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Sample records for extract aloe ferox

  1. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay.

    PubMed

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively. The hatching success was in the order: aqueous root extract (39.8%) >aqueous leaf (26.5%) >acetone leaf (13.7%) > ethanol leaf extracts (2.5%). Hatchability in incubations of ethanol and acetone extracts was found to be dose - dependent, with hatching success decreasing as the concentration of the extracts increased. The lethality of extracts was in the order: aqueous leaf extract (4.7%) >aqueous root extract (4.2%) >acetone leaf extract (3.5%) >ethanol root extract (2.6%) > ethanol leaf extract (1.8%) >acetone root extract (0.7%). Mean mortality of nauplii in the control was higher (6.7%) than that of all the extracts. Based on Meyer's index of toxicity, the acetone leaf extract with LD(50) >1.0mg/mL could be considered as non toxic, while the ethanol root extract (LD(50) <1.0mg/mL was significantly toxic to the brine shrimp. Since the extracts of A. ferox have consistently exhibited significant pharmaceutical properties in-vitro, the non-toxic extracts could further be exploited for the development of plant-based pharmaceuticals. PMID:25730795

  2. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous extract of Aloe ferox Mill. in loperamide-induced constipated rats.

    PubMed

    Wintola, O A; Sunmonu, T O; Afolayan, A J

    2011-05-01

    Aloe ferox Mill. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of many ailments including constipation. The present study evaluated the toxicological effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days on the haematological parameters as well as liver and kidney function indices in loperamide-induced constipated rats. The extract did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) effect on the kidney and liver-body weight ratio as well as the kidney function indices including serum levels of creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium and potassium ions at all the dosages investigated. Whereas the serum levels of total protein, albumin, bilirubin and gamma glutamyl trasferase (GGT) were not affected, the elevated activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in the untreated constipated animals were normalized following treatment with extract. The data obtained with respect to the haematological analysis indicated that the extracts had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on the haematological parameters with the exception of lymphocyte count which was increased in the untreated constipated rats. This was however attenuated after administering the herb. The available evidence in this study suggests that A. ferox may be safe as an oral remedy for constipation. Generally, the effect of the extract compared favourably well with senokot, a recommended drug for the treatment of constipation. PMID:20498033

  3. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill

    PubMed Central

    Wintola, Olubunmi Abosebe; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae) is used in South Africa for the treatment of constipation among various ailments. Despite the extensive studies conducted on the antioxidant activities of the leaf gel and pulp extract of the plant, there is no information on the antioxidant properties of the whole leaf extract of the species. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of ethanol, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. ferox were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing power. Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods. Results: The percentage compositions of phenols (70.33), flavonols (35.2), proanthocyanidins (171.06) and alkaloids (60.9) were significantly high in the acetone extract, followed by the ethanol extract with values of 70.24, 12.53, 76.7 and 23.76 respectively, while the least composition was found in the aqueous extract. Moreover, both flavonoids and saponins contents were appreciably high in both methanol and ethanol extracts, while others were very low. Tannins levels were, however, not significantly different (P > 0.05) in all the solvent extracts. At 0.5 mg/ml, the free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher inhibition against ABTS, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals. Whereas, scavenging activity of the extracts against DPPH* and lipid peroxidation were observed at a concentration of 0.016 and 0.118 mg/ml respectively in comparison to the butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), gallic acid and rutin. The ferric reducing potential of the extracts was concentration dependent and significantly different from that of vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The present study showed high

  4. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD. PMID:26510768

  5. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action. PMID:25311442

  6. The effect of Aloe ferox Mill. in the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Constipation is the most common gastrointestinal complaint all over the world and it is a risk factor of colorectal cancer. In this study, the efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill. was studied against loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats. Methods Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight) while the control rats received normal saline. The constipated rats were treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract for 7 days during which the feeding characteristics, body weight, fecal properties and gastrointestinal transit ratio were monitored. Results The extract improved intestinal motility, increased fecal volume and normalized body weight in the constipated rats, which are indications of laxative property of the herb with the 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best efficacy. Conclusion The effect of the extract compares favourably well with senokot, a standard laxative drug. These findings have therefore, lent scientific credence to the folkloric use of the herb as a laxative agent by the people of the Eastern Cape of South Africa. PMID:20723249

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Xu, Juan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2003-12-17

    The polysaccharide and flavonoid concentrations of two-, three-, and four-year-old Aloe vera were determined, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated compared to BHT and alpha-tocopherol by the DPPH radical scavenging method and the linoleic acid system at 100 microg of soluble solids per mL of ethanol. The results showed that three-year-old Aloe vera contained significantly higher levels of polysaccharides and flavonoids than two- and four-year-old Aloe vera, and no significant differences in flavonoid levels were found between three- and four-year-old Aloe vera. All the aloe extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts and reference compounds followed the order: three-year-old Aloe vera > BHT > four-year-old Aloe vera > alpha-tocopherol > two-year-old Aloe vera. The three-year-old extract exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity of 72.19%, which is significantly higher than that of BHT at 70.52% and alpha-tocopherol at 65.20%. These data suggest that the growth stage plays a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera. PMID:14664546

  8. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  9. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats. PMID:25891093

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of triterpenoid-rich extracts from Euryale ferox shell on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaibo; Meng, Shaohua; Wang, Guoze; Gong, Zhaobin; Sun, Wenkai; He, Guoqing

    2014-07-01

    The antioxidant effects of the triterpenoid-rich extracts from Euryale ferox shell (ES) have been confirmed in vitro. This study examined whether the triterpenoid-rich extract from ES eases human hyperglycemia and diabetes caused by metabolic disorders. Normal and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were used as controls for the four groups that received the triterpenoid-rich extracts of ES suspended in distilled water orally at doses of 200, 300, 400, 500±2 mg/L. Body weight, blood glucose and pancreatic tissue morphology were observed after 4 weeks. The expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) proteins, which are related to the regulation of glucose metabolism in vivo, were also investigated. Compared with the model group (LD50 900±2 mg/L), it was found that the triterpenoid-rich extracts of ES could regulate glucose metabolism (P<0.01) and cause body weight to return to normal levels (P<0.05). Islet morphology recovered well, the expression of the negative regulation protein PTP1B gene was reduced and insulin receptor IRS-1 protein expression was increased. These data prove that the triterpenoid-rich extracts from ES have a therapeutic effect on diabetes by insulin resistance. PMID:25015452

  11. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent. PMID:25915032

  12. Identification and discrimination of three common Aloe species by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Ya Nan; Lee, Min Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-09-15

    Aloe arborescens, Aloe barbadensis and Aloe ferox are the most widely cultivated and used among 500 aloe species due to their potent bioactivity. However, the difference of aloe species is neglected and labeled only one name Aloe in the market without specifying aloe species discrimination in general. Furthermore, differences in bioactivity and side effects from different aloe species have not been well investigated. This study develops an effective method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of three common aloe species using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on methanol concentration, extraction time and solvent-to-material ratio. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the three aloe species. The developed HPLC-MS/MS method coupled with multivariate analysis can be applied to discriminate three aloe species successfully. PMID:27494280

  13. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. Materials and Method In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. Conclusion The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity. PMID:26966709

  14. A biochemical and cellular approach to explore the antiproliferative and prodifferentiative activity of Aloe arborescens leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Manzo, Nicola; Vivo, Maria; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Crescenzi, Elvira; Pollice, Alessandra; Tudisco, Raffaella; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Viola

    2013-12-01

    Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Liliaceae family), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. Although less characterized than the commonest Aloe vera, Aloe arborescens is known to be richer in beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. It is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. However, very few studies have addressed the biological effects of Aloe at molecular level. The aim of the research is to provide evidences for the antiproliferative properties of Aloe arborescens crude leaf extract using an integrated proteomic and cellular biological approach. We analysed the composition of an Aloe arborescens leaf extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We found it rich in Aloe-emodin, a hydroxylanthraquinone with known antitumoral activity and in several compounds with anti-oxidant properties. Accordingly, we show that the Aloe extract has antiproliferative effects on several human transformed cell lines and exhibits prodifferentiative effects on both primary and immortalized human keratinocyte. Proteomic analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the presence of proteins with a strong antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity specifically induced in human keratinocytes by Aloe treatment supporting its application as a therapeutical agent. PMID:23418125

  15. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study. PMID:23477211

  16. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of phenolic extract from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. and identification of three phenolic compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengying; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xin Sheng; Shen, Bei; Yue, Wei; Wu, Qinan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant potential and anti-fatigue effects of phenolics extracted from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. The in vitro antioxidant potentials, including scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl radical activities and reducing power were evaluated. Antioxidant status in vivo was analyzed by SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and the MDA content in liver and kidneys of D-galactose-induced aging mice. The anti-fatigue effect was evaluated using an exhaustive swimming test, along with the determination of LDH, BUN and HG content. The phenolic extract possessed notable antioxidant effects on DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power. The mice which received the phenolic extract showed significant increases of SOD, CAT (except for in the kidney), GSH-Px activities, and a decrease of MDA content. The average exhaustive swimming time was obviously prolonged. Meanwhile, increase of LDH content and decrease of BUN content were observed after mice had been swimming for 15 min. The HG storage of mice was improved in the high and middle dose extract groups compared with the normal group. The contents of total phenols and gallic acid of the extract were determined. Three compounds in the extract were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-chroman-4-one, 5,7,4-trihydroxyflavanone and buddlenol E. These results suggest that the extract of E. ferox is a promising source of natural antioxidants and anti-fatigue material for use in functional foods and medicines. PMID:24022762

  17. The Use of Aloe Vera Extract as a Novel Storage Media for the Avulsed Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Badakhsh, Samaneh; Eskandarian, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the most severe dental traumas which most often occur in children. When immediate replantation is not possible, storage in a proper media may lead to a prolonged survival rate. Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. This medicinal plant has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different concentrations of Aloe Vera extract compared to DMEM (cell culture medium) and egg white. Methods: The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured and certain number of cells were treated with Aloe Vera extract (in four different concentrations), egg white and culture media for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Moreover, One-way ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for analyzing the study groups. Results: The results indicate that culture media and Aloe Vera extract (10, 30, and 50% concentration) were statistically similar and significantly preserved more PDL cells compared to other experimental storage media. Conclusion: Aloe Vera 10, 30, and 50% may be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:25031484

  18. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  19. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations. PMID:26815913

  20. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  1. Acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Sierra-García, Gerardo Daniel; Castro-Ríos, Rocío; González-Horta, Azucena; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Chávez-Montes, Abelardo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, the composition, actions, and clinical applications of acemannan in medicine and its effectiveness as an adjunct in the treatment of diseases are presented. An electronic literature search was performed up to January 2014 for studies and research presenting data to validate the efficacy of acemannan. A total of 50 titles, abstracts and full-text studies were selected and reviewed. Acemannan has various medicinal properties like osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial, which accelerate healing of lesions. Also, acemannan is known to have antiviral and antitumor activities in vivo through activation of immune responses. It was concluded that Aloe vera has immense potential as a therapeutic agent. Even though the plant is a promising herb with various clinical applications in medicine and dentistry, more clinical research needs to be undertaken to validate and explain the action of acemannan in healing, so that it can be established in the field of medicine and a more precise understanding of the biological activities of these is required to develop Aloe vera as a pharmaceutical source. PMID:25233608

  2. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats. PMID:22968693

  3. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aloe vera Extract Preparations: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Satvinder; Hussain, Shaik Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease, and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking toward new therapeutic approach such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods, different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and antiinflammatory. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of A. vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous solution, alcohol, ethanol, and chloroform for the A. vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Furthermore, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the A. vera and their anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) on the A. vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PMID:26666199

  4. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  5. Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, M.; Bindu, K. R.; Sneha Saj, A.; Anila, E. I.

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles remains to be a major issue in their application to the biomedical field. Aloe vera (AV) is one of the most widely exploited medicinal plants that have a multitude of amazing properties in the field of medicine. Methanol extract of Aloe vera can be used as a novel stabilising agent for quantum dots to reduce toxicity. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity studies of ZnS:Mn quantum dots synthesized by the colloidal precipitation method, using methanol extract of Aloe vera (AVME) as the capping agent. The ZnS:Mn quantum dots capped with AVME exhibit superior performances in biocompatibility and antibacterial activity compared with ZnS:Mn quantum dots without encapsulation. Project supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.

  6. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  7. Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Yolanda Y; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; Tortoriello, Jaime; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a widespread pathology associated with the metabolic syndrome, myocardial ischemia, and hypertension. Finding an adequate treatment for this pathology is an important goal in medicine. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of an extract from Aloe vera gel containing a high concentration of polyphenols on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice. A polyphenol-rich Aloe vera extract (350 mg/kg) with known concentrations of aloin (181.7 mg/g) and aloe-emodin (3.6 mg/g) was administered orally for a period of 4 weeks to insulin resistant ICR mice. Pioglitazone (50 mg/kg) and bi-distilled water were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Body weight, food intake, and plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured and insulin tolerance tests were performed. The insulin resistance value was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula. Results showed that the polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera was able to decrease significantly both body weight (p < 0.008) and blood glucose levels (p < 0.005) and to protect animals against unfavorable results on HOMA-IR, which was observed in the negative control group. The highest glucose levels during the insulin tolerance curve test were in the negative control group when compared to the Aloe vera extract and pioglitazone treated mice (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Aloe vera gel could be effective for the control of insulin resistance. PMID:18186589

  8. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  9. Effect of Aloe vera gel extract on antioxidant enzymes and azoxymethane-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Anilakumar, K R; Sudarshanakrishna, K R; Chandramohan, G; Ilaiyaraja, N; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, A S

    2010-08-01

    The present work was undertaken with a view to study the effect of oral feeding of 2% Aloe vera gel extract (AGE) for 30 days on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced oxidative stress in rats. It was observed that AOM administration resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes, with reduction in hepatic glutathione (GSH), vitamin A and uric acid contents. AOM-induced reduction in hepatic GSH and uric acid was brought back to normal by AGE. There was a significant raise in hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities as a result of feeding of the extract. Ingestion of the extract effected reduction in AOM-induced colonic GSH-peroxidase, G-6-PD and glutathione S-transferase and femur bone marrow micronuclei formation. Hence, it is suggested that Aloe vera gel extract possess the ability to reduce AOM- induced oxidative stress and toxicity in liver. PMID:21341543

  10. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  11. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  12. Magnetic nanoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters in environmental water and aloe juice samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hao, Yunhui; Ren, Yiqian; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon with high surface area and ordered structure was synthesized using cheap commercial silica gel as template and sucrose as the carbon source. The prepared magnetic nanoporous carbon was firstly used as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl-phthalate, from lake water and aloe juice samples. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the method (S/N = 3) was 0.10 ng/mL for water sample and 0.20 ng/mL for aloe juice sample. The linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.50-150.0 and 1.0-200.0 ng/mL for water and aloe juice samples, respectively. The results showed that the magnetic nanoporous carbon has a high adsorptive capability toward the target phthalate esters in water and aloe juice samples. PMID:25677269

  13. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  14. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment. PMID:25684508

  15. [Effect of biogenic stimulators--aloe extract and biotrite--on lipid peroxidation processes in saliva in inflammatory periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    volik, N A; Beloklitskaia, G F; Stefanov, A V; Makarenko

    1999-01-01

    The influence of biostimulators of vegetative origin, such as aloes and biotritis, on the process of lipid peroxidation in parodontium tissues, was studied. Biotritis has a more considerable parodontoprotective effect than aloes. PMID:10726317

  16. Aloe arborescens Extract Protects IMR-32 Cells against Alzheimer Amyloid Beta Peptide via Inhibition of Radical Peroxide Production.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Tringali, Giuseppe; Triggiani, Doriana; Giardina, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. Besides, it is well known to have beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. In this study, we first provided evidence that A. arborescens extract protects IMR32, a neuroblastoma human cellular line, from toxicity induced by beta amyloid, the peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease. In particular, pretreatment with A. arborescens maintains an elevated cell viability and exerts a protective effect on mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by oxygen consumption experiments. The protective mechanism exerted by A. arborescens seems be related to lowering of oxidative potential of the cells, as demonstrated by the ROS measurement compared with the results obtained in the presence of amyloid beta (1-42) peptide alone. Based on these preliminary observations we suggest that use ofA. arborescens extract could be developed as agents for the management of AD. PMID:26749845

  17. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Rezapour, Taha Mohammad; Vatanchian, Mehran; Zare Hesari, Mohammad; Nabizade Haghighi, Hadi; Izanlu, Mostafa; Sabaghian, Maryam; Shahveisi, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group. Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output. PMID:25050311

  18. Aloe vera gel extract attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of lipogenic genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamada, Muneo; Yamauchi, Kouji; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that Aloe vera gel had hypoglycemic activity and anti-obesity effects, although the effect on alcoholic fatty liver was unclear. We examined in this present study the effect of an Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) on hepatic lipid metabolism by using an ethanol-induced transient fatty liver mouse model. Ethanol (3 g/kg of mouse weight) was orally administered to induce an accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and increase the mRNA expression of such lipogenic genes as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the liver. Although ethanol ingestion caused a 5.4-fold increase in liver TG, pre-treating with AVGE (1 mg/kg/d) for 1 week significantly suppressed this elevation of the ethanol-induced liver TG level. The expression of lipogenic genes was also lower in the AVGE pre-treatment group than in the control group. This inhibitory effect on the ethanol-induced accumulation of TG was attributed to a reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes that were increased by ethanol. PMID:23132591

  19. In vitro study of the PLA2 inhibition and antioxidant activities of Aloe vera leaf skin extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the present work we determined the total phenolic content of Aloe vera leaf skin (AVLS) extracts by using various solvents (hexane, chloroform-ethanol (1/1), ethyl acetate, butanol and water). We have also evaluated the antioxidant and the anti-PLA2 properties of these extracts by measuring their inhibition potency on the human pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2 (group IIA). Results The water extract exhibits the highest inhibitory effect with an IC50 = 0.22 mg/ml and interestingly no effect was observed on the digestive phospholipase A2 (group IB) even at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities were also analyzed and the most active extracts were observed when using chloroform ethanol (1/1) and ethyl acetate (IC50 = 0.274 and 0.326 mg/ml, respectively). Analysis of the total phenolic content reveals that the water extract, with the best anti-PLA2 effect, was poor in phenolic molecules (2 mg GAE/g). This latter value has to be compared with the chloroform-ethanol and the ethyl acetate extracts (40 and 23.8 mg GAE/g, respectively), mostly responsible for the antioxidant activity. Conclusion A significant correlation was established between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity but not with the anti PLA2 activity. Results from phytochemical screening suggest that the anti PLA2 molecules were probably catechin tannins compounds. PMID:21310091

  20. Aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Thomas, Chunpen; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(C5H8O2)3) and aloe vera plant-extracted solution. The influences of different reaction temperatures and times on the structure and magnetic properties of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline and have particle sizes of ˜6-30 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution TEM (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicate that the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the inverse cubic spinel structure without the presence of any other phase impurities. The hysteresis loops of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles at room temperature show superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 samples increases with increasing reaction temperature and time.

  1. Aloe vera

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.D.; Penneys, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    We review the scientific literature regarding the aloe vera plant and its products. Aloe vera is known to contain several pharmacologically active ingredients, including a carboxypeptidase that inactivates bradykinin in vitro, salicylates, and a substance(s) that inhibits thromboxane formation in vivo. Scientific studies exist that support an antibacterial and antifungal effect for substance(s) in aloe vera. Studies and case reports provide support for the use of aloe vera in the treatment of radiation ulcers and stasis ulcers in man and burn and frostbite injuries in animals. The evidence for a potential beneficial effect associated with the use of aloe vera is sufficient to warrant the design and implementation of well-controlled clinical trials. 27 references.

