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Sample records for extracts artemisia absinthum

  1. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai; Yildiz, Hilal; Gungor, Neva; Kavaz, Arzu; Çetin, Bülent

    2011-01-01

    Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a β-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 μgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 μgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of microorganisms. The methanol extracts were found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms more than the aqueous extracts. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of the plants tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. These exhibited properties propose that such plant extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24363680

  2. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.

    PubMed

    Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections. PMID:20191854

  3. Anti-allergic effect of Artemisia extract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yan; Liu, Zijun; Geng, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia apiacea (also known as Artemisia annua L) is a herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the early 1970s, artemisinin was isolated and identified as the active antimalarial ingredient, and thereafter, A. apiacea and artemisinin have been studied extensively, such as anti-inflammation and antipyresis, antibacteria, antiparasitic and immunosuppression effects of A. apiacea extract. The present study investigated the extracts anti-allergic effect obtained from the dried flowering tips of A. apiacea in rats. A systemic anaphylactic reaction model was induced in rats using compound 48/80. Artemisia extract was administered 1 h prior to the injection of compound 48/80. Artemisia was extracted from dried flowering tips of A. deserti using 80% ethanol. Subsequently, the systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release, scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by compound 48/80 were evaluated. The administration of Artemisia extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses suppressed the systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the Artemisia extract was able to effectively decrease systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release, scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27446332

  4. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract.

    PubMed

    Baiceanu, Elisabeta; Vlase, Laurian; Baiceanu, Andrei; Nanes, Madalina; Rusu, Dan; Crisan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia abrotanum L. ("southernwood") belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant. PMID:26083039

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26784667

  6. Examining the extraction of artemisinin from artemisia annua using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briars, Rhianna; Paniwnyk, Larysa

    2012-05-01

    Artemisinin suppresses the life-cycle of the plasmodium parasite which causes malaria. It is found naturally occurring within the trichome glands of the Artemisia annua plant. Traditional methods for extracting artemisinin are time-consuming and have high environmental impact due to the temperatures and organic solvents which must be employed. Ultrasound decreases these through acoustic streaming and micro-jets. But to fully utilise this technology parameters, such as frequency, temperature and the properties of leaf and solvent, must be explored. As with the extraction process there is also no set analysis method for identification of artemisinin. Therefore several methods of analysing these extracts are employed. Initial results indicate that sonication is able to enhance levels of artemisinin extracted when compared to the conventional/traditional extraction process. In addition Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) have been shown to have a high level of reproducible calibration.

  7. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission. PMID:25700644

  8. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Duric, Kemal; Kovac-Besovic, Elvira E.; Niksic, Haris; Muratovic, Samija; Sofic, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Platelet hyperactivity and platelet interaction with endothelial cells contribute to the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The impact of platelet activity with different pharmacological agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Artemisia dracunculus, L. Asteraceae (Tarragon) is used for centuries in the daily diet in many Middle Eastern countries, and it is well known for its anticoagulant activity. The present study investigates the presence of coumarins in tarragon leaves and subsequently determines the extract with a major amount of coumarin derivatives. The solvents of different polarities and different pH values were used for the purpose of purifying the primary extract in order to obtain fractions with the highest coumarin content. Those extracts and fractions were investigated for their anticoagulant activity by determining prothrombin time (PT) and the international normalized ratio (INR), expressed in relation to the coagulation time of the healthy person. Purified extracts and fractions obtained from plant residue after essential oil distillation, concentrated in coumarin derivatives, showed the best anticoagulant activity, using samples of human blood. INR maximum value (2.34) and consequently the best anticoagulant activity showed the methanol extract at concentration of 5%. The INR value of normal plasma in testing this extract was 1.05. PMID:26042507

  9. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Durić, Kemal; Kovac Besovic, Elvira E; Niksic, Haris; Muratovic, Samija; Sofic, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Platelet hyperactivity and platelet interaction with endothelial cells contribute to the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The impact of platelet activity with different pharmacological agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Artemisia dracunculus, L. Asteraceae (Tarragon) is used for centuries in the daily diet in many Middle Eastern countries, and it is well known for its anticoagulant activity. The present study investigates the presence of coumarins in tarragon leaves and subsequently determines the extract with a major amount of coumarin derivatives. The solvents of different polarities and different pH values were used for the purpose of purifying the primary extract in order to obtain fractions with the highest coumarin content. Those extracts and fractions were investigated for their anticoagulant activity by determining prothrombin time (PT) and the international normalized ratio (INR), expressed in relation to the coagulation time of the healthy person. Purified extracts and fractions obtained from plant residue after essential oil distillation, concentrated in coumarin derivatives, showed the best anticoagulant activity, using samples of human blood. INR maximum value (2.34) and consequently the best anticoagulant activity showed the methanol extract at concentration of 5%.  The INR value of normal plasma in testing this extract was 1.05. PMID:26042507

  10. Comparison of Artemisia annua Bioactivities between Traditional Medicine and Chemical Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nageeb, Ahmed; Al-Tawashi, Azza; Mohammad Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Abdel-Halim Al-Talla, Zeyad; Al-Rifai, Nahla

    2013-01-01

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. PMID:24761137

  11. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Artemisinin Extracts from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Su; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Woo Joong; Lee, Dong Chae; Sohn, Uy Dong; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of artemisinin derived from water, methanol, ethanol, or acetone extracts of Artemisia annua L. were evaluated. All 4 artemisinin-containing extracts had anti-inflammatory effects. Of these, the acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β , IL-6, and IL-10) production. Antioxidant activity evaluations revealed that the ethanol extract had the highest free radical scavenging activity, (91.0±3.2%), similar to α-tocopherol (99.9%). The extracts had antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, and Prevotella intermedia. This study shows that Artemisia annua L. extracts contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial substances and should be considered for use in pharmaceutical products for the treatment of dental diseases. PMID:25605993

  12. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States, and current treatment is expensive and kills also healthy cells. Affordable alternatives that kill only cancer cells are needed. Artemisinin, extracted from the Artemisia annua, has potent anticancer activity and low toxicity to normal cell...

  13. Biochemical effects, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding of rats with high fat diet containing 3% cholesterol in olein oil, for 8 weeks. Feeding of rats with high fat diet for 8 weeks, leading to a significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, liver hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and paraoxonase-1 activities as compared to the normal control group. Treatment of high fat diet rats with Artemisia vulgaris extract for 4 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, resulted in normalized serum lipid profile, a significant increase in paraoxonase-1 activity and decrease in serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α level as compared to high fat diet-treated animals. Also the extract caused a significant decrease in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity as compared with both high fat diet-treated animals and control ones. In conclusion, Artemisia vulgaris extract has hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties; it may serve as a source for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26236098

  14. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  15. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  16. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Baghban Taraghdari, Sara; Nematy, Mohsen; Mazidi, Mohsen; Kamgar, Maryam; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05) differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract) is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05). So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant. PMID:25949948

