imaging CMEs from the solar surface out to beyond Earth's orbit (1 AU), and in-situ instruments are able to measure distribution functions for electrons, protons, and ions over a broad energy range, from the normal thermal solar wind plasma to the most energetic solar particles. It is anticipated that these studies will ultimately lead to an increased understanding of the CME process and provide unique observations of the flow of energy from the corona to the near-Earth environment. An international research program, the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) will provide a framework for interpreting STEREO data in the context of global processes in the Sun-Earth system.

  11. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)] [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B. [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wyler, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  12. Kinks, extra dimensions, and gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology and Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    We investigate in detail the gravitational wave signal from kinks on cosmic (super)strings, including the kinematical effects from the internal extra dimensions. We find that the signal is suppressed, however, the effect is less significant that that for cusps. Combined with the greater incidence of kinks on (super)strings, it is likely that the kink signal offers the better chance for detection of cosmic (super)strings.

  13. Standard Model scales from warped extra dimensions

    E-print Network

    Bernard Riley

    2008-08-31

    If in the Randall and Sundrum RS1 model the inverse of the compactification radius, the AdS curvature scale, and the five and four-dimensional Planck scales are equal in size, as is natural, then the warp factor at the location of the low energy brane is of value 1/pi. So that all scales derive from locations in the space, we identify the extra dimension with the infinite covering space of the S1/Z2 orbifold. The extra dimension is then essentially a series of connected line intervals, punctuated by branes. Scales on successive branes in the extra dimension descend from Planck scale in a geometric sequence of common ratio 1/pi. Evidence is provided for such a sequence within the spectrum of particle masses, and of a second geometric sequence, of common ratio 2/pi, which suggests that the AdS spacetime is six-dimensional and doubly warped. The scales of the Standard Model lie at coincident levels within the two sequences. A third sequence, of common ratio 1/e, provides a symmetrical framework for the Standard Model and points to a warped product spacetime.

  14. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Maltezou, H; Spyridis, P; Kafetzis, D

    2000-01-01

    METHODS—The clinical and epidemiological features of 102 children with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed between 1982 and 1998at P & A Kyriakou Children's Hospital were reviewed.?RESULTS—During the past decade, a 50% increase of admissions for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis was observed. The source of infection was disclosed in 48 patients. Diagnoses included superficial lymphadenitis (n = 48), pleural effusion (n = 27), meningitis (n = 16), skeletal tuberculosis (n = 5), miliary tuberculosis (n = 3), abdominal tuberculosis (n = 2), and pericarditis (n = 1). Miliary tuberculosis developed in infants, lymphadenitis and meningitis in preschool children, and pleural effusion and skeletal tuberculosis in older children. None of the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis died; however, six patients with meningitis developed permanent neurological deficits. In these patients, antituberculous treatment was introduced at a median of six days following admission as compared with one day in patients with no complications. Poverty, immigration, and limited access to medical services were common among patients with meningitis.?? PMID:10999874

  15. Noncommutative Inspired Black Holes in Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-06-07

    In a recent string theory motivated paper, Nicolini, Smailagic and Spallucci (NSS) presented an interesting model for a noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like black hole solution in 4-dimensions. The essential effect of having noncommutative co-ordinates in this approach is to smear out matter distributions on a scale associated with the turn-on of noncommutativity which was taken to be near the 4-d Planck mass. In particular, NSS assumed that this smearing was essentially Gaussian. This energy scale is sufficiently large that in 4-d such effects may remain invisible indefinitely. Extra dimensional models which attempt to address the gauge hierarchy problem, however, allow for the possibility that the effective fundamental scale may not be far from {approx} 1 TeV, an energy regime that will soon be probed by experiments at both the LHC and ILC. In this paper we generalize the NSS model to the case where flat, toroidally compactified extra dimensions are accessible at the TeV-scale and examine the resulting modifications in black hole properties due to the existence of noncommutativity. We show that while many of the noncommutativity-induced black hole features found in 4-d by NSS persist, in some cases there can be significant modifications due the presence of extra dimensions. We also demonstrate that the essential features of this approach are not particularly sensitive to the Gaussian nature of the smearing assumed by NSS.

  16. Extra Large Temporal Tunnel Cataract Extraction [ETCE

    PubMed Central

    U., Vivekanand

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the outcomes of extra large temporal sclero-corneal tunnel incision Cataract Surgery. Materials and Methods: This consecutive case series of eyes undergoing temporal tunnel cataract extraction with tunnel length of 8 to 10 mm was identified retrospectively. Surgical procedure details, follow up, complications, visual and astigmatic outcomes at 6wks were recorded and analysed. Results: Ninety six eyes with extra large tunnel incision were identified for analysis from a dataset of 670 manual small incision cataract surgery cases. 58% eyes had NO5 or denser cataracts. Intraoperative complications included, tunnel related problems (1 eye, 1.04%), bleeding into Anterior Chamber (10 eyes, 10.4%), Posterior Capsular Rent (2 eyes, 2.1%). Early postoperative complications included striate keratopathy (7 eyes, 7.3%). The mean Best Corrected Visual Acuity was 6/7.5 (0.1 logMAR) and 98% cases had Best Corrected Visual Acuity of 6/12 (0.3 logMAR) or better at 6wk. The aggregate Surgically Induced Astigmatism was 0.32D at 850. Conclusion: Extra Large Tunnel of length 8 to 10 mm can be self sealing with low SIA. The complication rates and visual outcomes of ETCE are comparable to those of conventional MSICS. This method can be valuable in complicated cases and during learning period. PMID:25386505

  17. Robust frameless stereotactic localization in extra-cranial radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Spadea, Maria Francesca; Bassanini, Fabio; Tagaste, Barbara; Garibaldi, Cristina; Orecchia, Roberto; Pedotti, Antonio [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, P.za Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20133 (Italy); Medical Physics, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, Milan 20141 (Italy); Radiotherapy Division, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, Milan 20141 (Italy) and Instituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Polo Universitario H S. Paolo, Via Rudini 8, Milan 20142 (Italy); TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, P.za Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan 20133 (Italy)

    2006-04-15

    In the field of extra-cranial radiotherapy, several inaccuracies can make the application of frameless stereotactic localization techniques error-prone. When optical tracking systems based on surface fiducials are used, inter- and intra-fractional uncertainties in marker three-dimensional (3D) detection may lead to inexact tumor position estimation, resulting in erroneous patient setup. This is due to the fact that external fiducials misdetection results in deformation effects that are poorly handled in a rigid-body approach. In this work, the performance of two frameless stereotactic localization algorithms for 3D tumor position reconstruction in extra-cranial radiotherapy has been specifically tested. Two strategies, unweighted versus weighted, for stereotactic tumor localization were examined by exploiting data coming from 46 patients treated for extra-cranial lesions. Measured isocenter displacements and rotations were combined to define isocentric procedures, featuring 6 degrees of freedom, for correcting patient alignment (isocentric positioning correction). The sensitivity of the algorithms to uncertainties in the 3D localization of fiducials was investigated by means of 184 numerical simulations. The performance of the implemented isocentric positioning correction was compared to conventional point-based registration. The isocentric positioning correction algorithm was tested on a clinical dataset of inter-fractional and intra-fractional setup errors, which was collected by means of an optical tracker on the same group of patients. The weighted strategy exhibited a lower sensitivity to fiducial localization errors in simulated misalignments than those of the unweighted strategy. Isocenter 3D displacements provided by the weighted strategy were consistently smaller than those featured by the unweighted strategy. The peak decrease in median and quartile values of isocenter 3D displacements were 1.4 and 2.7 mm, respectively. Concerning clinical data, the weighted strategy isocentric positioning correction provided the reduction of fiducial registration errors, featuring up to 61.7% decrease in median values (versus 46.8% for the unweighted strategy) of initial displacements. The weighted strategy proved high performance in minimizing the effects of fiducial localization errors, showing a great potential in improving patient setup. The clinical data analysis revealed that the application of a robust reconstruction algorithm may provide high-quality results in patient setup verification, by properly managing external fiducials localization errors.

  18. Mars: destruction of the tropical belt and building up extra tropics is a physical requirement of angular momentum equilibration between zones with different distances to the rotation axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    Often observed a sensible difference in appearance and structure between tropical and extra-t ropical zones of various heavenly bodies including rocky and gas planets, satellites and Sun (Fig. 6) compels to look for a common reason of such phenomenon [1-3]. All bodies rotate and their spherical shape makes zones at different lat itudes to have differing angular momenta as a distance to the rotation axis diminishes gradually from the equator to the poles (Fig. 1) (this is felt particularly when one launches rockets into space -preferable cheaper launches are from the equatorial regions - Kourou in the French Guyana is better than Baikonur in Kazakhstan). One of remarkable changes occurs at tropics. As a total rotating planetary body tends to have angular momenta of its tectonic blocks equilibrated it starts mechanisms leveling this basic physical property. At tropical zones (bulged also due to the rotation ellipsoid) the outer shell - crust as a consequence tends to be destroyed, sunk, subsided and shrunk; a density of crust material changes; the atmosphere reacts changing chemistry and structure; in terrestrial anthroposphere man looses its mass and stature (well known pygmioidness process). Ext ratropical belts, on the contrary, tend to add material and increase radius. Thus, a body tends to be like a cucumber but mighty gravity always makes it globular. According to the Le Chatelier rule mechanisms with opposing tendencies also begin to act. However, traces of this cosmic "struggle" very often are seen on surfaces of heavenly bodies as structurally distinguished tropical and extra-t ropical zones (Fig. 1, 6) [1-3]. At Mars the widespread "enigmatic" chaotic and fretted terrains at the highland-lowland boundary could be considered as traces of the crust destruction along the wide tropical belt (Fig. 2-4). A system of hillocks and their relics, mesas, ridges, cliffs and separating them depressions or plains (deep up to 1-2 km) is controlled by a crosscutting tectonics or makes a complicated mix (Fig. 3, 4). Prevailing subsidence here is characteristic. The depressions were used and additionally sculptured by moving ices and flowing waters in the past of martian geologic history. On the contrary, wide extra -tropical belts of pedestal craters with broad effusions of fluid-rich material (Fig. 5) obviously help to mend defective momentum. A comparison with Earth is to the point. There also the wide planetary long tropical zone is marked by destruction of the crust. It is demonstrated by development of numerous islands of the Malay Archipelago (the Sunda Isls., Maluku Isls., Philippines) between the Southeastern Asia and Australia. In Africa and South America huge depressions of the Congo and Amazon Rivers develop where the Archean crust is subsided to depths of more than 2 km. In the Pacific along the equator numerous islands of Micronesia occur (massive corals mark subsiding basaltic summits). Subsidence of the basaltic oceanic crust is followed by an intensive folding and faulting of basalt and sedimentary layers as a larger mass must be held by a smaller space (a planetary radius is diminishing). The central Atlantic is very demonstrative in this sense suffering huge transform fault zones being replaced by more quite tectonics to the north and south where basaltic effusions (plateau-basalts) form large provinces. This addition of dense basalts to the upper crust level helps to increase angular momentum of the extra-t ropical blocks. Recent results from the DAWN mission show that the mini-planet Vesta also has the same structurally deformed equatorial belt. But at Vesta the equatorial belt is subsided and faulted (broken by tight series of parallel grabens) having been squeezed into smaller space because of diminishing planetary radius (Fig. 6) Thus, Mars, as other planetary bodies, suffers a fundamental re-building of its wide topical zone (supertectonics) as a necessary natural response to the angular momentum adjustment (equilibrat ion) of its different latitude belts (tropics and extra-tropics). Th

  19. Higher in vitro resistance to oxidative stress in extra-pair offspring.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Helfenstein, F; Saladin, V; Richner, H

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to act as a universal physiological constraint in life-history evolution of animals. This should be of interest for extra-pair paternity behaviour, and we tested here the prediction that offspring arising from extra-pair matings of female great tits show higher resistance to oxidative stress than within-pair offspring. Resistance to oxidative stress, measured as the whole blood resistance to a controlled free-radical attack, was significantly higher for extra-pair offspring as predicted although these were not heavier or in better body condition than within-pair offspring. Since resistance to oxidative stress has been suggested to enhance survival and reproductive rates, extra-pair offspring with superior resistance to oxidative stress, be it through maternal effects or paternal inheritance, may achieve higher fitness and thus provide significant indirect fitness benefits to their mothers. In addition, because oxidative stress affects colour signals and sperm traits, females may also gain fitness benefits by producing sons that are more attractive (sexy-sons hypothesis) and have sperm of superior quality (sexy-sperm hypothesis). Heritability of resistance to oxidative stress as well as maternal effects may both act as proximate mechanisms for the observed result. Disentangling these two mechanisms would require an experimental approach. Future long-term studies should also aim at experimentally testing whether higher resistance to oxidative stress of EP nestlings indeed translates into fitness benefits to females. PMID:21899636

  20. The initial IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C.; Altamimi, Z.

    1989-06-01

    The IERS standards has adopted a description of the Convential Terrestrial Reference System (CTRS) to be used for all IERS activities. In order to facilitate the actual implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) by the various analysis centers which participate to IERS, but also by potential users, this study presents several informations which could be useful for these purposes: 1. A critical description of the latest TRF established by BIH, namely BTS 87. 2. A currently improved combination of BTS 87 input data, following strictly the IERS standards, and to be used as Initial IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF-0). 3. Some suggestions for implementation of the ITRS.

  1. Variable Extra Dimensional Spacetime and Solution to Initial Singularity Paradox of Our Universe From Extra Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Yong-Chang Huang; LiuJi Li

    2015-01-18

    Considering a n-dimensional general spacetime, we deduce its 4-dimensional Einstein equation and Friedman equations, and discover a general dual relation between the scale factor $a(t)$ of our universe and the scale factor $B(t)$ of extra dimensions. Based on the dual relation equation, predictions of shrinking of extra dimensions and free of singularity problem of our universe are given. Therefore, solution to initial singularity paradox of our universe is achieved. Because the dual relation is general, this Letter discovers that it is just the extra dimensional shrinking contribution that results in our universe's expanding in terms of the dual relation in the bulk space, and actually the dual relation is deduced doesn't depend on the 4-dimensional matter concrete Lagrangian, these are key important for a lot of future relative investigations.

  2. Super-Earths: a new class of planetary bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nader Haghighipour

    2011-01-01

    Super-Earths, a class of planetary bodies with masses ranging from a few Earth-masses to slightly smaller than Uranus, have recently found a special place in the exoplanetary science. Being slightly larger than a typical terrestrial planet, super-Earths may have physical and dynamical characteristics similar to those of Earth whereas unlike terrestrial planets, they are relatively easier to detect. Because of

  3. Extra relativistic degrees of freedom without extra particles using Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastache, Jorge; de la Macorra, Axel

    2013-08-01

    A recent number of analyses of cosmological data have shown indications for the presence of extra radiation beyond the standard model at the equality and nucleosynthesis epochs, which has been usually interpreted as an effective number of neutrinos, Neff>3.046. In this work we establish the theoretical basis for a particle physics-motivated model (bound dark matter, BDM) which explains the need for extra radiation. The BDM model describes dark matter particles which are relativistic at a scale below aac due to nonperturbative methods (as protons and neutrons do) and this process is described by a time-dependent equation of state, ?BDM(a). Owing to this behavior the amount of extra radiation changes as a function of the scale factor, and this implies that the extra relativistic degrees of freedom Nex may also vary as a function of the scale factor. This is favored by data on the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) epochs. We compute the range of values of the BDM model parameters, xc=acvc, that explain the values obtained for the He4 at BBN and Neff at equality. Combining different analyses, we compute the values xc=4.13((+3.65)/(-4.13))×10-5 and vc=0.37-0.17+0.18. We conclude that we can account for the apparent extra neutrino degrees of freedom Nex using a phase transition in the dark matter with a time-dependent equation of state without introducing extra relativistic particles.

  4. A theory of terrestrial catastrophism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Napier; S. V. M. Clube

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that the passage of the solar system through galactic spiral arms containing planetesimals may be responsible for the solar system cratering flux record, the current distribution of comets and the existence of many short-lived bodies in the solar system, as well as many biostratigraphically recognizable events in earth history. The steep decline in the cratering rate of

  5. Bibliography of terrestrial impact structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grolier, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography lists 105 terrestrial impact structures, of which 12 are proven structures, that is, structures associated with meteorites, and 93 are probable. Of the 93 probable structures, 18 are known to contain rocks with meteoritic components or to be enriched in meteoritic signature-elements, both of which enhance their probability of having originated by impact. Many of the structures investigated in the USSR to date are subsurface features that are completely or partly buried by sedimentary rocks. At least 16 buried impact structures have already been identified in North America and Europe. No proven nor probable submarine impact structure rising above the ocean floor is presently known; none has been found in Antarctica or Greenland. An attempt has been made to cite for each impact structure all literature published prior to mid-1983. The structures are presented in alphabetical order by continent, and their geographic distribution is indicated on a sketch map of each continent in which they occur. They are also listed tables in: (1) alphabetical order, (2) order of increasing latitude, (3) order of decreasing diameter, and (4) order of increasing geologic age.

  6. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2?,3?,22?,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5?-furostan-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12?,22?,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5?-spirostan-3?,24?-diol-12-one-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

  7. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Macintosh, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.

  8. Large Extra Dimension and Dark Matter Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Bo [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Starkman, Glenn D. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7079 (United States); Silk, Joseph [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-03

    If our space has the large extra dimensions as proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali (ADD), then gravity would start to deviate from Newtonian gravity and be greatly enhanced in sub-millimeter scales. Here we show that in the ADD scenario, gravity could play an important role (compared to the weak interaction) in the interactions between dark matter particles and the electron. We find that for typical WIMP dark matter, such dark matter-electron 'gravitational' scattering cross section may be much larger than the dark matter-nucleon cross section constrained by current dark matter experiments.

  9. Extra-Credit Problems in Space Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    These activities comprise a series of 20 practical math applications in space science. Students looking for additional challenges in math and physical science can use these as extra credit. The problems are authentic glimpses of modern engineering issues that arise in designing satellites to work in space. Each word problem has background information providing insight into the basic phenomena of the sun-Earth system, specifically space weather. The one-page assignments are accompanied by one-page teachers guides with answer keys.

  10. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H. (editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

  11. Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Keller, Vernon W.; Vaughan, William W.

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial environment is an important driver of space vehicle structural, control, and thermal system design. NASA is currently in the process of producing an update to an earlier Terrestrial Environment Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicle Design and Development Handbook. This paper addresses the contents of this updated handbook, with special emphasis on new material being included in the areas of atmospheric thermodynamic models, wind dynamics, atmospheric composition, atmospheric electricity, cloud phenomena, atmospheric extremes, and sea state. In addition, the respective engineering design elements are discussed relative to terrestrial environment inputs that require consideration. Specific lessons learned that have contributed to the advancements made in the application and awareness of terrestrial environment inputs for aerospace engineering applications are presented.

  12. Terrestrial analogs of the Hellespontus dunes, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    Geomorphic features in the Hellespontus region, Mars, were compared with dunes of the crescentic ridge type in numerous terrestrial sand seas quantitatively by dimensional analysis of dune lengths, widths, and wavelengths. Mean values for the Hellespontus dunes are close to mean values derived from measurements of all sampled terrestrial sand seas. Terrestrial analogs of form and areal distribution of the Hellespontus dunes are shown by comparison of scale ratios derived from the measurements. Dunes of similar form occur in South West Africa, in Pakistan, in the southeastern Arabian peninsula, in the Sahara, in eastern USSR and northern China, and in western North America. Terrestrial analogs closest to form and areal distribution of the Hellespontus dunes are in the Kara Kum Desert, Turkmen SSR, and in the Ala Shan (Gobi) Desert, China.

  13. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ? ­ Smaller planet mass? ­ Lightweight gases? #12;Venus and the Runaway GreenhouseTerrestrial Planet Atmospheres. II. #12;The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere #12;Mercury for a Planet · Equator heated more than poles · Hadley cell transport heat poleward

  14. DNA Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Diversity in Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758 (Clitellata): Resurrection of L. herculeus (Savigny, 1826)

    PubMed Central

    James, Samuel W.; Porco, David; Decaëns, Thibaud; Richard, Benoit; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Erséus, Christer

    2010-01-01

    The widely studied and invasive earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758 has been the subject of nomenclatural debate for many years. However these disputes were not based on suspicions of heterogeneity, but rather on the descriptions and nomenclatural acts associated with the species name. Large numbers of DNA barcode sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I obtained for nominal L. terrestris and six congeneric species reveal that there are two distinct lineages within nominal L. terrestris. One of those lineages contains the Swedish population from which the name-bearing specimen of L. terrestris was obtained. The other contains the population from which the syntype series of Enterion herculeum Savigny, 1826 was collected. In both cases modern and old representatives yielded barcode sequences allowing us to clearly establish that these are two distinct species, as different from one another as any other pair of congeners in our data set. The two are morphologically indistinguishable, except by overlapping size-related characters. We have designated a new neotype for L. terrestris. The newly designated neotype and a syntype of L. herculeus yielded DNA adequate for sequencing part of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The sequence data make possible the objective determination of the identities of earthworms morphologically identical to L. terrestris and L. herculeus, regardless of body size and segment number. Past work on nominal L. terrestris could have been on either or both species, although L. herculeus has yet to be found outside of Europe. PMID:21206917

  15. Thin film solar cells for terrestrial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Shirland; W. J. Biter; E. W. Greeneich; T. P. Brody

    1975-01-01

    The goals of the project are to develop a terrestrial version of the CdS thin film solar cell that is demonstrably amenable to low cost mass production, and to establish data on the lifetime of such cells under the expected conditions of terrestrial use. There were six major tasks for the first year's work. These were: Re-establish the state-of-the-art of

  16. Tightly integrated sensor-based terrestrial LiDAR georeferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Benjamin E.