  2. [Identification of Aloe species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis].

    PubMed

    Shioda, Hiroko; Satoh, Kanako; Nagai, Fumiko; Okubo, Tomoko; Seto, Takako; Hamano, Tomoko; Kamimura, Hisashi; Kano, Itsu

    2003-08-01

    Juice and integument of leaves of 3 Aloe species, Aloe vera, A. ferox and A. africana, are not allowed to be used as food according to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan. On the other hand, whole leaves of A. arborescens can be used as food. The present study was designed to distinguish Aloe species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. DNA was isolated from fresh and dried leaves of the 4 Aloe species. Five out of 32 different 10-mer primers examined were useful for analysis. By comparison of the characteristic bands of PCR products on agarose gel, it was possible to distinguish the 4 species. Thus, the botanical species of Aloe in commercial food products can be identified by RAPD analysis. PMID:14606430

  3. Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Tachaboonyakiat, Wanpen; Sangvanich, Polkit; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Jettanacheawchankit, Suwimon; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-11-20

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties. PMID:26344314

  4. Humoral responses of broiler chickens challenged with NDV following supplemental treatment with extracts of Aloe vera, Alma millsoni, Ganoderma lucidum and Archachatina marginata

    PubMed Central

    Eghafona, Nosahkare'Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The significance of nutritional supplements for immunity has been documented. Locally sourced extracts used in alternative medicine were studied to determine their potential effects on antibody production and humoral responses in viral challenged birds. Method Three hundred and eighty birds were distributed into 19 groups of 20 birds each. Following acclimatization for 16 days, they were fed with standard broilers feed and water ad libitum. Group A was supplemented with Aloe vera (AV) extract, group B was given Alma millsoni (AM) extract, group C was given Archachatina marginata (AMS) extract and group D was given Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, and group E was the control group. Extract concentrations of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were given to three subsets of each treatment group for 30 days. Birds were then challenged with intramuscular administration of 0.2 ml of 50% Embryo Lethal Dose of saline suspension of the challenge strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on the 30th day, and were examined for clinical signs and symptoms. Serum from venous blood was used for antibody and immunological assay. Results Aloe vera at 50 µg and A. millsoni extracts supplementations yielded a significant antibody titre (p < 0.001). The difference within the AMS, GL and AV groups and the control group was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion Unlike the extract of Ganoderma and A. marginata, pretreatment with A. millsoni extract and a lower dosage of Aloe vera enhanced the ability to mount humoral responses against viral infection in broiler chickens. PMID:26648773

  5. Field evaluation of three botanical repellents against Psorophora ferox, Aedes atlanticus, and Aedes mitchellae.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2009-09-01

    Three botanical natural repellents, Swamp Buddy Bug Chaser (AI 12% plant-based essential oils), All Sport (AI plant-based essential oils, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, and octisalate), and Geraniol (AI 25% geraniol oil and lemongrass extract) were evaluated at a field site in Elkton, Florida, to determine the protection time provided against Psorophora ferox, Aedes atlanticus, and Ae. mitchellae. These three products provided different protection times against biting mosquitoes. Geraniol provided the longest protection time from mosquito bites (4 h), followed by All Sport (1.5 h) and Swamp Buddy Bug Chaser (1 h). This study provides the first information about botanical insect repellents against these floodwater mosquito species. PMID:19852232

  6. Aloe vera extract functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles as nanoantibiotics against multi-drug resistant clinical bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khursheed; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Azam, Ameer; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Said, Mansour S; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2016-06-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were synthesised through a simple and efficient biogenic synthesis approach, exploiting the reducing and capping potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. vera) leaf extract (ALE). ALE-capped ZnO nanoparticles (ALE-ZnONPs) were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. XRD analysis provided the average size of ZnONPs as 15 nm. FTIR spectral analysis suggested the role of phenolic compounds, terpenoids and proteins present in ALE, in nucleation and stability of ZnONPs. Flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) data analyses revealed the surface binding and internalization of ZnONPs in Gram +ve (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli) cells, respectively. Significant antibacterial activity of ALE-ZnONPs was observed against extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) positive E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates exhibiting the MIC and MBC values of 2200, 2400 μg/ml and 2300, 2700 μg/ml, respectively. Substantial inhibitory effects of ALE-ZnONPs on bacterial growth kinetics, exopolysaccharides and biofilm formation, unequivocally suggested the antibiotic and anti-biofilm potential. Overall, the results elucidated a rapid, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and convenient method for ALE-ZnONPs synthesis, for possible applications as nanoantibiotics or drug carriers. PMID:27031596

  7. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in the aquatic plant Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae). This species, which belongs to basal Magnoliophyta, reproduces sexually. All of these 11 microsatellite markers yielded 25 alleles in a survey of a wild population of 34 individuals. Two or three alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.056 to 0.634 and observed heterozygosity from 0.000 to 0.088. These simple sequence repeat markers will be useful for evaluating the genetic structure of the E. ferox population in the future. PMID:21564641

  8. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceae) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus, against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William

    2012-01-01

    The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212

  9. Meeting report: First National Meeting on Aloe, April 20-21, 2013, Isernia, Italy. New perspectives in Aloe research: from basic science to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Laudato, Massimiliano; Borrelli, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Aloe preparations have maintaining their popularity over the of course time. Aloe latex is used for its laxative effects; aloe gel is used topically for skin ailments and internally for variety of disturbances; aloe extract is potentially useful for cancer. PMID:24273879

  10. In vitro anti-proliferative activities of Aloe perryi flowers extract on human liver, colon, breast, lung, prostate and epithelial cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; El-Shaibany, Amina; Al-Jassas, Ebtesam; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Farshori, Nida Nayyar

    2016-03-01

    Natural products, especially plant extracts have offered vast opportunities in the field of drug development due to its chemical diversity. The genus Aloe has for long been used for medicinal purposes in different parts of the world. The present study was designed to investigate the phytochemicals and anti-cancer potential of Aloe perryi flowers. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and proteins. While alkaloids and saponins were absent. The percentage inhibition of various extracts (viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous) of A. perryi flowers on seven human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa) has been evaluated using MTT assay. All the extracts significantly inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The petroleum ether extract was most active, where the inhibition was recorded as 92.6%, 93.9%, 92%, 90.9%, 88.9%, 82% and 85.7% for HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A-549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa cells, respectively. The results also revealed that HCT-116 cells were more sensitive among all the cell lines studied. PMID:27113311

  11. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Radha, Maharjan H; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera ( lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  12. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P.

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (蘆薈 lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  13. On the novel action of melanolysis by a leaf extract of Aloe vera and its active ingredient aloin, potent skin depigmenting agents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sharique A; Galgut, Jyoti M; Choudhary, Ram K

    2012-05-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of an Aloe vera leaf extract, along with its standard active ingredient aloin, on the isolated tail melanophores of Bufo melanostictus tadpoles, which are a type of disguised smooth muscle cells offering excellent in vitro opportunities for studying the effects of pharmacological and pharmaceutical agents. It was found that the leaf extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin induced powerful, dose-dependent, physiologically significant melanin aggregating effects in the isolated tail melanophores of B. melanostictus similar to those of adrenaline per se. These preliminary findings clearly demonstrate that the extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin cause melanin aggregation leading to skin lightening via alpha adrenergic receptor stimulation. The present study opens new vistas for the use of A. vera regarding its clinical application as a new nontoxic melanolytic agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. PMID:22495441

  14. Reduction of intestinal polyp formation in min mice fed a high-fat diet with aloe vera gel extract.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Tomatsu, Akiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera gel supercritical CO2 extract (AVGE) has been shown to contain five phytosterols, reduce visceral fat accumulation, and influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in animal model experiments. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers including colorectal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVGE on intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high-fat diet. Male Min mice were divided into normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low dose AVGE (HFD+LAVGE) and high dose AVGE (HFD+HAVGE) groups. The ND group received AIN-93G diet and the latter 3 groups were given modified high-fat AIN-93G diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. AVGE was suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally to mice in HFD+LAVGE and HFD+HAVGE groups every day (except on Sunday) for 7 weeks at a dose of 3.75 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. ND and HFD groups received 0.5% CMC alone. Between weeks 4 and 7, body weights in the HFD and HFD+LAVGE groups were reduced more than those in the ND group. However, body weights were not reduced in the HFD+HAVGE group. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and their intestines were scored for polyps. No significant differences were observed in either the incidence and multiplicity of intestinal polyps (≥0.5 mm in a diameter) among the three groups fed HFD. However, when intestinal polyps were categorized by their size into 0.5-1.4, 1.5-2.4, or ≥2.5 mm, the incidence and multiplicity of large polyps (≥2.5 mm) in the intestine in the HFD+HAVGE group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. We measured plasma lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) and adipocytokine [interleukin-6 and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin] levels as possible indicators of mechanisms of inhibition. The results showed that HMW adiponectin levels in the HFD group were significantly lower than those in the ND group. However, the

  15. Aloe vera non-decolorized whole leaf extract-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share similar molecular pathways with human sporadic colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Arun R; Sills, Robert C; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Peddada, Shyamal D; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Flake, Gordon P; Malarkey, David E; Olson, Greg R; Pogribny, Igor P; Walker, Nigel J; Boudreau, Mary D

    2011-12-01

    Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5-8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels. PMID:21937742

  16. Aloe vera Non-Decolorized Whole Leaf Extract-Induced Large Intestinal Tumors in F344 Rats Share Similar Molecular Pathways with Human Sporadic Colorectal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pandiri, Arun R.; Sills, Robert C.; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Ton, Thai-Vu T.; Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Flake, Gordon P.; Malarkey, David E.; Olson, Greg R.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Walker, Nigel J.; Boudreau, Mary D.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5–8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels. PMID:21937742

  17. Two new tocopherol polymers from the seeds of Euryale ferox.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Two new tocopherol polymers, chroman-type dimer named ferotocodimer A (1) and spiro-type trimer named ferotocotrimer E (2), were isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by CD and ROESY experiments. PMID:22694777

  18. LIFE CYCLE AND EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF AMBLYOSPORA FEROCIS (MICROSPORA: AMBLYOSPORIDAE) IN THE MOSQUITO PSOROPHORA FEROX (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A natural population of Psorophora ferox (Humbold, 1820) infected with the microsporidium Amblyospora ferocis García and Becnel, 1994 was sampled weekly during a seven-month survey in Punta Lara, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The sequence of development of A. ferocis in P. ferox larvae leading t...

  19. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    Aloe gel and whole-leaf materials have shown biological effects with potential therapeutic applications, and recently, their drug-absorption enhancement properties have been discovered. It is important to establish a safety profile for these materials before they can be used in pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii, Aloe speciosa and Aloe ferox against human hepatocellular (HepG2), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (HeLa). Flow cytometry was used to measure cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aloe gel materials investigated only decreased cell viability at concentrations of >10 mg/mL and exhibited half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values above 1000 mg/mL, except for A. vera gel in HepG2 cells (CC(50) = 269.3 mg/mL). A. speciosa whole-leaf material showed a significant decrease in viability of Hela cells, whereas the other whole-leaf materials did not show a similar effect. The aloe gel materials in general showed low levels of apoptosis, whereas A. vera and A. speciosa whole-leaf materials caused a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in HeLa cells. None of the aloe materials investigated exhibited a significant increase in ROS. It can be concluded that the selected aloe materials caused only limited reduction in cell viability with limited in vitro cytotoxicity effects. Further, neither significant apoptosis effects were observed nor induction of ROS. PMID:24111784

  20. Determination and quantification of the in vitro activity of Aloe marlothii (A. Berger) subsp. marlothii and Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) skeels acetone extracts against Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Zweygarth, E; Swan, G E

    2006-09-01

    An Ehrlichia ruminantium culture system was utilized for the anti-rickettsial evaluation of two ethnoveterinary plants, Elephantorrhiza elephantina and Aloe marlothii. Well-established E. ruminantium cultures were incubated with the plant leaf acetone extracts and compared to oxytetracycline and untreated controls. Effectivity was established by comparing the percentage parasitised cells and the calculation of both EC50 and extrapolated EC90 in microg/ml. The plant extracts were also screened for antibacterial activity using bioautography. Elephantorrhiza elephantina and A. marlothii demonstrated anti-ehrlichial activity with an EC50 of 111.4 and 64.5 microg/ml and EC90 of 228.9 and 129.9 microg/ml, respectively. The corresponding EC50 and EC90 for oxytetracycline was 0.29 and 0.08 microg/ml. Both plants appeared to produce their inhibitory activity by a similar mechanism, unrelated to that of the tetracyclines. Both the plant acetone extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC strains). PMID:17058439

  1. Influence of precipitation pulses on long-term Prosopis ferox dynamics in the Argentinean intermontane subtropics.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mariano S; Villalba, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Biological processes in arid communities are associated with episodic precipitation pulses. We postulate that annual to decadal-scale precipitation pulses modulate the dynamics of the intermontane Prepuna woodlands. To study this hypothesis, we have assessed the influence of precipitation pulses on the rates of growth and survival of Prosopis ferox in the Prepuna woodlands during the past century. Tree ages from several P. ferox stands were used to reconstruct the establishment patterns at each sampling site. Ring-width chronologies provided the basis to assess the influence of annual versus multiannual precipitation pulses on radial growth and establishment over time. Both the radial growth and the stand dynamics of P. ferox at the regional scale were found to be largely modulated by climate, with precipitation the dominant factor influencing interannual variations in P. ferox ring-widths. Our analysis of dendrochronological dating data on 885 individuals of P. ferox revealed a period of abundant establishment from the mid-1970s to beginning of 1990 s, which is coincident with an interval of remarkable above-average precipitation. However, tree-growth and establishment patterns at the local scale in the Prepuna also reflected land-use changes, particularly long-term variations in livestock intensity. The P. ferox dynamics documented here substantiates the hierarchical concept of "resource-pulse" in dry ecosystems, with precipitation pulses of different lengths modulating distinct dynamic processes in the P. ferox woodlands. Interannual variations in precipitation influence year-to-year patterns of P. ferox radial growth, whereas multiannual oscillations in rainfall influence episodic events of tree establishment. The long-term interval considered in this study enabled us to disentangle the roles of natural versus human controls on P. ferox dynamics in the region. PMID:21805299

  2. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  3. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties. PMID:21947308

  4. Cerebrosides and tocopherol trimers from the seeds of Euryale ferox.

    PubMed

    Row, Lie-Ching; Ho, Jiau-Ching; Chen, Chiu-Ming

    2007-07-01

    Two new cerebrosides, ferocerebrosides A (1) [(2S,3R,4E,8E,2'R)-1-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N-(2'-hydroxydocosanoyl)-4,8-sphingadienine] and B (2) [(2S,3R,4E,8E,2'R)-1-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N-(2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl)-4,8-sphingadienine], two new tocopherol trimers, ferotocotrimers C (5) and D (6), and two known tocopherol trimers, IVb (3) and IVa (4), were isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, with LC50 values of 0.17 and 0.20 mM, respectively. PMID:17567070

  5. Green route for preparing extra-small TiO2 nanoparticles using aloe extracts and their application in degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Fang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Chunfeng; Fu, Yunzhi; Chen, Yongjun; Xue, Xinghua; Mazidi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with high-photocatalysis properties both in ultraviolet and visible-light regions were synthesized via a simple sol-gel method, and an aloe leaf extract (ALE) was used as the cap. When the Ti)∶)CHOH∶ALE volume ratio was equal to 0.5∶8∶40, the reaction time was 6 h, and crystallization occurred at 80°C for 2 h, the TiO2NPs had been synthesized. XRD analysis showed that the structure of TiO2NPs without thermal treatment was anatase. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed their average size, which was around 5 nm. The products showed an excellent photocatalytic property for methyl orange in the presence of UV and sunlight with the characterization of UV-vis. The photocatalytic activity was optimized by adjusting the amount of TiO2, the pH value, and the calcination temperature. Results indicated that ALE acted as a cap and nano-TiO2 could be synthesized without calcination.

  6. EXAFS analysis of cations distribution in structure of Co1-xNixFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongpratat, Unchista; Maensiri, Santi; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Effect of cations distribution upon EXAFS analysis on magnetic properties of Co1-xNixFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles prepared by the hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution were studied. XRD analysis confirmed a pure phase of cubic spinel ferrite of all samples. Changes in lattice parameter and particle size depended on the Ni content with partial substitution and site distributions of Co2+, Ni2+ ions of different ionic radii at both tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the crystal structure. Particle sizes of samples estimated by TEM images were found to be in the range of 10.87-62.50 nm. The VSM results at room temperature indicated the ferrimagnetic behavior of all samples. Superparamagnetic behavior was observed in NiFe2O4 sample. The coercivity (Hc) and remanance (Mr) values were related to the particle sizes of samples. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was increased by a factor of 1.4 to a value of 57.57 emu/g, whereas the coercivity (Hc) was decreased by a factor of 20 to a value of 63.15 Oe for a sample with x = 0.75. In addition to the cations distribution, the increase of aspect ratio (surface to volume ratio) due to the decrease of particle size could significantly affect the magnetic properties of the materials.

  7. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex. PMID:26986231

  8. Aloe vera Plant Extracted Green Synthesis, Structural and Opto-Magnetic Characterizations of Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄Nano-Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, A; Durka, M; Selvi, M Amutha; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple Aloe vera plant extracted green synthesis route. Powder XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of single phase, cubic spinel gahnite structure without other impurities. The lattice parameter increased from 8.089 to 8.125 A with increasing CO²⁺ content. The average crystallite sizes were estimated using Scherrer's method, and it was found to be in the range of 15.72 nm to 26.53 nm. FT-IR spectra showed vibrational stretching frequencies corresponding to the spinel structure. HR-SEM and HR-TEM images showed the features of well particle shaped crystals with nano-sized grains. The elemental compositions of Co, Zn, Al and O were quantitatively obtained from EDX analysis. The band gap energy estimated using Kubelka-Munk method by UV-Visible DRS method, and the values are decreased with increasing the Co²⁺ content (4.12 eV to 3.67 eV), due to the formation of sub bands in between the energy gap. PL spectra showed emission bands in UV as well as in the visible regions for ZnAl₂O₄ and Co-doped ZnAl₂O4, due to the defect centers acting as the trap levels. VSM measurements revealed that pure ZnAl₂O₄ has diamagnetic, while Co doped ZnAl₂O₄ samples (x = 0.2 to 0.8) have superparamagnetism, whereas the sample CoAl₂O₄ has ferromagnetic in nature. Catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was found that the sample Co₀.₆Zn₀.₄Al₂O₄ showed 93.25% conversion with 99.56% selectivity, whereas for pure ZnAl₂O₄, the conversion was only 86.31% with 92.85% selectivity. PMID:27398465

  9. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  10. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  11. Aloe vera in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, G; Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. PMID:25478478

  12. Aloe Vera in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. PMID:25478478

  13. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  14. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  15. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  16. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  17. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  18. ALOE VERA: A SHORT REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Surjushe, Amar; Vasani, Resham; Saple, D G

    2008-01-01

    Aloe vera is a natural product that is now a day frequently used in the field of cosmetology. Though there are various indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy. The aloe vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article. PMID:19882025

  19. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

    2011-10-01

    Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases. PMID:23572784

  20. Multi-responses extraction optimization combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and chemometrics techniques for the fingerprint analysis of Aloe barbadensis Miller.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia-Sheng; Wan, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Wen-Jing; Wu, Xiao-Fang; Xie, Zhi-Yong

    2015-03-25

    A quality control strategy using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) coupled with chemometrics analysis was proposed for Aloe barbadensis Miller. Firstly, the extraction conditions including methanol concentration, extraction time and solvent-to-material ratio were optimized by multi-responses optimization based on response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were achieved by Derringer's desirability function and experimental validation implied that the established model exhibited favorable prediction ability. Then, HPLC fingerprint consisting of 27 common peaks was developed among 15 batches of A. barbadensis samples. 25 common peaks were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method by their spectral characteristics or comparison with the authentic standards. Chemometrics techniques including similarity analysis (SA), principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were implemented to classify A. barbadensis samples. The results demonstrated that all A. barbadensis samples shared similar chromatographic patterns as well as differences. These achievements provided an effective, reliable and comprehensive quality control method for A. barbadensis. PMID:25590942

  1. [Low level of allozyme polymorphism in relict aquatic plants of the Far East Nelumbo komarovii Grossh. and Euryale ferox Salisb].