  17. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. PMID:27316764

  18. Artemisia extracts activate PPARγ, promote adipogenesis, and enhance insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue of obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Burris, Thomas P.; Sanchez-Infantes, David; Wang, Yongjun; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have shown that the inability of adipose tissue to properly expand during the obese state or respond to insulin can lead to metabolic dysfunction. Artemisia is a diverse group of plants that has a history of medicinal use. This study examines the ability of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia scoparia (SCO) and Artemisia santolinifolia (SAN) to modulate adipocyte development in cultured adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Research Design & Procedures Adipogenesis was assessed using Oil Red O staining and immunoblotting. A nuclear receptor specificity assay was used to examine the specificity of SCO- and SAN-induced PPARγ activation. C57BL/6J mice, fed a high-fat diet, were gavaged with saline, SCO, or SAN for 2 weeks. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was examined using insulin tolerance tests. WAT depots were assessed via immunoblotting for markers of insulin action and adipokine production. Results We established that SCO and SAN were highly specific activators of PPARγ and did not activate other nuclear receptors. After a one-week daily gavage, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had lower insulin-induced glucose disposal rates than control mice. At the end of the 2-week treatment period, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had enhanced insulin-responsive Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and significantly decreased MCP-1 levels in visceral WAT relative to control mice; these differences were depot specific. Moreover, plasma adiponectin levels were increased following SCO treatment. Conclusion Overall, these studies demonstrate that extracts from two Artemisia species can have metabolically favorable effects on adipocytes and WAT. PMID:24985103

  19. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings. PMID:16222790

  20. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  1. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    PubMed

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected. PMID:16624501

  2. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunmonu, Taofik O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract. PMID:23861717

  3. Screening of Different Extracts from Artemisia Species for Their Potential Antimalarial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Naderi, Rozhin; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) has been proposed as an ideal drug target for antimalarial screening programs. In this study, we used an improved, cost-effective and high-throughput spectrophotometric assay to screen plant extracts for finding novel antimalarial plant sources. Fifteen extracts with different polarity from three Iranian Artemisia species, A. ciniformis, A. biennis and A. turanica, were assessed for their antimalarial activity by in-vitro β-hematin formation assay. The most potent effect was observed in dichloromethane (DCM) extract of A. ciniformis with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.92 ± 0.01 and 1.29 ± 0.02 mg/mL, respectively. Ethyl acetate (EtOAC) extracts of A. biennis and A. turanica also showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.11 ± 0.02 and 1.35 ± 0.08 mg/mL and IC90 values of 1.22 ± 0.04 and 2.81 ± 0.21 mg/mL, respectively. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the components with strong antimalarial activity have been concentrated in the medium-polar extracts. PMID:25901169

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  5. Ethanolic Extracts of California Mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) Are Cytotoxic against Normal and Cancerous Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Somaweera, Himali; Lai, Gary C.; Blackeye, Rachel; Littlejohn, Beverly; Kirksey, Justine; Aguirre, Richard M.; LaPena, Vince; Pasqua, Anna; Hintz, Mary McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) is used by many tribes throughout California to treat a variety of conditions, including colds, allergies, and pain. California mugwort is also utilized as women’s medicine. Its use is on the rise outside of Native communities, often without the guidance of a traditional healer or experienced herbalist. Because it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity against plant and animal cells, we investigated whether California mugwort extracts have an effect on normal human cells as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER−) human breast cancer cells. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. douglasiana leaves were tested for cytotoxicity against unstimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC), as well as against an ER+ human breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and an ER− human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). An ethanolic leaf extract killed hPBMC, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 23.6 ± 0.3, 27 ± 5, and 37 ± 4 μg/ml, respectively. An aqueous extract killed hPBMC with an IC50 value of 60 ± 10 μg/ml, but had no effect on the two cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml. The results of this study indicate that the cytotoxicity of California mugwort extends to normal human cells, as well as cancerous cells. Therefore, until further is known about the safety of this medicine, caution should be taken when consuming extracts of California mugwort, whether as a tincture or as a tea. PMID:24073389

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Artemisia ciniformis extracts on PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Nasseri, Sajjad; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Farahani, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study antioxidant capacities of five different extracts of Artemisia ciniformis aerial parts were evaluated by cell-free methods. Then seven fractions of the potent extract were selected and their antioxidant capacity was assayed by cell free and cell based methods. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant ability was measured using the: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test, β-carotene bleaching (BCB) method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Total phenolic contents (TPC) of all the samples also were determined. The cytoprotective effect of fractions was evaluated by measuring the viability of cells after exposure to doxorubicin (DOX). The mechanism of action was studied by investigating caspase-3, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the level of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results: Hydroethanolic extract exhibited a notably higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content. Among the fractions (A to G) of hydroethanolic extract, the highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the Fraction E. Moreover, 24 hr pretreatment of PC12 cells with fractions B, C and D decreased DOX-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, pre-treatment of cells with fraction B resulted in significant decrease in generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase in the activity of SOD. We were able to demonstrate remarkable reduction in the activity of caspase-3 and increase in MMP in PC12 cells following pretreatment with fraction B. Conclusion: Our observations indicated that the fraction B of A. ciniformis hydroetanolic extract possessed protective effect on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cells. PMID:27279988

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Artemisia selengensis Turcz and its antioxidant and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Lu, He Dong; Muḥammad, Umair; Han, Jin Zhi; Wei, Zhao Hui; Lu, Zhao Xin; Bie, Xiao Mei; Lu, Feng Xia

    2016-02-01

    Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) is a perennial herb with therapeutic and economic applications in China. The effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters upon extraction yield (EY%), antioxidant and antitumor activities of the polysaccharides extracts were studied by using a factorial design and response surface methodology. The optimal conditions determined were as: ultrasonic power 146 W, extraction time 14.5 min. and extraction temperature 60 °C. The average molecular weights of two homogeneous polysaccharides (APS1 and APS2) purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography were 125.4 and 184.1 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide analysis showed that APS1 and APS2 were composed of five common monomers i.e., galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose and one different monomer glucose and galacturonic acid respectively, with a most abundant part in molar % of APS1 and APS2 were glucose (83.01 %) and galacturonic acid (48.87 %) while least were xylose (0.80 %) and mannose (1.73 %) respectively. The antioxidant properties were determined by evaluating DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power which indicated both APS1 and APS2 showed strong scavenging activities and anticancer activities on HT-29, BGC823 and antitumor activity on HepG-2. As UAE improved the polysaccharides yield than CSE, meanwhile, no significant difference of polysaccharides chemical compositions. Therefore, the present study suggests that the consumption of AST leaves may beneficial for the treatment of many diseases. PMID:27162382

  8. Toxicological evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. for use as a dietary supplement and in functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ribnicky, David M; Poulev, Alexander; O'Neal, Joseph; Wnorowski, Gary; Malek, Dolores E; Jäger, Ralf; Raskin, Ilya

    2004-04-01

    TARRALIN is an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus (Russian tarragon), a common medicinal and culinary herb with centuries of use. Artemisia dracunculus is a close relative of the French or cooking tarragon and contains components common to many herbs that are routinely consumed without reported adverse effects. Since safety information of Artemisia dracunculus and its extract is limited to historical use, TARRALIN was examined in a series of toxicological studies. Complete Ames analysis did not reveal any mutagenic activity either with or without metabolic activation. TARRALIN was tested in an acute limit test at 5000 mg/kg with no signs of toxicity noted. In a 14 day repeated dose oral toxicity study, rats appeared to well tolerate 1000 mg/kg/day. Subsequently, TARRALIN was tested in an oral subchronic 90-day toxicity study (rat) at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day. No noteworthy signs of toxicity were noted in feeding or body weight, functional observational battery or motor activity. Gross necropsy and clinical chemistry did not reveal any effects on organ mass or blood chemistry and microscopic examinations found no lesions associated with treatment. Therefore, TARRALIN appears to be safe and non-toxic in these studies and a no-observed adverse effect level in rats is established at 1000 mg/kg/day. PMID:15019182