    Georeferencing of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data is typically performed by using scanner target points occupying control points in the project area. This necessitates intensive field labor and extra, often cumbersome equipment. A method for georeferencing scan data using two GPS antennas firmly mounted on the optical head of a LiDAR scanner has been developed. By adding a dual GPS antenna apparatus to the scanner setup, thereby supplanting the use of multiple ground control points scattered throughout the project, we mitigate not only the problems associated with georeferencing but also induce a more efficient set up procedure while maintaining a practical level of precision. This study is an extension of the dual GPS antenna method by creating a process for a simultaneous network adjustment of multiple scanner stations. By exploiting additional sensor information from a scanner-mounted camera and point cloud matching techniques, an integrated adjustment of observations from this sensor suite is developed. Further, the technique is tested on two distinct data sets. The testing consists of comparison with conventional techniques and different combinations of the novel, more autonomous methods. Analysis includes the investigation of precision, accuracy, efficiency, and conditioning under different configurations of the system. The test results indicate that centimeter-level accuracy at a scanner-point distance of 40 meters can be achieved using only imagery and scanner-mounted GPS data, and that under certain circumstances, the autonomous methods were able to approach the same level of precision as the conventional data-driven method.

  17. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna. PMID:21424528

  18. Open Archive Toulouse Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-print Network

    Mailhes, Corinne

    , engineers and, technicians alike. One of the most difficult engineering challenges in extra-terrestrial. The challenges of drilling in extra-terrestrial bodies 2.1 Why drill in planetary bodies? Drilling and subsurface but the nature of extraterrestrial and terrestrial soils are not, it is necessary to adapt the wood wasp

  19. Astronomers Report Discovery of New Extra-solar Planets: Four Reports

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weinstock, Maia.

    2000-01-01

    If you are feeling alone in the universe, this news from 2000 of the search for new planets might inspire you. This account is from the popular space science Website, Space.com. It chronicles the latest detection of at least nine possible planetary bodies orbiting stars outside of our solar system. The text includes a discussion of how detection of wobble behavior is used in the search for extra-solar planets and plans for future planet hunts. This site also features links to Websites of the observatories involved in extra-solar planet detection, related Space.com stories, a diagram of Doppler shift due to stellar wobble and a table of the nine planet candidates's size and distance from Earth.

  20. The EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreikenbohm, A.; Oertel, M.; Wilms, J.; DeLuca, A.; Haberl, F.; Greiner, J.; Delvaux, C.; Carpano, S.; Law-Green, D.; Rosen, S.

    2015-07-01

    Modern X-ray observatories can yield unique insights into time domain astrophysics. Indeed, a huge amount of information is already stored - and largely unexploited - in data archives. The EXTraS project harvests the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton mission since its launch. This includes a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, and a search and characterization of variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale (from less than 1 s to 10 yr) and six orders of magnitude in flux (from 10(-9) to more than 10(-15) erg cm(-2) s(-1) in 0.2-12 keV). X-ray results are to be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. Our final catalogue and results will be made available to the community, together with new analysis tools, at the end of the project (late 2016). EXTraS is funded within the EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework and is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany).

  1. Unveiling long-term variability in XMM-Newton surveys: the EXTraS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, S.; Read, A.; De Luca, A.; EXTraS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The 3XMM-DR4 catalogue, the XMM-Newton Slew Survey (XSS) and the associated XMM-Newton EPIC data, are extensive resources for exploring high energy, time-domain astrophysics. Amongst these data are potential, hitherto unidentified variable sources, ranging from short duration (~seconds) transients through to objects varying on timescales of years. Variability signatures can be key to understanding the energetics and physical processes in a diverse range of astrophysical settings. The EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework project, `Exploring the X-ray transient and variable sky' (EXTraS), aims to exploit these XMM-Newton resources to explore, as fully as possible, the range of X-ray variability present and provide the results to the community through a public database. Here we outline one of the project's core aims, i.e. identifying and characterising long-term (days to years) variability. The 3XMM-DR4 catalogue contains ˜67000 sources with multiple detections. 3XMM, in conjunction with the XSS, which has now covered almost 70% of the sky, often with multiple slews, offers excellent scope for identifying new variable objects by tracking their flux between XMM-Newton observations. We discuss the plans for the EXTraS long-term variability catalogue and highlight some examples of the detection of long-term variability in 3XMM-DR4/XSS data.

  2. The EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Haberl, F.; Tiengo, A.; Watson, M.; Wilms, J.

    2014-07-01

    Modern X-ray observatories can yield unique insights into time domain astrophysics. Indeed, a huge amount of information is already stored - and largely unexploited - in data archives. The EXTraS project will harvest the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton mission since its launch. This will include a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, and a search and characterization of variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale (from <1 s to >10 yr) and six orders of magnitude in flux (from 10^{-9} to 10^{-15} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} in 0.2-12 keV). X-ray results will be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. Our final catalogue and results will be made available to the community, together with new analysis tools, at the end of the project (late 2016). EXTraS is funded within the EU/FP7-Cooperation Space framework and is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany).

  3. Tidal Heating of Extra-Solar Planets

    E-print Network

    Brian Jackson; Richard Greenberg; Rory Barnes

    2008-02-29

    Extra-solar planets close to their host stars have likely undergone significant tidal evolution since the time of their formation. Tides probably dominated their orbital evolution once the dust and gas had cleared away, and as the orbits evolved there was substantial tidal heating within the planets. The tidal heating history of each planet may have contributed significantly to the thermal budget that governed the planet's physical properties, including its radius, which in many cases may be measured by observing transit events. Typically, tidal heating increases as a planet moves inward toward its star and then decreases as its orbit circularizes. Here we compute the plausible heating histories for several planets with measured radii, using the same tidal parameters for the star and planet that had been shown to reconcile the eccentricity distribution of close-in planets with other extra-solar planets. Several planets are discussed, including for example HD 209458 b, which may have undergone substantial tidal heating during the past billion years, perhaps enough to explain its large measured radius. Our models also show that GJ 876 d may have experienced tremendous heating and is probably not a solid, rocky planet. Theoretical models should include the role of tidal heating, which is large, but time-varying.

  4. Hierarchies without symmetries from extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima [SLAC, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)] [SLAC, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [SLAC, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)] [SLAC, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the standard model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the standard model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the CERN LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Hierarchies Without Symmetries from Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima

    1999-03-22

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the Standard Model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the Standard Model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale.

  6. Flavor Structure of Warped Extra Dimension Models

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit

    2004-08-10

    We recently showed, in hep-ph/0406101, that warped extra dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV KK masses lead to striking signals at B-factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B-physics. We also briefly study other NP signatures that arise in rare K decays (K {yields} {pi}{nu}{nu}), in rare top decays [t {yields} c{gamma}(Z, gluon)] and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates such as K{sub s}{pi}{sup 0} and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, {approx} 3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a ''CP problem'' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal.

  7. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect. PMID:24664919

  8. Core formation in deforming terrestrial planets and planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromiley, Geoffrey D.; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Berg, Madeleine; Le Godec, Yann; Chien, Su Ying

    2010-05-01

    Our understanding of the processes by which metallic cores formed in the terrestrial planets is constrained by knowledge of the mechanisms of metal-silicate segregation. It is widely held that significant melting of the silicate portion of the early Earth, i.e. the formation of a silicate magma ocean, is required for differentiation of a metallic core to have occurred. This view is partly based on the results of a wealth of experiments conducted to determine the permeability of Fe-rich liquids in solid silicate matrices. These experiments, typically conducted in static systems over a range of conditions, generally preclude that metallic cores could have segregated efficiently from a crystalline silicate mantle by grain boundary percolation alone. By contrast, only a handful of experiments have been conducted in ‘dynamic systems' to investigate whether plastic deformation can aid segregation of metallic melts from solid silicate matrices. This is in spite of the seeming importance that deformation might have in young, hot terrestrial bodies undergoing rapid accretion. To date, such studies have been performed at relatively low pressures, largely due to constraints in conducting deformation experiments at higher pressures. Here we present the results of experiments performed to determine whether deformation could have provided a mechanism for segregating Fe-rich melts during formation of the terrestrial planets. Experiments in the system olivine-Fe3S have been conducted using the recently developed rotational Paris-Edinburgh Cell (roPEC) in a series of in-situ experiments conducted at the ID27 High-Pressure beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Source (ESRF), Grenoble, France. The roPEC uses rotation of opposed carbide anvils to impart controlled, variable torque on samples held at simultaneously high pressures and temperatures (currently up to 6 GPa, 2000 K). Design of the apparatus allows samples to be imaged in-situ, with sample volumes of sufficient size to permit additional detailed and statistically meaningful textural analysis of recovered samples using high resolution X-ray tomography and electron microscopy. Results from experiments performed at 2.5 GPa demonstrate that plastic deformation provides a highly effective mechanism for segregating Fe-melts over a wide range of temperatures, through the development of melt channels. This has previously been observed in deformation studies performed at lower pressures. However, as well as demonstrating that this mechanism operates at the higher pressure conditions of planetary differentiation, we also demonstrate that this mechanism also operates at much lower temperatures than previously suggested. Plastic deformation can, in fact, aid segregation of Fe-rich melts at temperatures below the Fe-S liquidus. This may be relevant to core-segregation on bodies much smaller than the Earth, for which the presence of a silicate magma ocean has been hypothesised but is less well supported. Plastic deformation during the early stages of planetary accretion may have led to the formation of Fe-rich (S-poor) cores before heating (due to ongoing accretion and breakdown of short-lived isotopes) had risen the temperature of early terrestrial bodies above the Fe-S solidus. This may be of relevance to core-formation in the early Earth, as it greatly increases the likelihood that larger bodies accreting to the Earth were already differentiated, and suggests that core composition may have been variable and dependent on size of the body.

  9. On the rise of turbulent plumes: Quantitative effects of variable entrainment for submarine hydrothermal vents, terrestrial and extra terrestrial explosive volcanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carazzo; E. Kaminski; S. Tait

    2008-01-01

    The maximum height reached by a turbulent plume rising in a stratified environment is a key tool to estimate the flux released at its source, particularly for large-scale flows because flux can often be very hard to measure directly. This height is known to be mainly controlled by the stratification of the ambient fluid, source buoyancy flux, and the efficiency

  10. Lunar and terrestrial planet formation in the Grand Tack scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-09-01

    We present conclusions from a large number of N-body simulations of the giant impact phase of terrestrial planet formation. We focus on new results obtained from the recently proposed Grand Tack model, which couples the gas-driven migration of giant planets to the accretion of the terrestrial planets. The giant impact phase follows the oligarchic growth phase, which builds a bi-modal mass distribution within the disc of embryos and planetesimals. By varying the ratio of the total mass in the embryo population to the total mass in the planetesimal population and the mass of the individual embryos, we explore how different disc conditions control the final planets. The total mass ratio of embryos to planetesimals controls the timing of the last giant (Moon forming) impact and its violence. The initial embryo mass sets the size of the lunar impactor and the growth rate of Mars. After comparing our simulated outcomes with the actual orbits of the terrestrial planets (angular momentum deficit, mass concentration) and taking into account independent geochemical constraints on the mass accreted by the Earth after the Moon forming event and on the timescale for the growth of Mars, we conclude that the protoplanetary disc at the beginning of the giant impact phase must have had most of its mass in Mars-sized embryos and only a small fraction of the total disc mass in the planetesimal population. From this, we infer that the Moon forming event occurred between ˜60 and ˜130 My after the formation of the first solids, and was caused most likely by an object with a mass similar to that of Mars.

  11. Terrestrialization, Miniaturization and Rates of Diversification in African Puddle Frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zimkus, Breda M.; Lawson, Lucinda; Loader, Simon P.; Hanken, James

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, are recurring trends in amphibian evolution, but the relationships among the traits that characterize these phenomena are not well understood. Furthermore, these traits have been identified as possible “key innovations” that are predicted to increase rates of speciation in those lineages in which they evolve. We examine terrestrialization and miniaturization in sub-Saharan puddle frogs (Phrynobatrachidae) in a phylogenetic context to investigate the relationship between adaptation and diversification through time. We use relative dating techniques to ascertain if character trait shifts are associated with increased diversification rates, and we evaluate the likelihood that a single temporal event can explain the evolution of those traits. Results indicate alternate reproductive modes evolved independently in Phrynobatrachus at least seven times, including terrestrial deposition of eggs and terrestrial, non-feeding larvae. These shifts towards alternate reproductive modes are not linked to a common temporal event. Contrary to the “key innovations” hypothesis, clades that exhibit alternate reproductive modes have lower diversification rates than those that deposit eggs aquatically. Adult habitat, pedal webbing and body size have no effect on diversification rates. Though these traits putatively identified as key innovations for Phrynobatrachus do not seem to be associated with increased speciation rates, they may still provide opportunities to extend into new niches, thus increasing overall diversity. PMID:22509392

  12. Perfusion Imaging in Pusher Syndrome to Investigate the Neural Substrates Involved in Controlling Upright Body Position

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Francesco Ticini; Uwe Klose; Thomas Nägele; Hans-Otto Karnath; Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2009-01-01

    Brain damage may induce a dysfunction of upright body position termed “pusher syndrome”. Patients with such disorder suffer from an alteration of their sense of body verticality. They experience their body as oriented upright when actually tilted nearly 20 degrees to the ipsilesional side. Pusher syndrome typically is associated with posterior thalamic stroke; less frequently with extra-thalamic lesions. This argued

  13. Body Piercing

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura M; Carnes, Molly

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the current information on medical complications, psychological implications, and legislative issues related to body piercing, a largely unregulated industry in the United States. METHODS We conducted a MEDLINE search of English language articles from 1966 until May 1998 using the search terms “body piercing” and “ear piercing.” Bibliographies of these references were reviewed for additional citations. We also conducted an Internet search for “body piercing” on the World Wide Web. MAIN RESULTS: In this manuscript, we review the available body piercing literature. We conclude that body piercing is an increasingly common practice in the United States, that this practice carries substantial risk of morbidity, and that most body piercing in the United States is being performed by unlicensed, unregulated individuals. Primary care physicians are seeing growing numbers of patients with body pierces. Practitioners must be able to recognize, treat, and counsel patients on body piercing complications and be alert to associated psychological conditions in patients who undergo body piercing. PMID:10354260

  14. Spatial patterns of extra-pair paternity: beyond paternity gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Lotte; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2014-09-29

    Most studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) focus either on a specific male's extra-pair gains or his extra-pair losses. For an individual bird however, mate choice or mate availability may underlie strong spatial restrictions. Disregarding this spatial aspect may underestimate or mask effects of parameters influencing observed EPP patterns. Here, we propose a spatially explicit model for investigating the probability of having extra-pair offspring (EPO) within local networks of breeding pairs. The data set includes all realized and unrealized potential extra-pair matings. This method is biologically meaningful because it allows (a) considering both members of an extra-pair mating and their social mates, and (b) direct modelling of the spatial context in which extra-pair behaviour occurs. The method has the advantage that it can provide inference about the relative contribution of spatial and non-spatial parameters, and about the relative importance of male and female neighbourhoods. We apply this method to parentage data from 1025 broods collected over 12 breeding seasons in two independent study populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We investigate a set of predictions based on the EPP literature, namely that EPP depends on male age and body size, breeding density and breeding synchrony. In all analyses, we control for breeding distance, a parameter that is expected to influence EPP even under random mating. The results show that older and larger males were more likely to sire EPO, but both effects decreased with increasing breeding distance. Local breeding density but not synchrony predicted whether a particular male-female combination had EPO, at least in one of the study areas. Apart from breeding distance, male age had the strongest effect on EPP, followed by a measure of breeding density. The method thus allows a comprehensive assessment of the relative importance of different types of spatial and non-spatial parameters to explain variation in the occurrence of EPP, while controlling for the fact that individuals that breed further apart are less likely to have EPO. The proposed approach is not limited to investigate EPP, but can be applied to other behavioural interactions between two individuals, such as dominance, competition and (social) mating. PMID:25266005

  15. Cosmologically safe QCD axion as a present from extra dimension

    E-print Network

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a QCD axion model where the origin of PQ symmetry and suppression of axion isocurvature perturbations are explained by introducing an extra dimension. Each extra quark-antiquark pair lives on branes separately to suppress PQ breaking operators. The size of the extra dimension changes after inflation due to an interaction between inflaton and a bulk scalar field, which implies that the PQ symmetry can be drastically broken during inflation to suppress undesirable axion isocurvature fluctuations.

  16. Economics and ethics of paediatric respiratory extra corporeal life support.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, M; Doyle, Y; O'Hare, B; Healy, M; Nölke, L

    2013-09-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of life support, which facilitates gas exchange outside the body via an oxygenator and a centrifugal pumping system. A paediatric cardiac ECMO programme was established in 2005 at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (OLCHC) and to date 75 patients have received ECMO, the majority being post operative cardiac patients. The outcome data compares favourably with international figures. ECMO has been most successful in the treatment of newborn infants with life threatening respiratory failure from conditions such as meconium aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory infections. There is no formal paediatric respiratory ECMO programme at OLCHC, or anywhere else in Ireland. Currently, neonates requiring respiratory ECMO are transferred to centres in Sweden or the UK at an average cost of 133,000 Euros/infant, funded by the Health Service Executive E112 treatment abroad scheme. There is considerable morbidity associated with the transfer of critically ill infants, as well as significant psycho-social impact on families. OLCHC is not funded to provide respiratory ECMO, although the equipment and expertise required are similar to cardiac ECMO and are currently in place. The average cost of an ECMO run at OLCHC is 65,000 Euros. There is now a strong argument for a fully funded single national cardiac and respiratory paediatric ECMO centre, similar to that for adult patients. PMID:24282901

  17. Extra Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph and Science Requirements for the James Webb Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2004-01-01

    1) Extra solar planetary imaging coronagraph. Direct detection and characterization of Jovian planets, and other gas giants, in orbit around nearby stars is a necessary precursor to Terrestrial Planet Finder 0 in order to estimate the probability of Terrestrial planets in our stellar neighborhood. Ground based indirect methods are biased towards large close in Jovian planets in solar systems unlikely io harbor Earthlike planets. Thus to estimate the relative abundances of terrestrial planets and to determine optimal observing strategies for TPF a pathfinder mission would be desired. The Extra-Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is such a pathfinder mission. Upto 83 stellar systems are accessible with a 1.5 meter unobscured telescope and coronagraph combination located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Incorporating radiometric and angular resolution considerations show that Jovians could be directly detected (5 sigma) in the 0.5 - 1.0 micron band outside of an inner working distance of 5/D with integration times of -10 - 100 hours per observation. The primary considerations for a planet imager are optical wavefront quality due to manufacturing, alignment, structural and thermal considerations. pointing stability and control, and manufacturability of coronagraphic masks and stops to increase the planetary-to- stellar contrast and mitigate against straylight. Previously proposed coronagraphic concepts are driven to extreme tolerances. however. we have developed and studied a mission, telescope and coronagraphic detection concept, which is achievable in the time frame of a Discovery class NASA mission. 2) Science requirements for the James Webb Space Telescope observatory. The James Webb Space Observatory (JWST) is an infrared observatory, which will be launched in 201 1 to an orbit at L2. JWST is a segmented, 18 mirror segment telescope with a diameter of 6.5 meters, and a clear aperture of 25 mA2. The telescope is designed to conduct imaging and spectroscopic observations from 0.6-27 microns. The primary mirror find and understand predicted first light objects, observe galaxies back to their earliest precursors so that we can understand their growth and evolution, unravel the birth and early evolution of stars and planetary systems, and study planetary systems and the origins of life. In this paper we discuss the science goals for JWST in the context of the performance requirements they levy on the observatory.

  18. Chemical signals in terrestrial vertebrates: search for design features.

    PubMed

    Apps, Peter J; Weldon, Paul J; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-06-26

    Covering: 1950 to 2015We compiled a data set of the compounds that terrestrial vertebrates (amniotes) use to send chemical signals, and searched for relationships between signal compound properties and signal function. Overall, relationships were scarce and formed only small-scale patterns. Terrestrial vertebrate signalling compounds are invariably components of complex mixtures of compounds with diverse molecular weights and functionalities. Signal compounds with high molecular weights (MWs) and low vapour pressures, or that are bound to carrier proteins, are detected during direct contact with the source of the signal. Stable compounds with aromatic rings in their structures are more common in signals of social dominance, including territoriality. Aldehydes are emitted from the sender's body rather than from scent marks. Lipocalin pheromones and carriers have a limited range of MWs, possibly to reduce the metabolic costs of their biosynthesis. Design constraints that might channel signal chemistry into patterns have been relaxed by amniote behavior and biochemistry. Amniote olfaction has such a high sensitivity, wide range and narrow resolution that signal detection imposes no practical constraints on the structures of signalling molecules. Diverse metabolic pathways in amniotes and their microbial commensals produce a wide variety of compounds as chemical signals and as matrix compounds that free signal components from the constraints of stability, vapor pressure, species-specificity etc. that would otherwise constrain what types of compound operate optimally under different conditions. PMID:26100000

  19. MODIS-Derived Terrestrial Primary Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven; Heinsch, Faith Ann; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food, fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of all the acronyms is available in the appendix at the end of the chapter) by the human population accounts for about 14-26% of global NPP (Imhoff et al. 2004). Rapid global climate change is induced by increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, especially CO2, which results from human activities such as fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. This directly impacts terrestrial NPP, which continues to change in both space and time (Melillo et al. 1993; Prentice et al. 2001; Nemani et al. 2003), and ultimately impacts the well-being of human society (Milesi et al. 2005). Additionally, substantial evidence show that the oceans and the biosphere, especially terrestrial ecosystems, currently play a major role in reducing the rate of the atmospheric CO2 increase (Prentice et al. 2001; Schimel et al. 2001). NPP is the first step needed to quantify the amount of atmospheric carbon fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. Continuous and accurate measurements of terrestrial NPP at the global scale are possible using satellite data. Since early 2000, for the first time, the MODIS sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, have operationally provided scientists with near real-time global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net photosynthesis (PsnNet) data. These data are provided at 1 km spatial resolution and an 8-day interval, and annual NPP covers 109,782,756 km2 of vegetated land. These GPP, PsnNet and NPP products are collectively known as MOD17 and are part of a larger suite of MODIS land products (Justice et al. 2002), one of the core Earth System or Climate Data Records (ESDR or CDR).

  20. Pemberton et al: ALIEN TERRESTRIAL ORCHID, EULOPHIA GRAMINEA, INVADES MIAMI ALIEN TERRESTRIAL ORCHID, EULOPHIA GRAMINEA,

    E-print Network

    Koptur, Suzanne

    Pemberton et al: ALIEN TERRESTRIAL ORCHID, EULOPHIA GRAMINEA, INVADES MIAMI 183 ALIEN TERRESTRIAL ORCHID, EULOPHIA GRAMINEA, INVADES MIAMI Bob Pemberton, PhD, Suzanne Koptur, PhD & Timothy Collins, PhD We first encountered an Asian orchid, Eulophia graminea, in South Miami during the autumn of 2007

  1. Early Formation of Terrestrial Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. M.; Schmitt, A. K.; McCulloch, M. T.; Lovera, O. M.