    PubMed

    Koren', O G; Iatsunskaia, M S; Nakonechnaia, O V

    2012-09-01

    Using allozyme analysis, genetic variation of two relict aquatic plants from Primorsky krai, Komarov lotus (Neliumbo komarovii Grossh.) and Gorgon plant (Euryale ferox Salisb.), was examined. The absence of allozyme variation in the Primorye populations of Neliumbo komarovii along with low polymorphism level in the population of Euryale ferox (P95 = 7.69; A = 1.07; Ho = 0.072; He = 0.038) was demonstrated. Since the data for the species examined are reported for the first time ever, the pheonotypes and genetic interpretation of the enzyme systems tested are presented. The izoenzyme profiles of N. komarovii were compared with the data reported for N. nucifera from China. The absence ofallozyme variation in N. komarovii, along with extremely low level of variation revealed for E. ferox, is discussed in association with the evolutionary histories of these species, their dispersal after the Pleistocene-Holocene cooling, and survival on this territory in range boundaries. PMID:23113334

  2. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite (MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders prepared by a simple aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the specific magnetization curves of the as-prepared MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders obtained from room temperature VSM measurement. These curves are typical for a soft magnetic material and indicate hysteresis ferromagnetism in the field ranges of ±500 Oe, ±1000 Oe, and ±2000 Oe for the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} respectively, whereas the samples of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} show a superparamagnetic behavior. Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. ► Metal acetylacetonates and aloe vera plant-extracted solution are used. ► This biosynthetic route is very simple and provides high-yield oxide nanomaterials. ► XRD and TEM results indicate that the prepared samples have only spinel structure. ► The maximum M{sub s} of 68.9 emu/g at 10 kOe were observed for the samples of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using Fe(acac){sub 3}, M(acac){sub 3} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) and aloe vera plant extracted solution. The X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the synthesized nanocrystalline have only spinel structure without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the spinel ferrite powders, as revealed by TEM, show that the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples contain nanoparticles, whereas the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples consist of many nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Interestingly, the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample contains plate-like structure of networked nanocrystalline particles. Room temperature magnetization results show a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples, whereas the

  3. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, B K; Ernst, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. Often general practitioners seem to know less than their patients about its alleged benefits. AIM: To define the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera, a popular herbal remedy in the United Kingdom. METHOD: Four independent literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, and the Cochrane Library. Only controlled clinical trials (on any indication) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. All trials were read by both authors and data were extracted in a standardized, pre-defined manner. RESULTS: Ten studies were located. They suggest that oral administration of aloe vera might be a useful adjunct for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients as well as for reducing blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective preventative for radiation-induced injuries. It might be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. Whether it promotes wound healing is unclear. There are major caveats associated with all of these statements. CONCLUSION: Even though there are some promising results, clinical effectiveness of oral or topical aloe vera is not sufficiently defined at present. PMID:10885091

  4. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  5. The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Farshad, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Immediate application of bonding agent to home- bleached enamel leads to significant reduction in the shear bond strength of composite resin due to the residual oxygen. Different antioxidant agents may overcome this problem. Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to home-bleached. Materials and Method Sixty extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5×1.5 cm), with the coronal portion left out of the block. After bleaching the labial enamel surface with 15% carbamide peroxide, they were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Before performing composite resin restoration by using a cylindrical Teflon mold (5×2 mm), each group was treated with one of the following antioxidants: 10% sodium ascorbate solution, 10% pomegranate peel solution, 10% grape seed extract, 5% green tea extract, and aloe vera leaf gel. One group was left untreated as the control. The shear bond strength of samples was tested under a universal testing machine (ZwickRoell Z020). The shear bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results No significant difference existed between the control and experimental groups. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of bleached enamel. Conclusion Different antioxidants used in this study had the same effect on the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel, and none of them caused a statistically significant increase in its value. PMID:26636116

  6. Comparative performance of ALOS PALSAR polarization bands and its combination with ALOS AVNIR-2 data for land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    Microwave Remote Sensing data have been widely used for land cover classification in our environment. In this study, ALOS PALSAR polarization bands were used to identify land cover features in three study areas in Malaysia. The study area consists of Penang, Perak and Kedah. The aims of this research are to investigate the performance of ALOS PALSAR datasets which are assessed independently and combination of these data with ALOS AVNIR-2 for land cover classification. Standard supervised classification method Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was applied. Various land cover classes were identified and assessed using the Transformed Divergence (TD) separability measures. The PALSAR data training areas were chosen based on the information obtained from ALOS AVNIR-2 datasets. The original data gave very poor results in identifying land cover classes due to the presence of immense speckle. The extraction and use of mean texture measures was found to be very advantageous when evaluating the separability among the different land covers. Hence, mean texture was capable to provide higher classification accuracies as compared to the original radar. The highest overall accuracy was achieved by combining the radar mean texture with ALOS AVNIR-2 data. This study proved that the land cover of Penang, Perak, and Kedah can be mapped accurately using combination of optical and radar data.

  7. Isolation and identification of compounds responsible for antioxidant capacity of Euryale ferox seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Wei; Wang, Shu-Mei; Zhou, Li-Li; Hou, Fan-Fan; Wang, Kai-Jin; Han, Quan-Bin; Li, Ning; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2011-02-23

    Euryale ferox seed is consumed medicinally or for food in China. The present study revealed it to contain significant antioxidant activity, which may be associated with its medical applications as a proteinuria inhibitor of diabetic nephropathy. This study resulted in the identification of 3 new sesquineolignans, named euryalins A-C (1-3), and 16 known compounds, which were all first isolated from this plant apart from 5,7,4-trihydroxy-flavanone. The antioxidant potential of the partial isolates was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and mesangial cellular assay. Compounds 2, rel-(2α,3β)-7-O-methylcedrusin (4), syringylglycerol-8-O-4-(sinapyl alcohol) ether (5), and (+)-syringaresinol (7) were found to be most active on DPPH assay, whereas compounds 2, 4, 7, (1R,2R,5R,6S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, and buddlenol E could significantly inhibit high glucose-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in mesangial cells. The results suggested that E. ferox seed could be considered as an excellent source of natural antioxidants and is useful in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21280632

  8. Peroxidase activity in Aloe barbadensis commercial gel: probable role in skin protection.

    PubMed

    Esteban, A; Zapata, J M; Casano, L; Martín, M; Sabater, B

    2000-12-01

    A basic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) (pl around 9.0) has been identified in commercial gel of Aloe barbadensis. In vivo, the activity is localised in the vascular system of inner aqueous leaf parenchyma. Some relevant properties of this basic peroxidase of Aloe have been investigated in leaf extract and in commercial gel where it is notably stable. The acid optimum pH (5.0) for activity and the low KM for H2O2 (0.14 mM) suggest that, when topically applied, Aloe peroxidase may scavenge H2O2 in skin surface. PMID:11199129

  9. Effects of drying temperature and ethanol concentration on bipolar switching characteristics of natural Aloe vera-based memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2015-10-28

    Extracted, formulated, and processed natural Aloe vera has been used as an active layer for memory applications. The functional memory device is realized by a bottom-up structure of ITO/Aloe vera/Al in which the Aloe vera is spin-coated after mixing with different concentrations of ethanol (0-80 wt%) and subsequently dried at different temperatures (50-120 °C). From the current density-voltage measurements, the device can exhibit a reproducible bipolar switching characteristic with pure Aloe vera dried at 50 °C. It is proposed that charges are transported across the Aloe vera layer via space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC), and clusters of interstitial space formed by the functional groups of acemannans and de-esterified pectins in the dried Aloe vera contribute to the memory effect. The formation of charge traps in the Aloe vera layer is dependent on the drying temperature. The drying temperature of a memory-switching Aloe vera layer can be extended to 120 °C with the addition of appropriate amounts of ethanol. The concept of using natural Aloe vera as an active material for memory applications has been demonstrated, and the read memory window, ON/OFF ratio, and retention time are approximately 5.0 V, 10(3), and >10(4) s, respectively. PMID:26400096

  10. Photo-irradiation of Aloe vera by UVA--formation of free radicals, singlet oxygen, superoxide, and induction of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun Jie; Fu, Peter P; Boudreau, Mary D

    2007-01-30

    Aloe vera whole leaf extracts are incorporated into a wide variety of topically applied commercial products. Aloe vera whole leaf extracts may contain anthraquinones, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species in the presence of ultraviolet A (UVA) light. Exposure to UVA light alone can also generate reactive oxygen species and is associated with photo-damaged and photo-aged skin in humans. This paper examines the photochemical properties of two Aloe vera whole leaf extracts that differed in their anthraquinone content. In the presence of methyl linoleate, the UVA irradiation of Aloe vera leaf extracts induced lipid peroxidation. The amounts of lipid peroxides formed were higher in the Aloe vera leaf extract that contained lower amounts of anthraquinones. Superoxide dismutase and sodium azide inhibited and deuterium oxide enhanced the formation of lipid peroxides, suggesting that singlet oxygen and superoxide were involved in the mechanism. Spin trapping electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the generation of free radicals by the UVA photo-irradiated Aloe vera plant extracts. ESR measurements indicated that the UVA photo-irradiation of Aloe vera plant extracts produced carbon-centered free radicals. These results suggest that humans exposed to products that contain Aloe vera whole leaf extracts may have enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet light. PMID:17197137

  11. [Antilipoxygenase activity and the trace elements content of Aloe vera in relation to the therapeutical effect].

    PubMed

    Bezáková, L; Oblozinský, M; Sýkorová, M; Paulíková, I; Kostálová, D

    2005-01-01

    Aloe vera is a rich source of many natural-health-promoting substances. The results of contemporary research on animal models indicate that the extracts have an antiinflammatory property. In this work the results of some in vitro experiments are shown: determination of the inhibitory effect of the Aloe vera extracts on the activity of partially purified lipoxygenase from the rat lung cytosol fraction, and quantitative determination of the trace elements presented in the extract (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) carried out by using the x-ray fluorescence analysis. The findings could explain the inhibitory effect (antilipoxygenase activity) of the Aloe vera extract in the acute inflammation process, expecially in the topical application for healing of minor burns and skin ulcers. PMID:15751795

  12. A comparative study of baby immature and adult shoots of Aloe vera on UVB-induced skin photoaging in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Kim, Su Hyeon; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Jinwan; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces photo-damage of the skin, which in turn causes depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkle formations are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The production of type I procollagen is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression; the activation of MMP is also correlated with an increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Aloe barbadensis M. (Aloe vera) is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this study, we examined whether baby aloe shoot extract (BAE, immature aloe extract), which is from the one-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, and adult aloe shoot extract (AE), which is from the four-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, have a protective effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BAE and AE on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species, MMP-1, MMP-3, IL-6, type I procollagen, and TGF-β1 after UVB irradiation. We found that NHDF cells treated with BAE after UVB-irradiation suppressed MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6 levels compared to the AE-treated cells. Furthermore, BAE treatment elevated type I procollagen and TGF-β1 levels. Our results suggest that BAE may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced damage more than AE. PMID:23505091

  13. Benefits of Aloe vera in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mangaiyarkarasi, S. P.; Manigandan, T.; Elumalai, M.; Cholan, Priyanka K.; Kaur, Roopam Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) is a plant that belongs to Liliaceae family. The name Aloe derives from the Arabic word “Alloeh” meaning shining bitter substance while “vera” in Latin means true. It contains various minerals and vitamins. It has got various properties such as immunomodulatory, antiviral and antiinflammatory in nature. A. vera can play a significant role in dentistry in treatment of lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, alveolar osteitis, periodontitis, etc. PMID:26015726

  14. [Mechanisms of therapeutic action of aloe].

    PubMed

    Anuszewska, Elżbieta L

    2015-01-01

    Genus Aloe was traditionally applied for the medicinal practice over thousands of years and used for treatment of wide range of medical indication from stomach disorders to cancer. Fresh leaves of aloe contain various groups of chemical compounds such as: glycoproteins, polysaccharides, anthraquinone derivatives, vitamins, minerals, aminoacids and many others, which show multidirectional therapeutic action. These active components are responsible for immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial effects of aloe Recent data confirmed that aloe possess a unique therapeutic profile and has positive potential for medical application. PMID:26181152

  15. EDOS Data Capture for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Bruce; Cordier, Guy R.; Wood, Terri; Gamst, Harek

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, NASA's Earth Sciences Missions Operations (ESMO) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) directed the Earth Observing System Data Operations System (EDOS) project to provide a prototype system to assess the feasibility of high rate data capture for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) spacecraft via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The key objective of this collaborative effort between NASA and JAXA was to share science data collected over North and South America previously unavailable due to limitations in ALOS downlink capacity. EDOS provided a single system proof-of-concept in 4 months at White Sands TDRS Ground Terminal The system captured 6 ALOS events error-free at 277 Mbps and delivered the data to the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) within 3 hours (May/June '08). This paper describes the successful rapid prototyping approach which led to a successful demonstration and agreement between NASA and JAXA for operational support. The design of the operational system will be discussed with emphasis on concurrent high-rate data capture, Level-O processing, real-time display and high-rate delivery with stringent latency requirements. A similar solution was successfully deployed at Svalbard, Norway to support the Suomi NPP launch (October 2011) and capture all X-band data and provide a 30-day backup archive.

  16. [Isolation and characterization of active compounds from Aloe vera with a possible role in skin protection].

    PubMed

    Kostálová, D; Bezáková, L; Oblozinský, M; Kardosová, A

    2004-09-01

    Aloe vera is widely used in food supplements, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. It has been long recognized as an effective natural remedy for its wound-healing properties and its positive influence on other inflammatory skin disorders. Major proteins and mono- and polysaccharides were identified and analysed from Aloe vera commercial extract. Molecular weight of proteins calculated from the sets of molecular weight reference standards, ranged from 70 kDa for the largest to 14 kDa for the smallest ones. IR spectral analysis of the carbohydrate fraction shows that the main carbohydrate copound is acetylated (1 --> 4)-beta-D-mannan substituated with D-galactose and D-glucose. The results have shown that proteins and polysaccharides are a necessary component in the study of biological activity of Aloe vera leaf extract. PMID:15506709

  17. ALOS-2 current status and operation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Osawa, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 will have enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for INSAR data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. The Proto Flight Test (PFT) of ALOS-2 has been conducted since June 2012. In parallel, the PFT of PALSAR-2 has been conducted since March 2012. As of August 2013, ALOS-2 system has completed the interface test with ground system and is preparing for the Vibration test, Acoustic test and Electromagnetic Compatibility test. After completing these tests, ALOS-2 will be transported to JAXA Tanegashima Space Center for launch. The initial commissioning phase of ALOS-2 is planned for six months which are comprised of LEOP (Launch and Early Orbit Phase) and initial Cal/Val phase. During the LEOP, all components will be checked with direct downlink via Xband and with data relay communication via JAXA's DRTS (Data Relay Test Satellite). During the initial Cal/Val phase, the PALSAR-2 data will be verified and calibrated by using Corner Reflectors and Geometric Calibrator at ground. The data acquisition during the commissioning phase will be consistent with the systematic acquisition strategy prepared for the routine operation. This paper describes the current status and operation plan of ALOS-2.

  18. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Ravi, K; Subramanian, S

    2004-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of hypoglycemic activity in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera gel. Effects of oral administration of A. vera extract at a concentration of 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight on (a) normal fasted rats, (b) oral glucose-loaded rats, and (c) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats have been studied. A. vera extract maintain the glucose homeostasis by controlling the carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. PMID:15117555

  19. HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox

    PubMed Central

    Colorado-Ríos, Jhonny; Muñoz, Diana; Montoya, Guillermo; Márquez, Diana; Márquez, Maria-Elena; López, Juan; Martínez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this marine sponge was performed. This gave valuable information for about twenty-five compounds three of which have been previously reported and another three which were found to be composed of known aglycones. Furthermore, a group of four urabosides, sharing two uncommon substitutions with carboxyl groups at C-4 on the terpenoid core, were identified by a characteristic fragmentation pattern. The oxidized aglycones present in this group of saponins can promote instability, making the purification process difficult. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle modulation, a cell cloning efficiency assay, as well as its hemolytic activity were evaluated. The cytotoxic activity was about IC50 40 µg/mL on Jurkat and CHO-k1 cell lines without exhibiting hemolysis. Discussion on this bioactivity suggests the scanning of other biological models would be worthwhile. PMID:24317472

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  1. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Thappily, Praveen E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com; Shiju, K. E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  2. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1). Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss. PMID:25992253

  3. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg-1. Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss. PMID:25992253

  4. Toxicologic Assessment of a Commercial Decolorized Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice, Lily of the Desert Filtered Whole Leaf Juice with Aloesorb

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Wallace D.; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies—examined grossly and microscopically—that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks. PMID:23554812

  5. Anticancer potential of aloes: antioxidant, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory attributes.

    PubMed

    Harlev, Eli; Nevo, Eviatar; Lansky, Ephraim P; Ofir, Rivka; Bishayee, Anupam

    2012-06-01

    Aloe is a genus of medicinal plants with a notable history of medical use. Basic research over the past couple of decades has begun to reveal the extent of Aloe's pharmaceutical potential, particularly against neoplastic disease. This review looks at Aloe, both the genus and the folk medicine, often being called informally "aloes", and delineates their chemistry and anticancer pharmacognosy. Structures of key compounds are provided, and their pharmacological activities reviewed. Particular attention is given to their free radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory properties. This review highlights major research directions on aloes, reflecting the enormous potential of natural sources, and of the genus Aloe in particular, in preventing and treating cancer. PMID:22516934

  6. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  7. Aloe vera Induced Biomimetic Assemblage of Nucleobase into Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Zubair, Swaleha; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biomimetic nano-assembly formation offers a convenient and bio friendly approach to fabricate complex structures from simple components with sub-nanometer precision. Recently, biomimetic (employing microorganism/plants) synthesis of metal and inorganic materials nano-particles has emerged as a simple and viable strategy. In the present study, we have extended biological synthesis of nano-particles to organic molecules, namely the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using Aloe vera leaf extract. Methodology The 5-FU nano- particles synthesized by using Aloe vera leaf extract were characterized by UV, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by TEM, while crystalline nature of 5-FU particles was established by X-ray diffraction study. The cytotoxic effects of 5-FU nanoparticles were assessed against HT-29 and Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma colorectal) cell lines. Results Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopic techniques confirmed nano-size of the synthesized particles. Importantly, the nano-assembled 5-FU retained its anticancer action against various cancerous cell lines. Conclusion In the present study, we have explored the potential of biomimetic synthesis of nanoparticles employing organic molecules with the hope that such developments will be helpful to introduce novel nano-particle formulations that will not only be more effective but would also be devoid of nano-particle associated putative toxicity constraints. PMID:22403622