  9. Protective Effect of Artemisia asiatica Extract and Its Active Compound Eupatilin against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Yeon; Lee, Dahae; Jang, Hyuk-Jai; Jang, Dae Sik; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Su-Nam; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Kang, Ki Sung; Eom, Dae-Woon

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the renoprotective effect of an Artemisia asiatica extract and eupatilin in kidney epithelial (LLC-PK1) cells. Although cisplatin is effective against several cancers, its use is limited due to severe nephrotoxicity. Eupatilin is a flavonoid compound isolated from the Artemisia plant and possesses antioxidant as well as potent anticancer properties. In the LLC-PK1 cellular model, the decline in cell viability induced by oxidative stress, such as that induced by cisplatin, was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the A. asiatica extract and eupatilin. The increased protein expressions of phosphorylated JNK and p38 by cisplatin in cells were markedly reduced after A. asiatica extract or eupatilin cotreatment. The elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly reduced by A. asiatica extract and eupatilin, and the elevated percentage of apoptotic cells after cisplatin treatment in LLC-PK1 cells was markedly decreased by cotreatment with A. asiatica extract or eupatilin. Taken together, these results suggest that A. asiatica extract and eupatilin could cure or prevent cisplatin-induced renal toxicity without any adverse effect; thus, it can be used in combination with cisplatin to prevent nephrotoxicity. PMID:26539226

  10. The flavonoids casticin and artemetin are poorly extracted and are unstable in an Artemisia annua tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    A number of flavonoids including casticin and artemetin from Artemisia annua have shown synergism with artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum, but it is unclear if the flavonoids are also extracted into a tea infusion of the plant. Using a tea infusion preparation protocol that was reported to be highly effective for artemisinin extraction, we measured casticin and artemetin extraction. There was only a 1.8 % recovery of casticin in the infusion while artemetin was undetectable. After 24 hr storage at room temperature, casticin yield declined by 40 %. These results show that although a tea infusion of the plant may extract artemisinin, the polymethoxylated flavonoids casticin and artemetin are poorly extracted and lost with storage at room temperature and thus, the tea infusion appears to lose synergistic value. PMID:22673829

  11. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Different Extracts and Fractions from the Aerial Parts of Artemisia biennis Willd.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Tayyebe; Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Miraghaee, Sayyed Shahram; Mojarrab, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Total phenolic contents (TPC) of five different extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ethanol-water) of Artemisia biennis Willd were measured in this work. The antioxidant activity was investigated by three different methods: β-carotene bleaching (BCB) test, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Among all the extracts analyzed, the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a significantly higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than other samples. Vacuum liquid chromatography of this extract yielded seven fractions (A to G) which were subjected to all aforementioned experiments. The highest total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activites were present in the same sample (Fraction D) but the only statistically significant correlation between TPC and EC50 values was observed for BCB. PMID:25237350

  12. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Different Extracts and Fractions from the Aerial Parts of Artemisia biennis Willd

    PubMed Central

    Hatami, Tayyebe; Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Miraghaee, Sayyed Shahram; Mojarrab, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Total phenolic contents (TPC) of five different extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ethanol-water) of Artemisia biennis Willd were measured in this work. The antioxidant activity was investigated by three different methods: β-carotene bleaching (BCB) test, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Among all the extracts analyzed, the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a significantly higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than other samples. Vacuum liquid chromatography of this extract yielded seven fractions (A to G) which were subjected to all aforementioned experiments. The highest total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activites were present in the same sample (Fraction D) but the only statistically significant correlation between TPC and EC50 values was observed for BCB. PMID:25237350

  13. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite of small ruminants that is responsible for major losses to producers worldwide. Resistance of this nematode to commercial anthelmintics has produced a demand for alternative control methods. Artemisia annua is the sole commercial source of ...

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Artemisia nilagirica and Murraya koenigii leaf extracts against mycobacteria and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemisia nilagirica (Asteraceae) and Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) are widely distributed in eastern region of India. Leaves of Artemisia nilagirica plant are used to treat cold and cough by the local tribal population in east India. Murraya koenigii is an edible plant previously reported to have an antibacterial activity. Pathogenic strains of mycobacteria are resistant to most of the conventional antibiotics. Therefore, it is imperative to identify novel antimycobacterial molecules to treat mycobacterial infection. Methods In this study, ethanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of Artemisia nilagirica and Murraya koenigii were tested for antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG in synergy with first line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, and for cytotoxic activities on mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Antibacterial activity was determined by colony forming unit (CFU) assay. Intracellular survival assay was performed by infecting RAW264.7 cells with M. smegmatis before and after treatment with plant extracts. Cytotoxity was checked by MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay. Genotoxicity was studied by DAPI staining and COMET assay using mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cell line. Cell apoptosis was checked by Annexin-V/FITC dual staining method. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production was checked by DCFH staining and Griess reagent, respectively. Results Ethanol extracts of A. nilagirica (IC50 300 μg/ml) and M. koenigii (IC50 400 μg/ml) were found to be more effective against Mycobacterium smegmatis as compared to petroleum ether and water extracts. M. koenigii extract showed maximum activity against M. bovis BCG in combination with a first line anti-TB drug rifampicin. M. koenigii leaf extract also exerted more cytototoxic (IC50 20 μg/ml), genotoxic and apoptosis in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. Treatment of mouse macrophages with A. nilagirica extract increased

  15. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 μg/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring. PMID:21562762

  16. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life. PMID:24112571

  17. Proteomic analysis of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua: Data from leaf and trichome extracts.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Laura; Patole, Chhaya; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published by Bryant et al.[1]. Data was obtained by MS-based proteomics, analysing trichome-enriched, trichome-depleted and whole leaf samples taken from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua and searching the acquired MS/MS data against a recently published contig database [2] and other genomic and proteomic sequence databases for comparison. The processed data shows that an order-of-magnitude more proteins have been identified from trichome-enriched Artemisia annua samples in comparison to previously published data. Proteins known to have a role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other highly abundant proteins were found which imply additional enzymatically driven processes occurring within the trichomes that are significant for the biosynthesis of artemisinin. PMID:26977431

  18. Proteomic analysis of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua: Data from leaf and trichome extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Laura; Patole, Chhaya; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published by Bryant et al.[1]. Data was obtained by MS-based proteomics, analysing trichome-enriched, trichome-depleted and whole leaf samples taken from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua and searching the acquired MS/MS data against a recently published contig database [2] and other genomic and proteomic sequence databases for comparison. The processed data shows that an order-of-magnitude more proteins have been identified from trichome-enriched Artemisia annua samples in comparison to previously published data. Proteins known to have a role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other highly abundant proteins were found which imply additional enzymatically driven processes occurring within the trichomes that are significant for the biosynthesis of artemisinin. PMID:26977431

  19. Bioassay-guided fractionation and in vivo antiplasmodial effect of fractions of chloroform extract of Artemisia maciverae Linn.