    2007-12-01

    Early (?4.5 Ga) Formation of Terrestrial Crust T.M. Harrison1, A.K. Schmitt1, M.T. McCulloch2, and O.M. Lovera1 1Department of Earth and Space Sciences and IGPP, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; 2Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601 AUSTRALIA Large deviations in ?repsilonHf(T) from bulk silicate Earth seen in >4 Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been interpreted as reflecting a major differentiation of the silicate Earth at ca. 4.4 to 4.5 Ga. We have expanded the characterization of 176Hf/177Hf (Hf) in Hadean zircons by acquiring a further 116 laser ablation Lu-Hf measurements on 87 grains with ion microprobe 207Pb/206Pb ages up to 4.36 Ga. Most measurements employed concurrent Lu-Hf and 207Pb/206Pb analyses, permitting assessment of the use of ion microprobe data to characterize the age of the volumetrically larger domain sampled by laser drilling. Our new results confirm and extend the earlier observation of significant negative deviations in ?repsilonHf(T) throughout the Hadean, although no positive ?repsilonHf(T) values were documented in this study. These data yields an essentially uniform spectrum of single-stage model ages between 4.54 and 4.20 Ga for extraction of the zircons' protoliths from a chondritic reservoir. We derived the full error propagation expression for a parameter, ?repsilono, which measures the difference of a sample from solar system initial (Hf) (Hfo), and from this conclude that data plotting close to (Hfo), are statistically meaningful and consistent with silicate differentiation at 4.540±0.006 Ga. ?18O and Ti thermometry for these Hadean zircons show little obvious correlation with initial (Hf), consistent with their derivation through fusion of a broad suite of crustal rock types under near water-saturated conditions. Together with the inclusion assemblage and other isotopic and trace element data obtained from these ancient zircons, our results indicate essentially continuous derivation of crust from the mantle from 4.5 to 4.2 Ga, concurrent with recycling into the mantle and internal crustal re-working. These results represent further evidence that by 4.35 Ga, portions of the crust had taken on continental characteristics.

  2. Dinosaur Bodies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to think about the ways in which living animals use their bodies and the ways in which dinosaurs might have used their bodies based on fossil evidence and our best educated guesses. These topics serve as a prelude to studying evolution and adaptation.

  3. Planetary Protection: Two Relevant Terrestrial Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, C.

    2002-09-01

    Concerns about potential pathogens in returned samples from Mars ("Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations", National Research Council, 1997) or planetary satellites ("Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies", National Research Council, 1998) focus on two potential types of pathogenesis, toxic and infectious. The National Research Council reports cited above state that the chances of extraterrestrial organisms proving either toxic or infectious to humans are extremely low, but cannot be entirely ruled out. Here I discuss recently discovered terrestrial examples relevant to each possibility, in order to make these concerns concrete. The first example concerns the production of hepatotoxins (toxins affecting the liver) and neurotoxins by cyanobacteria in glacial lakes on alpine pastures in Switzerland. In this example, mat-forming benthic cyanobacteria are implicated in a hundred cattle poisonings that have been reported from alpine pasteurs in southeastern Switzerland over the past twenty-five years (e.g. K. Mez et al, Hydrobiologia 368, 1-15 (1998)). It is unlikely that these cyanobacteria evolved the toxins in response to dairy cows; rather the susceptibility of cattle to these toxins seems simply to be an unfortunate coincidence of a toxin working across a large evolutionary distance. The second example concerns the recent demonstration that the decimation of shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral is due to infection by a common fecal enterobacterium associated with the human gut (K. L. Patterson et al., PNAS 99, 8725-8730 (2002)). The bacterium, Serratia marcenscens, is also a free-living microbe in water and soil, as well as an opportunistic pathogen in a variety of animal species. The distance between humans and corals emphasizes the possibility that certain organisms may prove pathogenic across a wide evolutionary divide. Of course, in neither of these cases are the evolutionary distances crossed as large as those that would likely exist between any martian organisms and human beings. The possibility that life on the two worlds might share a common ancestor suggests that these distances may not be altogether incomparable, but this remains speculation pending further exploration. This work is supported in part by the NASA Exobiology Program and a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

  4. Proton radius puzzle and large extra dimensions

    E-print Network

    Li-Bang Wang; Wei-Tou Ni

    2013-05-23

    We propose a theoretical scenario to solve the proton radius puzzle which recently arises from the muonic hydrogen experiment. In this framework, 4 + n dimensional theory is incorporated with modified gravity. The extra gravitational interaction between the proton and muon at very short range provides an energy shift which accounts for the discrepancy between spectroscopic results from muonic and electronic hydrogen experiments. Assuming the modified gravity is a small perturbation to the existing electromagnetic interaction, we find the puzzle can be solved with stringent constraint on the range of the new force. Our result not only provides a possible solution to the proton radius puzzle but also suggest a direction to test new physics at very small length scale.

  5. Deconvolving Terrestrial Alteration Mineral Spectral Signatures from Meteorite Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sweta; Clark, Beth Ellen; Hiroi, Takahiro; Zolensky, Michael

    2004-01-01

    When a meteorite enters into the earth's atmosphere, it is immediately subjected to various chemical reactions between its minerals and the elements in our thick atmosphere. These reactions alter the mineralogy of the meteorites. Some examples of the altered minerals in some meteorites are summarized. If meteorites can be linked to their corresponding parent body asteroid in space, we can improve our understanding of the solar system. Spectroscopy has been used in determining the links between asteroids and meteorites. However, meteorite weathering in the Earth s atmosphere also has an effect on meteorite spectra, and altered spectra can easily confuse asteroid connections. The goal of this project is to study the mineral and spectral changes due to Earth's environment and to design a computer simulation to correct meteorite spectra for the effects of terrestrial weathering.

  6. Brane Stabilization and Regionality of Extra Dimensions

    E-print Network

    David M. Jacobs; Glenn D. Starkman; Andrew J. Tolley

    2014-10-19

    Extra dimensions are a common feature of beyond the Standard Model physics. In a braneworld scenario, local physics on the brane can depend strongly on the brane's location within the bulk. Generically, the relevant properties of the bulk manifold for the physics on/of the brane are neither local nor global, but depend on the structure of finite regions of the bulk, even for locally homogeneous and isotropic bulk geometries. In a recent work, various mechanisms (in a braneworld context) were considered to stabilize the location of a brane within bulk spaces of non-trivial topology. In this work we elaborate on and generalize that work by considering additional bulk and brane dimensionalities as well as different boundary conditions on the bulk scalar field that provides a Casimir force on the brane, providing further insight on this effect. In D=2+1 (D=5+1) we consider both local and global contributions to the effective potential of a 1-brane (4-brane) wrapped around both the 2-dimensional hyperbolic horn and Euclidean cone, which are used as toy models of an extra-dimensional manifold. We calculate the total energy due to brane tension and elastic energy (extrinsic curvature) as well as that due to the Casimir energy of a bulk scalar satisfying both Dirchlet and Neumann boundary conditions on the brane. In some cases stable minima of the potential are found that result from the competition of at least two of the contributions. Generically, any one of these effects may be sufficient when the bulk space has less symmetry than the manifolds considered here. We highlight the importance of the Casimir effect for the purpose of brane stabilization.

  7. Periareolar Extra-Glandular Breast Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast augmentation is the most frequent procedure performed according to the 2009 Quick Facts report of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. This study presents the periareolar extra-glandular breast augmentation. METHODS From 2004 to 2010 among 32 female patients, peri-areolar incision was performed for breast augmentation. Dissection was performed in subcutaneous plane towards the inferior pole to reach the inframammary fold and was continued in the upwards direction in the subglandular plane to create a pocket. Once the implant of desired size was in place, three sutures fixed the inframammary fold. The skin incision was closed using 4-0 non-absorbable suture. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 30.7 years and the average incision length was 5.8 cm. 59.4% of patients had an implant size of more than 305 ml and less than 10% of patients had drains which were removed the next morning. All patients were followed regularly and no case of implant infection or removal was seen and only 2 patients had slight stretched scars. In one patient, the implant was high riding and no case of the capsular contracture was noticed. Changes in sensation were noted in 21.9% patients at 3 month interval which was reduced to 6.3% at 6 months interval. Similarly no case of rippling or other visible deformity was noted. CONCLUSION The extra-glandular periareolar approach for the breast augmentation can be a good option with few side-effects even it is associated with a higher level of surgical expertise. PMID:25489511

  8. Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Hopkins; M. T. Mendonça; C. L. Rowe; J. D. Congdon

    1998-01-01

    .   A number of recent studies have linked developmental, physiological, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal\\u000a combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to\\u000a coal ash. In the current study we compare total body concentrations of 20 trace elements in adult southern toads, Bufo terrestris, inhabiting coal ash settling basins with

  9. Comparative planetology: Significance for terrestrial geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.; Lowman, P. D., R.

    1978-01-01

    The crustal evolution of the terrestrial planets increase in complexity and duration with increasing size and mass of the planet. The lunar and mercurian surfaces are largely the result of intense, post-differentiation impact bombardment and subsequent volcanic filling of major impact basins. Mars, being larger, has evolved further: crustal uplifts, rifting, and shield volcanoes have begun to modify its largely Moon-like surface. The Earth is the large end-number of this sequence, where modern plate tectonic processes have erased the earlier lunar and martian type of surfaces. Fundamental problems of the origin of terrestrial continents, ocean basins, and plate tectonics are now addressed within the context of the evolutionary pattern of the terrestrial planets.

  10. Extra force from an extra dimension. Comparison between brane theory, STM and other approaches

    E-print Network

    J. Ponce de Leon

    2003-10-15

    We investigate the question of how an observer in 4D perceives the five-dimensional geodesic motion. We consider the interpretation of null and non-null bulk geodesics in the context of brane theory, space-time-matter theory (STM) and other non-compact approaches. We develop a "frame-invariant" formalism that allows the computation of the rest mass and its variation as observed in 4D. We find the appropriate expression for the four-acceleration and thus obtain the extra force observed in 4D. Our formulae extend and generalize all previous results in the literature. An important result here is that the extra force in brane-world models with ${\\bf Z}_{2}$-symmetry is continuous and well defined across the brane. This is because the momentum component along the extra dimension is discontinuous across the brane, which effectively compensates the discontinuity of the extrinsic curvature. We show that brane theory and STM produce identical interpretation of the bulk geodesic motion. This holds for null and non-null bulk geodesics. Thus, experiments with test particles are unable to distinguish whether our universe is described by the brane world scenario or by STM. However, they do discriminate between the brane/STM scenario and other non-compact approaches. Among them the canonical and embedding approaches, which we examine in detail here.

  11. Responses of terrestrial aridity to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Feng, Song

    2014-07-01

    The dryness of terrestrial climate can be measured by the ratio of annual precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET), where the latter represents the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, which depends on the surface air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and available energy. This study examines how the terrestrial mean aridity responds to global warming in terms of P/PET using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 transient CO2 increase to 2 × CO2 simulations. We show that the (percentage) increase (rate) in P averaged over land is ~1.7%/°C ocean mean surface air temperature increase, while the increase in PET is 5.3%/°C, leading to a decrease in P/PET (i.e., a drier terrestrial climate) by ~3.4%/°C. Noting a similar rate of percentage increase in P over land to that in evaporation (E) over ocean, we propose a framework for examining the change in P/PET, in which we compare the change in PET over land and E over ocean, both expressed using the Penman-Monteith formula. We show that a drier terrestrial climate is caused by (i) enhanced land warming relative to the ocean, (ii) a decrease in relative humidity over land but an increase over ocean, (iii) part of increase in net downward surface radiation going into the deep ocean, and (iv) different responses of PET over land and E over ocean for given changes in atmospheric conditions (largely associated with changes in temperatures). The relative contributions to the change in terrestrial mean aridity from these four factors are about 35%, 35%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. The slight slowdown of the surface wind over both land and ocean has little impact on the terrestrial mean aridity.

  12. The Impact of Daily Extra Credit Quizzes on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether offering daily extra credit quizzes predicted exam performance in an advanced psychology course (n = 36). Results revealed that extra credit performance was a strong predictor of exam performance, above and beyond gender, college grade point average, and ACT scores. In addition, results suggested that nearly half of the…

  13. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Extra-solar planets

    E-print Network

    Burleigh, Matt

    DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Extra-solar planets iscience seminar Dr. Matt Burleigh #12;Dr. Matt Burleigh A brief history of extra-solar planets · In the 16th century the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno said that the fixed stars are really suns like our own, with planets going round them · 1991

  14. A small cosmological constant from a large extra dimension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nima Arkani-Hamed; Savas Dimopoulos; Nemanja Kaloper; Raman Sundrum

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the Cosmological Constant Problem which makes essential use of an extra dimension. A model is presented in which the Standard Model vacuum energy “warps” the higher-dimensional spacetime while preserving 4D flatness. We argue that the strong curvature region of our solutions may effectively cut off the size of the extra dimension, thereby giving rise

  15. Extra-Pair Copulations and Associated Genetic Benefits Introduction

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Troy G.

    . Extensive research continues to investigate the genetic benefits of EPCs dependent on MHC allelic diversity Extra-Pair Copulations and Associated Genetic Benefits Introduction Extra exclusive. As a result, social monogamy does not reflect sexual or genetic monogamy- actually, it has been

  16. Realistic Field Theories on Submanifolds of Compact Extra Dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirabelli

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, they study various physical models which assume the existence of spatial dimensions beyond the familiar three. While everyday observation suggests only three dimensions, there is no shortage of potential explanations for how extra dimensions could have escaped detection for so long. For instance, the extra dimensions could be compact, curled into a microscopic volume so that you

  17. Spinless photon dark matter from two universal extra dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bogdan A. Dobrescu; Dan Hooper; Kyoungchul Kong; Rakhi Mahbubani

    2007-01-01

    We explore the properties of dark matter in theories with two universal extra dimensions, where the lightest Kaluza Klein state is a spin-0 neutral particle, representing a six-dimensional photon polarized along the extra dimensions. Annihilation of this 'spinless photon' proceeds predominantly through Higgs boson exchange, and is largely independent of other Kaluza Klein particles. The measured relic abundance sets an

  18. Extra-osseous involvement of Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Schmidt; Georg Eich; Sylviane Hanquinet; Heinz Tschäppeler; Peter Waibel; François Gudinchet

    2004-01-01

    The predominant clinical and radiological features of Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH) in children are due to osseous involvement. Extra-osseous disease is far less common, occurring in association with bone disease or in isolation; nearly all anatomical sites may be affected and in very various combinations. The following article is based on a multicentre review of 31 children with extra-osseous LCH.

  19. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra... “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more...visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury caused...

  20. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra... “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more...visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury caused...

  1. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra... “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more...visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury caused...

  2. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra... “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more...visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury caused...

  3. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra... “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of one variety (except when more...visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury caused...

  4. Formation of terrestrial planets in disks evolving via disk winds and implications for the origin of the solar system's terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Recent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations have identified a disk wind by which gas materials are lost from the surface of a protoplanetary disk, which can significantly alter the evolution of the inner disk and the formation of terrestrial planets. A simultaneous description of the realistic evolution of the gaseous and solid components in a disk may provide a clue for solving the problem of the mass concentration of the terrestrial planets in the solar system. Aims: We simulate the formation of terrestrial planets from planetary embryos in a disk that evolves via magnetorotational instability and a disk wind. The aim is to examine the effects of a disk wind on the orbital evolution and final configuration of planetary systems. Methods: We perform N-body simulations of sixty 0.1 Earth-mass embryos in an evolving disk. The evolution of the gas surface density of the disk is tracked by solving a one-dimensional diffusion equation with a sink term that accounts for the disk wind. Results: We find that even in the case of a weak disk wind, the radial slope of the gas surface density of the inner disk becomes shallower, which slows or halts the Type I migration of embryos. If the effect of the disk wind is strong, the disk profile is significantly altered (e.g., positive surface density gradient, inside-out evacuation), leading to outward migration of embryos inside ~1 AU. Conclusions: Disk winds play an essential role in terrestrial planet formation inside a few AU by changing the disk profile. In addition, embryos can undergo convergent migration to ~1 AU in certainly probable conditions. In such a case, the characteristic features of the solar system's terrestrial planets (e.g., mass concentration around 1 AU, late giant impact) may be reproduced.

  5. Magnetic reconnection in the terrestrial magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of quantitative comparisons between measured phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere thought to be associated with magnetic reconnection, and related theoretical predictions based on Petschek's simple model. Although such a comparison cannot be comprehensive because of the extended nature of the process and the relatively few in situ multipoint measurements made to date, the agreement is impressive where comparisons have been possible. This result leaves little doubt that magnetic reconnection does indeed occur in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The maximum reconnection rate, expressed in terms of the inflow Mach number, M/sub A/, is measured to be M/sub A/ = 0.2 +- 0.1.

  6. Were early pterosaurs inept terrestrial locomotors?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pterodactyloid pterosaurs are widely interpreted as terrestrially competent, erect-limbed quadrupeds, but the terrestrial capabilities of non-pterodactyloids are largely thought to have been poor. This is commonly justified by the absence of a non-pterodactyloid footprint record, suggestions that the expansive uropatagia common to early pterosaurs would restrict hindlimb motion in walking or running, and the presence of sprawling forelimbs in some species. Here, these arguments are re-visited and mostly found problematic. Restriction of limb mobility is not a problem faced by extant animals with extensive fight membranes, including species which routinely utilise terrestrial locomotion. The absence of non-pterodactyloid footprints is not necessarily tied to functional or biomechanical constraints. As with other fully terrestrial clades with poor ichnological records, biases in behaviour, preservation, sampling and interpretation likely contribute to the deficit of early pterosaur ichnites. Suggestions that non-pterodactyloids have slender, mechanically weak limbs are demonstrably countered by the proportionally long and robust limbs of many Triassic and Jurassic species. Novel assessments of pterosaur forelimb anatomies conflict with notions that all non-pterodactyloids were obligated to sprawling forelimb postures. Sprawling forelimbs seem appropriate for species with ventrally-restricted glenoid articulations (seemingly occurring in rhamphorhynchines and campylognathoidids). However, some early pterosaurs, such as Dimorphodon macronyx and wukongopterids, have glenoid arthrologies which are not ventrally restricted, and their distal humeri resemble those of pterodactyloids. It seems fully erect forelimb stances were possible in these pterosaurs, and may be probable given proposed correlation between pterodactyloid-like distal humeral morphology and forces incurred through erect forelimb postures. Further indications of terrestrial habits include antungual sesamoids, which occur in the manus and pes anatomy of many early pterosaur species, and only occur elsewhere in terrestrial reptiles, possibly developing through frequent interactions of large claws with firm substrates. It is argued that characteristics possibly associated with terrestriality are deeply nested within Pterosauria and not restricted to Pterodactyloidea as previously thought, and that pterodactyloid-like levels of terrestrial competency may have been possible in at least some early pterosaurs. PMID:26157605

  7. Tectonic Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Senski, David G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program supported a wide range of work on the geophysical evolution of the terrestrial planets during the period 1 April 1997 - 30 September 2001. We here provide highlights of the research carried out under this grant over the final year of the award, and we include a full listing of publications and scientific meeting presentations supported by this project. Throughout the grant period, our group consisted of the Principal Investigator and several Postdoctoral Associates, all at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

  8. Local anisotropy of muon flux - the basis of the method of muon diagnostics of extra-terrestrial space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbashina, Natalia; Astapov, Ivan; Petrukhin, Anatoly; Yashin, Igor; Yakovleva, Elena; Kokoulin, Rostislav; Shutenko, Victor; Dmitrieva, Anna

    In the talk, a new approach to the analysis of spatial-angular characteristics of cosmic ray muon flux variations detected by muon hodoscope is considered. Various parameters of local angular anisotropy and the technique of their evaluation are discussed. It is shown that the most sensitive parameter to different disturbances in the Heliosphere (and the Magnetosphere) is the projection of the vector of relative anisotropy of muon flux on the horizontal plane. This value characterizes the lateral shift of the angular distribution of muon flux. Some examples of the application of this parameter for description of muon flux changes during various heliospheric processes are considered.

  9. The decoding problem: do we need to search for extra terrestrial intelligence in order to search for extraterrestrial intelligence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil W. Tennant

    1993-01-01

    There is a widespread and perhaps uncritically accepted assumption on the part of SETI researchers and popularizers that we could tell what an ETI might be trying to tell us. We raise difficulties for this assumption. If the assumption is abandoned, a lot follows. We might even be able to argue, in a novel way, that SETI will be utterly

  10. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments: identification of extra-terrestrial and volcanic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, S. V.; Doehne, E. F.

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and stable isotope analyses were performed on a series of sediment samples crossing the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary from critical sections at Aumaya and Sopelano, Spain. The aim is to possibly distinguish extraterrestrial vs. volcanic or authigenic concentration of platinum group and other elements in K-T boundary transitional sediments. These sediments also have been shown to contain evidence for step-wise extinction of several groups of marine invertebrates, associated with negative oxygen and carbon isotope excursions occurring during the last million years of the Cretaceous. These isotope excursions have been interpreted to indicate major changes in ocean thermal regime, circulation, and ecosystems that may be related to multiple events during latest Cretaceous time. Results to date on the petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene sediments indicate that diagenesis has obviously affected the trace element geochemistry and stable isotope compositions at Zumaya. Mineralogical and geochemical analysis of K-T boundary sediments at Zumaya suggest that a substantial fraction of anomalous trace elements in the boundary marl are present in specific mineral phases. Platinum and nickel grains perhaps represent the first direct evidence of siderophile-rich minerals at the boundary. The presence of spinels and Ni-rich particles as inclusions in aluminosilicate spherules from Zumaya suggests an original, non-diagenetic origin for the spherules. Similar spherules from southern Spain (Caravaca), show a strong marine authigenic overprint. This research represents a new approach in trying to directly identify the sedimentary mineral components that are responsible for the trace element concentrations associated with the K-T boundary.