  8. Screening for novel plant sources of prenyloxyanthraquinones: Senna alexandrina Mill. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to reveal the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants claimed to have a laxative effect, in this article, we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) and 3-geranyloxyemodine from dried leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (Leguminosae) and leaves and gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Both compounds are described herein for the first time as components of extracts of the title plants. PMID:25342202

  9. Large-scale predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox).

    PubMed

    Stacy, Brian A; Wolf, Dan A; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We observed predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on large numbers of Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox) in two small lakes in North Central Florida, USA during a period of unusually low water levels. Carcasses were strewn on the shoreline and accumulated around floating boat docks, where some residents observed turtles being killed. We found 76 carcasses, including predominantly skeletons, and two live, severely injured turtles from one lake; however, numerous remains undoubtedly were unrecovered. The otters frequently eviscerated the turtles and removed the head and one or more appendages, including the phallus of mature males. In skeletal remains, injuries inflicted by otters were nonspecific, indistinguishable from damage caused by scavengers, or easily missed in incomplete carcasses. This report of large-scale mortality of freshwater turtles in Florida suggests that otters could have a significant impact on local turtle populations. PMID:25098299

  10. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Lowther, William; Lorick, Kevin; Lawrence, Susan D; Yeow, Wen-Shuz

    2012-12-01

    Methods necessary for the successful transformation and regeneration of Aloe vera were developed and used to express the human protein, interferon alpha 2 (IFNα2). IFNα2 is a secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the cellular response to viral infection. Transgenic plants were regenerated from callus cultures initiated from zygotic embryos. Expression of the IFNA2 transgene in transformed plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and IFNα2 protein was detected by immunoblot analysis. Human A549 cells treated with transgenic aloe extracts for 6 h induced expression of the interferon stimulated gene 54, indicating activation of the IFN signaling pathway. The biological activity of the aloe produced IFNα2 was assessed using an antiviral assay with A549 cells treated with extracts from both the rind and pulp fractions of the shoot and subsequently infected with the lytic encephalomyocarditis virus. The highest level of activity attributable to recombinant IFNα2 was determined to be 625 IU/mg of total soluble protein (TSP) in the rind and 2,108 IU/mg TSP in the pulp. Two daughter plants that vegetatively budded during the course of this study were also confirmed to express IFNα2. These results confirm that Aloe vera is capable of expressing a human protein with biological activity, and that a secreted protein targeting the apoplast can be detected in the pulp fraction of the plant. PMID:22528466

  11. Aloe vera leaf gel: a review update.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T; Dweck, A C

    1999-12-15

    Research since the 1986 review has largely upheld the therapeutic claims made in the earlier papers and indeed extended them into other areas. Treatment of inflammation is still the key effect for most types of healing but it is now realized that this is a complex process and that many of its constituent processes may be addressed in different ways by different gel components. A common theme running though much recent research is the immunomodulatory properties of the gel polysaccharides, especially the acetylated mannans from Aloe vera, which are now a proprietary substance covered by many patents. There have also been, however, persistent reports of active glycoprotein fractions from both Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. There are also cautionary investigations warning of possible allergic effects on some patients. Reports also describe antidiabetic, anticancer and antibiotic activities, so we may expect to see a widening use of aloe gel. Several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for use as itself or in formulations and there may be moves towards isolating and eventually providing verified active ingredients in dosable quantities PMID:10624859

  12. In vitro evaluation of UV opacity potential of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Shyam; Datta, P K; Dutta Gupta, S

    2009-04-01

    In this study, lyophilized crude and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms (S24, RM, TN, OR, and RJN) of Aloe vera L. were tested for their ultraviolet (UV) opacity potential. UV absorption profiles, sun protection factor (SPF), and percentage blocking of UVA and UVB were considered to test UV opacity potential. Both the extracts showed UV absorption and followed the same path in the wavelength range of 250-400 nm in all the germplasms. Methanolic extract showed a stronger absorptivity than the crude lyophilized extract. Among the tested germplasms, maximum UV opacity property with a SPF of 9.97% and 79.12% UVB blocking was obtained with RJN, whereas a poor response was evident in TN with a SPF of 1.37% and 28.5% UVB blocking at 4 mg/ml methanolic extract. To our knowledge the present work for the first time documents UV opacity properties of A. vera L. gel and opens up new vistas in Aloe gel characterization. PMID:19034609

  13. Isolation, Purification and Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents from Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Rubina; Tripathi, Priyanka; Jeyakumar, Ebenezer

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Aloe vera gel were studied for their antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity while acetone extract, showed least or no activity against most of the tested pathogens. Fractions obtained from the extracts by Thin Layer and Column Chromatography were studied for their antagonistic properties using Spot Assay Technique. Compounds with maximum antibacterial activity isolated from the ethanol and methanol extracts were identified as p – coumaric acid (Mol. wt.165), ascorbic acid (Mol. wt.177 ), pyrocatechol (Mol. wt.110 ) and cinnamic acid (Mol. wt.148), on the basis of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The study suggests the antimicrobial activity of the A. vera gel extract to be dependant on the synergistic effect of different compounds. With the broad spectral antimicrobial effect of A. vera gel, it could be further recommended in the treatment of various bacterial diseases. PMID:24031440

  14. Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, Neha; Chatterjee, Anirban; Goyal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. It is widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing, as an analgesic, and for its anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included in the study. They were divided into three groups with fifteen patients in each group. Group 1 was asked to rinse with 10 ml of aloe vera mouthwash twice daily for three months. Group 2 were treated with scaling only. Group 3 patients were asked to rinse with aloe vera mouthwash and scaling was done. The clinical changes were evaluated with Loe and Silness gingival index (1963) and Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) at baseline, after one month and three months, respectively. Results: The data obtained was compared statistically. The paired ‘t’ test was done for intragroup comparison and one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison. The data was obtained at the baseline, end of first month, and end of the third month. The result suggested reduction in gingival inflammation in all the three groups, but it was more in the aloe vera mouthwash and scaling group. Hence, it was concluded that aloe vera had a significant anti-inflammatory property. Thus, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for treating plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:24174720

  15. Study on the Land Cover/Use Features by Using ALOS-PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.

    2008-11-01

    Remote sensing technique gives a very useful tool for detecting and analyzing land cover/use features in our environment. This study was carried out to identity the land cover/use features over Penang Island, Malaysia. This research is an investigation to the multi polarized data of ALOS-PALSAR data for land cover/use mapping. The ALOS-PALSAR data used in this study was acquired on 1 November 2007. The ALOS-PALSAR images of the study area were chosen for land cover mapping using the standard supervised classification techniques (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance-to-mean and Parallelepiped). Some filtering and enhancement methods had to be applied in order to reduce speckle noise and to contrast the images. Composite color images were produced for visual interpretation and field surveys. After investigation of the ground truth, representative areas of each land cover type were identified and allocated to the images. The PALSAR data of training areas were choose and selected based on the high resolution optical satellite imagery and were classified using supervised classification methods. The land cover information was extracted from the digital spectral bands using PCI Geomatica 10.1 software package. The accuracies of all classifications will be analyzed to evaluate the best performing combination. The results show that accurate land cover/use distribution maps can be produced from ALOS-PALSAR data.

  16. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp. PMID:26396412

  17. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Agunu, Abdulkarim; Diana, Mshelia

    2004-07-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents. PMID:15182901

  18. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anthony E.; Belmont, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min−1. Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min−1. These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe. PMID:27284273

  19. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  1. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions. PMID:24245466

  2. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S Dutta; Masakapalli, S K

    2013-11-01

    In this study, lyophilized and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms were evaluated for their potential to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. The results showed potent inhibitory effect of Aloe vera gel extracts on L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Significant differences in % inhibition of tyrosinase among the extraction methods and the germplasms were observed. The relative performance of the germplasms was evaluated with the help of posthoc multicomparison test. The methanolic extract was more effective than the lyophilized crude gel in all the germplasms. The inhibitory effect of the lyophilized gel and methanolic extract tested from five germplasms followed the order: RM > TN > S24 > OR > RJN. The germplasm RM showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition, and the maximum % inhibition noted was 26.04% and 41.18%, respectively for the lyophilized and methanolic extracts at 6 mg · mL(-1) concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the different concentrations of L-DOPA in the absence and presence of lyophilized gel extract showed competitive inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in all the germplasms. This study suggests that the germplasm RM could potentially be used for the isolation and identification of the effective tyrosinase inhibitory component, and ascertains the critical role of selecting the best source of germplasm for natural product isolation and characterization. PMID:24345502

  3. Impedance studies of a green blend polymer electrolyte based on PVA and Aloe-vera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvalakshmi, S.; Mathavan, T.; Vijaya, N.; Selvasekarapandian, Premalatha, M.; Monisha, S.

    2016-05-01

    The development of polymer electrolyte materials for energy generating and energy storage devices is a challenge today. A new type of blended green electrolyte based on Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Aloe-vera has been prepared by solution casting technique. The blending of polymers may lead to the increase in stability due to one polymer portraying itself as a mechanical stiffener and the other as a gelled matrix supported by the other. The prepared blend electrolytes were subjected to Ac impedance studies. It has been found out that the polymer film in which 1 gm of PVA was dissolved in 40 ml of Aloe-vera extract exhibits highest conductivity and its value is 3.08 × 10-4 S cm-1.

  4. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks. PMID:26109009

  5. TSS mapping using ALOS and THEOS imageries over Penang island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

    2013-05-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. This study uses an empirical model, based on actual water quality of total suspended solids (TSS) measurements from the Penang Strait, Malaysia to predict TSS based on optical properties of satellite digital imagery using advanced land observing satellite imagery (ALOS) and Thai earth observation system (THEOS) satellite imageries. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. Water samples were collected simultaneously with the airborne image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory. Water sample's locations were determined by using a handheld GPS. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into radiance values and reflectance values. The reflectance values were used for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated based on the observations of correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviations (RMS) with the sea-truth data. This algorithm was then used to map the TSS concentration over Penang, Malaysia. The TSS map was color-coded and geometrically corrected for visual interpretation. The calibrated algorithm had the R and RMS values of 0.9012 and 5.3651 mg/l respectively for ALOS data. The R and RMS values were 0.8515 and 6.2635 mg/l respectively for THEOS data. This study indicates that TSS mapping can be carried out using remote sensing technique of the satellite digital photography system over Penang, Malaysia.

  6. Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE): Design Test Edition, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, J. Steven; And Others

    The Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE) system of evaluating teaching is presented. ALOE was developed from Arizona adaptations of the Georgia Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments and, with G. Taylor's "Functional Elements Analysis of Teaching Skills" (FEATS), forms an integrated observation package which allows teaching to be…

  7. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Darias Martín, Jacinto; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper. PMID:20301017

  8. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P; Kadam, V J

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation. PMID:26997712

  9. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. PMID:25282702

  10. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  11. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  12. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  13. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  14. The Effects of Different Media on Shoot Proliferation From the Shoot Tip of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Moallemi, Noorolah; Abdolah Zadeh, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Background Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income. Objectives In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated. Materials and Methods In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications. Results The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments. Conclusions Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment. PMID:24624195

  15. High-performance nanothermite composites based on aloe-vera-directed CuO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2013-12-26

    In this work, we demonstrate the development of high-performance nanothermite composites derived from super-reactive CuO nanorods oxidizers fabricated by simple biogenic routes using Aloe vera plant extracts. Nanorods of various length scales have been realized via simple sonoemulsion and solid-state biosynthesis routes using Aloe vera gel as a green surfactant promoting the directional growth of CuO nanorods in both solid and emulsion phase. The biosynthesized CuO nanorods (oxidizers)/fuel (nanoaluminum) composites ignited vigorously with abundant gas generation, developing high heat of reaction of 1.66 kJ g(-1) and very high pressurization rate of around 1.09 MPa μs(-1) and peak pressure of 65.4 MPa when blasted inside a constant volume pressure cell with a charge density of 0.2 g cm(-3). The pressurization rates so obtained are four times higher with twice the peak pressure in comparison to such nanothermites formulated via other available state of the art wet-chemical techniques, which reflects the catalytic role of Aloe vera surface functional groups (A. vera-sfg) enhancing the reactivity of CuO oxidizers with excess gas release rate during exothermic reaction with nanoaluminum. Through this work, Aloe vera gel has for the first time been identified as a novel biotemplate for green synthesis of nanorod structures of metal oxides, and we have also studied the utility of A. vera-sfg in the creation of super-reactive CuO oxidizers producing excellent heat of reaction and dynamic pressure characteristics as demanded in propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. PMID:24283714

  16. Precise Global DEM Generation by ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) generated the global digital elevation/surface model (DEM/DSM) and orthorectified image (ORI) using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was operated from 2006 to 2011. PRISM consisted of three panchromatic radiometers that acquired along-track stereo images. It had a spatial resolution of 2.5 m in the nadir-looking radiometer and achieved global coverage, making it a suitable potential candidate for precise global DSM and ORI generation. In the past 10 years or so, JAXA has conducted the calibration of the system corrected standard products of PRISM in order to improve absolute accuracies as well as to validate the high-level products such as DSM and ORI. In this paper, we introduce an overview of the global DEM/DSM dataset generation project, including a summary of ALOS and PRISM, in addition to the global data archive status. It is also necessary to consider data processing strategies, since the processing capabilities of the level 1 standard product and the high-level products must be developed in terms of both hardware and software to achieve the project aims. The automatic DSM/ORI processing software and its test processing results are also described.

  17. Chemical constituents of cape aloe and their synergistic growth-inhibiting effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Saeda; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Kennedy, David Opare; Honzawa, Mayumi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2007-05-01

    The constituents of cape aloe were investigated after a preliminary screening of the growth-inhibiting effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) of several extracts of this plant. Ten compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract that showed the strongest activity, and their structures were elucidated as aloe-emodin (1), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2), p-hydroxyacetophenone (3), pyrocatechol (4), 10-oxooctadecanoic acid (5), 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (6), methyl 10-hydroxyoctadecanoate (7), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (8), furoaloesone (9), and 2-acetonyl-8-(2-furoylmethyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methylchromone (10) based on MS and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 2-7 were isolated for the first time from cape aloe. Compounds 4-7 and 10 showed a significant growth-inhibiting effect, and compound 1 exhibited a remarkable synergistic effect on compounds 8-10, which was not observed with the treatment by each compound alone on EATC. These results suggest that the strong growth-inhibiting effect of the CH(2)Cl(2) extract was dependent not on one compound alone, but on the synergistic effect from the combination of compound 1 and the other compounds. PMID:17485848

  18. Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Chang, Chun-Chao; Fang, Chia-Lang; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two distinct human gastric carcinoma cell lines, AGS and NCI-N87. We demonstrate that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Noteworthy is that the AGS cells were generally more sensitive than the NCI-N87 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by the activation of caspase-3, leading to nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These preclinical studies suggest that aloe-emodin represents a suitable and novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human gastric carcinoma. PMID:17637488

  19. Protective effect of Aloe vera on polymicrobial sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nari; Lee, Chan-Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2009-06-01

    Sepsis is an acute life-threatening clinical condition and remains the major cause of death in intensive care units. The primary pathophysiologic event central to the septic response is an overwhelming activation of the inflammatory system and countervailing response from the anti-inflammatory system. However, the cause of this perturbation has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that Aloe vera therapeutically reverses the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The administration of Aloe vera ameliorated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, as evidenced by the serum levels of biochemical parameters and histological changes. In order to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Aloe vera, the levels of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA at various time points. The increases in the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were attenuated by Aloe vera.In vivo administration of Aloe vera also markedly enhanced bacterial clearance. Our findings suggest that Aloe vera could be a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical treatment of sepsis. PMID:19298839

  20. Aloe vera inhibits proliferation of human breast and cervical cancer cells and acts synergistically with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Arif; Sharma, Chhavi; Khan, Saniyah; Shah, Kruti; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    Many of the anti-cancer agents currently used have an origin in natural sources including plants. Aloe vera is one such plant being studied extensively for its diverse health benefits, including cancer prevention. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of Aloe vera crude extract (ACE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells was studied by cell viability assay, nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis. Effects were correlated with modulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and drug metabolism by RT-PCR. Exposure of cells to ACE resulted in considerable loss of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was found to be mediated by through the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by changes in the nuclear morphology and the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, ACE did not have any significant cytotoxicity towards normal cells, thus placing it in the category of safe chemopreventive agent. Further, the effects were correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, CYP 1A1, CYP 1A2 and increased expression of bax and p21 in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, low dose combination of ACE and cisplatin showed a combination index less than 1, indicating synergistic growth inhibition compared to the agents applied individually. In conclusion, these results signify that Aloe vera may be an effective anti-neoplastic agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs like cispolatin. Thus promoting the development of plant-derived therapeutic agents appears warranted for novel cancer treatment strategies. PMID:25854386

  1. Continental Scale Vegetation Structure Mapping Using Field Calibrated Landsat, ALOS Palsar And GLAS ICESat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Armston, J.; Lucas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical plant profiles are important descriptors of canopy structure and are used to inform models of biomass, biodiversity and fire risk. In Australia, an approach has been developed to produce large area maps of vertical plant profiles by extrapolating waveform lidar estimates of vertical plant profiles from ICESat/GLAS using large area segmentation of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat satellite image products. The main assumption of this approach is that the vegetation height profiles are consistent across the segments defined from ALOS PALSAR and Landsat image products. More than 1500 field sites were used to develop an index of fractional cover using Landsat data. A time series of the green fraction was used to calculate the persistent green fraction continuously across the landscape. This was fused with ALOS PALSAR L-band Fine Beam Dual polarisation 25m data and used to segment the Australian landscapes. K-means clustering then grouped the segments with similar cover and backscatter into approximately 1000 clusters. Where GLAS-ICESat footprints intersected these clusters, canopy profiles were extracted and aggregated to produce a mean vertical vegetation profile for each cluster that was used to derive mean canopy and understorey height, depth and density. Due to the large number of returns, these retrievals are near continuous across the landscape, enabling them to be used for inventory and modelling applications. To validate this product, a radiative transfer model was adapted to map directional gap probability from airborne waveform lidar datasets to retrieve vertical plant profiles Comparison over several test sites show excellent agreement and work is underway to extend the analysis to improve national biomass mapping. The integration of the three datasets provide options for future operational monitoring of structure and AGB across large areas for quantifying carbon dynamics, structural change and biodiversity.