    PubMed

    Ene, A C; Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ndukwe, G I; Kwanashie, H O

    2009-12-01

    In the search for new plant-derived anti-malarial compounds, chromatographic fractions of chloroform extract of whole plants of Artemisia maciverae were tested in vivo using chloroquine resistant and chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei NK 65 infected Swiss albino mice. One fraction and a sub-fraction of this were most active at 10/mg and cleared parasitemia in mice within 3 days. The different fractions and sub-fractions were tested with different reagents to determine the broad classes of compounds present. The active fraction tested positive for triterpenes and alkaloids, and the sub-fraction for only triterpenes. These tests suggest that the anti-malarial activities observed with these fractions may be due to these classes of compounds in the chloroform extract of the A. maciverae. Further chemical work is however required to characterize the active constituents. PMID:19695214

  20. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  1. Artemisia annua Leaf Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Ko, Keon-Hee; Heo, Rok Won; Yi, Chin-ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Jae-Ho; Nam, Sanghae; Kim, Hwajin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Artemisia annua L. (AA) is a well-known source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. AA also has an antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, the effect of AA extract on hepatic steatosis induced by obesity is unclear. We investigated whether AA extract prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a normal chow diet or HFD with or without AA for 12 weeks. We found that AA extract reduced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Western blot analysis showed that HFD-induced expression of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in the livers was decreased by AA extract. In particular, dietary administration of AA extract decreased hepatic high-mobility group box 1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in HFD-fed mice. AA extract also attenuated HFD-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor. These data indicate that dietary AA extract has beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:26741655

  2. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    PubMed

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, S.; Godara, R.; Katoch, R.; Yadav, A.; Verma, P. K.; Katoch, M.; Singh, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT). Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus. PMID:25525626

  4. Effect of crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on parasitaemia of mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of trypanosomosis is currently facing a number of problems including toxicity of trypanocidal drugs and development of resistance by the parasites. These limitations have prompted the search for alternative active substances (such as of natural origin). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on Trypanosoma congolense in mice. Methods Swiss white male mice aged 8–12 weeks were divided into six experimental groups of six animals. Water and methanol extracts of the two plants were prepared. T. congolense was isolated from cattle at Ghibe valley (Ethiopia). All experimental mice received approximately 1 x 105 trypanosomes in 0.2 ml of blood. Plant extracts were given orally to four groups (2 plant species and two extraction methods) at 400 mg/kg body weight for seven consecutive days. One group remained as distilled water treated control and the other as diminzene aceturate treated control. The effect of the extracts on levels of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and mice survival was monitored for 25 days. Results All treatments have significantly reduced parasitaemia and helped improve body weight, PCV and survival of mice compared to the water-treated control (P < 0.01 in all cases). These effects were comparable to that with diminazene aceturate. No significant difference was observed in the reduction of parasitaemia between plant extract treatment groups. However, mice with extracts of A. absinthium had significantly higher body weight than those with extracts of M. stenopetala (P < 0.05). Conclusions The two plants have antitrypanosomal potential against T. congolense by reducing the levels of parasitaemia, maintaining good PCV and body weight, and prolonging the lives of infected animals. PMID:24962241

  5. Hepatotoxic effects of chloroform extract of Artemisia macivera Linn in rats following intraperitoneal administration of different subchronic doses.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Ene, A C; Ameh, D A

    2011-01-01

    The possible hepatotoxic effects of chloroform extract of Artemisia maciverae was evaluated biochemically and histologically using male Swiss albino rats, randomly assigned into four groups of 24 animals each. The groups (control, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) were treated for 60 days and then monitored for another 30 days before sacrifice. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct), total protein and albumin were assessed colorimetrically, while tissue specimens were subjected to histological examination following standard hematoxyline-eosin staining techniques. After 1 week of treatment, the extract caused statistically significant elevation in levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin (total and direct), while there was significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of serum total protein and albumin at the onset of treatment when compared with the control. These abnormalities in the levels of serum biochemical parameters were spontaneously corrected within 2 weeks of treatment. Similarly, histological assessment showed severe hepatic tissue injuries after 1 week, but these organs recovered spontaneously by the second week of treatment. The results indicate that long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of chloroform extract of A maciverae is relatively safe, but high dose exposure may result in hepatocellular injury. PMID:20385704

  6. The Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia dracunculus L. Aqueous Extract on Fructose Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad Reza, Shahraki; Hamideh, Mirshekari; Zahra, Samadi

    2015-01-01

    Aim & Objective. Artemisia dracunculus L. (Tarragon) species have been used as a traditional medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of A. dracunculus L. leaf aqueous extract on fructose drinking water (FDW) in male rats. Materials & Methods. Forty-eight Wistar-albino male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into control (C), control extract (CE), FDW, and FDWE groups (n = 12). Group C did not receive any agents; Group CE did 100 mg/kg A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract on a daily basis for duration of four weeks. FDW Group received fructose drinking water (10%, weight/volume) but did not receive any agents during trial period. FDWE group received 100 mg/kg A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract during trial period. At the end of experiment, a biphasic pain response was induced following interplanetary injection of formalin (50 µL, 1%). Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software version 17 and using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results. Our findings revealed that acute and chronic pain scores in FDW group are significantly higher than other ones and A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract causes significant decreasing of this parameter in FDWE group (P < 0.001). Moreover, IL6 and TNF values in this group were significantly decreased compared to FDW group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Results in the present study show that FDW causes the pain response score to increase and cause proinflammatory cytokines in rat model but A. dracunculus L. leaf aqueous extract improves values of these parameters. PMID:26170888

  7. Evaluation of in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of crude extracts of Artemisia abyssinica against aTrypanosoma congolense isolate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background African trypanosomiasis is a major disease of economic and public health importance affecting agricultural and human development. The search for alternative compounds against African trypanosomiasis is justified by various limitations of existing chemotherapeutic agents. This study was aimed at screening the hydromethanolic and dichloromethane (DCM) crude extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia abyssinica for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma congolense isolate in mice. Methods The aerial parts of the plant were extracted by maceration technique using dichloromethane and 80% methanol to obtain the corresponding crude extracts. The plant extracts at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were administered intraperitoneally daily for 7 days to mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Diminazene aceturate and distilled water were used as positive and as negative controls respectively. The level of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume, differential leukocyte counts and mean survival period were monitored. Results The study showed that the DCM extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and the hydromethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg reduced parasitaemia (p < 0.05), ameliorated anaemia (p < 0.05), prevented body weight loss (p < 0.05) and resulted in significant increase in neutrophil levels (p < 0.05) and marked decrease in lymphocyte levels (p < 0.05) compared to the negative control. Conclusions This study established that aerial parts of A. abyssinica have antitrypanosomal potential and can be considered a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of tropical diseases caused by trypanosomes. PMID:24684992

  8. Inhibition of Phytophthora parasitica and P. capsici by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Aqueous Extract of Artemisia absinthium.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-09-01

    Application of nanoparticles for controlling plant pathogens is a rapidly emerging area in plant disease management, and nanoparticles synthesis methods that are economical and ecofriendly are extensively investigated. In this project, we investigated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized with aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium against several Phytophthora spp., which cause many economically important crop diseases. In in vitro dose-response tests conducted in microtiter plates, 10 µg ml⁻¹ of AgNPs inhibited mycelial growth of P. parasitica, P. infestans, P. palmivora, P. cinnamomi, P. tropicalis, P. capsici, and P. katsurae. Detailed in vitro dose-response analyses conducted with P. parasitica and P. capsici revealed that AgNPs synthesized with A. absinthium extract were highly potent (IC50: 2.1 to 8.3 µg ml⁻¹) and efficacious (100%) in inhibiting mycelial growth, zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, and zoospore production. Interestingly, AgNP treatment accelerated encystment of zoospores. Consistent with in vitro results, in planta experiments conducted in a greenhouse revealed that AgNP treatments prevented Phytophthora infection and improved plant survival. Moreover, AgNP in in planta experiments did not produce any adverse effects on plant growth. These investigations provide a simple and economical method for controlling Phytophthora with AgNP without affecting normal plant physiology. PMID:25871856

  9. Evaluation of in vitro antimalarial activity of different extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and fractions of the most potent extracts.