  11. Repeatability of extra-pair mating in tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, Linda A; Dunn, Peter O; Stapleton, Mary K

    2006-03-01

    Models of sexual selection assume that female mating preferences are heritable and, thus, repeatable for individual females across multiple mating episodes. Previous studies of the repeatability of female preference have examined individuals in captivity and focused presumably on social mate choice. However, extra-pair mating is widespread and can also influence sexual selection. We examined the repeatability of extra-pair mating in a wild population of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) by experimentally inducing females to lay two clutches in rapid succession within the same season. We found that the proportion of extra-pair young and the number of extra-pair sires were highly repeatable for individual females. However, the repeatability of specific extra-pair sires was low. We suggest that this unusual pattern of mating may be due to females maximizing the heterozygosity of their offspring. PMID:16499706

  12. Body Swatter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-15

    Students work in cooperative groups to research and write questions for an active game designed to review the major organs of the systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and excretory system).

  13. Mobile microbiome: oral bacteria in extra-oral infections and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Han, Y W; Wang, X

    2013-06-01

    The link between oral infections and adverse systemic conditions has attracted much attention in the research community. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including spread of the oral infection due to transient bacteremia resulting in bacterial colonization in extra-oral sites, systemic injury by free toxins of oral pathogens, and systemic inflammation caused by soluble antigens of oral pathogens. Mounting evidence supports a major role of the systemic spread of oral commensals and pathogens to distant body sites causing extra-oral infections and inflammation. We review here the most recent findings on systemic infections and inflammation complicated by oral bacteria, including cardiovascular disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer, respiratory tract infections, and organ inflammations and abscesses. The recently identified virulence mechanisms of oral species Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Campylobacter rectus are also reviewed. A pattern emerges indicating that only select subtype(s) of a given species, e.g., F. nucleatum subspecies animalis and polymorphum and S. mutans non-c serotypes, are prone to extra-oral translocation. These findings advocate the importance of identification and quantification of potential pathogens at the subtype levels for accurate prediction of disease potential. PMID:23625375

  14. Body Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-11-02

    What are the parts and functions of the different systems in the body? Circulatory System Watch the Circulatory System and the Heart video. Complete one of the Circulatory System quizzes. Excretory System Label the parts of the excretory system. Respiratory System Quiz Complete respiratory system quiz to review parts. Skeletal System Label each part of the skeletal system. Vocabulary Review Change the settings to only include body system terms and play Hangman to review new vocabulary. ...

  15. Evolution of the terrestrial planets (geological and petrological data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    How the terrestrial solid planetary bodies were developed? What major stages of their irreversible evolution took place before they turned into "dead" stone balls? We discuss these problems on examples of the Earth and the Moon, which evolution studied the best. According to modern views, after accretion of these bodies, magma oceans of some hundreds km deep appeared on their surface. According to Jeffries (1929), solidification of large molted bodies, because of the difference between adiabatic gradient in silicate melts (0.3oC/km) and gradient of their melting points (3oC/km), could be going only upwards, from the bottom to the surface. As a result a powerful crystallizing differentiation of the oceans' magmas took place with accumulation of the most low-melting components to the surface. Due to different deep of the oceans on the Moon and the Earth, the primordial crusts on these bodies were rather different: mafic on the Moon and sialic on the Earth. Geological evolution of the Earth began 4 Ga ago from appearance of Archean granite-greenstone terranes (GGT) and divided them granulite belts. Mantle-derived magmatism of high-Mg komatiite-basaltic series was located in greenstone belts, which formed irregular network within GGTs and composed 10-15 The sharp change of the magmatic activity with appearance in global scale of geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts occurred in interval 2.3-2.0 Ga ago. Such melts was typical for Phanerozoic within-plate magmatism and linked with thermochemical mantle plumes of the second generation, which ascended from the liquid core-mantle boundary (CMB). It was followed by plate tectonic appearance 2 Ga ago and from this particular time such tectonic regime has existed till now. From this particular time, ancient Earth's continental crust began to involved in subduction processes and interchange by secondary oceanic crust which forms about 70Where this geochemical-enriched material was conserved and how it was activated? We suggest that such situation could be possible only in case when (1) accretion of the Earth was heterogeneous, and (2) warming of the Earth occurred downwards, from surface to core. It was, probably, a result of moving inwards a wave of deformations, accompanied by emission of heat. At the first stage the wave went through depleted (in result of directed solidification of magma ocean) mantle and led to appearance of mantle superplumes of the first generation. At the second stage it reached iron core, melted it, which led to appearance of mantle supeplumes of the second generation (thermochemical), enriched in fluids, Fe, Ti, alcalies, incompatible elements, etc. Material of such superplumes could rich more shallow levels and led to active interactions of their extended heads with solid lithosphere, which caused changing of tectonic activity character. We suggest that terrestrial planets were developed at the same, but shortened scenario, and more quick. At the Moon the earliest magmatism of highlands were close to terrestrial early Paleoproterozoic SHMS and at the boundary 3.9-3.8 Ga ago was changed by maria magmatism, close in composition to MORB and OIB. By analogy with the Earth, we suggest that maria magmatism was linked with ascending of thermochemical superplumes, generated at the lunar CMB, when it's liquid iron core was yet existed. Ancient planums on Mars and tesseras at the Venus among vast planides, composed by basaltic flows can also evidence about two stages of their development. Judging on absence of magnetic field, their liquid cores ("energetic hearts") are of no consequence and they are dead bodies now. Work was supported by grant RFBR 07-05-00496

  16. Phenological Patterns of Terrestrial Plants Beverly Rathcke; Elizabeth P. Lacey

    E-print Network

    Lacey, Elizabeth P.

    Phenological Patterns of Terrestrial Plants Beverly Rathcke; Elizabeth P. Lacey Annual Review PHENOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Beverly Rathcke Divisionof Biological Sciences. Hence, phenology is defined as the study of the seasonal timing of life cycle events. Forplants

  17. Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    #12;Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems Personnel. Blaine Metting #12;vii Abstract The Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial needed to evaluate the feasibility of environmentally sound strategies for enhancing carbon sequestration

  18. Leaf element concentrations of terrestrial plants across China are

    E-print Network

    Slik, Ferry

    extracted from publications. The links between envi- ronmental variables, taxonomy and leaf elements wereRESEARCH PAPER Leaf element concentrations of terrestrial plants across China are influenced cycles of terrestrial eco- systems are strongly affected by leaf element concentrations. Understanding

  19. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides...supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES:...

  20. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides...supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit...

  1. Distinct Roles for Hematopoietic and Extra-Hematopoietic Sphingosine Kinase-1 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Ashley J.; Ali, Wahida H.; Sticca, Jonathan A.; Coant, Nicolas; Ghaleb, Amr M.; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Yang, Vincent W.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Obeid, Lina M.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1), one of two SK enzymes, is highly regulated and has been shown to act as a focal point for the action of many growth factors and cytokines. SK1 leads to generation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and potentially the activation of S1P receptors to mediate biologic effects. Our previous studies implicated SK1/S1P in the regulation of inflammatory processes, specifically in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These studies were conducted using a total body knockout mouse for SK1 and were unable to determine the source of SK1/S1P (hematopoietic or extra-hematopoietic) involved in the inflammatory responses. Therefore, bone marrow transplants were performed with wild-type (WT) and SK1-/- mice and colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Irrespective of the source of SK1/S1P, bone marrow or tissue, DSS induced colitis in all mice; however, mice lacking SK1 in both hematopoietic and extra-hematopoietic compartments exhibited decreased crypt damage. Systemic inflammation was assessed, and mice with WT bone marrow demonstrated significant neutrophilia in response to DSS. In the local inflammatory response, mice lacking SK1/S1P in either bone marrow or tissue exhibited decreased induction of cytokines and less activation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Interestingly, we determined that extra-hematopoietic SK1 is necessary for the induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in colon epithelium in response to DSS-induced colitis. Taken together our data suggest that hematopoietic-derived SK1/S1P regulates specific aspects of the systemic inflammatory response, while extra-hematopoietic SK1 in the colon epithelium is necessary for the autocrine induction of COX2 in DSS-induced colitis. PMID:25460165

  2. From Canonical to Enhanced Extra Mixing in Low-Mass Red Giants: Tidally Locked Binaries

    E-print Network

    Pavel Denissenkov; Brian Chaboyer; Ke Li

    2006-01-05

    Stellar models which incorporate simple diffusion or shear induced mixing are used to describe canonical extra mixing in low mass red giants of low and solar metallicity. These models are able to simultaneously explain the observed Li and CN abundance changes along upper red giant branch (RGB) in field low-metallicity stars and match photometry, rotation and carbon isotopic ratios for stars in the old open cluster M67. The shear mixing model requires that main sequence (MS) progenitors of upper RGB stars possessed rapidly rotating radiative cores and that specific angular momentum was conserved in each of their mass shells during their evolution. We surmise that solar-type stars will not experience canonical extra mixing on the RGB because their more efficient MS spin-down resulted in solid-body rotation, as revealed by helioseismological data for the Sun. Thus, RGB stars in the old, high metallicity cluster NGC 6791 should show no evidence for mixing in their carbon isotopic ratios. We develop the idea that canonical extra mixing in a giant component of a binary system may be switched to its enhanced mode with much faster and somewhat deeper mixing as a result of the giant's tidal spin-up. This scenario can explain photometric and composition peculiarities of RS CVn binaries. The tidally enforced enhanced extra mixing might contribute to the star-to-star abundance variations of O, Na and Al in globular clusters. This idea may be tested with observations of carbon isotopic ratios and CN abundances in RS CVn binaries.

  3. Universal extra dimensions after Higgs discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuda, Takuya; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Oda, Kin-ya; Watanabe, Ryoutaro

    2013-08-01

    We show bounds on five- and six-dimensional universal extra dimension (UED) models from the latest results of the Higgs searches at the LHC and from the electroweak precision data for the S and T parameters. We consider the minimal UED model in five dimensions and the ones in six dimensions, compactified on T2/Z2, T2/(Z2×Z2'), T2/Z4, S2, S2/Z2, the real projective plane, and the projective sphere. The highest possible ultraviolet cutoff scale for each UED model is evaluated from the electroweak vacuum stability by solving the renormalization group equation of the Higgs self-coupling. This scale turns out to be lower than the conventional one obtained from the perturbativity of the gauge coupling. The resultant 95% C.L. lower bounds on the first Kaluza-Klein scale from the LHC results and from the S, T analysis are 600 and 700 GeV in the minimal UED model, while those in the six-dimensional UED models are 800-1300 GeV and 900-1500 GeV, respectively.

  4. Neutrino Masses from Large Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima

    1998-11-24

    Recently it was proposed that the standard model (SM) degrees of freedom reside on a (3 + 1)-dimensional wall or ''3-brane'' embedded in a higher-dimensional spacetime. Furthermore, in this picture it is possible for the fundamental Planck mass M* to be as small as the weak scale M* approximate or equal to O(TeV) and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. We show that in this picture it is natural to expect neutrino masses to occur in the 10{sup {minus}1} - 10{sup {minus}4} eV range, despite the lack of any fundamental scale higher than M*. Such suppressed neutrino masses are not the result of a see-saw, but have intrinsically higher-dimensional explanations. We explore two possibilities. The first mechanism identifies any massless bulk fermions as right-handed neutrinos. These give naturally small Dirac masses for the same reason that gravity is weak at long distances in this framework. The second mechanism takes advantage of the large infrared desert: the space in the extra dimensions. Here, small Majorana neutrino masses are generated by breaking lepton number on distant branes.

  5. STS-109 Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Inside the Space Shuttle Columbia's cabin, astronaut Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, controlled the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) on the crew cabin's aft flight deck to assist fellow astronauts during the STS-109 mission Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). The RMS was used to capture the telescope and secure it into Columbia's cargo bay. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  6. ESTUARINE WETLANDS (CHAPTER: TERRESTRIAL VEGETATION OF CALIFORNIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter on estuarine wetlands is a peer-reviewed contribution to the 3rd edition of Terrestrial Vegetation of California (editors: M.G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. Schoenherr, University of California Press). The objective of the chapter is to describe the distribution, floristic compositi...

  7. Using observational data to evaluate global terrestrial

    E-print Network

    Atmosphere Coupled Land Models Coupled carbon-climate models disagree on the continued strength of the net to model land-atmosphere carbon exchange #12;Terrestrial Biospheric Models Well-informed Carbon cycle effective carbon management strategies Model evaluation and assessment North American Carbon Program Interim

  8. Fluid Dynamics of a Terrestrial Magma Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Solomatov

    2000-01-01

    The scenario of crystallization of a terrestrial magma ocean that seems to be consistent with both fluid dynamical and geochemical constraints is as follows. Even the largest impact is unlikely to melt the Earth completely. After the isostatic adjustment the temperatures at the bottom of the mantle were probably near or somewhat above the solidus. In less than a thousand

  9. Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila G. Bailey; Ryne Raffaelle; Keith Emery

    2002-01-01

    A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the

  10. CHANGE DETECTION VIA TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reem Zeibak; Sagi Filin

    2007-01-01

    We present in this paper an algorithm for the detection of changes based on terrestrial laser scanning data. Detection of changes has been a subject for research for many years, seeing applications such as motion tracking, inventory-like comparison and deformation analysis as only a few examples. One of the more difficult tasks in the detection of changes is performing informed

  11. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. M. Clube; W. M. Napier

    1981-01-01

    A hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the galaxy is reviewed. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth crossing (Apollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while

  12. Terrestrial ecosystem processes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Barrett; R. A. Virginia; D. W. Hopkins; J. Aislabie; R. Bargagli; J. G. Bockheim; I. B. Campbell; W. B. Lyons; D. L. Moorhead; J. N. Nkem; R. S. Sletten; H. Steltzer; D. H. Wall; M. D. Wallenstein

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial environments of Victoria Land, Antarctica are ideal systems to test hypotheses about the sensitivity of ecosystem processes to climate variability, and the relationships between soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning because of their high sensitivity to climate change and their limited diversity. This region is also considered among the most pristine of ecosystems, and therefore may serve as an indicator

  13. Extraterrestrial resources: Implications from terrestrial experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Kuck; Stephen L. Gillett

    1991-01-01

    Terrestrial mining experience indicates that the overwhelming criterion of a potentially economic deposit is its recoverable concentration of the desired mineral or element. Recovery can be based on contrast in physical and\\/or chemical properties, but processes based on physical properties are typically less expensive. As several processes generally are used in sequence, they have a profound effect on extraction costs.

  14. Rotation and internal dynamics of terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Dehant

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades, several missions and observations have brought new insight on the inner structure of the terrestrial planets. This information is a big challenge for the planet interior models; these data are also our best chance to improve our knowledge of the interior. Data obtained through new space missions are the basis of the future progress in this

  15. Electromagnetic neutrinos in terrestrial experiments and astrophysics

    E-print Network

    Carlo Giunti; Konstantin A. Kouzakov; Yu-Feng Li; Alexey V. Lokhov; Alexander I. Studenikin; Shun Zhou

    2015-06-17

    An overview of neutrino electromagnetic properties, which open a door to the new physics beyond the Standard Model, is given. The effects of neutrino electromagnetic interactions both in terrestrial experiments and in astrophysical environments are discussed. The experimental bounds on neutrino electromagnetic characteristics are summarized. Future astrophysical probes of electromagnetic neutrinos are outlined.

  16. UV-B EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dpeletion of stratospheric O3 layer should result in enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation at the earth's surface compared to present, with potentially damaging effects on biological systems. his paper briefly summarizes some key findings for UV-B effects on terrestri...

  17. Subsolidus convective cooling histories of terrestrial planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schubert; P. Cassen; R. E. Young

    1979-01-01

    The subsolidus convective cooling histories of terrestrial planets evolving from hot initial states are investigated quantitatively. A simple analytic model simulating average heat flux from a vigorously convecting mantle and incorporating a mantle viscosity proportional to mantle temperature and a lithosphere which thickens as the planet cools is employed. Heat flux from the convecting mantle is calculated on the basis

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizae and terrestrial ecosystem processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias C. Rillig

    2004-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Glomeromycota) are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite their acknowledged importance in ecology, most research on AMF has focused on effects on individual plant hosts, with more recent efforts aimed at the level of the plant community. Research at the ecosystem level is less prominent, but potentially very promising. Numerous human-induced disturbances (including global change and

  19. Introduction The development of terrestrial reproductive modes

    E-print Network

    Hödl, Walter

    of egg clutches or their exposure to terrestrial predators (MCDIARMID 1978). This in turn creates se- lective pressure for the development of parental care, which WELLS (1981) defined as non-gametic parental clutches 24 hours a day. In order to collect data on the reproduc- tive behaviour of this little

  20. Satellite communication system integrated into terrestrial ISDN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TORU OTSU; KAZUHIRO NAGAYAMA; AKIRA KUROKAWA; HIROSHI NAKASHIMA; MASAHIRO UMEHIRA

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced satellite communication system named DYANET II. This system uses satellite channels as subscriber lines for ISDN customers as well as trunk circuits for overflow traffic. The system can offer the same ISDN services to satellite customers as those available to terrestrial subscribers in terms of numbering, signaling, and charging systems as well as user-network interfaces.

  1. Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme T. Lloyd; Katie E. Davis; Davide Pisani; James E. Tarver; Marcello Ruta; Manabu Sakamoto; David W. E. Hone; Rachel Jennings; Michael J. Benton

    2008-01-01

    The observed diversity of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has long been debated whether dinosaurs were part of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR), from 125-80 Myr ago, when flowering plants, herbivorous and

  2. Terrestrial Photogrammetry of Active Lava Flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. James; S. Robson

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how lavas flow, cool and stop, accurate and frequent DEMs and associated temperature measurements of active flows are required. We describe the use of terrestrial photogrammetric techniques which allow detailed measurements to be carried out rapidly, frequently and over relevant spatial scales. Furthermore, the equipment required is sufficiently small and light to be

  3. Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution Graeme T. Lloyd1,*, Katie E. Davis2 , Davide of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has

  4. Designing avionics for terrestrial neutron environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Coakley; Dennis Breuner; Randall Milanowski; Marion A. Rose; Amy L. Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents issues related to effects generated in avionic electronics by terrestrial neutron environments and methods for mitigating the effects through part selection, circuit design and system architecture design. The paper includes an explanation of the System Hardening Upset Recovery (SHUR) technology macro cell library and demonstrates how the available functions can be applied to implement robust system operation

  5. Two new terrestrial Enchytraeus species (Oligochaeta, Annelida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Westheide; U. Graefe

    1992-01-01

    Enchytraeus crypticus n.sp. and Enchytraeus doerjesi n.sp. were discovered in laboratory cultures of terrestrial enchytraeids in the course of a project evaluating various non-light-microscopical techniques for their taxonomic utility. Ultrastructural and molecular features of the two species are published elsewhere; the present paper describes their conventional morphological characters and their life cycle data under laboratory conditions.

  6. Spaceprobe images and the Terrestrial Planets Section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Day

    1981-01-01

    With the formation of a new grouping within the Association - the Terrestrial Planets Section - there is scope for a fresh approach to BAA studies of Mercury, Venus and Mars, incorporating both Earth-based and spacecraft-derived information. Printing Options Send high resolution image to Level 2 Postscript Printer Send low resolution image to Level 2 Postscript Printer Send low resolution

  7. Steroid saponins II. Glycosides of Tribulus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Kintya; É. D. Perepelitsa; V. Ya. Chirva; L. G. Kretsu

    1972-01-01

    Summary  1. It has been established that the epigeal part ofTribulus terrestris L. contains five steroid saponins. Diosgenin was identified as the aglycone of all these compounds.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The carbohydrate compositions of the saponins have been determined.

  8. Alkaloids and other constituents from Tribulus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Shung Wu; Li-Shian Shi; Shang-Chu Kuo

    1999-01-01

    Three new compounds, terrestribisamide, 25R-spirost-4-en-3,12-dione and tribulusterine, together with 10 known compounds, N-p-coumaroyltyramine, terrestriamide, hecogenin, aurantiamide acetate, xanthosine, fatty acid ester, ferulic acid, vanillin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ?-sitosterol, were isolated and characterized from dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Structures of these compounds were determined by spectral analysis.

  9. Saponins in Tribulus terrestris – Chemistry and Bioactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kostova; D. Dinchev

    2005-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is a valuable herb known for its application in the folk medicine in many parts of the world. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins of tigogenin, neotigogenin, gitogenin, neogitogenin, hecogenin, neohecogenin, diosgenin, chlorogenin, ruscogenin and sarsasapogenin type are frequently found in this plant. Four sulphated saponins of tigogenin and diosgenin type are also isolated. Extracts and steroidal saponins have been

  10. Neutron production in terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Carlson; N. G. Lehtinen

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of photons with energies up to 20 MeV typically observed in association with lightning. Such energetic photons may undergo photonuclear reactions with nontrivial cross section in the vicinity of the giant dipole resonance. Pulses of neutrons have been observed experimentally in coincidence with lightning, suggesting such reactions are observable. We present simulations

  11. Validation of a terrestrial food chain model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Travis; B. P. Blaylock

    1992-01-01

    An increasingly important topic in risk assessment is the estimation of human exposure to environmental pollutants through pathways other than inhalation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently developed a computerized methodology (EPA, 1990) to estimate indirect exposure to toxic pollutants from Municipal Waste Combuster emissions. This methodology estimates health risks from exposure to toxic pollutants from the terrestrial food

  12. Accretion of the terrestrial planets. II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Weidenschilling

    1976-01-01

    The theory of gravitational accretion of the terrestrial planets is examined. The concept of a 'closed feeding zone' is somewhat unrealistic, but provides a lower bound on the accretion time. A velocity relation for planetesimals which includes an initial velocity component is suggested. The orbital parameters of the planetesimals and the dimensions of the feeding zone are related to their

  13. High resolution long range terrestrial imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Slater

    2005-01-01

    Achieving high resolution imagery of distant terrestrial objects from ground based sensors presents a unique technical challenge. The entire optical path is fully immersed in a dense and turbulent atmosphere, resulting in a significant loss of scene contrast and resolution. Although there are strong similarities to the problems of high resolution astronomical and space object imaging, there are also some

  14. CONSIDERATIONS FOR PLANNING TERRESTRIAL FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In planning a terrestrial field study each component of the study should be considered in the context of all other components. here are close connections between the statement of the research question, the study design, the execution of the study and the final conclusions. hese c...