  2. Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac -Aloe vera Transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Raju, Y Prasanna; Haritha, K; Satyanarayana, Rao P; Vandana, K R; Bindu, D Thushara; Vinesha, V; Chowdary, V Harini

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to formulate aceclofenac transemulgel using Aloe vera as gel base. The prepared formulations were subjected to physical characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment. Aceclofenac, a hydrophobic potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, causes ulceration upon chronic oral administration, could be formulated into transemulgel to enhance therapeutic efficacy and to lower the unwanted side effects. The transemulgel was prepared from aqueous Aloe vera gel and aceclofenac emulsion. The prepared transemulgel was evaluated for its pH, viscosity, drug content, skin irritation, in-vitro diffusion and accelerated stability studies. The prepared aceclofenac-Aloe vera tranemulgel and commercial aceclofenac gel were subjected to pharmacodynamic studies in albino rats of Wistar strain employing carrageenan induced left hind paw edema method to assess the anti-inflammatory effect. The transemulgel showed a pH of 6.78 and viscosity of 18 cps. In-vitro diffusion data revealed better permeation characteristics. Topical application of formulation found no skin irritation. Stability study has proved the integrity of the formulation. The prepared aceclofenac Aloe vera transemulgel showed better in-vitro drug release when compared with the commercial aceclofenac gel formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity in treated rats showed the significant paw volume reduction at p<0.05 compared with that of control. Thus, it is concluded that aceclofenac, a potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, showed high therapeutic efficiency when formulated into transemulgel using aqueous Aloe vera as gel base. PMID:25751659

  3. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) in different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Jinwan; Jin, Yoojeong; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2012-11-14

    Metabolite profiling of four different-sized Aloe vera plants was performed using gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis. Amino acids, sugars, and organic acids related to growth and development were identified by sizes. In particular, the relative contents of glucose, fructose, alanine, valine, and aspartic acid increased gradually as the size of the aloe increased. Anthraquinone derivatives such as 7-hydroxy-8-O-methylaloin, 7-hydroxyaloin A, and 6'-malonylnataloins A and B increased gradually, whereas chromone derivatives decreased continuously as the size of the aloe increased. The A30 aloe (size = 20-30 cm) with relatively high contents of aloins A and B, was suggested to have antioxidant components showing the highest antioxidant activity among the four different sizes of aloe. These data suggested that MS-based metabolomic approaches can illuminate metabolite changes associated with growth and development and can explain their change of antioxidant activity. PMID:23050594

  4. Synthesis and antitumor activity of natural compound aloe emodin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thimmegowda, Naraganahalli R; Park, Chanmi; Shwetha, Bettaswamigowda; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Liu, Kangdong; Hwang, Joonsung; Lee, Sangku; Jeong, Sook J; Soung, Nak K; Jang, Jae H; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong S; Erikson, Raymond L; Kim, Bo Y

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we have synthesized novel water soluble derivatives of natural compound aloe emodin 4(a-j) by coupling with various amino acid esters and substituted aromatic amines, in an attempt to improve the anticancer activity and to explore the structure-activity relationships. The structures of the compounds were determined by (1) H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cell growth inhibition assays revealed that the aloe emodin derivatives 4d, 4f, and 4i effectively decreased the growth of HepG2 (human liver cancer cells) and NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cells) and some of the derivatives exhibited comparable antitumor activity against HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cells) and PC3 (prostate cancer cells) cell lines compared to that of the parent aloe emodin at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:25323822

  5. Disaster monitoring by ALOS and follow-on mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    Advanced Land Observing Satellite(ALOS) was successfuly launched on January 24th 2006 at Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket. The Satellite mass is about 4 tons of weight, Sun synchronous sub-recurrent orbit, repetation cycle is 46 days (sub cycle 2days) and 5 years mission operation. ALOS has four missions such as Cartography, Regional Observation, Resource Survey and Diasater monitoring. After the satelllite launch, there were several opportunities to observe natural disasters in the world.. ALOS will be distribute disaster information through international framework such as Sentinel Asia and International Charter on Disaster Monitoring. The 'Sentinel Asia' initiative was established by space agencies and disaster authorities in the Asia and Oceania, to use Remote Sensing information and Web-GIS data-delivery technologies in support of disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region. Sentinel Asia is 'voluntary and best-efforts-basis initiatives' led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share the disaster information in the region using the 'Digital Asia' (Web-GIS) platform. International Charter is the membership framework to operate the satellite in case of disaster occurs. and distribute the data and information free of charge. ALOS is nominated both activities to contribute disaster monitoring and mitigation. This paper describes the introduction of ALOS and acquired disaster images to indicate its potential use for disaster monitoring. The design of follow on mission is indispensable to promise continuous monitoring of natural disaster. This paper also describes the initial idea of ALOS follow on mission.

  6. Comparison of ALOS-PALSAR and TERRASAR-X Data in Terms of Detecting Settlements- First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, T.; Roth, A.; Thiel, M.; Schmidt, M.; Dech, S.

    2008-11-01

    The rapid increase of urban population in the last decades has been attended by a constantly accelerating urban sprawl. In order to cope with the dynamics of urban agglomerations resource managers, environmentalists and politicians require up-to-date information on the characteristics and changes of urban environments. Spaceborne earth observation (EO) has become a promising tool to provide such geo-information. In previous studies we could demonstrate the applicability of TerraSAR-X (TSX) data for an accurate detection of built-up areas. The according methodology includes a specific pre-processing and an object-oriented classification of the SAR images. The pre-processing - comprising an enhanced analysis and suppression of SAR speckle - provides an intensity image with minimized speckle and a texture layer accentuating urban areas. Based on the filtered intensity data and the textural information the classification process starts with the generation of segments. The resulting image objects are used for the extraction of temporally and spatially robust hierarchical and contextual features that afford an accurate delineation of urban footprints. This paper presents first results of a transfer of this methodology to ALOS-PALSAR images. We could show that the basic procedure is applicable to ALOS L-band images. However, so far the accuracy of an according analysis based on ALOS data is lower compared to the use of X-band images. Hence, further modifications are required in order to improve the presented methodology for L-band data.

  7. A Study toward the Evaluation of ALOS Images for LAI Estimation in Rice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Hashjin, Sh.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Khandan, R.

    2013-10-01

    For expanding and managing agricultural sources, satellite data have a key role in determining required information about different factors in plants Including Leaf Area Index (LAI).This paper has studied the potential of spectral indices in estimating rice canopy LAI in Amol city as one of the main sources of rice production in Iran. Due to its importance in provision of food and calorie of a major portion of population, rice product was chosen for study. A field campaign was conducted when rice was in the max growth stage (late of June). Also, two satellite images from ALOS-AVNIR-2 were used (simultaneous with conducted field works) to extract and determine vegetation indices. Then the Regression between measured data and vegetation indices, derived from combination of different bands, was evaluated and after that suitable vegetation indices were realized. Finally, statistics and calculations for introduction of a suitable model were presented. After examination of models, the results showed that RDVI and SAVI2, by determination coefficient and RMSE of 0.12-0.59 and 0.24-0.62, have more accuracy in LAI estimation. Results of present study demonstrated the potential of ALOS images, for LAI estimation and their significant role in monitoring and managing the rice plant.

  8. Monitoring Indicators for Mediterranean Wetland and Agricultural Area Using ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, T. K.; Topaloglou, C. A.; Pardalis, I.; Tsakoumis, G.; Vogiatzis, M.; Andrianopoulos, A.; Takavakoglou, V.; Vougioukas, S.; Bochtis, D.; Zalidis, G. C.; Silleos, N. G.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural and other human activities are a pressure to several Mediterranean wetland ecosystems. Monitoring the pressures and the state of the ecosystem is an important input to management activities. The aim of this work was to select and implement indicators for monitoring the natural and agricultural environment of a Mediterranean wetland using Earth Observation (EO), and specifically the recently launched ALOS satellite images. Multiple levels of data were collected and integrated: remote sensing data (ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images, and observations during field surveys. EO and GIS methods used during monitoring of the study area involved preprocessing of the satellite images, enhancement of information, information extraction, and derivation of indicators. Geographic overlay comparison with results derived from the area in 2003 using a Terra/ASTER image was used to identify the changes that occurred during the last years. The methodology was applied in the wetland and surrounding agricultural area of Ramsar Convention site "lakes Koronia-Volvi" (Greece). Resulting thematic maps revealed and quantified the intensity of pressures in the vicinity of the protected wetland, the state of the wetland ecosystem, as well as the seasonal and long term temporal trends.

  9. Functional-adaptive anatomy of the forelimb in the Didelphidae, and the paleobiology of the Paleocene marsupials Mayulestes ferox and Pucadelphys andinus.

    PubMed

    Argot, C

    2001-01-01

    An attempt to determine the locomotor activities of Mayulestes ferox (Borhyaenoidea) and Pucadelphys andinus (Didelphoidea) from the early Paleocene site of Tiupampa (Bolivia) is presented. The functional anatomy of the forelimbs of these South American marsupials is compared to that of some living didelphids: Caluromys philander, Micoureus demerarae, Marmosa murina, Didelphis marsupialis, Monodelphis brevicaudata and Metachirus nudicaudatus. Deductions from bone morphology to myology and locomotor behavior in the fossils are inferred from the comparisons with living forms. Some features of the postcranial skeleton, indicative of arboreal adaptations, are found in the extinct marsupials: anteriorly projected acromion, hemispherical head of the humerus, extended humeral lateral epicondylar ridge, medially protruding humeral entepicondyle, proximal ulnar posterior convexity, and deep flexor fossa on the medial side of the ulna. But other features are related to a more terrestrial pattern: the well-developed tubercles of the humeral head, the elongated olecranon process of the ulna, and the oval shape of the radial head. Mayulestes had clear arboreal abilities, but, as a predaceous mammal, probably hunted on the ground. Pucadelphys was less specialized, close to the living Monodelphis, a terrestrial insectivorous form with some skeletal features related to arboreal locomotion that are probably plesiomorphic for marsupials. PMID:11124686

  10. Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation Affects Seedling Emergence, DNA Integrity, Plant Morphology, Growth Rate, and Attractiveness to Herbivore Insects in Datura ferox.

    PubMed Central

    Ballare, C. L.; Scopel, A. L.; Stapleton, A. E.; Yanovsky, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    To study functional relationships between the effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on different aspects of the physiology of a wild plant, we carried out exclusion experiments in the field with the summer annual Datura ferox L. Solar UV-B incident over Buenos Aires reduced daytime seedling emergence, inhibited stem elongation and leaf expansion, and tended to reduce biomass accumulation during early growth. However, UV-B had no effect on calculated net assimilation rate. Using a monoclonal antibody specific to the cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD), we found that plants receiving full sunlight had more CPDs per unit of DNA than plants shielded from solar UV-B, but the positive correlation between UV-B and CPD burden tended to level off at high (near solar) UV-B levels. At our field site, Datura plants were consumed by leaf beetles (Coleoptera), and the proportion of plants attacked by insects declined with the amount of UV-B received during growth. Field experiments showed that plant exposure to solar UV-B reduced the likelihood of leaf beetle attack by one-half. Our results highlight the complexities associated with scaling plant responses to solar UV-B, because they show: (a) a lack of correspondence between UV-B effects on net assimilation rate and whole-plant growth rate, (b) nonlinear UV-B dose-response curves, and (c) UV-B effects of plant attractiveness to natural herbivores. PMID:12226382

  11. Oral Aloe vera as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a summary.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David

    2010-06-01

    While pain relief is a basic tenet of health care, pain is under-treated in the UK (Davies and Mcvicar, 2000) and this issue remains unresolved. This paper suggests that oral Aloe vera could be used in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), particularly that caused by osteoarthritis (OA). Despite being used as arthritis treatment for centuries (Yoo et al, 2008), evidence of effectiveness of Aloe vera is anecdotal or from small studies. The perceived benefits of prescribing Aloe vera for OA may be twofold: it has utility as an anti-inflammatory agent and also as a prophylactic against the gastrointestinal irritant effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Long-term, randomized, controlled studies are still needed to address the lack of evidence informing optimum prescribing of pain medication for people with OA (Cowan, 2007). There is no reason that so called 'nutraceutical' agents should not be subjected to the same rigorous randomized, controlled, double-blind trials as other 'mainstream' drugs. Therefore, it is appropriate to ask whether NSAID treatment and side effects can be improved by the addition of oral Aloe vera. Thus, we may then be in a more informed position to resolve the ongoing 'Pandemonium over Painkillers' (Cowan, 2007). PMID:20679979

  12. Osmo-air drying of aloe vera gel cubes.

    PubMed

    Pisalkar, P S; Jain, N K; Jain, S K

    2011-04-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) cubes of 12.5 × 12.5 × 12.5 mm thick were osmosed for 4 h in sugar syrup of 30, 40 and 50°Brix concentration and temperatures of 30 and 50°C at constant syrup to fruit ratio of 5:1. Osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples were hot air dried at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C with constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The water loss, solid gain and convective drying behaviour were recorded during experiments. It was observed that water loss and solid gain ranged from 39.2 to 71.3 and 2.7 to 6.3%, respectively during osmo-drying. The moisture diffusivity varied from 2.9 to 8.0 × 10(-9) m²/s and 2.7 to 4.6 × 10(-9) m²/s during air drying of osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples, respectively. Drying air temperature and osmosis as pre-treatment affected the water loss, solid gain, diffusivity at -p ≤ 0.01. PMID:21350589

  13. ALOS PALSAR and UAVSAR Soil Moisture in Field Campaigns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our ongoing analysis of L-band radar mapping of soil moisture we are evaluating the role that ALOS PALSAR data can play in the development of radar retrieval algorithms for the future NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. Differences in configurations must be assessed to det...

  14. ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of Aloe Emodin in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Zaffaroni, M; Mucignat, C; Pecere, T; Zagotto, G; Frapolli, R; D'Incalci, M; Zucchetti, M

    2003-10-25

    An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine Aloe Emodin (AE) in mouse plasma. The analysis required 0.3 ml of plasma and involves extraction with dichloromethane. The HPLC separation was carried out on Symmetry Shield RP18, a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:35:0.2) and fluorescence detection at lambda(ex)=410 nm and lambda(em)=510 nm. The retention time of AE was 11.7 min. The assay was linear from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.999), showed intra- and inter-day precision within 7.8 and 4.7%, and accuracy of 87.3-105.7%. Detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were 4.5 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The method was applied to determine for the first time the pharmacokinetic of AE in mice. PMID:14552822

  16. Evaluation of Land Cover Features over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Using ALOS AVNIR-2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. R.; Lim, H. S.; Hassan, Faez M.; Jafri, M. Z. Mat

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to classify the land cover mapping over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia using ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite image and to determine which classifier is suitable for that area which surrounded by desert terrain. The image was captured on 27 June 2008. Standard supervised classification method which is Maximum Likelihood Classifier was applied to the imageries to extract the spectral information from acquired scene. Besides, the advance classification method which is Neural Network Classification also conducted in this study. Then, the results from both classifiers will be compared and the discussion about it will be done. Training sites were selected using polygon and land cover classes were assigned to each classifier. Accuracy assessment was carried out to compute the probability of error for the classified map. A total of 250 random samples were chosen for accuracy assessment. Finally, land cover map over Jeddah was generated and the best classifier was determined.

  17. Aloe barbadensis Miller mediated green synthesis of mono-disperse copper oxide nanoparticles: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunalan, Sangeetha; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured copper oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. A facile and efficient synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles was carried out with controlled surface properties via green chemistry approach. The CuO nanoparticles synthesized are monodisperse and versatile and were characterized with the help of UV-Vis, PL, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The particles are crystalline in nature and average sizes were between 15 and 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the amount of Aloe vera extract. This new eco-friendly approach of synthesis is a novel, cheap, and convenient technique suitable for large scale commercial production and health related applications of CuO nanoparticles.

  18. Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Pyo, Han-Jong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-12-28

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity. PMID:26370795

  19. Microbiological stabilization of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Juan E; Guanoquiza, Manuel I; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Vega-Galvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 1 and 3 min at 20 °C) on the microbiological shelf-life and microbiota composition of Aloe vera gel during 90 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. Aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, as well as moulds and yeasts, were enumerated after HHP treatment and through cold storage. Randomly selected isolates from the count plates were identified by standard methods and the API identification system. Results showed that HHP treatment at or over 400 MPa for 3 min were effective to keep the microbial counts to undetectable levels during the whole storage period, and consequently the microbiological shelf-life of A. vera gel was extended for more than 90 days at 4 °C. The microbiota in the untreated A. vera gel was dominated by Gram-negative bacteria (mostly Rahnella aquatilis) and yeasts (mostly Rhodotorula mucilaginosa). In contrast, Gram-positive bacteria tentatively identified as Arthrobacter spp. and Micrococcus/Kocuria spp. were the predominant microorganisms in samples pressurized at 300 MPa for 1 and 3 min, while Bacillus megaterium predominating in samples treated at 400 MPa for 1 min. At 400 MPa for 3 min and above, the microbial growth was completely suppressed during at least 90 days; however, viable spore-formers were detected by enrichment. PMID:22884172

  20. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing. PMID:26830302

  1. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-05-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K(+) channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:24806097

  2. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  3. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K+ channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25763487

  4. Gaia16alo is a Type II SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Mattila, S.; Harrison, D.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2016-05-01

    Gaia16alo (aka PS16cct) was observed using the robotic Liverpool Telescope + SPRAT (R~350; 400-800 nm) on the night of 2016 May 6. The spectrum was compared to a set of templates using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), and we find a best match to a range of Type II SNe at z=0.03.