    PubMed

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Shiravand, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro   β -hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36±0.01 and 1.83±0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12±0.04 and 2.62±0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47±0.006 and 0.71±0.006 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24558335

  10. Antioxidant and relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala jacquem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current work is an attempt to know about additional chemical profile of Artemisia macrocephala. Antioxidant activity is performed as the plant is reported to contain flavonoids, which have antioxidant activity in general. Relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract is performed to know in which fraction(s) the relaxant constituents concentrate as we have already reported that its crude methanol has relaxant activity. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil is also performed as the plant is rich with essential oil. Methods Phytochemical profile of the plant is performed. Free radical scavenging activity was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Relaxation activity tests of fractions and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala were performed on sections of rabbits’ jejunum. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of plant extracts and its essential oil. Results We detected carbohydrates, flavonoids and saponins in A. macrocephala. At concentration 0.005 mg/ml, free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction was 121.5 ± 2.02% of ascorbic acid. n- hexane fraction relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.74 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Essential oil relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.8 ± 0.034 mg/ml. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions relaxed both spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions suggesting its possible mode through calcium channels. Constructing calcium chloride curves, the test fractions showed a right shift in the EC50. Essential oil at concentration 0.1 mg/ml produced right shift with EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.08 ± 0.08 vs. control with EC50 -2.47 ± 0.07. The curve resembled the curves of verapamil, which caused a right shift at 0.1 μM, with EC50 -1.7 ±0.07 vs. control EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.45 ± 0.06. Conclusions Crude methanol and its fractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol) are rich sources of antioxidant constituents. The relaxing constituents following

  11. Anti-Plasmodial Polyvalent Interactions in Artemisia annua L. Aqueous Extract – Possible Synergistic and Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Suberu, John O.; Gorka, Alexander P.; Jacobs, Lauren; Roepe, Paul D.; Sullivan, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua hot water infusion (tea) has been used in in vitro experiments against P. falciparum malaria parasites to test potency relative to equivalent pure artemisinin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometric analyses were employed to determine the metabolite profile of tea including the concentrations of artemisinin (47.5±0.8 mg L-1), dihydroartemisinic acid (70.0±0.3 mg L-1), arteannuin B (1.3±0.0 mg L-1), isovitexin (105.0±7.2 mg L-1) and a range of polyphenolic acids. The tea extract, purified compounds from the extract, and the combination of artemisinin with the purified compounds were tested against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant strains of P. falciparum using the DNA-intercalative SYBR Green I assay. The results of these in vitro tests and of isobologram analyses of combination effects showed mild to strong antagonistic interactions between artemisinin and the compounds (9-epi-artemisinin and artemisitene) extracted from A. annua with significant (IC50 <1 μM) anti-plasmodial activities for the combination range evaluated. Mono-caffeoylquinic acids, tri-caffeoylquinic acid, artemisinic acid and arteannuin B showed additive interaction while rosmarinic acid showed synergistic interaction with artemisinin in the chloroquine sensitive strain at a combination ratio of 1:3 (artemisinin to purified compound). In the chloroquine resistant parasite, using the same ratio, these compounds strongly antagonised artemisinin anti-plasmodial activity with the exception of arteannuin B, which was synergistic. This result would suggest a mechanism targeting parasite resistance defenses for arteannuin B’s potentiation of artemisinin. PMID:24244716

  12. Antitrypanosomal effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Artemisia maciverae Linn.

    PubMed

    Ene, A C; Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Nnamani, C N; Apeh, Y E O

    2009-12-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of A. maciverae were studied in vitro and in vivo for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in Swiss albino mice. Thereafter, the chloroform extract which showed the highest activity in both in vitro and in vivo assessments was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude extracts and the fractions of the chloroform extract of A. maciverae were screened for phytochemicals and secondary metabolites. Combined fractions 54-57 of this extract showed the highest in vitro antitrypanosomal activity, and at 10 mg/kg body weight, this fraction cleared the parasitemia completely from T. brucei brucei infected Swiss albino mice after 7 days of treatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the level of parasitemia when the infected mice treated with this fraction was compared with the standard trypanocidal drug, diminal. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that the crude extracts contained secondary metabolites like flavonoids, triterpenes, terpenoids, tannins, phlobatannins and alkaloids, while the active fraction contains only triterpenes and alkaloids. It can be inferred that fraction 54-57 contains the active component responsible for the high antitrypanosomal activity of the chloroform extract of A. maciverae. PMID:20329702

  13. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of −31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus

  14. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2-4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter

  15. The effects of Artemisia deserti ethanolic extract on pathology and function of rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Ali; Amjad, Leila; Yazdani, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Medicinal plants played an important role in human health. The kidney is a major organ for elimination the additional materials of body. Some of metabolic waste products are excreted through the kidneys, give us useful information about kidney health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the effects of A. deserti flowering tips extract on kidney. Materials and Methods: Three groups of animal were studied. Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was injected with saline, group 2 and 3 were injected with extract, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The animals were anesthetized, blood samples were collected 2 days after the last injection, then urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were assayed. Also, the kidney histology was studied. Results: No significant changes in urea and uric acid were observed. But, creatinine concentration was changed significantly in group 3 compared to other groups. The extract caused histologic changes in the kidney, including, glomerular atrophy, congestion of inflammatory cells and degeneration of the renal tubules. Conclusion: The results showed that A. deserti extract was able to damage the kidney tissue. However, the reason for these histopathological changes remains to be clarified. PMID:25386400

  16. [Botany of Artemisia].

    PubMed

    Ramay, B

    1987-06-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L. belongs to the family Compositae, sub-family Corymbiferae. The genus Artemisia groups together almost 200 species, the most of them are native of Eurasia and Northern America steppe regions. Artemisia are wind-pollinated plants, the flowers do not secrete any nectar and are not visited by bees. Two species of Artemisia are widely spread through the Lyon region and are with Ambrosiaceae to blame for the pollinosis in summer and autumn: A. annua and A. vulgaris. PMID:3331270

  17. In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. using cell sensitivity and flow cytometry assays.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Kourosh; Shahidi-Hakak, Fatemeh; Asgari, Qasem; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ramin; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    2016-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected human diseases with an estimated global burden ranking second in mortality and fourth in morbidity among the tropical infections. Chemotherapy involving the use of drugs like glucantime is the mainstay treatment in endemic areas of Iran. Drug resistance is increasingly prevalent, so search for alternative therapy is gathering pace. Medicinal herbs, like wormwood Artemisia, have chemical compounds effective against a number of pathogens. In this study, the efficacy of ethanol extract from Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. was investigated in vitro. The outcome of different effective doses (1-40 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts from this medicinal herb, A. absinthium, on a standard Iranian parasite strain of L. major was examined. The L. major promastigote cell sensitivity and mortality or viability effects due to the addition of herbal extract were measured using the MTT assay and the flow cytometry technique, respectively. There was complete agreement between the two assays. The lethal concentration (LC50) was measured as 101 mg/ml. Some contrasting relationships between the medicinal herb concentrations and the viability of parasites were observed; so that there was an increased multiplication of the parasite at low concentrations of the drug, but an anti-parasitic apoptotic effect was seen at high concentrations of A. absinthium. It was concluded that there might be one or more chemical constituents within the herbal extract of wormwood which at high concentration controlled cell division and affected the relevant activity within the only one giant mitochondrion in this flagellate parasite. At low doses, however, it showed the opposite effect of leading to mitotic cell divisions. PMID:27605775