  15. Trophic polymorphism in a terrestrial salamander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Maerz; Erin M. Myers

    2006-01-01

    Question: Does habitat heterogeneity promote trophic polymorphism in a terrestrial salamander? Hypothesis: Eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in upland and lowland habitats differ morphologically because their prey's size differs between those habitats. Field site: Five mature hardwood forests in central New York and northern Pennsylvania, USA, with known differences in diet between upland and lowland habitats. Methods: We collected animals

  16. Evolution of the structure of iron meteorites under terrestrial climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, G.; Grokhovsky, V.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Meteoritic iron is affected by many factors in terrestrial conditions. First of all, abundance of water induces an oxidization process. Despite rather high nickel concentration in meteoritic iron, rust is forming on a surface of extraterrestrial matter. But also transformation processes occur inside meteorites at rather low climatic temperatures (0.15 of the melting temperature). Such reaction has been observed for the first time in the Bilibino meteorite [1]. Experiments: Structural changes in kamacite were investigated in ancient iron meteorite falls (Aliskerovo IIIAB, Bilibino IIAB). All of them demonstrate uncompleted recrystallization. Polished sections were analyzed using inverted optical microscope Axiovert 40 MAT and SEM SIGMA VP with EDS and EBSD units. Results: Different percentage of recrystallization was found in Aliskerovo and Bilibino meteorites. 4 % of the section surface in Aliskerovo is occupied by recrystallization products. This value for Bilibino is equal to 80 %. It was noticed that recrystallization started from the kamacite-rhabdite boundaries in the Bilibino meteorite and from the kamacite-schreibersite boundaries in the Aliskerovo meteorite. There are strongly-etched sites in the recrystallized zones. One can suggest that these sites are traces of former boundaries. It is possible to think that the boundaries were moving with jumps because of the position of these sites in the recrystallized zone. Also it was noticed that there is a net of cracks before the recrystallization reaction front. A possible reason for this phenomenon is a wedge of extra material which generates an elastic stress field in the vicinity of the grain boundary [2]. All these phenomena can be explained using the Kirkendall effect on the grain boundary: the boundary shift is the result of the different concentrations of vacancies between the boundary sides.

  17. Bodie, CA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Held in a state of arrested decay, the ghost town of Bodie, California is one of the best known ghost towns in the United States. As with many a small town in the western part of the country, the town was part of the boom and bust cycle that was emblematic of the raucous world of mineral extraction, and as the gold in the region came and went, so did most of the residents of Bodie. This whole cycle began for Bodie in 1859, when a substantial quartz ledge was located in the region, along with significant deposits of gold. In 1962, the state of California took over what remained of the town in order to create a state historic park, and today approximately 200 structures remain on the site. At the website, visitors can take a photographic tour throughout many of these buildings (with some lovely interior photos as well), peruse a timeline of the townâ??s fortunes, and take a virtual tour of the Bodie cemetery. For persons interested in visiting Bodie, there is some helpful tips on nearby amenities and services.

  18. Body Image

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-01-02

    Whether you feel flabby or fit depends on your brain as well as your waistline. This according to neurologist Henrik Ehrsson and his colleagues at University College, London. They stimulated the nerves in volunteers' bodies in a way that tricked them into feeling like their waistlines were shrinking. The illusion activated a part of the subjects' brains called the posterior parietal cortex, which integrates sensory signals from all over the body. The nerve stimulation for each person was the same, yet some experienced the shrinking sensation more strongly--and they had more activity in this part of the brain. That suggests that two people who have identical bodies might experience their body image differently. This may lead to a better understanding of anorexia and other body-image disorders. This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

  19. Peering into Terrestrial Planet Formation: New Studies of Young Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, Jessica; Roberge, A.; Herschel GASPS Team

    2014-01-01

    Young debris disks are an excellent tool for studying last stages of terrestrial planet formation. During this stage, planetesimals in the disk might deliver volatiles such as water to the still-forming terrestrial planets. Though these planetesimals are undetectable, the dust in the disk provides clues to the location and composition of their parent bodies. I will discuss my work studying dust in young debris disks (10-30 Myrs-old) in the infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the Herschel GASPS team. We found that there is a lot of scatter in disk properties between disks of the same age, but there appears to be a trend between the stellar and disk temperatures. I will also discuss our detailed modeling of one well-studied debris disk, HD32297. Spectral energy distribution modeling indicates the presence of comet-like grains in the outer disk of HD32297, suggesting the presence of water rich planetesimals that can deliver water to terrestrial planets. HST STIS spectra of this disk show a red color that may be indicative of organic material. Together, these studies help paint a more complete picture of the last stages of terrestrial planet formation in young debris disks.

  20. High-resolution simulations of the final assembly of Earth-like planets 1: terrestrial accretion and dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean N. Raymond; Thomas Quinn; Jonathan I. Lunine

    2005-01-01

    The final stage in the formation of terrestrial planets consists of the\\u000aaccumulation of ~1000-km ``planetary embryos'' and a swarm of billions of 1-10\\u000akm ``planetesimals.'' During this process, water-rich material is accreted by\\u000athe terrestrial planets via impacts of water-rich bodies from beyond roughly\\u000a2.5 AU. We present results from five high-resolution dynamical simulations.\\u000aThese start from 1000-2000 embryos

  1. Female house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) increase the size, but not immunocompetence, of their offspring through extra-pair mating.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna M; Vogel, Laura A; Sakaluk, Scott K; Johnson, Bonnie G; Masters, Brian S; Johnson, L Scott; Thompson, Charles F

    2008-08-01

    House wrens are typically socially monogamous, but frequently engage in extra-pair matings leading to multisired broods. Because females do not appear to acquire direct material benefits from their extra-pair mates, we tested the hypothesis that female house wrens derive indirect genetic benefits, such as enhanced immunocompetence (cutaneous immune activity, humoral immunity, and plasma bactericidal activity) and condition (size and haematoserological traits) for their offspring, by mating polyandrously. We predicted that extra-pair young (EPY) should show greater immune responsiveness and better body condition than their within-pair maternal half-siblings (WPY). Contrary to our prediction, WPY had higher cutaneous immune activity than their EPY brood-mates in two of three years, and EPY and WPY did not differ in measures of innate and humoral immunity. WPY also had higher albumin to gamma-globulin ratios than EPY; however, they were not in better condition based on other measures. EPY had consistently longer tarsi (a measure of long-bone size) than their WPY half-siblings, suggesting that females engage in extra-pair copulations with larger males. The benefits of large structural size in the study population is unknown, but based on evidence from other passerines, we suggest that structural size may be an important fitness-related trait in house wrens. We conclude that our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that females gain immune-related benefits for their offspring by engaging in extra-pair matings. Further study of the fitness consequences of differences in tarsus length is needed to determine whether females acquire size-related benefits for their offspring from extra-pair mates. PMID:18662223

  2. 78 FR 70485 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop...Insurance Regulations, Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to make the Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions...

  3. 7 CFR 457.105 - Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.105...REGULATIONS § 457.105 Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. The extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions for the...

  4. 7 CFR 457.105 - Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. 457.105...REGULATIONS § 457.105 Extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions. The extra long staple cotton crop insurance provisions for the...

  5. Appendix 57 Predicted Distributions of Terrestrial Vertebrates Species

    E-print Network

    Appendix 57 Predicted Distributions of Terrestrial Vertebrates Species In Idaho and Montana #12;PREDICTED DISTRIBUTIONS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES IN IDAHO AND MONTANA Acres and Percent native terrestrial vertebrates that breed in Montana and Idaho, with emphasis placed on National Forest

  6. A combined terrestrial reference frame based on space geodesy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C.; Altamimi, Z.; Feissel, M.

    1989-06-01

    A terrestrial reference frame of 64 sites has been compiled on the basis of several space geodesy analyses, leading to the last realisation of the Terrestrial System of the BIH, BTS 1987. This realisation provides the initial definition of the IERS Terrestrial System.

  7. The Behaviour ofIodine in the Terrestrial Environment.

    E-print Network

    The Behaviour ofIodine in the Terrestrial Environment. An Investigation of the Possible Roskilde, Denmark Febtuary 1990 #12;1 Risø-M-2851 THE BEHAVIOUR OF IODINE IN THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT influence the migration behaviour of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is stated that the organic

  8. Initiative to quantify terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Cihlar; Scott Denning; Frank Ahem; Olivier Arino; Alan Belward; Francis Bretherton; Wolfgang Cramer; Gerard Dedieu; Christopher Field; Roger Francey; Rene Gommes; James Gosz; Kathy Hibbard; Tamotsu Igarashi; Pavel Kabat; Dick Olson; Stephen Plummer; Ichtiaque Rasool; Michael Raupach; Robert Scholes; John Townshend; Riccardo Valentini; Diane Wickland

    2002-01-01

    Questions related to the distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of the terrestrial carbon fluxes are at the core of current scientific and policy debates. In recent years, the primary concern has been the increasing CO2 content in the atmosphere, its effect on climate, and the associated role of terrestrial ecosystems in mitigating the increase and impact of climate change. However, terrestrial

  9. Aerodynamic Analysis of Tektites and Their Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, E. W.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1962-01-01

    Experiment and analysis indicate that the button-type australites were derived from glassy spheres which entered or re-entered the atmosphere as cold solid bodies; in case of average-size specimens, the entry direction was nearly horizontal and the entry speed between 6.5 and 11.2 km/sec. Terrestrial origin of such spheres is impossible because of extremely high deceleration rates at low altitudes. The limited extension of the strewn fields rules out extraterrestrial origin of clusters of such spheres because of stability considerations for clusters in space. However, tektites may have been released as liquid droplets from glassy parent bodies ablating in the atmosphere of the earth. The australites then have skipped together with the parent body in order to re-enter as cold spheres. Terrestrial origin of a parent body would require an extremely violent natural event. Ablation analysis shows that fusion of opaque siliceous stone into glass by aerodynamic heating is impossible.

  10. Axion arising from warped extra-dimensional gauge fields

    SciTech Connect

    Burnier, Y.; Kuehnel, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-06-01

    We present a connection between two known solutions to the strong-CP problem: the standard introduction of axions and the extra-dimensional one, relying on topological arguments. Using an equivalent lower-dimensional setup with a warped extra dimension but without adding any new fields, it is shown that an additional light degree of freedom appears. Like an axion, it couples to the topological charge density via fermionic loop corrections. Its decay constant is related to the geometry of the extra dimension and is suppressed by the warping scale.

  11. Label and extra label drug use in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Fajt, V R

    2001-07-01

    The small ruminant practitioner has a small arsenal of approved drugs in the United States, so the practitioner must be familiar with the laws and regulations related to extra label use. Drugs can be used extra label in food animals only under specific circumstances and can be used only for therapeutic purposes. Drugs that are illegal in small ruminants include chloramphenicol; clenbuterol; diethylstilbestrol; dimetridazole, ipranidazole, and other nitroimidazoles such as metronidazole; dipyrone; fluoroquinolones; glycopeptides; nitrofurans; furazolidone; and extra label use of medication in feed. It is also illegal to use any drug that results in residues above established tolerances or safe levels. PMID:11515408

  12. One common structural peculiarity of the Solar system bodies including the star, planets, satellites and resulting from their globes rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, , G. G.

    2008-09-01

    Often observed a sensible difference in appearance and structure between tropical and extra-tropical zones of various heavenly bodies including rocky and gas planets, satellites and Sun compels to look for a common reason of such phenomenon. All bodies rotate and their spherical shape makes zones at different latitudes to have differing angular momenta as a distance to the rotation axis diminishes gradually from the equator to the poles (this is felt particularly when one launches rockets into space -preferable more cheap launches are from the equatorial regions - Kourou is better than Baikonur). One of remarkable changes occurs at tropics. As a single rotating planetary body tends to have angular momenta of its tectonic blocks equilibrated it starts mechanisms leveling this basic physical property. At tropical zones (bulged also due to the rotation ellipsoid) the outer shell - crust as a consequence tends to be destroyed, sunk, subsided and shrunk; a density of crust material changes; the atmosphere reacts changing chemistry and structure; in terrestrial anthroposphere man looses its mass and stature. But according to the Le Chatelier rule mechanisms with an opposing tendency also begin to act. At Earth the wide planetary long tropical zone is marked by destruction of the crust. It is demonstrated by development of numerous islands of the Malay Archipelago (the Sunda Isls., Maluku Isls, Philippines) between the Southeastern Asia and Australia. In Africa and South America huge depressions of the Congo and Amazon Rivers develops where the Archean crust is subsided to depths of more than 2 km. In the Pacific along the equator numerous islands of Micronesia occur. Subsidence of the basaltic oceanic crust is followed by an intensive folding and faulting of basalt and sedimentary layers (Fig. 1) as a larger mass must be held by a smaller space (a planetary radius is diminished). The central Atlantic is very demonstrative in this sense suffering huge transform fault zones changing to more quite tectonics to the north and south where basaltic effusions form large provinces. This addition of dense basalts to the crust plays to increasing angular momentum of the extra-tropical blocks. At Mars the widespread enigmatic chaotic and fretted terrains at the highland-lowland boundary could be considered as traces of the crust destruction along the wide tropical belt. A system of hillocks and their relics and separating them depressions is controlled by a crosscutting tectonics. Prevailing subsidence here is characteristic. At Saturn a wide tropical zone usually has higher albedo than extra-tropical ones. Relatively heavier methane clouds in the H-He atmosphere are absent around the equator and concentrated on the higher latitudes (Fig. 2). In the tropical zone of Titan the darker methane lowlands (Fig. 3) are normally rippled in at least two directions with spacing a few km to 20 km (such forms erroneously are taken as dunes) (Fig. 4). This subsidence rippling gradually is replaced by smooth surfaces of dark basins (possibly liquid methane) at the higher northern and at lesser degree southern latitudes. This planetary pattern (Fig. 3, 4) is comparable with a behavior of the basalt floor of terrestrial oceans. On Iapetus the wide equatorial zone of the bright trailing hemisphere is distinguished by relatively numerous craters with darkened floors (Fig. 5). This terrain connects both flanks of the dark leading hemisphere and is a continuation of its equatorial bulge (a squeezed out feature as a result of the dark hemisphere subsidence). Thus looks tending subside and disintegrate tropical terrain on the uplifted bright hemisphere. Around the Tethys' equator there is a band of slightly darker surface material (Fig. 6). It may be an area of less contaminated ice and ice with a different structure than ice at higher latitudes as think Cassini scientists. If it is coarser-grained (more loosely packed) and purer then the equatorial region tends to be less dense diminishing its angular momentum. A crosscutting wave rippling producing chains of

  13. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  14. Lorentz Violation in Warped Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-11

    Higher dimensional theories which address some of the problematic issues of the Standard Model(SM) naturally involve some form of D = 4 + n-dimensional Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). In such models the fundamental physics which leads to, e.g., field localization, orbifolding, the existence of brane terms and the compactification process all can introduce LIV in the higher dimensional theory while still preserving 4-d Lorentz invariance. In this paper, attempting to capture some of this physics, we extend our previous analysis of LIV in 5-d UED-type models to those with 5- d warped extra dimensions. To be specific, we employ the 5-d analog of the SM Extension of Kostelecky et al. which incorporates a complete set of operators arising from spontaneous LIV. We show that while the response of the bulk scalar, fermion and gauge fields to the addition of LIV operators in warped models is qualitatively similar to what happens in the flat 5-d UED case, the gravity sector of these models reacts very differently than in flat space. Specifically, we show that LIV in this warped case leads to a non-zero bulk mass for the 5-d graviton and so the would-be zero mode, which we identify as the usual 4-d graviton, must necessarily become massive. The origin of this mass term is the simultaneous existence of the constant non-zero AdS{sub 5} curvature and the loss of general co-ordinate invariance via LIV in the 5-d theory. Thus warped 5-d models with LIV in the gravity sector are not phenomenologically viable.

  15. The Geochronology of Terrestrial Meteorite and Cometary Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, S. P.

    2003-12-01

    Geochronology has become a crucial part of the debate over the influx of extraterrestrial material and its long term importance to terrestrial life. Many of the known terrestrial craters have ages attached to them, but all too often the ages are imprecise and unfortunately some are inaccurate. Despite these problems the database of measured ages has been used to support hypotheses of clustering and periodicity in the impact record, and compare ages with those for mass extinctions in the fossil record. Over 170 craters have been identified on the Earth's surface, but the ages of less than half are known to better than 10 million years. The crucial question of peak eruption ages for large igneous provinces (LIPs) formed during the Palaeozoic, such as Deccan and the Siberian Traps, has been resolved using radiometric dating techniques such as Ar-Ar and U-Pb dating. The precision of measured ages for LIPs is better than 1% in most cases, but the precision and accuracy of ages determined for impact events is very variable. The ages of the largest 5 known terrestrial impact craters (>100 km diameter) have been established using radiometric dating techniques such as Ar-Ar and U-Pb and are known to precisions of better than 1%. However, the ages of many smaller craters, even some over 50 km in diameter, are less well constrained. It is the record of these smaller impacts which is littered with low precision ages, inaccurate ages and impacts whose age is constrained only by the age of the target rock and the youngest overlying sediments. Why is the record of smaller impacts so poorly constrained? The main reason is the scarcity of samples and post impact alteration. The largest impacts form significant quantities of melt and which remain liquid for sufficiently long to coalesce and form conventional igneous bodies. It is these bodies which have been dated using radiometric dating techniques, often U-Pb dating of zircon crystallized from the melt. Smaller impacts form little or no melt and where present, they are heterogeneous mixtures of melt and host rock clasts of all sizes. The task of dating such samples is often made more difficult by alteration as a result of post impact hydrothermal activity. In addition, unlike LIPs, samples of impact melt are often rare even within the crater. Ar-Ar dating has become the technique of choice for these samples since both furnace heating and laser heating extraction techniques lend themselves to analysis of small heterogeneous samples. Ar-Ar analysis has been used to separate and identify components such as host rock clasts and the effects of later alteration, to reveal precise ages for the impacts. The Ar-Ar technique can also be used to determine argon loss in the host rock as a result of heating during the impact, and measure the remnants of host rock Ar dissolved in melt which can also indicate the rapidity of melt formation and freezing. In fact the geochronology of impacts is fast improving area and although more work is required before we can determine whether impacts fall randomly, with a periodicity, or in clusters, there are some strong indications of future directions. Some apparent clusters of impacts appear to warrant further study, whereas others may disappear as new geochronological data is acquired. In particular the long known 450-500 Ma asteriod break-up event seems to have a terrestrial corollary in a mid-Ordovician cluster of impacts.

  16. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica 29 Ecological Biogeography of theTerrestrial

    E-print Network

    Wall, Diana

    Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica 29 Ecological Biogeography of theTerrestrial Nematodes ofVictoria Land,Antarctica Byron J. Adams1 , Diana H. Wall2 , Ross A of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica. ZooKeys 419: 29­71. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.419.7180 Abstract

  17. Body Levers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1987-01-01

    Explains how the muscle and bone arrangement of the human body can be used in teaching the principles of simple machines. Presents an activity that investigates the lever system of the forearm. Includes background information on levers and suggests questions for classroom discussion. (ML)

  18. Body Circulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students are introduced to the circulatory system, the heart, and blood flow in the human body. Through guided pre-reading, during-reading and post-reading activities, students learn about the circulatory system's parts, functions and disorders, as well as engineering medical solutions. By cultivating literacy practices as presented in this lesson, students can improve their scientific and technological literacy.

  19. Body language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Pollard

    1993-01-01

    Body language’ acquires the status of a problem worth discussing only when the translation difficulties it causes are fairly extensive, as they are in (student) translations from the Chinese in Hong Kong. In order for a problem of this type to be extensive, the source culture has to stand in an exotic relationship to the receptor culture. The source of

  20. Exposure and Terrestrial Histories of New Lunar and Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; McHargue, L. R.; Jull, A. J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide studies of lunar and Martian meteorites have contributed significantly to our understanding of these objects. By measuring a combination of cosmogenic stable- and radionuclides, we can determine a number of important properties of those meteorites. Most lunar meteorites have complex cosmic ray exposure histories, having been exposed both at some depth on the lunar surface (2 irradiation) before their ejection and as small bodies in space (4 irradiation) during transport from the Moon to the Earth. On the other hand, we have not observed evidence of complex exposure history for any Martian meteorites, so far. These exposures were then followed by residence on Earth s surface, a time commonly referred to as the terrestrial age. In addition to their complement of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) produced nuclides some lunar and Martian meteorites contain nuclides produced by solar cosmic rays (SCR). Unraveling the complex history of these objects requires the measurement of at least four cosmogenic nuclides. The specific goals of these measurements are to constrain or set limits on the following shielding or exposure parameters: (1) the depth of the sample at the time of ejection from the Moon or Mars; (2) the transit time (4 exposure age) from ejection off the lunar or Martian surface to the time of capture by the Earth and (3) the terrestrial residence time. The sum of the transit time and residence time yield an ejection age. The ejection age, in conjunction with the sample depth on the Moon or Mars, can then be used to model impact and ejection mechanisms.