  5. Safety of purified decolorized (low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L) Burm. f. juice in a 3-month drinking water toxicity study in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, A; Broadmeadow, A; Goddard, G; Bejar, E; Frankos, V

    2013-07-01

    Decolorized (purified, low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. juice was administered at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% in the drinking water of F344Du rats for 3 months without any adverse effect. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in this study was considered to be >2%w/v (>1845 mg/kg bodyweight/day for males and >2920 mg/kg bodyweight for females). The test material contained total anthraquinones at <0.1 parts per million. In the present study there was a complete absence of any histological alteration in samples from the cecum, colon (proximal, mid and distal regions). Similar concentrations of non-decolorized (unpurified, high anthraquinone) Aloe vera extracts tested in other studies have resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea and colon adenomas and carcinomas. The results of this study supports the assertion that the high levels of anthraquinone present in orally administered, non-purified whole leaf Aloe vera extract may be responsible for the adverse effects observed on the colon. PMID:23500775

  6. Simultaneous Determination of 16 Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Euryale ferox Salisb. by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electro Spray Ionization Tandem Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) Mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Qinan; Wu, Chengying; Jiang, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, efficient analytical method was established for the qualification and quantification of 16 nucleosides and nucleobases in Euryale ferox Salisb. by using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TQ-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Ideal separation of 16 target compounds was achieved on Xbridge Amide HILIC column (4.6 × 150 mm, 3.5 μm) with gradient elution in 11 min by optimized conditions. Variations of nucleosides and nucleobase in samples from different cultivation regions ranging from 190.50 to 1594.30 μg/g were obvious. The total nucleoside contents were higher than total nucleobases, especially in the compositions of guanosine, cytidine and 2'-deoxyguanosine. Samples 1-18 with dense thorns were better characters than samples 19-26 without thorns in terms of nucleosides and nucleobases concentrations in general. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for 16 analytical substances were investigated to be 0.11-6.33 ng/mL and 0.35-21.1 ng/mL, respectively. And the method was first applied to large aquatic plants with good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. All present information provided a scientific and rational reference for quality assessment and control of Euryale ferox Salisb. PMID:25947362

  7. Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera and curcumin loaded oxidized pectin-gelatin (OP-Gel) matrices were used as antimicrobial finishes on nonwoven cotton fabrics to produce composite wound care devices. The drug release characteristics of the biocomposite dressings indicated that curcumin is released through a biphasic mechanism - erosion of the polymeric matrix, followed by diffusion, while aloe vera is released upon leaching of the polymeric matrix. A 50/50 composition of aloe vera/curcumin was used to fabricate OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings. However, contrary to our expectations, OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings exhibited lesser antimicrobial activity compared to OP-Gel-Aloe and OP-Gel-Curcumin dressings. The cytocompatibility of the fabricated dressings was evaluated using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. OP-Gel-Aloe treated fibroblasts had the highest viability, with the matrices providing a substrate for good cell attachment and proliferation. On the other hand, OP-Gel-Curcumin and OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin seemed to have induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In vivo wound healing analysis was carried out using an excisional splint wound model on C57BL/6J mice. OP-Gel-Aloe treated wounds exhibited very rapid healing with 80% of the wound healing in just 8 days. Furthermore, aloe vera exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect and prominent scar prevention. Histological examination revealed that an ordered collagen formation and neovascularization could be observed along with migration of nuclei. Therefore, OP-Gel-Aloe biocomposite dressings are proposed as viable materials for effective wound management. PMID:26529192

  8. Efficacy of dietary aloe vera supplementation on hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Beong Ou; Seong, Nak Sul; Choue, Ryo Won; Kim, Jong Dai; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yu, Byung Pal; Jeon, Tae Il; Park, Dong Ki

    2003-08-01

    In the current study, we show the anti-oxidative and hypocholesterol effects of aloe vera in the liver. Male specific pathogen-free (SPF) Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Group A (control) was fed test chow without aloe supplementation; Group B was fed a diet containing a 1% (per weight basis) freeze-dried aloe filet; Group C was fed a diet containing a 1% (per weight basis) charcoal-processed, freeze-dried aloe filet; and Group D was fed a diet containing a charcoal-processed freeze-dried, whole leaf aloe (0.02% per weight basis) in the drinking water. Our results show that a life-long intake of aloe had superior anti-oxidative action against lipid peroxidation in vivo, as indicated by reduced levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide. Additional anti-oxidative action was evidenced by enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity in groups B and C. Furthermore, our study revealed that hepatic cholesterol significantly increased in the control group during aging in contrast to the aloe-supplemented groups, which showed approximately 30% lower cholesterol levels, thereby an effective hypocholesteremic efficacy. In this report, we suggest that life-long dietary aloe supplementation suppresses free radical-induced oxidative damage and age-related increases in hepatic cholesterol. PMID:14598919

  9. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ho

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ER α ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels, thereby suppressing ER α transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER α and increased ER α ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER α dissociation and ER α ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER α degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER α degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER α distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER α protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

  10. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  11. [Anti-inflammatory constituents, aloesin and aloemannan in Aloe species and effects of tanshinon VI in Salvia miltiorrhiza on heart].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Akira; Takeo, Satoshi

    2003-07-01

    Cinnamoyl, p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, caffeoyl aloesin, and related compounds were isolated from Aloe species. The antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities of these compounds were examined based on the structure-activity relationship. It was suggested that the bioactivities may link to acyl ester groups in aloesin, together with those of aloesin-related compounds. However, investigations using the contact hypersensitivity response indicated a preventive effect of aloesin on the UV-B-induced immune suppression. Furthermore, aloesin inhibited tyrosine hydroxylase and dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) oxidase activities of tyrosinase from normal human melanocyte cell lysates. These results show that aloesin prevents not only UV-B-induced immune suppression, but also could be a positive pigment-altering agent for cosmetic application. In preclinical study, aloe extract was investigated using phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction in adult bronchial asthma, and high molecular-weight materials, such as polysaccharide and glycoprotein fractions, were identified as active ingredients. The neutral polysaccharides, aloemannan and acemannan showed antitumor, antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, and glycoprotein fractions with bradykinindegrading and cell proliferation-stimulating activities were identified from the nondialysate fraction of the gel part of Aloe species. Verectin fractionated from Aloe vera gel was examined biochemically and immunochemically, and verectin antibody was used in the appraisal of commercial Aloe vera gel products. It was reported that aloesin stimulates the proliferation of cultured human hepatoma SK-Hep 1 cells. Thus aloesin, related compounds, and high molecular-weight materials, such as aloemannan and verectin, may act in concert to exert therapeutic properties for wounds, burns and inflammation. The biodisposition of fluoresceinylisothiocyanate (FITC)--labeled aloemannan (FITC-AM) with the homogenate from

  12. Complex Ruptures of Large Earthquakes Imaged by ALOS L-band SAR with Other Geodetic and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sladen, A.; Wei, S.; Simons, M.; Avouac, J.; Burgmann, R.

    2011-12-01

    Large earthquakes can have devastating effects if they are located in areas of dense population or cause tsunamis. Understanding which faults have ruptured and how much the faults slipped in major quakes is important for assessing likely damage and estimating the change in the risk of future events on nearby faults. We have studied the fault ruptures of several recent large continental earthquakes, including the 2008 Mw 7.9 in China (Wenchuan earthquake), 2010 Mw 7.0 in Haiti and 2010 Mw 7.2 in Baja California (El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake), using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite) PALSAR (phased-array L-band synthetic aperture radar) data from the USGRC Data Pool combined with SAR data from other satellites, GPS data and teleseismic waveforms. Joint inversion of geodetic and seismic data resolves both the spatial and temporal distribution of slip on the faults, providing an estimate of the slip evolution during the earthquake. For each of these major earthquakes, we extracted key information with interferometric (InSAR) and pixel tracking analysis of the ALOS L-band SAR data, and we determined that the fault ruptures were more complex than initially assumed. The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured several faults, including two sub-parallel faults, with a total length of about 300 km. Surface ruptures were mapped with pixel tracking from the ALOS fine-beam image pairs, later confirmed by field geologists. Interferograms from ALOS fine-beam and wide-beam images provided both ascending and descending coverage of the full deformation field, with additional coverage by Envisat interferograms that were limited by poor coherence in the vegetated mountains. For the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, the L-band interferograms were the main constraints on the location of the main fault that ruptured at depth, a north-dipping oblique-slip fault called the Leogane Fault and not the expected previously mapped Enriquillo Fault. Interferograms from shorter wavelength

  13. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. PMID:26774866

  14. Preparation of polyamide nanocapsules of Aloe vera L. delivery with in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The purpose of this study was to prepare polyamide nanocapsules containing A. vera L. by an emulsion diffusion technique with in vivo studies. Diethyletriamine (DETA) was used as the encapsulating polymer with acetone ethyl acetate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the organic solvents and Tween and gelatin in water as the stabilizers. Sebacoyl chloride (SC) monomer, A. vera L. extract, and olive oil were mixed with the acetone and then water containing DETA monomer was added to the solution using a magnetic stirrer. Finally, the acetone was removed under vacuum, and nanocapsules were obtained using a freeze drier. This study showed that the size of the nanocapsule depends on a variety of factors such as the ratio of polymer to oil, the concentration of polymers, and the plant extract. The first sample is without surfactant and the size of nanocapsules in the sample is 115 nm. By adding surfactant, nanocapsules size was reduced to 96 nm. Nanocapsules containing A. vera were administered to rats and the effects were compared with a normal control group. The results showed that in the A. vera group, the effect is higher. The nanocapsules were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential sizer (ZPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). PMID:25273024

  15. Image Quality Evalutation on ALOS/PRISM and AVNIR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaida, Akira; Imoto, Naritoshi; Tadono, Takeo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2008-11-01

    Image quality evaluation on ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) / PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) and AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer 2) has been carried out during operational phase. This is a report on result of evaluation for image quality in terms of MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) for both PRISM and AVNIR-2. SNR of PRISM image has been increased following the up dating of radiometric correction and implementation of JPEG noise reduction filter. The result was in range of specification for both sensors.

  16. Estimation of Damaged Areas due to the 2010 Chile Earthquake and Tsunami Using SAR Imagery of Alos/palsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Made, Pertiwi Jaya Ni; Miura, Fusanori; Besse Rimba, A.

    2016-06-01

    A large-scale earthquake and tsunami affect thousands of people and cause serious damages worldwide every year. Quick observation of the disaster damage is extremely important for planning effective rescue operations. In the past, acquiring damage information was limited to only field surveys or using aerial photographs. In the last decade, space-borne images were used in many disaster researches, such as tsunami damage detection. In this study, SAR data of ALOS/PALSAR satellite images were used to estimate tsunami damage in the form of inundation areas in Talcahuano, the area near the epicentre of the 2010 Chile earthquake. The image processing consisted of three stages, i.e. pre-processing, analysis processing, and post-processing. It was conducted using multi-temporal images before and after the disaster. In the analysis processing, inundation areas were extracted through the masking processing. It consisted of water masking using a high-resolution optical image of ALOS/AVNIR-2 and elevation masking which built upon the inundation height using DEM image of ASTER-GDEM. The area result was 8.77 Km2. It showed a good result and corresponded to the inundation map of Talcahuano. Future study in another area is needed in order to strengthen the estimation processing method.

  17. Potential antineoplastic effects of Aloe-emodin: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruie; Zhang, Jinming; Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a bioactive anthraquinone derived from both Aloe vera and Rheum officinale, has recently been demonstrated to have various pharmacological activities. With the widespread popularity of natural products, such as antineoplastic drugs, AE has attracted much attention due to its remarkable antineoplastic activity on multiple tumor cells involving multi-channel mechanisms, including the disruption of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, antiangiogenic, and strengthening of immune function. Experimental data have revealed AE as a potentially potent anti-cancer candidate. Despite this, the pharmaceutical application of AE is still in a fledging period as most research has concentrated on the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of action of existing treatments, rather than the development of novel formulations. Therefore, the present review summarizes the potential toxicity, molecular mechanism, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and pharmaceutical development of AE as an antineoplastic agent. This is based on its physicochemical properties, in an attempt to encourage further research on AE as a potential anti-cancer agent. PMID:24707862

  18. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all of the treatment groups that were supplemented with Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p < 0.05) than the unsupplemented group following infection. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis. PMID:20723543

  19. Quality change of apple slices coated with Aloe vera gel during storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Yeon; Jo, Wan-Shin; Song, Nak-Bum; Min, Sea C; Song, Kyung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Fresh-cut apples are easily susceptible to browning and microbial spoilage. In this study, an edible coating prepared from Aloe vera gel containing antibrowning solution was applied to preserve the quality of fresh-cut apples during storage. Fresh-cut apples were treated with both an Aloe vera gel and an Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine and then stored at 4 °C for 16 d. The color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, microbial analysis, and sensory evaluation were analyzed during storage. Fresh-cut apples coated with the Aloe vera gel showed delayed browning and reduced weight loss and softening compared to the control. The Aloe vera gel coating was also effective in reducing the populations of the total aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds. In particular, Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine was most effective in delaying browning and the reduction of microbial populations among the treatments. These results suggest that an Aloe vera gel coating can be used for maintaining the quality of fresh-cut apples. PMID:23647574

  20. In vitro studies on the photobiological properties of aloe emodin and aloin A.

    PubMed

    Wamer, Wayne G; Vath, Peter; Falvey, Daniel E

    2003-01-15

    Plants containing aloin A, aloe emodin, and structurally related anthraquinones have long been used as traditional medicines and in the formulation of retail products such as laxatives, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. Since a recent study indicated that topically applied aloe emodin increases the sensitivity of skin to UV light, we examined the events following photoexcitation of aloin A and aloe emodin. We determined that incubation of human skin fibroblasts with 20 microM aloe emodin for 18 h followed by irradiation with UV or visible light resulted in significant photocytotoxicity. This photocytotoxicity was accompanied by oxidative damage in both cellular DNA and RNA. In contrast, no photocytotoxicity was observed following incubation with up to 500 microM aloin A and irradiation with UVA light. In an attempt to explain the different photobiological properties of aloin A and aloe emodin, laser flash photolysis experiments were performed. We determined that the triplet state of aloe emodin was readily formed following photoexcitation. However, no transient intermediates were formed following photoexcitation of aloin A. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage after irradiation of aloin A is unlikely. Although aloin A was not directly photocytotoxic, we found that human skin fibroblasts can metabolize aloin A to aloe emodin. PMID:12521605

  1. Binding of the bioactive component Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-11-01

    Aloe dihydroisocoumarin, one of new components isolated from Aloe vera, can scavenge reactive oxygen species. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by using fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. An isoemissive point at 414 nm is seen, indicating that the quenching of HSA fluorescence depends on the formation of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin-HSA complex, which is further confirmed by fluorescence dynamic result. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the gain of α-helix, β-sheet and random coil stability and the loss of β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FTIR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydroisocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  2. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    1990-05-01

    Full-face dermabrasion provided an ideal opportunity to document the effects of dressings on wound healing management. Following the procedure, the abraded face was divided in half. One side was treated with the standard polyethylene oxide gel wound dressings. The other side was treated with a polyethylene oxide gel dressing saturated with stabilized aloe vera. The polyethylene oxide dressing provided an excellent matrix for the release of aloe vera gel during the initial 5 days of wound healing. By 24-48 hours there was dramatic vasoconstriction and accompanying reduction in edema on the aloe-treated side. By the third to fourth day there was less exudate and crusting at the aloe site, and by the fifth to sixth day the reepithelialization at the aloe site was complete. Overall, wound healing was approximately 72 hours faster at the aloe site. This acceleration in wound healing is important to reduce bacterial contamination, subsequent keloid formation, and/or pigmentary changes. The exact mechanism of acceleration of wound healing by aloe vera is unknown. PMID:2341661

  3. Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Lai, Chien-Chen; Huang, Su-Hua; Liao, Jun-Ming; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-09-01

    Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 μg/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β, IFN-γ, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans. PMID:24877694

  4. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes. PMID:26090436

  5. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27516663

  6. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes. PMID:26090436

  7. Antiviral activity of Rheum palmatum methanol extract and chrysophanol against Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Jen; Huang, Su-Hua; Lin, Ying-Ju; Tsou, Yi-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Rheum palmatum, Chinese traditional herb, exhibits a great variety of anti-cancer and anti-viruses properties. This study rates antiviral activity of R. palmatum extracts and its components against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in vitro. Methanol extract of R. palmatum contained higher levels of aloe emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, emodin and physcion than water extract. Methanol extract (IC₅₀ = 15.04 μg/ml) exhibited more potent inhibitory effects on JEV plaque reduction than water extract (IC₅₀ = 51.41 μg/ml). Meanwhile, IC₅₀ values determined by plaque reduction assay were 15.82 μg/ml for chrysophanol and 17.39 μg/ml for aloe-emodin, respectively. Virucidal activity of agents correlated with anti-JEV activity, while virucidal IC₅₀ values were 7.58 μg/ml for methanol extract, 17.36 μg/ml for water extract, 0.75 μg/ml for chrysophanol and 0.46 μg/ml for aloe-emodin, respectively. In addition, 10 μg/ml of extract, chrysophanol or aloe emodin caused 90 % inhibition of JEV yields in cells and significantly activated gamma activated sequence-driven promoters. Hence, methanol extract of R. palmatum and chrysophanol with high therapeutic index might be useful for development of antiviral agents against JEV. PMID:24395532

  8. Detecting and Mapping Invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeau-chavez, L. L.; Scarbrough, K.; Jenkins, L. K.; Riordan, K.; Powell, R. B.; Brooks, C.; Kowalski, K.; Carlson Mazur, M.; Huberty, B.

    2011-12-01

    Phragmites australis is a non-native invasive plant that can form dense monocultures, causing negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands by reducing ecosystem services including habitat and therefore, biological diversity. Through Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding, ALOS PALSAR imagery is being used to map the invasive plant as it occurs in monoculture stands of the U.S. coastal Great Lakes wetlands. These invasive Phragmites maps are being used as part of a USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program to identify major environmental drivers of invasive Phragmites distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide this information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool. The invasive Phragmites map is the first U.S. basin-wide map to be produced on the distribution of this species. Methods include maximum likelihood classification of multi-season ALOS PALSAR HH and HV polarization data. PALSAR is an L-band (23 cm wavelength) imaging radar sensor which is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the extraction of these tall (up to 15 m), high-density, high-biomass Phragmites wetland stands. To improve discrimination of Phragmites australis, the three date (spring, summer, fall) dataset is being used, which takes advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in spring summer and fall of 2010-11 to aid in the mapping and for accuracy assessment. The minimum mapping unit is 1/2 acre and thus all field sites were sampled at 1/2 acre units. All map products and field validation data will be complete by December 2011. Maps are being completed on a Lake basin basis. The first final map product was delivered for Lake Erie coastal wetlands to 10 km inland, with an overall map accuracy

  9. Making SAR Data Accessible - ASF's ALOS PALSAR Radiometric Terrain Correction Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Arko, S. A.; Gens, R.

    2015-12-01

    While SAR data have proven valuable for a wide range of geophysical research questions, so far, largely only the SAR-educated science communities have been able to fully exploit the information content of internationally available SAR archives. The main issues that have been preventing a more widespread utilization of SAR are related to (1) the diversity and complexity of SAR data formats, (2) the complexity of the processing flows needed to extract geophysical information from SAR, (3) the lack of standardization and automation of these processing flows, and (4) the often ignored geocoding procedures, leaving the data in image coordinate space. In order to improve upon this situation, ASF's radiometric terrain-correction (RTC) project is generating uniformly formatted and easily accessible value-added products from the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center's (DAAC) five-year archive of JAXA's ALOS PALSAR sensor. Specifically, the project applies geometric and radiometric corrections to SAR data to allow for an easy and direct combination of obliquely acquired SAR data with remote sensing imagery acquired in nadir observation geometries. Finally, the value-added data is provided to the user in the broadly accepted Geotiff format, in order to support the easy integration of SAR data into GIS environments. The goal of ASF's RTC project is to make SAR data more accessible and more attractive to the broader SAR applications community, especially to those users that currently have limited SAR expertise. Production of RTC products commenced October 2014 and will conclude late in 2015. As of July 2015, processing of 71% of ASF's ALOS PALSAR archive was completed. Adding to the utility of this dataset are recent changes to the data access policy that allow the full-resolution RTC products to be provided to the public, without restriction. In this paper we will introduce the processing flow that was developed for the RTC project and summarize the calibration and validation

  10. Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries--a review.