  18. Artemisia scoparia extract attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diet-induced obesity mice by enhancing hepatic insulin and AMPK signaling independently of FGF21 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Zhang, Xian H.; Yu, Yongmei; Tipton, Russell C.; Raskin, Ilya; Ribnicky, David; Johnson, William; Cefalu, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease which has no standard treatment. In this regard, we sought to evaluate the effects of extracts of Artemisia santolinaefolia (SANT) and Artemisia scoparia (SCO) on hepatic lipid deposition and cellular signaling in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) animal model. Materials/Methods DIO C57/B6J mice were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. HFD, SANT and SCO. Both extracts were incorporated into HFD at a concentration of 0.5% (w/w). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and FGF21 concentrations were measured. Results At the end of the 4-week intervention, liver tissues were collected for analysis of insulin, AMPK, and FGF21 signaling. SANT and SCO supplementation significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels when compared with the HFD mice (P < 0.001). Fasting insulin levels were significantly lower in the SCO than HFD mice, but not in SANT group. Hepatic H&E staining showed fewer lipid droplets in the SCO group than in the other two groups. Cellular signaling data demonstrated that SCO significantly increased liver IRS-2 content, phosphorylation of IRS-1, IR β, Akt1 and Akt2, AMPK α1 and AMPK activity and significantly reduced PTP 1B abundance when compared with the HFD group. SCO also significantly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS), HMG-CoA Reductase (HMGR), and Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), but not Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1) when compared with HFD group. Neither SANT nor SCO significantly altered plasma FGF21 concentrations and liver FGF21 signaling. Conclusion This study suggests that SCO may attenuate liver lipid accumulation in DIO mice. Contributing mechanisms were postulated to include promotion of adiponectin expression, inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis, and/or enhanced insulin and AMPK signaling independent of FGF21 pathway. PMID:23702383

  19. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of extracts of Artemisia ciniformis Krasch. and Popov ex Poljakov on K562 and HL-60 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Hajian, Zahra; Mojarrab, Mahdi; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia, as one of the largest genera in the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae comprises an important part of Iranian flora. While cytotoxic and apoptotic properties have already been reported for some species of the genus there is not any report on cytotoxic effects of A. ciniformis. Petroleum ether (40-60), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ethanol-water (50:50) extracts of the aerial parts of A. cinformis were subjected to cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations on two cancer human cell lines (K562 and HL-60) and on J774 normal cells. Among multiple extracts evaluated for cytotoxicity, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were shown to possess the highest anti-proliferative effects on HL-60 and K562 cells with IC50 values of 31.3 and 25.5 μg/ml respectively. Apoptosis induction verified by sub-G1 peaks was seen in flow cytometry histograms. Increase in the amount of Bax protein, formation of DNA fragments, and cleavage of PARP to 24 and 89 kDa sub units all confirmed induction of apoptosis by A. cinformis extracts. Taken together according to the result of the present study some extracts of A. cinformis could be considered as sources for natural cytotoxic compounds and further mechanistic and phytochemical studies are recommended to fully understand the underlying mechanisms of cancer cell death as well as identification of responsible phytochemicals. PMID:25227790

  20. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells.

    PubMed

    Worku, Netsanet; Mossie, Andualem; Stich, August; Daugschies, Arwid; Trettner, Susanne; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behaviour of T. brucei by cell counting and light microscopy. CEF was the most efficient growth inhibitor in comparison to AMR and RMA. Nevertheless, in LNCaP and THP-1 cells, all extracts significantly inhibited tumor growth at 3 μg/mL. All extracts inhibited proliferation of T. brucei cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Microscopic analysis revealed that 95% of the T. brucei cells died when exposed to 33 μg/mL CEF for 3 hrs. Similar results were obtained using 33 μg/mL AMR for 6 hrs. In case of RMA, however, higher concentrations were necessary to obtain similar effects on T. brucei. This demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of these extracts as well as their ability to dampen viability and proliferation of T. brucei, suggesting a common mechanism of action on highly proliferative cells, most probably by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:25937964

  1. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mossie, Andualem; Stich, August; Daugschies, Arwid

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behaviour of T. brucei by cell counting and light microscopy. CEF was the most efficient growth inhibitor in comparison to AMR and RMA. Nevertheless, in LNCaP and THP-1 cells, all extracts significantly inhibited tumor growth at 3 μg/mL. All extracts inhibited proliferation of T. brucei cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Microscopic analysis revealed that 95% of the T. brucei cells died when exposed to 33 μg/mL CEF for 3 hrs. Similar results were obtained using 33 μg/mL AMR for 6 hrs. In case of RMA, however, higher concentrations were necessary to obtain similar effects on T. brucei. This demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of these extracts as well as their ability to dampen viability and proliferation of T. brucei, suggesting a common mechanism of action on highly proliferative cells, most probably by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:25937964

  2. Strong larvicidal potential of Artemisia annua leaf extract against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti L.) vectors and bioassay-driven isolation of the marker compounds.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kapoor, Himanshi; Chopra, Madhu; Kumar, Kaushal; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue are the two most important vector-borne human diseases caused by mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Of the various strategies adopted for eliminating these diseases, controlling of vectors through herbs has been reckoned as one of the important measures for preventing their resurgence. Artemisia annua leaf chloroform extract when tried against larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti has shown a strong larvicidal activity against both of these vectors, their respective LC50 and LC90 values being 0.84 and 4.91 ppm for A. stephensi and 0.67 and 5.84 ppm for A. aegypti. The crude extract when separated through column chromatography using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate gradient (0-100%) yielded 76 fractions which were pooled into three different active fractions A, B and C on the basis of same or nearly similar R f values. The aforesaid pooled fractions when assayed against the larvae of A. stephensi too reported a strong larvicidal activity. The respective marker compound purified from the individual fractions A, B and C, were Artemisinin, Arteannuin B and Artemisinic acid, as confirmed and characterized through FT-IR and NMR. This is our first report of strong mortality of A. annua leaf chloroform extract against vectors of two deadly diseases. This technology can be scaled up for commercial exploitation. PMID:24158647

  3. A semipolar fraction of petroleum ether extract of Artemisia aucheri induces apoptosis and enhances the apoptotic response to doxorubicin in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Farahnaz; Mojarrab, Mahdi; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Hosseinzadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is an important genus of Iranian flora whose potent anti-proliferative effect has been demonstrated previously on human cancerous cell lines. In the current study, further fractionation was carried out on the petroleum ether extract of A. aucheri and their cytotoxic effects were evaluated on three human cancer cell lines. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of apoptotic related genes. Activation of caspases and detection of intracellular doxorubicin (DOX) accumulation were evaluated using a spectrophotometer. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured using flow cytometry. The fraction NO-7 (F7) of petroleum ether extract showed the highest anti-proliferative effect, especially against SKNMC cells. Therefore, we focused on a description of the cytotoxic mechanism of the most potent fraction on SKNMC cells. The results indicated that F7 was able to induce apoptosis through MMP disruption, activation of caspases and increament of proapoptotic genes Bax and Smac/DIABLO. Moreover, our observation indicated that F7 is able to increase the cytotoxicity of DOX in SKNMC cells. The combination of F7+DOX significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX. These results indicated that F7 induces apoptosis in SKNMC cells. Moreover, it might enhance the antitumor activity of DOX, through modulating the activity of multidrug resistant cancer cells and inducing apoptosis. PMID:26600860