  1. Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith

    2002-01-01

    A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the important features in each program. The space community which was impressed by the light-weight and reliability of photovoltaics drove much of the early development. Even up to today, nearly every satellites and other scientific space probe that has been launched has included some solar power. However, since the cost of these power systems were only a small fraction of the satellite and launch cost, the use of much of this technology for the terrestrial marketplace was not feasible. It was clear that the focus of the terrestrial community would be best served by reducing costs. This would include addressing a variety of manufacturing issues and raising the rate of production. Success in these programs and a resulting globalization of effort resulted in major strides in the reduction of PV module costs and increased production. Although, the space community derived benefit from some of these advancements, its focus was on pushing the envelope with regard to cell efficiency. The gap between theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies for silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide became almost non-existent. Recent work by both communities have focused on the development thin film cells of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 and CdTe. These cells hold the promise of lower costs for the terrestrial community as well as possible flexible substrates, better radiation resistance, and higher specific power for the space community. It is predicted that future trends in both communities will be directed toward advances through the application of nanotechnology. A picture is emerging in which the space and terrestrial solar cell communities shall once again share many common goals and, in fact, companies may manufacture both space and terrestrial solar cells in III-V materials and thin film materials. Basic photovoltaics research including these current trends in nanotechnology provides a valuable service for both worlds in that fundamental understanding of cell processes is still vitally important, particularly with new materials or new cell structures. It is entirely possible that one day we might have one solar array design that will meet the criteria for success in both space and on the Earth or perhaps the Moon or Mars.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2013-10-01

    The book Black holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions written by Kirill A Bronnikov and Sergey G Rubin has been published recently by World Scientific Publishing Company. The authors are well known experts in gravity and cosmology. The book is a monograph, a considerable part of which is based on the original work of the authors. Their original point of view on some of the problems makes the book quite interesting, covering a variety of important topics of the modern theory of gravity, astrophysics and cosmology. It consists of 11 chapters which are organized in three parts. The book starts with an introduction, where the authors briefly discuss the main ideas of General Relativity, giving some historical remarks on its development and application to cosmology, and mentioning some more recent subjects such as brane worlds, f(R)-theories and gravity in higher dimensions. Part I of the book is called 'Gravity'. Chapters two and three are devoted to the Einstein equations and their spherical symmetric black hole solutions. This material is quite standard and can be found in practically any book on General Relativity. A brief summary of the Kerr metric and black hole thermodynamics are given in chapter four. The main part of this chapter is devoted to spherically symmetric black holes in non-Einstein gravity (with scalar and phantom fields), black holes with regular interior, and black holes in brane worlds. Chapters five and six are mainly dedicated to wormholes and the problem of their stability. Part II (Cosmology) starts with discussion of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and de Sitter solutions of the Einstein equations and their properties. It follows by describing a `big picture' of the modern cosmology (inflation, post-inflationary reheating, the radiation-dominated and matter-dominated states, and modern stage of the (secondary) inflation). The authors explain how the inflation models allow one to solve many of the long-standing problems of cosmology, such as flatness of the Universe, the horizon problem and isotropy of cosmological microwave background. All this material is covered in chapter seven. Chapter eight contains brief discussion of several popular inflation models. Chapter nine is devoted to the problem of the large-scale structure formation from initial quantum vacuum fluctuation during the inflation and the spectrum of the density fluctuations. It also contains remarks on the baryonic asymmetry of the Universe, baryogenesis and primordial black holes. Part III covers the material on extra dimensions. It describes how Einstein gravity is modified in the presence of one or more additional spatial dimensions and how these extra dimensions are compactified in the Kaluza-Klein scheme. The authors also discuss how extra dimensions may affect low energy physics. They present examples of higher-dimensional generalizations of the gravity with higher-in-curvature corrections and discuss a possible mechanism of self-stabilization of an extra space. A considerable part of the chapter 10 is devoted to cosmological models with extra dimensions. In particular, the authors discuss how extra dimensions can modify 'standard' inflation models. At the end of this chapter they make several remarks on a possible relation of the value of fundamental constants in our universe with the existence of extra dimensions. Finally, in chapter 11 they demonstrate that several observable properties of the Universe are closely related with the special value of the fundamental physical constants and their fine tuning. They give interesting examples of such fine tuning and summarize many other cases. The book ends with discussion of a so-called 'cascade birth of universes in multidimensional spaces' model, proposed by one of the authors. As is evident from this brief summary of topics presented in the book, many interesting areas of modern gravity and cosmology are covered. However, since the subject is so wide, this inevitably implies that the selection of the topics and level of their presentation in many cases reflects the authors' own pre

  3. Assessment of the effect of varying soil organic matter content on the bioavailability of malathion to the common nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Henson-Ramsey, Heather; Shea, Damian; Levine, Jay F; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Taylor, Sharon K; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of soil organic matter content on the bioavailability of malathion to the common nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestris. Earthworms were exposed for 72 h to malathion on two soil types, 8% organic matter and 55% organic matter. Two different measures of bioavailability, malathion body burdens and tissue cholinesterase activities, were then measured in the malathion exposed animals. There were no significant differences in body burden or cholinesterase levels in L. terrestris exposed to malathion on soils with differing organic matter content. This suggests that absorption into organic matter is not a limiting factor of malathion bioavailability to earthworm species. PMID:18202811

  4. 7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. Formation of terrestrial planets in disks evolving via disk winds and implications for the origin of the solar system's terrestrial planets

    E-print Network

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Suzuki, Takeru K

    2015-01-01

    Recent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations have identified a disk wind by which gas materials are lost from the surface of a protoplanetary disk, which can significantly alter the evolution of the inner disk and the formation of terrestrial planets. A simultaneous description of the realistic evolution of the gaseous and solid components in a disk may provide a clue for solving the problem of the mass concentration of the terrestrial planets in the solar system. We simulate the formation of terrestrial planets from planetary embryos in a disk that evolves via magnetorotational instability and a disk wind. The aim is to examine the effects of a disk wind on the orbital evolution and final configuration of planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of sixty 0.1 Earth-mass embryos in an evolving disk. The evolution of the gas surface density of the disk is tracked by solving a one-dimensional diffusion equation with a sink term that accounts for the disk wind. We find that even in the case ...

  6. Can geodesics in extra dimensions solve the cosmological horizon problem?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. H. Chung; Katherine Freese

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-inflationary solution to the cosmological horizon problem in scenarios in which our observable universe is confined to three spatial dimensions (a three-brane) embedded in a higher dimensional space. A signal traveling along an extra-dimensional null geodesic may leave our three-brane, travel into the extra dimensions, and subsequently return to a different place on our three-brane in a

  7. Comet and Asteroid Hazard to the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We made computer simulations of orbital evolution for intervals of at least 5-10 Myr of N=2000 Jupiter-crossing objects (JCOs) with initial orbits close to those of real comets with period P less than 10 yr, 500 objects with orbits close to that of Comet 10P, and the asteroids initially located at the 3:1 and 5:2 resonances with Jupiter at initial eccentricity e(sub 0)=0.15 and initial inclination i(sub 0)=10(sup 0). The gravitational influence of all planets, except for Mercury and Pluto, was taken into account (without dissipative factors). We calculated the probabilities of collisions of bodies with the terrestrial planets, using orbital elements obtained with a step equal to 500 yr, and then summarized the results for all bodies, obtaining, the total probability Psigma of collisions with a planet and the total time interval Tsigma during which perihelion distance q of bodies was less than a semimajor axis of the planet. The values of p(sub r) =10(exp 6)Psigma/N and T(sub r)=T/1000 yr (where T=Tsigma/N) are presented in a table together with the ratio r of the total time interval when orbits were of Apollo type (at a greater than 1 AU, q less than 1.017 AU, e less than 0.999) to that of Amor type (1.017 less than q less than 1.33 AU), r(sub 2) is the same as r but for Apollo objects with e less than 0.9. For asteroids we present only results obtained by direct integration, as a symplectic method can give large errors for these resonances.

  8. Nitrogen inputs accelerate phosphorus cycling rates across a wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Marklein, Alison R; Houlton, Benjamin Z

    2012-02-01

    • Biologically essential elements--especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)--constrain plant growth and microbial functioning; however, human activities are drastically altering the magnitude and pattern of such nutrient limitations on land. Here we examine interactions between N and P cycles of P mineralizing enzyme activities (phosphatase enzymes) across a wide variety of terrestrial biomes. • We synthesized results from 34 separate studies and used meta-analysis to evaluate phosphatase activity with N, P, or N×P fertilization. • Our results show that N fertilization enhances phosphatase activity, from the tropics to the extra-tropics, both on plant roots and in bulk soils. By contrast, P fertilization strongly suppresses rates of phosphatase activity. • These results imply that phosphatase enzymes are strongly responsive to changes in local nutrient cycle conditions. We also show that plant phosphatases respond more strongly to fertilization than soil phosphatases. The tight coupling between N and P provides a mechanism for recent observations of N and P co-limitation on land. Moreover, our results suggest that terrestrial plants and microbes can allocate excess N to phosphatase enzymes, thus delaying the onset of single P limitation to plant productivity as can occur via human modifications to the global N cycle. PMID:22122515

  9. Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sues, Hans-Dieter

    2000-08-01

    Although herbivory probably first appeared over 300 million years ago, it only became established as a common feeding strategy during Late Permian times. Subsequently, herbivory evolved in numerous lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, and the acquisition of this mode of feeding was frequently associated with considerable evolutionary diversification in those lineages. This book represents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of herbivory in land-dwelling amniote tetrapods in recent years. In Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates, leading experts review the evolutionary history and structural adaptations required for feeding on plants in the major groups of land-dwelling vertebrates, especially dinosaurs and ungulate mammals. As such, this volume will be the definitive reference source on this topic for evolutionary biologists and vertebrate paleontologists.

  10. Application of Terrestrial Environments in Orion Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Test Flight (EFT) - 1. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  11. Oxygen isotopic composition of opaline phytoliths: Potential for terrestrial climatic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Shahack-Gross, R.; Weiner, S.; Shemesh, A.; Yakir, D. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)] [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1996-10-01

    Opaline mineralized bodies are produced by many terrestrial plants and accumulate in certain soils and archaeological sites. Analyses of the oxygen isotopic compositions of these so-called phytoliths from stems and leaves of wheat plants grown in a greenhouse showed a linear relationship with stem and leaf water isotopic compositions and hence, indirectly, rain water isotopic composition. Analyses of wheat plants grown in fields showed that stem phytoliths isotopic composition directly reflects the seasonal air temperature change, whereas leaf phytoliths isotopic composition reflects both temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and the oxygen isotopic composition of stem phytoliths were related by an equation similar to that proposed for marine opal. Oxygen isotopic compositions of fossil phytoliths, and in particular those from stems, could be valuable for reconstructing past terrestrial climate change.

  12. Effects of river geomorphology on the spatial importance of aquatic energy flows into terrestrial food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlbauer, J. D.; Doyle, M. W.; Tockner, K.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation will present the results of a meta-analysis on river-floodplain carbon/energy subsidies. This analysis combines data from the existing body of literature (ca. 100 studies) to determine a "stream signature:" a regression equation that fits the decline in aquatic-derived energy in terrestrial predator food webs as a function of distance from the river. The nature of this decay curve and its implications for river/riparian ecological dynamics will be desrcibed. Variation in this metric due to the influence of stream order, river bank characteristics, and channel geomorphology will be assessed. In addition, the implications of variation in the stream signature for terrestrial aquatic food webs under different geomorphic and anthropogenic scenarios will be discussed.

  13. Observed beaming of terrestrial myriametric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dyfrig; Calvert, W.; Gurnett, D. A.; Huff, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Observations by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite are discussed which validate the theory that terrestrial myriametric radiation (TMR) is produced by the linear conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid waves to electromagnetic radiation via a radio window. A remote sensing technique based on the theory is used to investigate the location and characteristics of the source region. Finally, the location of the TMR source region is demonstrated by direct measurement.

  14. Cosmogenic helium in a terrestrial igneous rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurz, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    New helium isotopic measurements on samples from the Kula formation of Haleakala volcano of Hawaii are presented that are best explained by an in situ cosmogenic origin for a significant fraction of the He-3. Results from crushing and stepwise heating experiments, and consideration of the exposure age of the sample at the surface and the cosmic ray fluxes strongly support this hypothesis. Although crustal cosmogenic helium has been proposed previously, this represents its first unambiguous identification in a terrestrial sample.

  15. A toy terrestrial carbon flow model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parton, William J.; Running, Steven W.; Walker, Brian

    1992-01-01

    A generalized carbon flow model for the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world is reported. The model is a simplification of the Century model and the Forest-Biogeochemical model. Topics covered include plant production, decomposition and nutrient cycling, biomes, the utility of the carbon flow model for predicting carbon dynamics under global change, and possible applications to state-and-transition models and environmentally driven global vegetation models.

  16. Testbed for Satellite and Terrestrial Interoperability (TSTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, J. Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with the "Testbed for Satellite and Terrestrial Interoperability (TSTI)" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) General and specific scientific technical objectives; 2) ACTS experiment No. 118: 622 Mbps network tests between ATDNet and MAGIC via ACTS; 3) ATDNet SONET/ATM gigabit network; 4) Testbed infrastructure, collaborations and end sites in TSTI based evaluations; 5) the Trans-Pacific digital library experiment; and 6) ESDCD on-going network projects.

  17. Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.

  18. Long-period solar-terrestrial variability

    SciTech Connect

    Sonett, C.P. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Studies aimed at extending the record of solar-terrestrial variability to longer periods are discussed in a critical review of US research from the period 1987--1990. Sections are devoted to the sunspot index, radioactive carbon studies, a potential climate connection between radiocarbon changes and the solar irradiance cycle, Be-10 studies, geological laminae, solar neutrino counts, and the construction of data sets. Also included is a selective bibliography. 66 refs.

  19. Global change and terrestrial hydrology - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of terrestrial hydrology in determining the coupling between the surface and atmosphere. Present experience with interactive numerical simulation is discussed and approaches to the inclusion of land hydrology in global climate models ae considered. At present, a wide range of answers as to expected changes in surface hydrology is given by nominally similar models. Studies of the effects of tropical deforestation and global warming illustrate this point.

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Terrestrial Planets: included:Lunar Soils May Tell Us When the Geomagnetic Field First Appeared; Metal-Silicate Segregation in Deforming Dunitic Rocks: Applications to Core Formation in Europa and Ganymede; Diamond Formation in Core Segregation Experiments; The Effect of Pressure on Potassium Partitioning Between Metallic Liquid and Silicate Melt; Reduction of W, Mn, and Fe, During High-Temperature Vaporization; Micrometeoritic Neon in the Earth s Mantle ; and New Analyses of Diverse Hadean Zircon Inclusions from Jack Hills.

  1. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    PubMed

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes. PMID:23552893

  2. Regulatory mechanisms in Thielavia terrestris. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuse, D.; Hokama, L.

    1982-03-15

    Thielavia terrestris is a filamentous ascomycete originally discovered and identified as Allescheria terrestris by Apinis (1963). Strain S-16 was isolated from a soil sample in California and found to grow at temperatures as high as 50/sup 0/C. The fungus produces a complete cellulase system that enables it to degrade native, crystalline cellulose to glucose. The enzymes display high heat and pH stability and an optimum temperature for hydrolysis of 65/sup 0/C, making it attractive for the eventual commercial conversion of cellulose into fuel and chemicals. We report on the enzyme activity of Thielavia terrestris S-16, the effects of medium composition and carbon source on enzyme production, the growth of the organism at different temperatures, the extracellular aryl-..beta..-glucosidase activitiy as a function of incubation temperature, the effects of small-molecular-weight metabolic regulators and membrane-active antibiotics on the cell-associated and extracellular enzyme levels, and the methods used in an attempt to find plasmids.

  3. Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, Andy

    2009-03-01

    As those of us lucky enough to be involved in the field know, solar system physics (alternately known as solar-terrestrial physics or solar-planetary physics—call it what you will) is a highly active, exciting, and rapidly changing area of science. However, we are not always very good at communicating that excitement to the wider scientific community. This dichotomy—between the excitement of the science and the rather lackluster way in which it is too often communicated—struck me forcibly while reading the book Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment. Over the past 20 years—roughly since the start of operations of the Ulysses spacecraft, a joint NASA-European Space Agency mission to study the Sun—whole areas of our understanding of the coupled Sun/solar wind/planetary environment system have changed. With Kivelson and Russell's classic undergraduate textbook in the field, Introduction to Space Physics, having been published in 1995 (and with many graduate-level texts covering the entire field being even older), the time is ripe for a new text to provide an overview of the field. Such a book should include the gamut of recent results and outstanding questions. However, this text, Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment, is not that book.

  4. Challenges of deriving a complete biosphere greenhouse gas balance through integration of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Past research efforts have mostly focused on separately investigating the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHGs) within the limits of different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types. More recently however, it has been recognized that GHG exchanges and budgets are not limited to boundaries of the terrestrial or aquatic biosphere components and instead are often tightly linked amongst the different ecosystem types. Primarily the aquatic production and export of GHGs due to substrate supply or discharge from surrounding terrestrial ecosystems play a major role in regional GHG budgets. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of this connectivity between different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem GHG exchanges is therefore necessary to develop landscape-level GHG budgets and to understand their sensitivity to disturbances of the biosphere. Moreover, the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the most important GHG species has been the primary research objective with regards to obtaining better estimates of the carbon sequestration potential of the biosphere. However, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions may offset CO2 sinks and considerably affect the complete GHG balance in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. Including their contribution and improved knowledge on the dynamics of these two gas species is therefore essential for complete GHG budget estimates. At present, the integration of terrestrial and aquatic GHG exchanges toward landscape GHG budgets poses numerous challenges. These include the need for a better knowledge of i) the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting terrestrial (forests, peatlands, grasslands, croplands) and aquatic (lake, streams) ecosystems when integrated over a full year, ii) the effect of ecosystem properties (e.g. age and/or development stage, size of water body) on the GHG balance, iii) the impact of management effects (e.g. nitrogen fertilizer application), iv) differences among climate regions and v) the role of the spatial composition of landscape elements in modifying the aquatic GHG transport. In addition, present methodological limitations exist which currently create considerable uncertainties for estimates of complete biosphere GHG budgets. Recent data from various case studies in Canada, Ireland and Sweden will be used here to highlight the importance of these considerations.

  5. Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter

    2015-07-01

    One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females' EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring within populations might allow females to adjust mean f of offspring through random extra-pair reproduction without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination, implying that adjustment of offspring f might be an inevitable consequence of extra-pair reproduction. New theoretical and empirical studies are required to explore the general magnitude of such effects and quantify the degree to which they could facilitate or constrain long-term evolution of extra-pair reproduction. PMID:25645743

  6. Hydrolytic microbial communities in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manucharova, Natalia; Chernov, Timofey; Kolcova, Ekaterina; Zelezova, Alena; Lukacheva, Euhenia; Zenova, Galina

    2014-05-01

    Hydrolytic microbial communities in terrestrial ecosystems Manucharova N.A., Chernov T.I., Kolcova E.M., Zelezova A.D., Lukacheva E.G. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia Vertical differentiation of terrestrial biogeocenoses is conditioned by the formation of vertical tiers that differ considerably in the composition and structure of microbial communities. All the three tiers, phylloplane, litter and soil, are united by a single flow of organic matter, and are spatially separated successional stages of decomposition of organic substances. Decomposition of organic matter is mainly due to the activity of microorganisms producing enzymes - hydrolase and lyase - which destroy complex organic compounds. Application of molecular biological techniques (FISH) in environmental studies provides a more complete information concerning the taxonomic diversity and potential hydrolytic activity of microbial complexes of terrestrial ecosystems that exist in a wide range of environmental factors (moisture, temperature, redox potential, organic matter). The combination of two molecular biological techniques (FISH and DGGE-analysis of fragments of gene 16S rRNA total amplificate) enables an informative assessment of the differences in the structure of dominant and minor components of hydrolytic complexes formed in different tiers of terrestrial ecosystems. The functional activity of hydrolytic microbial complexes of terrestrial ecosystems is determined by the activity of dominant and minor components, which also have a high gross enzymatic activity. Degradation of biopolymers in the phylloplane is mainly due to the representatives of the Proteobacteria phylogenetic group (classes alpha and beta). In mineral soil horizons, the role of hydrolytic representatives of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria increases. Among the key environmental parameters that determine the functional activity of the hydrolytic (chitinolytic) complex of soil layer (moisture, nutrient supply, successional time), the most significant one is moisture. Moisture levels providing maximum activity of a hydrolytic microbial complex depend on the soil type. Development of a hydrolytic microbial complex occurs in a very wide moisture range - from values close to field capacity to those close to the wilting moisture point. The functional role of mycelial actinobacteria in the metabolism of chitin consists, on the one hand, in active decomposition of this biopolymer, and on the other hand, in the regulation of microbial hydrolytic complex activity through the production of biologically active regulatory metabolites, which occurs in a wide range of environmental parameters (moisture, temperature, organic matter, successional time). Experimental design is applicable to identify in situ optimal values of environmental factors that considerably affect the functional parameters of hydrolytic microbial complexes.

  7. Extra-Solar Planetary Imager (ESPI) for Space Based Jovian Planetary Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Rick G.; Melnick, Gary J.; Nisenson, Peter; Papaliolios, Costa; Ridgeway, Steve; Friedman, Edward; Gezari, Dan Y.; Harwit, Martin; Graf, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We report on out Extra-Solar Planetary Imager (ESPI) study for a recent Midex (NASA Medium Class Explorer Mission) proposal. Proposed for ESPI was a 1.5 x 1.5 square meter Jacquinot apodized square aperture telescope. The combination of apodization and a square aperture telescope significantly reduces the diffracted light from a bright central source over much of the telescope focal plane. As a result, observations of very faint astronomical objects next to bright sources with angular separations as small as 0.32 arcseconds become possible. This permits a sensitive search for exo-planets in reflected light. The system is capable of detecting a Jupiter-like planet in a relatively long-period orbit around as many as 160 to 175 stars with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 5 in observations lasting maximally 100 hours per star. We discuss the effects of wavefront error, mirror speckle, pointing error and signal-to-noise issues, as well as the scalability of our ESPI study with respect to NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder mission.

  8. High Resolution Thermal-IR Signatures of Extra-Solar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewagama, T.; Fast, K.; Kostiuk, T.; Deming, D.; Livengood, T.; Goldstein, J.; Schmuelling, F.; Goukenleuque, C.

    2000-10-01

    We will describe a spectral synthesis model to calculate the thermal- infrared spectra of extra-solar planetary (ESP) systems. The model can be used to plan observations of ESP systems, and eventually to analyze direct-detection spectral data. The synthesis code is being based on a carefully designed modular architecture, wherein specific elements of the model (Jovian planets, hot-Jupiters, terrestrial planets, etc.) are incorporated in a flexible manner. The modules are comprehensive in the sense of including effects known to be important (such as stellar irradiation of hot-Jupiters), and scaling existing models to allow for arbitrary orbital radii and viewing angles. We are in the process of designing the algorithms, and in our initial tests of the software we produce spectra of Earth, Jupiter and a hot-Jupiter at representative spectral resolutions and compare the Earth's spectrum to the MGS/TES full disc Earth spectrum. This work is partially supported from the NASA-GSFC Directors Discretionary Fund.