    PubMed

    Eshun, Kojo; He, Qian

    2004-01-01

    Scientific investigations on Aloe vera have gained more attention over the last several decades due to its reputable medicinal properties. Some publications have appeared in reputable Scientific Journals that have made appreciable contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of Aloe--"nature's gift." Chemical analysis reveals that Aloe vera contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of Aloe vera have been described, it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s) is responsible for these physiological properties. Further research needs to be done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activities and the functional properties of A. vera. Appropriate processing techniques should be employed during the stabilization of the gel in order to affect and extend its field of utilization. PMID:15116756

  11. An investigation of the potential application of chitosan/aloe-based membranes for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Popa, E G; Gomes, M E; Cerqueira, M; Marques, A P; Caridade, S G; Teixeira, P; Sousa, C; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-06-01

    A significant number of therapeutics derived from natural polymers and plants have been developed to replace or to be used in conjunction with existing dressing products. The use of the therapeutic properties of aloe vera could be very useful in the creation of active wound dressing materials. The present work was undertaken to examine issues concerning structural features, topography, enzymatic degradation behavior, antibacterial activity and cellular response of chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes that were developed displayed satisfactory degradation, roughness, wettability and mechanical properties. A higher antibacterial potency was displayed by the blended membranes. Moreover, in vitro assays demonstrated that these blended membranes have good cell compatibility with primary human dermal fibroblasts. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes might be promising wound dressing materials. PMID:23462554

  12. Cytotoxic quinones from the roots of Aloe dawei.

    PubMed

    Abdissa, Negera; Induli, Martha; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Alao, John Patrick; Sunnerhagen, Per; Landberg, Göran; Yenesew, Abiy; Erdélyi, Máté

    2014-01-01

    Seven naphthoquinones and nine anthraquinones were isolated from the roots of Aloe dawei by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR and MS analyses. Out of the sixteen quinones, 6-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is a new compound. Two of the isolates, 5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone showed high cytotoxic activity (IC₅₀ 1.15 and 4.85 µM) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, whereas the others showed moderate to low cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (ER Negative) and MCF-7 (ER Positive) cancer cells. PMID:24642911

  13. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  14. Molecular interaction and energy transfer between human serum albumin and bioactive component Aloe dihydrocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Aloe dihydrocoumarin is an antioxidant and a candidate of immunomodulatory drug on the immune system and can balance physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which may be useful to maintain homeostasis. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydrocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. A Förster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism is involved in this quenching of Trp fluorescence by Aloe dihydrocoumarin. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the loss of α-helix stability and the gain of β-sheet and β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FT-IR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydrocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  15. Synthesis and anti-tumor activity evaluation of rhein-aloe emodin hybrid molecule.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye-Fei; Hu, Xiang-Yu; He, Ying; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2012-02-01

    To improve the anti-tumor effects of rhein and aloe-emodin, a rhein-aloe-emodin hybrid molecule (RH-AE) was synthesized from rhein and aloe-emodin in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP). Chemical and spectroscopic methods, such as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and HR-ESIMS were used for the structure identification of RH-AE. Using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, the in vitro anti-tumor effects were compared between RH-AE, rhein and aloe-emodin on human hepatoma HepG2, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE, human lung cancer NCI-H460, human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3, and human cervical cancer Hela cells. The results showed that the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RH-AE on HepG2, CNE, NCI-H460, SK-OV-3, and Hela cells were significantly lower than those of rhein and aloe-emodin. This showed that RH-AE has a better in vitro anti-tumor effect than rhein and aloe-emodin. PMID:22474959

  16. Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Li, Shengqing; Lee, Ki Won; Liu, Haidan; He, Long; Soung, Nak Kyun; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2012-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) amplification and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion-caused Akt activation contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a kinase complex comprised of mTOR, Rictor, mSin1, mLST8/GβL and PRR5 and functions in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Herein, we report that mTORC2 plays an important role in PC3 androgen refractory prostate cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Aloe-emodin, a natural compound found in aloe, inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells. Protein content analysis suggested that activation of the downstream substrates of mTORC2, Akt and PKCα, was inhibited by aloe-emodin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that aloe-emodin could bind with mTORC2 in cells and inhibit its kinase activity. Aloe-emodin also exhibited tumor suppression effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that mTORC2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development and aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer progression by targeting mTORC2. PMID:22532249

  17. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-07-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders. PMID:27350340

  18. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-01-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders. PMID:27350340

  19. Shallow Hydrothermal Pressurization before the 2010 Eruption of Mount Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia, Observed by use of ALOS Satellite Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Pablo J.; Singh, Keshav D.; Tiampo, Kristy F.

    2015-11-01

    Ground deformation in volcanic regions can be a precursor to resumption of activity. Volcanic eruptions are typically brief periods of activity punctuating very long inter-eruptive periods. This makes hazard evaluation a difficult task for volcanoes with low-recurrence eruptive activity, which often are poorly monitored. As a result, analysis of inter-eruptive periods by use of remote sensing techniques can provide important information on precursory activity and improve volcano hazard assessment. In August-September 2010 Mt Sinabung, Indonesia, reawakened after at least 400 years of dormancy. The ground deformation before this eruption was investigated by use of differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar data obtained from Japanese ALOS-PALSAR radar imagery between 05 January 2007 and 31 August 2010. Results from InSAR time series processing detected significant ground deformation (subsidence) at several locations on the Karo plateau, and uplift in the summit area of Mt Sinabung. The persistent scatterers density obtained by use of ALOS data is sufficient to enable extraction of temporal and spatial patterns of the deformation. The surface deformation at the summit can be modeled by using a spherical point-source model. Source data are consistent with a very shallow (hydrothermal) reservoir, with a linear increase in overpressure before the 2010 Mt Sinabung eruption. Hydrothermal origin is consistent with seismicity, tiltmeters, and analysis of ash products collected during and after the 2010 eruption. These results support the potential of L-band interferometry for hazard assessment in poorly monitored and highly vegetated volcanic areas and also indicate that hazard assessment for Indonesian volcanoes could potentially be improved by identification of precursory (inter-eruptive) uplift periods.

  20. Detection of glacier lake using ALOS PALSAR data at Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanokuchi, T.; Tadono, T.; Tomiyama, N.

    2010-12-01

    The retreat of mountain glaciers and expansion of glacial lakes are the common issue related to global warming and it sometimes causes a sudden flood, which is called as Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). GLOF event occurs frequently in 1960s at Himalayan glaciers. Satellite data is a sophisticated tool for this research because it is difficult to operate frequent field survey due to severe weather condition and hard accessibility. However, the optical sensor equipped on satellite has one serious problem, which is weather condition of target area. It is very difficult to acquire cloud-free data at Himalayan region on a regular schedule. Therefore, it is necessary to find another way to avoid this problem. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one possible way because SAR can observe under all weather condition and SAR image is able to distinguish water surface and other landcovers because water surface is smoother than the other landcovers, especially in the case of L-band wavelength scale. On the other hand, SAR image has geometric and radiometric distortion due to its observation mechanism and topographic feature. Geometric distortion is able to correct by applying systematic orthorectification using DEM data. However, radiometric distortion is still remained. Recently, several radiometric terrain correction (RTC) methods are proposed. This method corrects the radiometric distortion due to local topographic slope. After RTC, radiometric distortion due to topographic relief is suppressed and backscatter brightness of the image after RTC almost depend on landcovers. In this study, we used L-band ALOS/PALSAR (SAR) data after applying RTC, ALOS/AVNIR-2 (Optical Sensor) data and SRTM-3 (DEM) data. PALSAR data is used for detection of glacier lake to set threshold of radar brightness. AVNIR-2 data is used for making glacier mask area because radar brightness of smooth glacier or icecap area is as dark as water surface on the PALSAR image. To avoid this misdetection, we

  1. Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Mancari, Ferdinando; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-05-01

    Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions. PMID:25756474

  2. Aloe-emodin suppresses esophageal cancer cell TE1 proliferation by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jimin; Tian, Fang; Jiang, Yanan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Junfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoguo; Huang, Youtian; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Kangdong; Dong, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is often observed in various human cancers. Both AKT and ERK are important in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways, which play vital roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Compounds that are able to block these pathways have therefore a promising use in cancer treatment and prevention. The present study revealed that AKT and ERK are activated in esophageal cancer TE1 cells. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex, can suppress TE1 cell proliferation and anchor-independent cell growth. Aloe-emodin can also reduce the number of TE1 cells in S phase. Protein analysis indicated that aloe-emodin inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the present data indicate that aloe-emodin can suppress TE1 cell growth by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation, and suggest its clinical use for cancer therapy. PMID:27602169

  3. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  4. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  5. Processed Aloe vera Gel Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang; Kim, Hee-Suk; Lee, Ki-Hwa; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer’s patch cells. Peyer’s patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer’s patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer’s patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects. PMID:25347273

  6. Estimation of vegetation fraction in arid areas using ALOS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkan, A. A.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Hosseiniasl, A.; Ebrahimi, M.

    2010-10-01

    Fraction of vegetation (Fv) plays an important role in ecosystems. Estimation of Fv is essential for drought monitoring, natural resources studies, estimation of soil erosion volume etc. The aim of this study is to estimate Fv in an arid area in Iran using ALOS Imagery (June 2008). In order to find the best index for estimation of Fv, Seventeen vegetation indices (ARVI, DVI, EVI, GEMI, IPVI, MSAVI1, MSAVI2, NDVI, PVI, SAVI, SARVI, SARVI2, SR, TSAVI, WDVI) were used. The canopy cover percentage of 52 sample plots (50m by 50m) was measured in the field in June 2009. Regression models were used to assess the relationships between the field data and the calculated Fv. The 52 sample plots were randomly divided two times to 30 calibrations and 22 validations, and to 35 and 17 samples. Results revealed that selecting the calibration and validation data randomly leads to different results. Therefore, cross-validation method was used to reduce random division effect. Results indicated that, among all indices, vegetation indices such as MSAVI1, PVI, WDVI and TSAVI which are based on soil line have higher R2 and lower RMSE (R2 > 0.63, RMSE ~ 3%). The results confirm the dominant effect of soil reflectance in arid areas.

  7. Bio-inspired Aloe vera sponges for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Oliveira, M B; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2014-11-01

    Chemical composition and biological properties of Aloe vera (AV), a tropical plant, explain its potential use for cosmetic, nutritional and biomedical applications. AV gel present in AV leaves is rich in several compounds, nutrients and polysaccharides. This work proposes using AV gel complex structure and chemical composition, associated with freeze-drying, to produce sponges. To increase the structures stability in aqueous media, a thin coating of gellan gum (GG), was applied onto AV gel. AV-based sponges showed a heterogeneous porous formation, interconnected pores and good porosity (72-77%). The coating with a GG layer onto AV influenced the stability, swelling behavior and mechanical properties of the resulting sponges. Moreover, sponges provided the sustained release of BSA-FTIC, used as a model protein, over 3 weeks. Also, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that sponges are not cytotoxic for a mouse fibroblast-like cell line. Therefore, developed AV-based sponges have potential use in biomedical applications. PMID:25129743

  8. Generation of High Resolution Global DSM from ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, J.; Tadono, T.; Tsutsui, K.

    2014-04-01

    Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM), one of onboard sensors carried on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), was designed to generate worldwide topographic data with its optical stereoscopic observation. The sensor consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers for viewing forward, nadir, and backward in 2.5 m ground resolution producing a triplet stereoscopic image along its track. The sensor had observed huge amount of stereo images all over the world during the mission life of the satellite from 2006 through 2011. We have semi-automatically processed Digital Surface Model (DSM) data with the image archives in some limited areas. The height accuracy of the dataset was estimated at less than 5 m (rms) from the evaluation with ground control points (GCPs) or reference DSMs derived from the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Then, we decided to process the global DSM datasets from all available archives of PRISM stereo images by the end of March 2016. This paper briefly reports on the latest processing algorithms for the global DSM datasets as well as their preliminary results on some test sites. The accuracies and error characteristics of datasets are analyzed and discussed on various fields by the comparison with existing global datasets such as Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, as well as the GCPs and the reference airborne LiDAR/DSM.

  9. Screening for adulticidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis in ten plants used as mosquito repellent in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the development of resistance to synthetic insecticides, adverse effects to human health, non-target organisms and the environment, there is an urgent need to develop new insecticides, which are effective, safe, biodegrable and target-specific. This study was undertaken to evaluate the adulticidal activity of 10 plants used traditionally as mosquito repellents in South Africa. Methods The dried plant materials were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and ethanol (EtOH). The extracts were evaluated for adulticidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes, a potent malaria vector in South Africa. Adult mortality was observed after 24 hours of exposure. Results All the extracts showed adulticidal activity. The highest activity was observed in both DCM and EtOH extracts of Aloe ferox leaves with 98 and 86% mosquito mortality, respectively. The DCM extract of A. ferox leaves was then subjected to a dose-dependent bioassay to determine the EC50 value. The extract exhibited an EC50 value of 4.92 mg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study showed that the DCM extract of A. ferox leaves may have the potential to be used as an insecticide against An. arabiensis. Further studies to isolate and identify active compounds are in progress. PMID:24884500

  10. Kinematic Slip Model for 12 May 2008 Wenchuan-Beichuan Mw 7.9 Earthquake from Joint Inversion of ALOS, Envisat, and Teleseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric; Sladen, Anthony; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Li, Zhenhong; Ryder, Isabelle; Burgmann, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The presentations explores kinematics of the Wenchaun-Beichuan earthquake using data from ALOS, Envisat, and teleseismic recordings. Topics include geomorphic mapping, ALOS PALSAR range offsets, ALOS PALSAR interferometry, Envisat IM interferometry, Envisat ScanSAR, Joint GPS-InSAR inversion, and joint GPS-teleseismic inversion (static and kinematic).

  11. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity. PMID:22878390

  12. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days’ tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content. PMID:26155093

  13. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  14. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on functional properties and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Aranda, Mario; Henriquez, Karem; Vergara, Judith; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatment at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500Mpa) on the functional and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel including vitamin C and E, aloin, minerals, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The results show that HHP exerted a clear influence on minerals content, vitamin C and E content, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and aloin content. After 35days of storage all treated samples presented a decrease in mineral content, except for phosphorus. Total phenolic content and vitamin C and E content decreased at high pressures (500MPa), while all pressurised samples showed a higher antioxidant activity and aloin content than untreated sample after 35days of storage. The maximum values of antioxidant activity and aloin were 6.55±1.26μg/ml at 300MPa and 24.23±2.27mg/100g d.m. at 400MPa. PMID:25212337

  15. Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on quality parameters and structural properties of aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Nuñez-Mancilla, Yissleen; Garcia-Segovia, Purificación; Ah-Hen, Kong; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on colour, dietary fibre, vitamin C content, polysaccharides content, physico-chemical and structural properties of aloe vera gel at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 3 min) after 35 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The results showed that HHP exerted a clear influence on most of the quality parameters studied. Moisture, protein and fat contents did not show changes with an increasing pressure. Ash, crude fibre and carbohydrates content increased with increasing pressure. Vitamin C content did not show significant differences after 35 days of storage. The variation of colour in the samples increased at 500 MPa. Total dietary fibre, water holding capacity and firmness increased with pressure. However, all HHP-treated samples presented a decrease in hydration ratio and polysaccharides content; and also minor alterations in the structural properties were produced at HHP of 300-500 MPa, resulting in a high quality gel. PMID:25328187

  16. Effect of Aloe vera juice on growth and activities of Lactobacilli in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Kaur, Varinder; Kumar, Manoj; Marotta, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    In present investigation, different concentrations of Aloe vera juice incorporated into the growth media of Lactobacilli were tested to observe the effect on growth and activities of these bacteria. From the results obtained, it was observed that aloe vera juice at a concentration of 5% v/v was effective in promoting the growth of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and L. casei, as evident from the fall in pH and increased acidity, as well as from the improved generation time. At 15 to 25% concentration, growth was unaffected as compared to the controls; however, concentration higher than 25%v/v discouraged the growth. Overall, it was concluded that Aloe vera juice or gel at a particular concentration could possibly be used in combination with probiotic Lactobacillus strain(s) as a combinational therapy for gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23762993

  17. Use of Aloe vera gel coating preserves the functional properties of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Guillén, Fabian; Castillo, Salvador; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Valero, Daniel

    2006-05-31

    Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Crimson Seedless) were coated with Aloe vera gel according to our developed patent (SP Patent P200302937) and then stored for 35 days at 1 degrees C, and the subsequent shelf life (SL) was monitored at 20 degrees C. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid loss of functional compounds, such as total phenolics and ascorbic acid. These changes were accompanied by reduction of the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and increases in total anthocyanins, showing an accelerated ripening process. On the contrary, table grapes coated with Aloe vera gel significantly delayed the above changes, such as the retention of ascorbic acid during cold storage or SL. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating, a simple and noncontaminating treatment, maintained the functional properties during postharvest storage of table grapes. PMID:16719510

  18. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  19. Effect of crosslinking in chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Caridade, S G; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-10-15

    The positive interaction between polysaccharides with active phytochemicals found in medicinal plants may represent a strategy to create active wound dressing materials useful for skin repair. In the present work, blended membranes composed of chitosan (Cht) and aloe vera gel were prepared through the solvent casting, and were crosslinked with genipin to improve their properties. Topography, swelling, wettability, mechanical properties and in vitro cellular response of the membranes were investigated. With the incorporation of aloe vera gel into chitosan solution, the developed chitosan/aloe-based membranes displayed increased roughness and wettability; while the genipin crosslinking promoted the formation of stiffer membranes in comparison to those of the non-modified membranes. Moreover, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that the L929 cells have high cell viability, confirmed by MTS test and calcein-AM staining. The findings suggested that both blend compositions and crosslinking affected the physico-chemical properties and cellular behavior of the developed membranes. PMID:23987385

  20. Spectroscopic Constants of the X1Σ+ and 13Π states of AlO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Linguerri, Roberto; Mogren, Muneerah Mogren Al; Francisco, Joseph S.; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-08-01

    Using both standard and explicitly correlated ab initio methods in conjunction with several atomic basis sets, the ground state of AlO(X2Σ+) and the two lowest electronic states of AlO+ (1Σ+ and 3Π) are investigated. Potential energy curves for these species are mapped, which are incorporated later to solve the nuclear motion problem. Benchmark computations on AlO(X2Σ+) are used to determine the reliability of the theoretical methods and basis sets used for an accurate description of aluminum oxide compounds. The electronic ground state of AlO+ is X1Σ+, followed by the low-lying 13Π state. For both cationic electronic states, a set of spectroscopic parameters are recommended that may help in the identification of this ion in laboratory and astrophysical media. An accurate estimation of the adiabatic ionization energy of AlO, AIE = 9.70 eV, is also reported.