  4. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gustavo F D; Thamsborg, Stig M; Madeira, Alda M B N; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Magalhães, Pedro M; Demattê Filho, Luiz C; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John E

    2014-03-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative control (uninfected), a positive control (infected and untreated), chemical coccidiostats (nicarbazin+narazin and, later, salinomycin), vaccination, and a product based on oregano. Differences in performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate), mortality, gross intestinal lesions and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than in broilers given vaccination, oregano and in negative controls. There was a trend for lower mortality (P = 0·08) in the later stage of the growing period (23-43 days) in broilers given the highest dosage of herbal mixture compared with broilers given chemical coccidiostats. In conclusion, the delivery strategy of the herbal extracts is easy to implement at farm level, but further studies on dose levels and modes of action are needed. PMID:24553078

  5. Protective effects of fractions from Artemisia biennis hydro-ethanolic extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Mehrabi, Mehran; Ahmadi, Farahnaz; Hosseinzadeh, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was designed to indicate whether different fractions from Artemisia biennis hydroethanolic extract could provide cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12). Material and Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Also, activation of caspase-3 and superoxide dismutase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were performed by flowcytometry. Results: Treatment of PC12 cells with DOX reduced viability dose dependently. For evaluation of the effect of fractions (A-G) on DOX-induced cytotoxicity, PC12 cells were pretreated for 24 hr with the A. biennis fractions and then cells were treated with DOX. The fractions C and D increased PC12 cells viability significantly compared to DOX treated cells. Moreover, pretreatment with fractions C and D for 24 hr attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis and the anti-apoptotic action of A. biennis fractions was partially dependent on inhibition of caspase 3 activity and also increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Selected A. biennis fractions also suppressed the generation of ROS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Conclusion: Taken together our observation indicated that subtoxic concentration of aforementioned fractions of A. biennis hydroetanolic extract has protective effect against apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cell. The results highlighted that fractions C and D may exert cytoprotective effects through their antioxidant actions. PMID:27403257

  6. On-line quantitative monitoring of liquid-liquid extraction of Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sha; Jin, Ye; Liu, Qian; Liu, Qi-an; Wu, Jianxiong; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhengzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-liquid extraction of Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua (JQ) plays a significant role in manufacturing Reduning injection. Many process parameters may influence liquid-liquid extraction and cause fluctuations in product quality. Objective: To develop a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for on-line monitoring of liquid-liquid extraction of JQ. Materials and Methods: Eleven batches of JQ extraction solution were obtained, ten for building quantitative models and one for assessing the predictive accuracy of established models. Neochlorogenic acid (NCA), chlorogenic acid (CA), cryptochlorogenic acid (CCA), isochlorogenic acid B (ICAB), isochlorogenic acid A (ICAA), isochlorogenic acid C (ICAC) and soluble solid content (SSC) were selected as quality control indicators, and measured by reference methods. NIR spectra were collected in transmittance mode. After selecting the spectral sub-ranges, optimizing the spectral pretreatment and neglecting outliers, partial least squares regression models were built to predict the content of indicators. The model performance was evaluated by the coefficients of determination (R2), the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and the relative standard error of prediction (RSEP). Results: For NCA, CA, CCA, ICAB, ICAA, ICAC and SSC, R2 was 0.9674, 0.9704, 0.9641, 0.9514, 0.9436, 0.9640, 0.9809, RMSEP was 0.0280, 0.2913, 0.0710, 0.0590, 0.0815, 0.1506, 1.167, and RSEP was 2.32%, 4.14%, 3.86%, 5.65%, 7.29%, 6.95% and 4.18%, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could provide good predictive ability in monitoring of the content of quality control indicators in liquid-liquid extraction of JQ. PMID:26246744

  7. Ex vivo effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production in Algerian patients with Adamantiades-Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD) is a chronic multisystemic inflammation with unknown pathophysiology. This disorder is associated with a dysregulation of the cytokine network that hyperactivates neutrophils and macrophages. In this study, we investigate the modulatory effects of flavonoïd compounds extracted from Algerian medicinal plant Artemisia herba alba on Th1 and Th2 cytokines and nitric oxide production. Methods The modulatory effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from Algerian ABD patients and healthy controls were respectively measured by means of ELISA assays and Griess modified method. Results Our results show that flavonoïds significantly reduce the production of interleukin-12, the key effector of T helper 1 (Th1) cells and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent manner in Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. In contrast, the production of IL-4, the key marker of Th2 cells was increased. Conclusion This study suggests that in vitro supplementation with flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba could have potential immuno-modulatory effects characterised by a down-regulation and up-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Moreover, flavonoïds may prevent nitric oxide induced damages. PMID:22104639

  8. Antagonistic effects of extracts from Artemisia rupetris L. and Leontopodium leontopodioides to CC chemokine receptor 2b (CCR2b).

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin-Wei; Hu, Jie; Wang, Hao; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Fang; Gao, Peng; Yang, Qiu-Bin; Sun, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Yan, Ming

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to establish a suitable assay to explore CCR2b receptor antagonists from the natural products of Artemisia rupetris and Leontopodium leontopodioides. An aequorin assay was developed as a cell-based assay suitable for 384-well microplate and used for screening CCR2b receptor antagonists from natural products. Through establishing suitable conditions, the assay was shown to be suitable for screening of CCR2b receptor antagonists. Seven compounds were identified in preliminary screening. Five of them showed evident dose-response relationship in secondary screening. The structure-activity relationship study suggested that 7-position hydroxyl group of flavonoids was necessary, a polar group should be introduced on the 3-position, and the substituents on 2-position benzene ring of flavonoids have little influence on the potentency of the inhibition activity on CCR2b receptor. The ortho-position dihydroxyl structure in quinic acid compounds may be important. In conclusion, Compounds HR-1, 5, 7, and AR-20, 35 showed activity as antagonist of CCR2b receptor, which shed lights on the development of novel drugs as CCR2b receptor antagonists for preventing inflammation related diseases. PMID:27478099

  9. Anti-inflammatory and blood stasis activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi leaf in animals.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yue-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Xian-Ju; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Hong, Zong-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a well-known species in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory and activating blood stasis activities of its essential oil (AAEO) have not been explored in vivo. The present study measured the contents of three chemical components by gas chromatography (GC). The anti-acute inflammatory effects of AAEO were investigated in dimethyl benzene, glacial acetic acid and carrageenan-induced animals through skin administration or by oral gavage, respectively. The effects of AAEO on haemorheology were studied in a rat acute blood stasis model. The contents of eucalyptol, camphor and borneol in AAEO were 254.4, 51.6 and 58.7 mg/g, respectively. All dosages of AAEO by skin administration significantly decreased the swelling in dimethyl benzene-induced ear oedema and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and reduced the permeability in glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal blood capillary (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, haemorheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index significantly decreased only in the high dosage group. In addition, the effects of AAEO by oral gavage were weaker than skin administration at the medium dose in the experiments. It suggests that AAEO has better absorption bioavailability and pharmacological effects through skin administration due to the better skin permeability of essential oil than gastrointestinal absorption. PMID:26894818

  10. Effect of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua crude leaf extracts on some biological and physiological characteristics of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

    2011-01-01

    The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC₅₀ and LC₂₀ values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC₅₀ treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC₂₀ treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC₅₀ dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC₅₀ was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of α-amylase and protease 48 hours post-treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