  9. Blood, Sweat, and Trivia: Faculty Ratings of Extra-Credit Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hill G. William IV; Joseph J. Palladino; James A. Eison

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of psychology faculty who rated each of 39 extra-credit opportunities based on their of the item, educational value and the likelihood that all students would be able to complete the opportunity. Percentage of respondents using extra credit; Positive correlations between rated educational value an use of extra credit; Most commonly used extra-credit opportunities.

  10. The Role of Extra-Credit Assignments in the Teaching of World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, David

    2011-01-01

    The granting of extra credit is a hotly debated topic in all fields of education. Teachers are reluctant to offer extra credit for fear of inflating grades, but students are persistent in their demands for extra-credit points to which they have become accustomed. This article considers extra-credit assignments in the teaching of world languages.…

  11. Constraints on extra dimensions from precision molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salumbides, E. J.; Schellekens, A. N.; Gato-Rivera, B.; Ubachs, W.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate investigations of quantum-level energies in molecular systems are shown to provide a testing ground to constrain the size of compactified extra dimensions. This is made possible by recent progress in precision metrology with ultrastable lasers on energy levels in neutral molecular hydrogen (H2, HD, and D2) and molecular hydrogen ions (H2+, HD+, and D2+). Comparisons between experiment and quantum electrodynamics calculations for these molecular systems can be interpreted in terms of probing large extra dimensions, under which conditions gravity will become much stronger. Molecules are a probe of spacetime geometry at typical distances where chemical bonds are effective (i.e., at length scales of an Å). Constraints on compactification radii for extra dimensions are derived within the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali framework, while constraints for curvature or brane separation are derived within the Randall-Sundrum framework. Based on the molecular spectroscopy of D2 molecules and HD+ ions, the compactification size for seven extra dimensions (in connection to M-theory defined in 11 dimensions) of equal size is shown to be limited to {{R}7}\\lt 0.6 ? m. While limits on compactification sizes of extra dimensions based on other branches of physics are compared, the prospect of further tightening constraints from the molecular method is discussed.

  12. Realistic Field Theories on Submanifolds of Compact Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabelli, E.

    2005-04-05

    In this thesis, they study various physical models which assume the existence of spatial dimensions beyond the familiar three. While everyday observation suggests only three dimensions, there is no shortage of potential explanations for how extra dimensions could have escaped detection for so long. For instance, the extra dimensions could be compact, curled into a microscopic volume so that you can never move far in the extra dimensions without ending up back where you started. Or, the elements of everyday experience could be trapped on a three-dimensional membrane floating in a higher dimensions space. The models studied in this thesis each use both of these mechanisms in tandem, with electrons, photons, quarks, and the like being confined to a three-dimensional membrane that sits in a space with compact extra dimensions. Gravitons (and perhaps other new types of particles) could travel beyond the three-dimensional membrane, so they can feel the effects of the higher-dimensional space, but because the extra dimensions are compactified on a small scale, the effects are subtle.

  13. Extra area effects of cloud seeding - An updated assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelice, T. P.; Golden, J.; Griffith, D.; Woodley, W.; Rosenfeld, D.; Breed, D.; Solak, M.; Boe, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the commonly-held hypothesis that cloud seeding reduces precipitation in regions adjacent to seeding target areas, sometimes referred to as “downwind” but more correctly referred to as “extra area” effects (“the robbing Peter to pay Paul” hypothesis). The overall concept in the potential creation of extra area effects from seeding is illustrated with respect to the hydrologic cycle, which includes both dynamical and microphysical processes. For the first time, results were synthesized from five operational and research weather modification experiments, including winter orographic snowpack enhancement and summer experiments to enhance rainfall. One of the most surprising aspects of these results is that extra area seeding effects on precipitation appear to be uniformly positive (5-15% increases, perhaps greater for some convective systems) for both winter and summer seeding projects examined in this paper. The spatial extent of the positive extra area seeding effects may extend to a couple hundred kilometers for winter orographic seeding projects and summer convective seeding projects (such as North Dakota, Texas, Thailand). Both microphysical and dynamical effects of seeding appear to be contributors to these extra area effects. Future work needs to incorporate larger data sets from some of the larger more sustained projects with advanced cloud models and tracer experiments.

  14. Teppeki, selective insecticide about Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Angela; Filì, Vittorio; Pacella, Rosa; Comes, Soccorsa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2009-01-01

    At a time when a highly controversial debate about the causes of the widespread deaths of bees is taking place all over Europe, which accused the agriculture and its practices with particular reference to the harmful effects of some insecticides, it seems important to point out as another insecticide, the Teppeki, can be selective about bumble and have a good compatibility with the activity of the apiaries. This insecticide has the active ingredient flonicamid (500 g/kg) belonging to a new chemical class, called pyridinecarboxamides: the product works systemic and is known as having a long lasting efficacy against all important aphid species. Bioagritest test facility of Pignola (PZ, Italy) has conducted in two successive production cycles an experimental trial on a tomato hydroponic cultivation within the Agricola Bonsai farm in Sibari (CS, Italy), whose objective was to measure the selectivity of flonicamid on Bombus terrestris, insects playing an important role in the pollination of certain species grown in greenhouse such as Tomato, Eggplant, Pepper and Cucumber. On the pollinated flower B. terrestris leaves some trace of its visit, a typical dark trademark: on the detection of the marking of flowers was based the testing program conducted by Bioagritest. Two thesis were compared: A, standard) treatment with a foliar insecticide, the neonicotinoide acetamiprid, normally used for control of aphids and whiteflies (unlike other neonicotinoides--imidacloprid and thiametoxam--quite selective about B. terrestris) and B, Teppeki) foliar treatment with Teppeki, to the maximum dose indicated on the label. The experimental design included the use of randomized blocks with 4 repetitions (4 plots/thesis with 100 plants each). In every thesis six B. terrestris hives were placed 2 days before treatment: the respective holes remained closed during the treatment and the 12 following hours. In order to verify the pollination, by the detection of the flower marking, 2 flowers per plant were observed, for a total of 200 flowers per plot. The measurements were made on the 3rd (I relief) and 8th day (II relief) after treatment. Statistical analysis was performed by the use of XLSTAT data analysis and statistical software. The analysis of collected data shows that flonicamid has a minor effect of interference with the activity of pollination by B. terrestris, compared to the standard used. 14 days after treatment, 3 hives per thesis were inspected in order to verify the status of the colonies (adults, larvae, eggs, pollen). The colonies appeared generally homogeneous as concerning the number of alive adults--100 for each--all at the end of the development cycle. There was no dead adult. Two colonies, one for thesis, presented evidence of eggs. All colonies had low stocks of pollen. Ultimately, treatment with Teppeki has not given any acute effect on B. terrestris, nor any effect of interference in respect of its pollination activity. PMID:20222598

  15. From aquatic to terrestrial life: evolution of the mechanisms for water acquisition.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that ancient fishes first experienced freshwater (FW), and then variably by lineage moved onto the land or re-entered the seas during evolution. As both land and sea are desiccating environments, animals must change their strategies for body fluid regulation from protecting against overhydration in FW to coping with dehydration in seawater (SW) or on land. The evolution of the mechanisms for acquisition of water surely must have accompanied these dramatic environmental changes. The major route for water acquisition is by oral drinking in terrestrial tetrapods (represented here by mammals) and in SW fishes (represented by teleosts as they are dehydrated in SW), but the regulation is contrasting between the two groups; mechanisms inducing thirst have developed in mammals, whereas inhibitory mechanisms are dominant in marine teleosts as observed in FW teleosts. Thus, the apparent difference was found not between hydrating and dehydrating habitat, but rather between terrestrial and aquatic habitats. This contrast is also reflected in regulatory hormones; dipsogenic hormones such as angiotensin II play pivotal roles in water homeostasis in mammals, whereas antidipsogenic hormones such as atrial natriuretic peptide are essential in teleosts. Imbibed water becomes body fluid only after absorption by the intestine, and there is a distinct difference in the mechanisms for water absorption between mammals and teleosts. Like regulation of drinking, we found that the inhibitory mechanisms are dominant for intestinal water absorption in teleosts. In the initial part of this short review, interesting differences in the body fluid regulation between mammals and teleosts are introduced, particularly with regard to water acquisition (drinking and intestinal absorption). Then an attempt was made to discuss the evolution of the mechanisms from the two perspectives; transitions from aquatic to terrestrial habitats and from hydrating (FW) to dehydrating (land and SW) habitats. PMID:25660690

  16. Expression of ionotropic receptors in terrestrial hermit crab's olfactory sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Groh-Lunow, Katrin C.; Getahun, Merid N.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S.

    2015-01-01

    Coenobitidae are one out of at least five crustacean lineages which independently succeeded in the transition from water to land. This change in lifestyle required adaptation of the peripheral olfactory organs, the antennules, in order to sense chemical cues in the new terrestrial habitat. Hermit crab olfactory aesthetascs are arranged in a field on the distal segment of the antennular flagellum. Aesthetascs house approximately 300 dendrites with their cell bodies arranged in spindle-like complexes of ca. 150 cell bodies each. While the aesthetascs of aquatic crustaceans have been shown to be the place of odor uptake and previous studies identified ionotropic receptors (IRs) as the putative chemosensory receptors expressed in decapod antennules, the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has not been documented yet. Our goal was to reveal the expression and distribution pattern of non-co-receptor IRs in OSNs of Coenobita clypeatus, a terrestrial hermit crab, with RNA in situ hybridization. We expanded our previously published RNAseq dataset, and revealed 22 novel IR candidates in the Coenobita antennules. We then used RNA probes directed against three different IRs to visualize their expression within the OSN cell body complexes. Furthermore we aimed to characterize ligand spectra of single aesthetascs by recording local field potentials and responses from individual dendrites. This also allowed comparison to functional data from insect OSNs expressing antennal IRs. We show that this orphan receptor subgroup with presumably non-olfactory function in insects is likely the basis of olfaction in terrestrial hermit crabs. PMID:25698921

  17. What Should the FeO Content of a Terrestrial Planet Be?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Basalts from the Earth, the Moon, Mars, and Vesta are strongly depleted in elements that prefer to reside in the metallic state (siderophile elements). Therefore, it is believed that all these bodies have metallic cores. We do not yet have siderophile element analyses of venusian or mercurian basalts, but we assume that Venus, too, as a terrestrial planet, has a metallic core. For the Earth, Moon, Mercury, and Mars, the moments-of-inertia of these bodies are consistent with metallic cores of various sizes. Because Venus rotates so slowly, it may be difficult to determine the moment-of-inertia of Venus in order to confirm this assumption. However, despite many possible complexities, it seems likely that most of the major and minor terrestrial planets have experienced some sort of metal/silicate equilibration, and we will use this as a boundary condition. One immediate contrast between the Earth and Moon is the difference in FeO content between lunar and terrestrial basalts. Both bodies presumably formed near 1 AU and formed from the same feeding zone of planetesimals, judging by their oxygen isotopes [13]. If, for example, the Moon formed from the Earth by a giant impact, then this event must have occurred before high-pressure equilibria had the opportunity to deplete the Earth s mantle in FeO. Alternatively, the bulk silicate Moon may be dominated by material from the impactor. Regardless, it would be useful to know the pressures where FeO incorporation into a metallic core is not of interest. If the Giant Impact hypothesis is correct, this should set an upper limit for the size of the proto-Earth at the time of the impact.

  18. No evidence of genetic benefits from extra-pair fertilisations in female sand martins ( Riparia riparia )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Augustin; Donald Blomqvist; Tibor Szép; Zoltán D. Szabó; Richard H. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Genetic parentage studies of socially monogamous birds reveal a widespread prevalence of extra-pair paternity. Variation in\\u000a extra-pair paternity among individuals may depend on how different individuals benefit from extra-pair fertilisations and\\u000a on the opportunity to pursue extra-pair copulations. A long-term study of sand martins (Riparia riparia) in Hungary allowed us to examine patterns of extra-pair fertilisations in a large colony

  19. Terrestrial Reference Frame from GPS and SLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jan; Bertiger, Willy; Desai, Shailen; Haines, Bruce; Sibois, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    We present strategies for realizing the terrestrial reference frame (TRF) using tracking data from terrestrial GPS receivers alone and in tandem with the GRACE and LAGEOS satellites. We generate solutions without apriori ties to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Our approach relies on processing multi-day orbit arcs to take advantage of the satellite dynamics, GPS receiver and transmitter calibrations derived from low-Earth orbiter (LEO) data, and estimation strategies tuned for realizing a stable and accurate TRF. We furthermore take advantage of the geometric diversity provided by GPS tracking from GRACE, and explore the impacts of including ground-based satellite laser range (SLR) measurements to LAGEOS-1 and -2 with local ties relating the two geodetic techniques. We process data from 2003-2014 and compute Helmert transformations relative to ITRF/IGb08. With GPS alone we achieve a 3D origin offset and rate of <7 mm and <1 mm/yr, and reduce the offset to <4 mm when GRACE is included in the global solutions. Scale bias and rate are 3.1 ppb and 0.01 ppb/yr in either solution. Including SLR tracking from 11 ground stations to the LAGEOS satellites from 2012-2014 yields a reduction in scale bias of 0.5-1.0 ppb depending on the weight assigned to the SLR measurements. However, scatter is increased due to the relatively sparse SLR tracking network. We conclude with approaches for improving the TRF realized from GPS and SLR combined at the measurement level.

  20. Terrestrial solar arrays with integral glass construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, P. R.; Kreisman, W. S.; Landis, G. A.; Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Holtze, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    An excellent encapsulation system for a terrestrial solar array can be formed using two sheets of glass. Superior technical character, very low cost and simple assembly can result if the active components and the glass sheets are integrally bonded together such that the array is hermetically sealed without employing organic encapsulation materials. Such an approach is being developed using electrostatic bonding. Status of this development is described. Functioning integral glass test modules have been fabricated and subjected to environmental testing. Results have been excellent.

  1. Tectonic history of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1990-01-01

    It is impossible in a single brief summary to convey the full range of research results that have come from this project over the last 13 years. The sweep of subjects covered ranges widely over the broad areas of the thermal and tectonic evolution of the terrestrial planets. A full list of all publications supported by this grant is presented. The list includes 48 published journal articles, 2 papers currently in press, 3 chapters of books, 4 M.I.T. theses, 1 technical report, and 107 published abstracts and extended abstracts. All of these publications were submitted separately to NASA at the time of publication or submission.

  2. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhou, Hai-Ou; Li, Bo; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Two new furostanol saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-3beta,26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence. PMID:20496191

  3. Sodium Chloride Tolerance of Terrestrial Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tresner, H. D.; Hayes, Jean A.

    1971-01-01

    A survey was made of the NaCl tolerance of 975 species of terrestrial fungi selected from the major taxonomic classes. The penicillia and aspergilli were notably the most resistant with the majority of their species able to grow in the presence of 20% or more of NaCl. The Basidiomycetes, as a class, were decidedly the least tolerant with over half the species unable to withstand more than 2% NaCl. Uniformity of tolerance by multiple strains of various species suggests that this may provide a useful taxonomic criterion. PMID:5096381

  4. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs) by Gamma-Ray Telescopes. These were: (1) BATSE /Compton Observatory, (2) Solar Spectroscopic Imager, (3) AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope, and (4) Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It contains charts which display the counts over time, a map or the TGFs observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). and a map showing the latitude and longitude of 85 of the TGFs observed by the Fermi GBM.

  5. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, J. L.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A program to investigate the reliability characteristics of unencapsulated low-cost terrestrial solar cells using accelerated stress testing is described. Reliability (or parametric degradation) factors appropriate to the cell technologies and use conditions were studied and a series of accelerated stress tests was synthesized. An electrical measurement procedure and a data analysis and management system was derived, and stress test fixturing and material flow procedures were set up after consideration was given to the number of cells to be stress tested and measured and the nature of the information to be obtained from the process. Selected results and conclusions are presented.

  6. Identification of Terrestrial Reflectance From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Nolf, Scott R.; Stacy, Kathryn (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Correcting for atmospheric effects is an essential part of surface-reflectance recovery from radiance measurements. Model-based atmospheric correction techniques enable an accurate identification and classification of terrestrial reflectances from multi-spectral imagery. Successful and efficient removal of atmospheric effects from remote-sensing data is a key factor in the success of Earth observation missions. This report assesses the performance, robustness and sensitivity of two atmospheric-correction and reflectance-recovery techniques as part of an end-to-end simulation of hyper-spectral acquisition, identification and classification.

  7. Origin of the terrestrial planets and the moon.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S R

    1996-03-01

    Our ideas about the origin and evolution of the solar system have advanced significantly as a result of the past 25 years of space exploration. Metal-sulfide-silicate partitioning seems to have been present in the early dust components of the solar nebula, prior to chondrule formation. The inner solar nebula was depleted in volatile elements by early solar activity. The early formation of the gas giant, Jupiter, affected the subsequent development of inner solar system and is responsible for the existence of the asteroid belt, and the small size of Mars. The Earth and the other terrestrial planets accreted in a gas-free environment, mostly from volatile-depleted planetesimals which were already differentiated into metallic cores and silicate mantles. The origin of the Moon by a single massive impact with a body larger than Mars explains the angular momentum, orbital characteristics and unique nature of the Earth-Moon system. The density and chemical differences between the Earth and Moon are accounted for by deriving the Moon from the mantle of the impactor. PMID:11541325

  8. The evolution of the moon and the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoez, M. N.; Johnston, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The thermal evolutions of the Moon, Mars, Venus and Mercury are calculated theoretically starting from cosmochemical condensation models. An assortment of geological, geochemical and geophysical data are used to constrain both the present day temperatures and the thermal histories of the planets' interiors. Such data imply that the planets were heated during or shortly after formation and that all the terrestrial planets started their differentiations early in their history. The moon, smallest in size, is characterized as a differentiated body with a crust, a thick solid mantle and an interior region which may be partially molten. Mars, intermediate in size, is assumed to have differentiated an Fe-FeS core. Venus is characterized as a planet not unlike the earth in many respects. Core formation has occurred probably during the first billion years after the formation. Mercury, which probably has a large core, may have a 500 km thick solid lithosphere and a partially molten core if it is assumed that some heat sources exist in the core.

  9. Extreme Environment Technologies for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Cutts, James A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Craig E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the next decades, NASA's planned solar system exploration missions are targeting planets, moons and small bodies, where spacecraft would be expected to encounter diverse extreme environmental (EE) conditions throughout their mission phases. These EE conditions are often coupled. For instance, near the surface of Venus and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets, probes would experience high temperatures and pressures. In the Jovian system low temperatures are coupled with high radiation. Other environments include thermal cycling, and corrosion. Mission operations could also introduce extreme conditions, due to atmospheric entry heat flux and deceleration. Some of these EE conditions are not unique to space missions; they can be encountered by terrestrial assets from the fields of defense,oil and gas, aerospace, and automotive industries. In this paper we outline the findings of NASA's Extreme Environments Study Team, including discussions on state of the art and emerging capabilities related to environmental protection, tolerance and operations in EEs. We will also highlight cross cutting EE mitigation technologies, for example, between high g-load tolerant impactors for Europa and instrumented projectiles on Earth; high temperature electronics sensors on Jupiter deep probes and sensors inside jet engines; and pressure vessel technologies for Venus probes and sea bottom monitors. We will argue that synergistic development programs between these fields could be highly beneficial and cost effective for the various agencies and industries. Some of these environments, however, are specific to space and thus the related technology developments should be spear headed by NASA with collaboration from industry and academia.

  10. The Use of Resistivity Methods in Terrestrial Forensic Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, R. C.; Raisuddin, I.; Bank, C.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing use of near-surface geophysical methods in forensic searches has demonstrated the need for further studies to identify the ideal physical, environmental and temporal settings for each geophysical method. Previous studies using resistivity methods have shown promising results, but additional work is required to more accurately interpret and analyze survey findings. The Ontario Provincial Police's UCRT (Urban Search and Rescue; Chemical, Biolgical, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives; Response Team) is collaborating with the University of Toronto and two additional universities in a multi-year study investigating the applications of near-surface geophysical methods to terrestrial forensic searches. In the summer of 2012, on a test site near Bolton, Ontario, the OPP buried weapons, drums and pigs (naked, tarped, and clothed) to simulate clandestine graves and caches. Our study aims to conduct repeat surveys using an IRIS Syscal Junior with 48 electrode switching system resistivity-meter. These surveys will monitor changes in resistivity reflecting decomposition of the object since burial, and identify the strengths and weaknesses of resistivity when used in a rural, clandestine burial setting. Our initial findings indicate the usefulness of this method, as prominent resistivity changes have been observed. We anticipate our results will help to assist law enforcement agencies in determining the type of resistivity results to expect based on time since burial, depth of burial and state of dress of the body.

  11. The evolution of island gigantism and body size variation in tortoises and turtles.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Alexander L; Slater, Graham J; Alfaro, Michael E

    2011-08-23

    Extant chelonians (turtles and tortoises) span almost four orders of magnitude of body size, including the startling examples of gigantism seen in the tortoises of the Galapagos and Seychelles islands. However, the evolutionary determinants of size diversity in chelonians are poorly understood. We present a comparative analysis of body size evolution in turtles and tortoises within a phylogenetic framework. Our results reveal a pronounced relationship between habitat and optimal body size in chelonians. We found strong evidence for separate, larger optimal body sizes for sea turtles and island tortoises, the latter showing support for the rule of island gigantism in non-mammalian amniotes. Optimal sizes for freshwater and mainland terrestrial turtles are similar and smaller, although the range of body size variation in these forms is qualitatively greater. The greater number of potential niches in freshwater and terrestrial environments may mean that body size relationships are more complicated in these habitats. PMID:21270022

  12. Occurrence of giant impacts during the growth of the terrestrial planets

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1985-05-01

    Three dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the accumulation of the terrestrial planets in the absence of gas drag produced results that are in general agreement with the number and distribution of the present planets. The accumulation process appears to be characterized by impact of bodies as large as three times the mass of Mars at velocities of about 9 kilometers per second. These giant impacts on earth may have supplied the material and angular momentum that formed the moon, should have heated earth to the melting point, and may have been responsible for the differences in the content of inert gases of the atmospheres of earth and Venus. 17 references.