  1. Excavating the Role of Aloe Vera Wrapped Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Frame Ornamentation in Newly Architectured Polyurethane Scaffolds for Osteogenesis and Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, M; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Francis, Nimmy K; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-03-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are unsuccessful in many clinical applications due to a high incidence of postoperative infection. The objective of this work is to fabricate GBR with an anti-infective electrospun scaffold by ornamenting segmented polyurethane (SPU) with two-dimensional Aloe vera wrapped mesoporous hydroxyapatite (Al-mHA) nanorods. The antimicrobial characteristic of the scaffold has been retrieved from the prepared Al-mHA frame with high aspect ratio (∼14.2) via biosynthesis route using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extract. The Al-mHA frame was introduced into an unprecedented SPU matrix (solution polymerized) based on combinatorial soft segments of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, pristine mHA nanorods are also ornamented into it. An enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segment of (PCL-PEC-b-PDMS). Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Al-mHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (175%) in the mechanical properties with promising antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast-like MG63 cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits as an animal model by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Improved in vivo biocompatibilities, biodegradation, osteoconductivity, and the ability to provide an adequate biomimetic environment for biomineralization for GBR of the scaffolds (SPU and ornamented SPUs) have been found from the various histological sections. Early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks were found in the defects filled with Al-mHA ornamented

  2. Protective value of Aloe vera against some toxic effects of arsenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Flora, Swaran J S

    2005-01-01

    Concomitant oral supplementation of Aloe vera, (1, 2 or 5% w[sol ]v in drinking water) during arsenic exposure (0.2 mg[sol ]kg, intraperitoneally, once daily for 3 weeks) was investigated in rats for its protective value. Animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a marginal decrease in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood. White blood corpuscles (WBC) level decreased while most of the other clinical blood parameters like red blood cells count, haemoglobin, MCV, MCH, MCHC ratio and platelet number, etc. remained unaltered on arsenic exposure. Hepatic reduced GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level remained unaltered, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level increased significantly while the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and catalase decreased on arsenic exposure. Renal GSH contents decreased while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly on arsenic exposure. Concomitant administration of Aloe vera had remarkable protective action on inhibited blood ALAD activity and restored blood GSH level while most of the other blood biochemical parameters remained unchanged on Aloe vera supplementation. Interestingly, most of hepatic biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress showed protection; no effect of Aloe vera on blood and liver arsenic concentration was noted. Also, no effect of Aloe vera on most of the altered renal biochemical parameters were noticed. The results thus lead us to conclude that simultaneous supplementation of Aloe vera protects against arsenic induced oxidative stress but does not influence the arsenic concentration in these organs. PMID:15799004

  3. Modification of emodin and aloe-emodin by glycosylation in engineered Escherihia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Koirala, Niranjan; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Jung, Hye Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 (YjiC) was used for enzymatic modification of emodin and aloe-emodin in vitro and in vivo. In order to increase the availability of UDP-glucose, three genes involved in the production of precursors of NDP-sugar in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) viz. D-glucose phosphate isomerase (pgi), D-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), and UDP-sugar hydrolase (ushA) were deleted and glucose-1-phosphate urididyltransferase (galU) gene was over expressed. To improve the yield of the products; substrate, time and media parameters were optimized, and the production was scaled up using a 3 L fermentor. The maximum yield of glycosylated products of emodin (emodin-O-β-D-glucoside) and aloe-emodin (aloe-emodin-O-β-D-glucoside) were approximately 144 µM (38 mg/L) and 168 µM (45 mg/L) respectively, representing almost 72 % and 84 % bioconversion of emodin and aloe-emodin when 200 µM of emodin and aloe-emodin were supplemented in the culture. Additionally, the emodin and aloe emodin major glycosylated products exhibited the highest stability at pH 8.0 and the stability of products was up to 70 °C and 60 °C respectively. Furthermore, the biological activities of emodin and its major glucoside (P1) were compared and their anti-cancer activities were assayed in several cancer cell lines. The results demonstrate that YjiC has the capacity to catalyze the glycosylation of these aromatic compounds and that glycosylation of anthraquinones enhances their aqueous solubility while retaining their biological activities. PMID:25663173

  4. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of "SAL," a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400-250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  5. Aloe vera juice: IC₅₀ and dual mechanistic inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Djuv, Ane; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potency (IC₅₀ values) of ethanol extracts of two commercially available aloe vera juice (AVJ) products, on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 activities in vitro and to determine if such inhibitions could be mechanism-based. Recombinant human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes were used and the activities were expressed by the metabolism of testosterone and dextromethorphan with ketoconazole and quinidine as positive inhibitor controls, respectively. The formed metabolites were quantified by validated HPLC techniques. Time- and NADPH- dependent inhibition assays were performed to evaluate a possible mechanism-based inhibition. One of the AVJ extracts showed about twice the inhibitory potency towards both CYP enzymes over the other with IC₅₀ values of 8.35 ± 0.72 and 12.5 ± 2.1 mg/mL for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. The AVJ was found to exert both CYP mediated and non-CYP mediated inhibition of both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. This dual mechanistic inhibition, however, seems to be governed by different mechanisms for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Estimated IC₅₀ inhibition values indicate no major interference of AVJ with drug metabolism in man, but the dual mechanistic inhibition of both enzymes might be of clinical significance. PMID:21842479

  6. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  7. Aloe vera Gel: Effective Therapeutic Agent against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Recovered from Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Mousavi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aloe vera is an herbal medicinal plant with biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones, and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of A. vera gel against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with burn wound infections. Methods. During a 6-month study, 140 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from patients admitted to the burn wards of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out against the pathogens using the A. vera gel and antibiotics (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin). Results. The antibiogram revealed that 47 (33.6%) of all isolates were MDR P. aeruginosa. The extract isolated from A. vera has antibacterial activity against all of isolates. Also, 42 (89.4%) isolates were inhibited by A. vera gel extract at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 200 µg/mL. MIC value of A. vera gel for other isolates (10.6%) was 800 µg/mL. All of MDR P. aeruginosa strains were inhibited by A. vera at similar MIC50 and MIC90 200 µg/mL. Conclusion. Based on our results, A. vera gel at various concentrations can be used as an effective antibacterial agent in order to prevent wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:26266047

  8. [Study on application of arbuscular-mycorrhizas in growing seedings of Aloe vera].

    PubMed

    Gong, Mingqin; Wang, Fengzhen; Chen, Yu

    2002-01-01

    Tissue culture seedlings of Aloe vera L. inoculated with 7 AMF(arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi) in a greenhouse in Guangzhou showed that the percentage of infection was 99.67%-100%, the index of infected was 73.3%-86.67%. After being inoculated 13 months, the seedling high raised 19.88%-51.91%, the leaves length raised 13.13%-150.96%. After being inoculated 15 months, the leaves juice of Aloe vera raised 60.87%-233.8% and the dried of leaves juice raised 217%-724%. PMID:12583231

  9. Pharmacological attribute of Aloe vera: Revalidation through experimental and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinay K.; Malhotra, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Aloe vera has long been used as a traditional medicine for inducing wound healing. It is a natural product that now a days is used in cosmetic industry. Benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves though there are various indications for its use. Biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory. Gingival fibroblasts play an important role in oral wound healing. Double blind-controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy in oral health. PMID:23559789

  10. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  11. Regional extent of permafrost and boreal forest degradations in the central Yakutia by ALOS-PALSAR and AVNIR2 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Yoshihiro; Fedorov, Alexander; Abe, Konomi; Ise, Hajime; Masuzawa, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    Wet climate with largely increased in precipitation during summer and snow accumulation during winter had continued 4 years since 2004 winter in eastern Siberia. Soil moisture in the active layer had been significantly increased corresponding with thawing of permafrost near the surface during following years. The perennially water-logged active layer furthermore exacerbated the boreal forest habitat, namely withered and dead forests widely extended in this region. In the present study, we have attempted to extract the region of degraded boreal forest based on the analysis of satellite data in the left and right banks of Lena River near Yakutsk, along with expansion of the water surface area in relation to permafrost degradation. We utilized ALOS-PALSAR and AVNIR2 images taken during 2006 through 2009. After geocoding and noise reduction of PALSAR images, classification of water surface area including water-logged ground was performed with supervised classification using the threshold of a microwave backscattering coefficient. Then, we compared the distribution of the water-logged area between multi-years. In addition, during the same period, supervised classification of grassland and boreal forest was conducted using AVNIR2 images. Then, both classifications were overlaid and the multi-years change in degraded boreal forest due to water-logged conditions was extracted as well. Boreal forest in the left bank of the Lena River distributes on river terrace where density of alas lakes is quite low due to consisting of sandy loam soil with underlying permafrost with less ground ice content. In this area, water surface area expanded in concaved terrain and along the valley year by year in conjunction with change from forest to grassland. On the other hand, forest in the right bank of the Lena River distributed in the region with very high density of alas lakes due to underlying ice rich permafrost. During the same period, alas lakes expanded and boreal forest on the

  12. Optimality in Microwave-Assisted Drying of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Gel using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Chandan; Das, Arijit; Kumar Golder, Animes

    2016-07-01

    The present work illustrates the Microwave-Assisted Drying (MWAD) characteristic of aloe vera gel combined with process optimization and artificial neural network modeling. The influence of microwave power (160-480 W), gel quantity (4-8 g) and drying time (1-9 min) on the moisture ratio was investigated. The drying of aloe gel exhibited typical diffusion-controlled characteristics with a predominant interaction between input power and drying time. Falling rate period was observed for the entire MWAD of aloe gel. Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD) developed a regression model to evaluate their effects on moisture ratio. The optimal MWAD conditions were established as microwave power of 227.9 W, sample amount of 4.47 g and 5.78 min drying time corresponding to the moisture ratio of 0.15. A computer-stimulated Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was generated for mapping between process variables and the desired response. `Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation' algorithm with 3-5-1 architect gave the best prediction, and it showed a clear superiority over FCCD.

  13. An in vitro and in vivo toxicologic evaluation of a stabilized aloe vera gel supplement drink in mice.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-05-01

    Aloe vera gel is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of a stabilized aloe vera gel derived from the inner gel fillet and marketed as a drink. The gel juice was assessed through assays of genotoxicity in vivo and acute and subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Aloe vera did not increase the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli and at 1× and 0.25× it did not increase mutagenesis of Salmonella TA100 resulting in histidine biosynthesis. At 3 and 14days following acute exposure, male and female mice gavaged with the stabilized aloe gel had daily appearances, total body weight gain, selected organ weights, necropsy and hematology tests similar to control mice gavaged with water. After a 13-week aloe gel feed study, male and female mice evaluated by the same criteria as the acute study plus feed consumption and serum chemistry tests were found to be equivalent to control groups. These data indicate that a commercial stabilized aloe gel consumed as a beverage was not genotoxic or toxic in vivo. These results contrast with those obtained using preparations containing aloe latex phenolic compounds such as anthraquinones. PMID:23376510

  14. Millimeter Detection Of AlO (X2Σ+) In The Oxygen-rich Envelope Of VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Emily D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2009-05-01

    A new circumstellar molecule, the radical AlO (X 2Σ+), has been detected toward the envelope of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) via three rotational emission lines. The N = 7 → 6 and 6 → 5 features of AlO were observed at 1 mm using the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope (ARO SMT) and the N = 4 → 3 line was detected at 2 mm using the ARO 12 m dish. All lines exhibit noticeable hyperfine broadening due to the I = 5/2 spin of the aluminum nucleus. Based on simulations of the line profiles, AlO most likely arises from the dust-acceleration zone in the spherical outflow of VY CMa, with a source size of θs 0.5''. Given this source size, the column density of AlO was found to be Ntot 2 × 1015 cm-2 for Trot 230 K, with a fractional abundance, relative to H2, of 10-8. Gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry is the likely formation mechanism for AlO in VY CMa, but shocks may disrupt the condensation process into Al2O3, allowing AlO to survive 20 stellar radii. The detection of AlO in VY CMa is additional evidence of an active gas-phase refractory chemistry in oxygen-rich envelopes, and suggests such objects may be fruitful sources for other new oxide identifications.

  15. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  16. Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Vetrita, Y.; Winarso, G.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

    2014-06-01

    Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% - 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate.

  17. Disinfection of Dental Unit Water Line Using Aloe Vera: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines. PMID:24089615

  18. A Systemic Review on Aloe arborescens Pharmacological Profile: Biological Activities and Pilot Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Singab, Abdel-Naser B; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Esmat, Ahmed; Gad, Haidy A; Nazeam, Jilan A

    2015-12-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in the last few decades has verified several such claims. Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. The popularity of the plant in traditional medicine for several ailments (antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity) focused the investigator's interest on this plant. Most importantly, the reported studies have shown the plant effectiveness on various cancer types such as liver, colon, duodenal, skin, pancreatic, intestinal, lung and kidney types. These multiple biological actions make Aloe an important resource for developing new natural therapies. However, the biological activities of isolated compounds such as glycoprotein, polysaccharides, enzyme and phenolics were insufficient. Considering all these, this contribution provides a systematic review outlining the evidence on the biological efficacy of the plant including the pharmacology and the related mechanisms of action, with specific attention to the various safety precautions, and preclinical and clinical studies, indicating the future research prospects of this plant. PMID:26768148

  19. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    PubMed

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy. PMID:26878323

  20. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  1. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of dru...

  2. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions. PMID:23094205

  3. The effect of a toothpaste containing aloe vera on established gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Namiranian, Homa; Serino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a toothpaste containing high concentrations of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in patients attending regular dental care by a dental hygienist. Fifteen subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, intra-individual and controlled clinical study. Participants were non-smokers, with signs of gingivitis (bleeding index 30%) and no signs of periodontitis. Subjects were followed for three 6-month periods during which they used either their own toothpaste, or an Aloe vera or a control toothpaste. Plaque and gingival indices were recorded atthe start and end of each period. There was a statistically and clinically significant reduction of about 20% of the plaque and gingivitis indices at the end of the clinical trial compared to baseline values, but no differences between the Aloe vera and the control toothpaste. It may be concluded that in patients motivated to improve their oral hygiene habits, the use of a toothpaste containing Aloe Vera showed no additional effect on plaque and gingivitis compared to a control toothpaste. PMID:23421308

  4. [Intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin using single-passintestinal perfusion method in rat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yongmao; Meng, Xianli; Zhang, Yan

    2011-09-01

    The intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin was investigated using the single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in S/D rats. SPIP was performed in each isolated segment of the intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) and the different concentrations inhibitor group of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2) with the concentrations of aloe-emodin (0.238 mg x L(-1)) at a flow rate of 0.28 mL x min(-1). The effective absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent absorption coefficient (Papp) of aloe-emodin for each segment were determined before and after treated with different concentrations of inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 respectively. Aloe-emodin exhibits a high intestinal permeability except the the ileum, indicative that the compounds are well absorbed. Decreases of Ka and Papp values in the duodenum, jejunum, colon and ileum, furthermore, the duodenum has significant increased compared with the ileum, there are have no significant difference in other isolated region of the intestine. Compared with the group which have no inhibitor of P-gp, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of P-gp groups. Compared with the group of no inhibitor of MRP2, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of MRP2 groups with the highest and the middle concentration. The results suggested that the inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 all can promote the intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin. PMID:22121810

  5. Aloe Vera Gel and Cesarean Wound Healing; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Molazem, Zahra; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Younesi, Masoumeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Failure in complete healing of the wound is one of the probable complications of cesarean. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of dressing with aloe vera gel in healing of cesarean wound. Methods: This prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 women who had undergone cesarean operation in Amir-al-Momenin hospital (Gerash, Iran). The participants were randomly divided into two groups each containing 45 patients. In one group, the wound was dressed with aloe vera gel, while simple dressing was used in the control group. Wound healing was assessed 24 hours and 8 days after the cesarean operation using REEDA scale. The data were analyzed through Chi-square and t-test. Results: The participants’ mean age was 27.56±4.20 in the aloe vera group and 26.62±4.88 in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning body mass index, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). Also, a significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the wound healing score 24 hours after the operation (P=0.003). After 8 days, however, the difference in the wound healing score was not significant (P=0.283). Overall, 45 participants in the aloe vera group and 35 ones in the control group had obtained a zero score 24 hours after the operation. These measures were respectively obtained as 42 and 41eight days after the operation. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the women are recommended to be informed regarding the positive effects of dressing with aloe vera gel. PMID:25560349

  6. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  7. In-vitro assessment and pharmacodynamics of nimesulide incorporated Aloe vera transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Vandana, K R; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R; Sundaresan, C R; Sriramaneni, Raghava N; Vadlamudi, Harini C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to prepare nimesulide emulsion for incorporation in Aloe vera gel base to formulate 'nimesulide - Aloe vera transemulgel' (NAE) and to carryout in-vitro assessment and in-vivo anti-inflammatory studies of the product. Although the use of nimesulide is banned for oral administration, due to its potential for inducing hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia, the use of nimesulide for topical delivery is prominent in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loading capacity of transdermal gels is low for hydrophobic drugs such as nimesulide. Nimesulide can be effectively incorporated into emulgels (a combination of emulsion and gel). Aloe vera has a mild anti-inflammatory effect and in the present study Aloe vera gel was formulated and used as a gel base to prepare NAE. The emulgels thus prepared were evaluated for viscosity, pH, in-vitro permeation, stability and skin irritation test. In-vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed using carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in Wistar rats. The results were compared with that of commercial nimesulide gel (CNG). From the in-vitro studies, effective permeation of nimesulide from NAE (53.04 %) was observed compared to CNG (44.72 %) at 30 min indicating better drug release from NAE. Topical application of the emulgel found no skin irritation. Stability studies proved the integrity of the formulation. The percentage of inhibition of edema was highest for the prepared NAE (67.4 % inhibition after 240 min) compared to CNG (59.6 %). From our results, it was concluded that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare nimesulide emulgel with high drug loading capacity (86.4 % drug content) compared to CNG (70.5 % drug content) with significant anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:24295369

  8. Single- and repeated-dose toxicities of aloe fermentation products in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Baik, Soon-Ok; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    In this study, aloe fermentation products were derived from mycelia from 3 mushrooms: Ganoderma lucidum (AG), Hericium erinaceum (AH), and Phellinus linteus (AP). Levels of aloin A and B increased with fermentation time. The highest levels were measured on the fifth day of fermentation. β-Glucan levels decreased with fermentation time. The safety of aloe fermentation products were examined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered the three aloe fermentation products at dose levels of 1, 2 or 5 g/kg for single-dose toxicity test and 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg for repeated-dose toxicity test. There were no significant differences in body weight gain between vehicle control and AG-, AH- or AP-treated rats. Also, significant changes in daily feed intake and water consumption were not observed. In hematological analysis, none of the parameters were affected by aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia. This suggests that there are no negative effects on homeostasis and immunity. In blood biochemistry analysis, none of the markers were affected by feeding rats with AG, AH or AP. Similarly, there were no significant effects on markers for liver, kidney, skeletal and heart muscle functions. No remarkable lesions were observed in these organs at histopathology. Since there were no adverse effects of AG, AH and AP in single- or repeated-dose toxicity tests, even at higher doses than normal, we conclude that the aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia possess long-term safety and could be candidates as multifunctional nutrients for the improvement of intestinal function and immunity. PMID:21998613

  9. Standwise Change Detection for Growing STOCK Using Repeat-Pass Alos Palsar / PALSAR-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.-G.; Kim, C.

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of detecting the changes of growing stocks in mountainous forest stands derived from ALOS PALSAR and PALSAR-2 images. The ALOS PALSAR were obtained over the Kwangneung Experiment Forest (KEF, Korea) during the period of nineteen and a half months from the April 26, 2009 to December 12, 2010, whereas the PALSAR-2 data were acquired on the April 7, 2015. The KEF test site comprises 58 stands, which cover approximately 1,000ha and have steep slope topography. Owing to topographic effects of SAR data in mountainous areas, the DEM-assisted topographic normalized backscattering coefficient γ0 was applied to the evaluation of the relationships between the ALOS PALSAR / PALSAR-2 HV backscatter and the field inventory-based stand stock volume. The results indicate that: 1) the γ0 values for the volume obtained from ALOS PALSAR data on December 12, 2010 show a gradual increase higher than those computed from the data on April 26, 2009, here the γ0 value increases in accordance with an increase in the volume: 2) the γ0 values determined from the PALSAR-2 data increase with the same inventory-based volume, when compared with those computed from both ALOS PALSAR data. They also increase substantially as the values of the volume rise, with the exception of the volume interval from 130 m3 ha-1 to 160 m3 ha-1. This is understandable because the volume of the aforementioned interval has been reduced through clearing. Consequently, the γ0-based relationship between PALSAR-2 HV backscatter and growing stock can lead to detecting the stand growth changes in the KEF of Korea.

  10. Random Forest Classification of Sediments on Exposed Intertidal Flats Using ALOS-2 Quad-Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Yang, X.; Liu, G.; Zhou, H.; Ma, W.; Yu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are one of the world's most densely populated areas and it is necessary to propose an accurate, cost effective, frequent, and synoptic method of monitoring these complex ecosystems. However, misclassification of sediments on exposed intertidal flats restricts the development of coastal zones surveillance. With the advent of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellites, polarimetric SAR satellite imagery plays an increasingly important role in monitoring changes in coastal wetland. This research investigated the necessity of combining SAR polarimetric features with optical data, and their contribution in accurately sediment classification. Three experimental groups were set to make assessment of the most appropriate descriptors. (i) Several SAR polarimetric descriptors were extracted from scattering matrix using Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi methods; (ii) Optical remote sensing (RS) data with R, G and B channels formed the second feature combinations; (iii) The chosen SAR and optical RS indicators were both added into classifier. Classification was carried out using Random Forest (RF) classifiers and a general result mapping of intertidal flats was generated. Experiments were implemented using ALOS-2 L-band satellite imagery and GF-1 optical multi-spectral data acquired in the same period. The weights of descriptors were evaluated by VI (RF Variable Importance). Results suggested that optical data source has few advantages on sediment classification, and even reduce the effect of SAR indicators. Polarimetric SAR feature sets show great potentials in intertidal flats classification and are promising in classifying mud flats, sand flats, bare farmland and tidal water.