  13. On the extra force in brane world scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejancu, Aurel; Farran, Hani Reda

    2014-09-01

    In the study of the dynamics in a 5D bulk from brane world scenario, an extra force with abnormal properties was detected (cf. [D. Youm, Extra force in brane worlds, Phys. Rev. D62 (2000) 084002; D. Youm, Null geodesics in brane world universe, Mod. Phys. Lett. A16 (2001) 2371; L. F. Zhang and Y. Z. Zhang, Null geodesics in brane world scenarios, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing)41 (2004) 48]). In this paper, by using the Riemannian horizontal connection introduced in [A. Bejancu, A new point of view on general Kaluza-Klein theories, Progr. Theor. Phys.128 (2012) 541], we give a new definition for the extra force in a 5D bulk, and show that it does not contradict the 4D physics. In particular, we show that this force appears very rarely along geodesics in a warped 5D bulk.

  14. Contrasting Supersymmetry and Universal Extra Dimensions at Colliders

    E-print Network

    Marco Battaglia; Asesh K. Datta; Albert De Roeck; Kyoungchul Kong; Konstantin T. Matchev

    2005-07-25

    We contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and the model of Universal Extra Dimensions and discuss various methods for their discrimination at hadron and lepton colliders. We study the discovery reach of hadron colliders for level 2 Kaluza-Klein modes, which would indicate the presence of extra dimensions. We also investigate the possibility to differentiate the spins of the superpartners and KK modes by means of the asymmetry method of Barr. We then review the methods for discriminating between the two scenarios at a high energy linear collider such as CLIC. We consider the processes of Kaluza-Klein muon pair production in universal extra dimensions in parallel to smuon pair production in supersymmetry. We find that the angular distributions of the final state muons, the energy spectrum of the radiative return photon and the total cross-section measurement are powerful discriminators between the two models.

  15. Fermion Generations from "Apple-Shaped" Extra Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Merab Gogberashvili; Pavle Midodashvili; Douglas Singleton

    2007-08-13

    We examine the behavior of fermions in the presence of an internal compact 2-manifold which in one of the spherical angles exhibits a conical character with an obtuse angle. The extra manifold can be pictured as an apple-like surface i.e. a sphere with an extra "wedge" insert. Such a surface has conical singularities at north and south poles. It is shown that for this setup one can obtain, in four dimensions, three trapped massless fermion modes which differ from each other by having different values of angular momentum with respect to the internal 2-manifold. The extra angular momentum acts as the family label and these three massless modes are interpreted as the three generations of fundamental fermions.

  16. Terrestrial dominance of organic matter in north temperate lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, G.; Pace, M. L.; Cole, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are hotspots of decomposition and a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere that is globally significant. Carbon exported from land (allochthonous) also supplements the carbon fixed by photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems (autochthonous), contributing to the organic matter (OM) that supports aquatic consumers. Although the presence of terrestrial compounds in aquatic OM is well known, the contribution of terrestrial versus aquatic sources to the composition of OM has been quantified for only a handful of systems. Here we use stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon to demonstrate that the terrestrial contribution to particulate organic matter (POM) is as large or larger (mean=54.6% terrestrial) than the algal contribution in 39 lakes of the northern highlands region of Wisconsin and Michigan. Further, the largest carbon pool, dissolved organic matter (DOM), is strongly dominated by allochthonous material (mean for the same set of lakes approximately 100% terrestrial). Among lakes, increases in terrestrial contribution to POM are significantly correlated with more acidic pH. Extrapolating this relationship using a survey of pH in 1692 lakes in the region reveals that, with the exception of eutrophic lakes, most of the OM in lakes is of terrestrial origin. These results are consistent with the growing evidence that terrestrial OM may support many lake food webs, and that lakes are significant conduits for returning degraded terrestrial carbon to the atmosphere.

  17. Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on semen quality and serum total cholesterol content in White Plymouth Rock-mini cocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Grigorova; B. Kashamov; V. Sredkova; S. Surdjiiska; H. Zlatev

    2008-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris extract was added to the water of 10 cocks from the population White Plymouth Rock - mini cocks once daily in dose 10mg\\/kg body weight for a period of 11weeks. The trial lasted 20 weeks-1week preparatory and 19 weeks experimental period. Eight weeks of the experimental period were intended to measure the aftereffect of the tested product. It

  18. Effects of pentachlorophenol on survival of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and phagocytosis by their immunoactive coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Denton, TX (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed for 96 h to filter paper saturated with five nominal concentrations of pentachlorophenol, exhibited a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.0 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} and corresponding whole worm body burden-based 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 877.7 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass. Linear regression modeling showed that worms increased body concentrations (BC = {micro}g PCP/g dry tissue mass) with increasing exposure concentrations (EC) according to BC = 113.5 + 29.5EC. Phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes was suppressed only at body concentrations (863.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass) that approximated the calculated LD50 and overlapped those demonstrating lethality, indicating a sharp transition between sublethal and lethal toxicity. An exposure concentration of 15 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} produced significant suppression of phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes. However, the average measured body burden from this group approximated the estimated LD50, indicating a sharp toxic response slope. Exposure to 10 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} with a corresponding body concentration of 501.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass did not affect phagocytosis. The importance of body burden data is emphasized.

  19. Collider Searches for Extra Spatial Dimensions and Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Greg Landsberg

    2008-08-13

    Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. We review these models and recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, inverse-TeV-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions. The most dramatic consequence of low-scale (~1 TeV) quantum gravity is copious production of mini-black holes at the LHC. We discuss selected topics in the mini-black-hole phenomenology.

  20. Universal Extra Dimensions and the Muon Magnetic Moment

    E-print Network

    Appelquist, Thomas W; Appelquist, Thomas; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the context of universal extra dimensions. Our computation shows that the bound from electroweak data on the size of these dimensions allows only a small shift in the muon magnetic moment given by Kaluza-Klein modes of standard model fields. In the well-motivated case of two universal extra dimensions, additional contributions arising from physics at scales where the effective 6-dimensional standard model breaks down, given by dimension-ten operators, have a natural size comparable to the sensitivity of the muon (g-2) experiment at BNL.

  1. Search for Universal Extra Dimensions with the D0 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, Jason D.

    2011-10-01

    A search for signs of universal extra dimensions (UED) has been performed with the D0 experiment, using events with two same-sign muons. The considered minimal UED model includes one extra dimension, and has a stable lightest Kaluza-Klein particle (LKP) which is a dark matter candidate. In the search, 7.3 fb{sup -1} of D0 data, collected in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, have been used.

  2. Gravitational waves from mesoscopic dynamics of the extra dimensions

    PubMed

    Hogan

    2000-09-01

    Recent models which describe our world as a brane embedded in a higher dimensional space introduce new geometrical degrees of freedom, associated with spatial variations in the position of the brane and the size of the extra dimensions, that can be coherently excited by symmetry breaking in the early universe even on "mesoscopic" scales as large as 1 mm. The characteristic frequency and intensity of resulting gravitational radiation backgrounds are estimated. Extra dimensions with scale between 10(-14) and 1 mm can produce detectable backgrounds at frequencies f approximately 10(3) to 10(-4) Hz. PMID:10970459

  3. Universal Extra Dimension models with right-handed neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Shigeki [Institute for International Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama, 338-8570 (Japan); Senami, Masato [ICRR, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2008-04-21

    Relic abundance of dark matter is investigated in the framework of universal extra dimension (UED) models with right-handed neutrinos. These models are free from the KK graviton problem in the minimal UED model. The first KK particle of the right-handed neutrino is a dark matter candidate in this framework. When ordinary neutrino masses are large enough such as the degenerate mass spectrum case, the dark matter relic abundance can increase significantly. The scale of the extra dimension consistent with cosmological observations can be 500 GeV in the minimal setup of UED models with right-handed neutrinos.

  4. Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Maziashvili, Michael, E-mail: maziashvili@gmail.com [Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Ilia State University, 3/5 Cholokashvili Ave., Tbilisi 0162, Georgia (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r?0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.

  5. Terrestrial applications of the heatpipe power system

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.

    1997-02-01

    A terrestrial reactor that uses the same design approach as the Heatpipe Power System (HPS) may have applications both on earth and on other planetary surfaces. The baseline HPS is a potential, near-term, low-cost space fission power system. The system will be composed of independent modules, and all components operate within the existing database. The HPS has relatively few system integration issues; thus, the successful development of a module is a significant step toward verifying system feasibility and performance estimates. A prototypic, refractory-metal HPS module is being fabricated, and testing is scheduled to begin in November 1996. A successful test will provide high confidence that the HPS can achieve its predicted performance. An HPS incorporating superalloys will be better suited for some terrestrial or planetary applications. Fabrication and testing of a superalloy HPS module should be less challenging than that of the refractory metal module. A superalloy HPS core capable of delivering > 100 kWt to a power conversion subsystem could be fabricated for about $500k (unfueled). Tests of the core with electric heat (used to simulate heat from fission) could demonstrate normal and off-normal operation of the core, including the effects of heatpipe failure. A power conversion system also could be coupled to the core to demonstrate full system operation.

  6. Fuel cells for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.

    The fuel cell is a nineteenth century invention and a twentieth century technology development. Due to the high power and energy density, high efficiency, reliability, and production of pure water, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems have no competition as auxiliary power sources for space vehicles. The alkaline fuel cell system is a well developed and proven technology for this application. The solid polymer electrolyte system may be its future competitor. The energy crisis of 1973 stimulated research, development and demonstration of the phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems using natural gas, petroleum or coal derived hydrogen (and carbon monoxide for the high temperature systems) for terrestrial applications. The direct methanol-air fuel cell is still an electrochemist's dream. Though considerable technological advances have been made, the present price of crude oil, and the high capital costs and limited lifetime of fuel cell systems impede their terrestrial applications in the developed countries. Conversely, the potential for lower capital costs of labor intensive manufacturing processes and the relatively higher fossil fuel prices make these systems more attractive for such applications in the developing countries.

  7. Lunar apatite with terrestrial volatile abundances.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R; Guan, Yunbin; Eiler, John M; Stolper, Edward M; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2010-07-22

    The Moon is thought to be depleted relative to the Earth in volatile elements such as H, Cl and the alkalis. Nevertheless, evidence for lunar explosive volcanism has been used to infer that some lunar magmas exsolved a CO-rich and CO(2)-rich vapour phase before or during eruption. Although there is also evidence for other volatile species on glass spherules, until recently there had been no unambiguous reports of indigenous H in lunar rocks. Here we report quantitative ion microprobe measurements of late-stage apatite from lunar basalt 14053 that document concentrations of H, Cl and S that are indistinguishable from apatites in common terrestrial igneous rocks. These volatile contents could reflect post-magmatic metamorphic volatile addition or growth from a late-stage, interstitial, sulphide-saturated melt that contained approximately 1,600 parts per million H(2)O and approximately 3,500 parts per million Cl. Both metamorphic and igneous models of apatite formation suggest a volatile inventory for at least some lunar materials that is similar to comparable terrestrial materials. One possible implication is that portions of the lunar mantle or crust are more volatile-rich than previously thought. PMID:20651686

  8. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering.

    PubMed

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Phil; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The results show that the choice of source rocks and material comminution technique dominate the CO2 efficiency of enhanced weathering. CO2 emissions from transport amount to on average 0.5-3% of potentially sequestered CO2. The emissions of material mining and application are negligible. After accounting for all emissions, 0.5-1.0 t CO2 can be sequestered on average per tonne of rock, translating into a unit cost from 1.6 to 9.9 GJ per tonne CO2 sequestered by enhanced weathering. However, to control or reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations substantially with enhanced weathering would require very large amounts of rock. Before enhanced weathering could be applied on large scales, more research is needed to assess weathering rates, potential side effects, social acceptability, and mechanisms of governance. PMID:24597739

  9. Terrestrial applications of the heatpipe power system

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS K551 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1997-01-10

    A terrestrial reactor that uses the same design approach as the Heatpipe Power System (HPS) may have applications both on earth and on other planetary surfaces. The baseline HPS is a potential, near-term, low-cost space fission power system. The system will be composed of independent modules, and all components operate within the existing database. The HPS has relatively few system integration issues; thus, the successful development of a module is a significant step toward verifying system feasibility and performance estimates. A prototypic, refractory-metal HPS module is being fabricated, and testing is scheduled to begin in November 1996. A successful test will provide high confidence that the HPS can achieve its predicted performance. An HPS incorporating superalloys will be better suited for some terrestrial or planetary applications. Fabrication and testing of a superalloy HPS module should be less challenging than that of the refractory metal module. A superalloy HPS core capable of delivering >100 kWt to a power conversion subsystem could be fabricated for about $500k (unfueled). Tests of the core with electric heat (used to simulate heat from fission) could demonstrate normal and off-normal operation of the core, including the effects of heatpipe failure. A power conversion system also could be coupled to the core to demonstrate full system operation.

  10. Terrestrial applications of the heatpipe power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.

    1997-01-01

    A terrestrial reactor that uses the same design approach as the Heatpipe Power System (HPS) may have applications both on earth and on other planetary surfaces. The baseline HPS is a potential, near-term, low-cost space fission power system. The system will be composed of independent modules, and all components operate within the existing database. The HPS has relatively few system integration issues; thus, the successful development of a module is a significant step toward verifying system feasibility and performance estimates. A prototypic, refractory-metal HPS module is being fabricated, and testing is scheduled to begin in November 1996. A successful test will provide high confidence that the HPS can achieve its predicted performance. An HPS incorporating superalloys will be better suited for some terrestrial or planetary applications. Fabrication and testing of a superalloy HPS module should be less challenging than that of the refractory metal module. A superalloy HPS core capable of delivering >100 kWt to a power conversion subsystem could be fabricated for about $500k (unfueled). Tests of the core with electric heat (used to simulate heat from fission) could demonstrate normal and off-normal operation of the core, including the effects of heatpipe failure. A power conversion system also could be coupled to the core to demonstrate full system operation.

  11. Terrestrial and Reactor Antineutrinos in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. C.; Calaprice, F. P.; Rothschild, C. G.

    1998-10-01

    The Earth is an abundant source of antineutrinos coming from the decay of radioactive elements in the mantle and crust. Detecting these antineutrinos is a challenge due to their small cross section and low energies. The Borexino solar neutrino experiment will also be an excellent detector for bar?_e. With 300 tons of ultra-low-background liquid scintillator, surrounded by an efficient muon veto, the inverse-?-decay reaction: bar?e + p arrow e^+ + n (Q = 1.8 MeV), can be exploited to detect terrestrial antineutrinos from the uranium and thorium decay chains, with little background. A direct measurement of the total uranium and thorium abundance would establish important geophysical constraints on the heat generation and thermal history of the Earth. Starting with the most recent uranium and thorium distribution and abundance data, and employing a global map of crustal type and thickness, we calculated the antineutrino fluxes for several sites. We estimate a terrestrial antineutrino event rate in Borexino of 10 events per year. This small signal can be distinguished over the neutrino background from the world's nuclear power reactors by measuring the positron energy spectrum from the bar?e events. The possibility to perform a long-baseline oscillation experiment, reaching ? m^2 ? 10-6 eV^2, using the nuclear reactors in Europe will also be discussed.

  12. Terrestrial distribution of pond-breeding salamanders around an isolated wetland.

    PubMed

    Scott, David E; Komoroski, Mark J; Croshaw, Dean A; Dixon, Philip M

    2013-11-01

    Terrestrial habitats surrounding isolated wetlands are a critical resource for many pond-breeding amphibian species, yet few studies have examined the terrestrial distribution of post-metamorphic juveniles and adults. We used an encircling drift fence at a breeding pond in conjunction with partial fences at 90, 172, and 332 m from the wetland to estimate the terrestrial distribution of adult marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum; four breeding seasons) and mole salamanders (A. talpoideum; two seasons), as well as the dispersion of newly metamorphosed A. opacum (one summer). For newly metamorphosed A. opacum, 79% emigrated < 90 m from the wetland, and 8% moved beyond 172 m; movement distance was unrelated to body size. Distribution of adult A. opacum varied among years, with an average of 28% (range 23-31%) occurring beyond 172 m in all years. Averaged across two years, 51% of adult A. talpoideum occurred beyond 172 m. Lognormal models provided a good fit to both the juvenile and adult ambystomatid distributions, and parameters differed between age classes, sexes, species, and years within species. For adult A. opacum a buffer radius of 300 m or 340 m, depending on the year, is estimated to include 95% of adults; for A. talpoideum the estimate is 464 m or 501 m. A reanalysis of distribution data for seven ambystomatid species shows that a previous estimate of a 164-m radius to protect 95% of a population underestimates the needed buffer radius by 185 m. Because our study wetland requires a nearly 500 m wide radius to protect 95% of its ambystomatid adults, preservation of similar communities may require much more surrounding terrestrial habitat than previously thought. PMID:24400505

  13. A Source of Terrestrial Organic Carbon to Investigate the Browning of Aquatic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jay T.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Wickings, Kyle; Jones, Stuart E.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that terrestrial ecosystems are exporting more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to aquatic ecosystems than they did just a few decades ago. This “browning” phenomenon will alter the chemistry, physics, and biology of inland water bodies in complex and difficult-to-predict ways. Experiments provide an opportunity to elucidate how browning will affect the stability and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. However, it is challenging to obtain sources of DOC that can be used for manipulations at ecologically relevant scales. In this study, we evaluated a commercially available source of humic substances (“Super Hume”) as an analog for natural sources of terrestrial DOC. Based on chemical characterizations, comparative surveys, and whole-ecosystem manipulations, we found that the physical and chemical properties of Super Hume are similar to those of natural DOC in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, Super Hume attenuated solar radiation in ways that will not only influence the physiology of aquatic taxa but also the metabolism of entire ecosystems. Based on its chemical properties (high lignin content, high quinone content, and low C:N and C:P ratios), Super Hume is a fairly recalcitrant, low-quality resource for aquatic consumers. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that Super Hume can subsidize aquatic food webs through 1) the uptake of dissolved organic constituents by microorganisms, and 2) the consumption of particulate fractions by larger organisms (i.e., Daphnia). After discussing some of the caveats of Super Hume, we conclude that commercial sources of humic substances can be used to help address pressing ecological questions concerning the increased export of terrestrial DOC to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24124511

  14. Aspects of body self-calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    The representation of body orientation and configuration is dependent on multiple sources of afferent and efferent information about ongoing and intended patterns of movement and posture. Under normal terrestrial conditions, we feel virtually weightless and we do not perceive the actual forces associated with movement and support of our body. It is during exposure to unusual forces and patterns of sensory feedback during locomotion that computations and mechanisms underlying the ongoing calibration of our body dimensions and movements are revealed. This review discusses the normal mechanisms of our position sense and calibration of our kinaesthetic, visual and auditory sensory systems, and then explores the adaptations that take place to transient Coriolis forces generated during passive body rotation. The latter are very rapid adaptations that allow body movements to become accurate again, even in the absence of visual feedback. Muscle spindle activity interpreted in relation to motor commands and internally modeled reafference is an important component in permitting this adaptation. During voluntary rotary movements of the body, the central nervous system automatically compensates for the Coriolis forces generated by limb movements. This allows accurate control to be maintained without our perceiving the forces generated.

  15. Neuronal organization of the hemiellipsoid body of the land hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus: correspondence with the mushroom body ground pattern.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gabriella; Harzsch, Steffen; Hansson, Bill S; Brown, Sheena; Strausfeld, Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    Malacostracan crustaceans and dicondylic insects possess large second-order olfactory neuropils called, respectively, hemiellipsoid bodies and mushroom bodies. Because these centers look very different in the two groups of arthropods, it has been debated whether these second-order sensory neuropils are homologous or whether they have evolved independently. Here we describe the results of neuroanatomical observations and experiments that resolve the neuronal organization of the hemiellipsoid body in the terrestrial Caribbean hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus, and compare this organization with the mushroom body of an insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Comparisons of the morphology, ultrastructure, and immunoreactivity of the hemiellipsoid body of C. clypeatus and the mushroom body of the cockroach P. americana reveal in both a layered motif provided by rectilinear arrangements of extrinsic and intrinsic neurons as well as a microglomerular organization. Furthermore, antibodies raised against DC0, the major catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, specifically label both the crustacean hemiellipsoid bodies and insect mushroom bodies. In crustaceans lacking eyestalks, where the entire brain is contained within the head, this antibody selectively labels hemiellipsoid bodies, the superior part of which approximates a mushroom body's calyx in having large numbers of microglomeruli. We propose that these multiple correspondences indicate homology of the crustacean hemiellipsoid body and insect mushroom body and discuss the implications of this with respect to the phylogenetic history of arthropods. We conclude that crustaceans, insects, and other groups of arthropods share an ancestral neuronal ground pattern that is specific to their second-order olfactory centers. PMID:22547177

  16. The Formation and Habitability of ExtraSolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Wetherill

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative numerical program, developed to model the formation of the terrestrial planets and asteroids of our solar System (Wetherill 1992), has been extended to include a more general range of stellar and preplanetary nebular parameters, as may be expected elsewhere in the Galaxy and Universe. The results of about 500 new simulations of planetary formation are reported. It is

  17. INTRODUCTION TO ECMO FOR PARENTS (ECMO = "Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation",

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    INTRODUCTION TO ECMO FOR PARENTS (ECMO = "Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation", meaning heart on the left. TABLE OF CONTENTS: --Who needs ECMO? go --What is ECMO? go --How does the ECMO circuit work? go --How is my child placed on ECMO? go --Types of ECMO go --What are the risks for my child on ECMO? go

  18. 8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Detecting Extra-Solar Planets via Microlensing at High Magnification

    E-print Network

    Nicholas J. Rattenbury; Ian A. Bond; Jovan Skuljan; Phil Yock

    2002-09-09

    Extra-solar planets can be efficiently detected in gravitational microlensing events of high magnification. High accuracy photometry is required over a short, well-defined time interval only, of order 10-30 hours. Most planets orbiting the lens star are evidenced by perturbations of the microlensing light curve in this time.

  20. Extra Chance Hybrid Monte Carlo$ Cdric M. Campos

    E-print Network

    Sanz-Serna , J M

    Extra Chance Hybrid Monte Carlo$ Cédric M. Campos , J. M. Sanz-Serna Dept. Matemática Aplicada e Chance Generalized Hybrid Monte Carlo) to avoid rejections in the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) method of the quality of the samples generated. Keywords: sampling methods, hybrid Monte Carlo, detailed balance