  11. Two New Compounds from Artemisia sacrorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghu; Wu, Rongjun; Han, Narenchaoketu; Dai, Nayintai; Wu, Jiesi

    2016-04-01

    Two new compounds, named as sacric acid A (1) and sacric acid B (2), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. This is the first report on the structure elucidation of these compounds based on UV, IR, and extensive ID and 2D NMR spectroscopic, and ESI-MS techniques. PMID:27396200

  12. Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products. PMID:23203088

  13. Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves on ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Gharzouli, K; Khennouf, S; Amira, S; Gharzouli, A

    1999-02-01

    The gastroprotective effect of tannic acid and the aqueous extract of Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves was investigated in the rat against ethanol-induced damage. Tannic acid, Q. ilex and P. granatum extracts gave 100% precipitation of ovine haemoglobin in vitro, whereas A. herba-alba extract was devoid of any protein-binding property. Oral administration of these plant extracts or tannic acid induced a significant decrease in gastric lesions (47.7%-76%). The observed protection was more pronounced when the test solution was given at the same time with ethanol, except for Q. ilex extract. The acid content of the stomach was significantly increased by P. granatum (368%) and A. herba-alba (251%) extracts prepared in ethanol. It is suggested that monomeric and polymeric polyphenols can strengthen the gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:10189949

  14. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. PMID:26157064

  15. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

  16. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Cha, Kwang Ho; Kang, Seung Yeob; Won, Donghan; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Miwon; Son, Moon Ho; Choi, Ho Jung; Lee, Young Won; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Objective DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR) tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR) tablets of DA-9601. Method In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration) and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day) or GR (twice daily) tablets for 15 days. Results Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm3) was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy. Conclusion Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence time and a remarkable mucosal restoration effect in animal models. Therefore, the GR system of DA-9601 could be a substitute dosage form for the treatment of gastritis, while reducing the dosing frequency and thus improving patient compliance. PMID:27354765

  17. Annotations on Artemisia.

    PubMed

    Gedo, John E

    2013-10-01

    To demonstrate the relevance of an artist's biography to the understanding of her creations, no instance is more persuasive than the career of the 17th-century Italian painter Artemisia Gentileschi. Numerous scholars have attempted to correlate the nature of her subject matter with the more dramatic events of her picaresque private life. A psychoanalytic effort to make such a correlation needs to go beyond discrete incidents, to reconstruct her personality and its development. Artemisia's oeuvre is tightly focused on a fantasy system of sexual irrestibility, probably based on the interactions of this motherless child with a delinquent father. Hypotheses that the artist became a vengeful victim overtook her strength, resilience, and affability. PMID:24063271

  18. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of essential oils is reported to have significant activity against Candida albicans. But the different chemical composition influences the degree of their activity. The intention of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect against C. albicans. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation or extraction with dichloromethane (a new procedure we developed trying to obtain better, more separated compounds) from air dried above ground plant material and analyzed by GC-MS. Additionally commercial essential oils from the same species were tested. The Candida albicans inhibition studies were carried out by the paper disc diffusion method. Results The essential oils shared common components but presented differences in composition and showed variable antifungal activity. Davanone and derivatives thereof, compounds with silphiperfolane skeleton, estragole, davanone oil, β-thujone, sabinyl acetate, herniarin, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, 1,8-cineol, and terpineol were the main components of Artemisia volatiles. Conclusions Among the volatile fractions tested those from A. abrotanum containing davanone or silphiperfolane derivatives showed the highest antifungal activity. The in vitro tests revealed that the Artemisia oils are promising candidates for further research to develop novel anti-candida drugs. PMID:24475951

  19. Artemisia Allergy Research in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China. PMID:26000282

  20. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource. PMID:24363681

  1. The artemisia L. Genus: a review of bioactive essential oils.

    PubMed

    Abad, María José; Bedoya, Luis Miguel; Apaza, Luis; Bermejo, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000-2011). PMID:22388966

  2. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil From the Seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalali, Mohamad; Sadoughi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia aerial parts are well known for antimicrobial activities including anti malaria. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil from the seeds of Artemisia aucheri Boiss (Asteraceae). Materials and Methods Essential oil was extracted from the powdered seeds of Artemisia aucheri by hydrodistillation. Antimicrobial activity against five bacterial species was tested using the disc diffusion method, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results The essential oil of Artemisia aucheri seed showed activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The essential oil constituents identified by GC-MS were as follows: decane, ρ-cymene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, ρ-mentha-8-ol, triene, borneol, lavandulol, bornyl acetate, chrysanthenyl acetate, dehydro aromadenderene, and caryophyllene oxide. Most of these compounds are also found in the aerial parts of Artemisia aucheri. Conclusions Variation in the compositions of essential oils from Artemisia aucheri, and thus variation in the antimicrobial activity of these oils, may be due to the plant parts used for essential oil prepration. PMID:24624145

  3. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml. PMID:11346978

  4. [Biochemical study of pollens of the genus Artemisia].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, J; Prum, N; Debourcieu, L

    1987-06-01

    Pollens of three Artemisia: Artemisia vulgaris, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua were separated by ion exchange chromatography and amino acids concentrations were measured. In any cases, the most important amino acid was proline, then asparagine + glutamine group, then gamma aminobutyric acid and alanine. An important level of histidine (8.1%) and hydroxyproline (6.2%) was found in Artemisia annua relative to the two other Artemisia species. The high histidine level, the precursor of histamine, found in the three kinds of Artemisia might be correlated with allergenic power of these weeds. PMID:3454181

  5. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  6. DNA Barcode for Identifying Folium Artemisiae Argyi from Counterfeits.

    PubMed

    Mei, Quanxi; Chen, Xiaolu; Xiang, Li; Liu, Yue; Su, Yanyan; Gao, Yuqiao; Dai, Weibo; Dong, Pengpeng; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Folium Artemisiae Argyi is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is commonly used in moxibustion, medicine, etc. However, identifying Artemisia argyi is difficult because this herb exhibits similar morphological characteristics to closely related species and counterfeits. To verify the applicability of DNA barcoding, ITS2 and psbA-trnH were used to identify A. argyi from 15 closely related species and counterfeits. Results indicated that total DNA was easily extracted from all the samples and that both ITS2 and psbA-trnH fragments can be easily amplified. ITS2 was a more ideal barcode than psbA-trnH and ITS2+psbA-trnH to identify A. argyi from closely related species and counterfeits on the basis of sequence character, genetic distance, and tree methods. The sequence length was 225 bp for the 56 ITS2 sequences of A. argyi, and no variable site was detected. For the ITS2 sequences, A. capillaris, A. anomala, A. annua, A. igniaria, A. maximowicziana, A. princeps, Dendranthema vestitum, and D. indicum had single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The intraspecific Kimura 2-Parameter distance was zero, which is lower than the minimum interspecific distance (0.005). A. argyi, the closely related species, and counterfeits, except for Artemisia maximowicziana and Artemisia sieversiana, were separated into pairs of divergent clusters by using the neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood tree methods. Thus, the ITS2 sequence was an ideal barcode to identify A. argyi from closely related species and counterfeits to ensure the safe use of this plant. PMID:27582332

  7. Antidiabetic Activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganai, Bashir A.; Akbar, Seema; Mubashir, Khan; Dar, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Mohammad Younis; Tantry, Mudasir A.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL), serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatise (ALP), were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use. PMID:24967338

  8. DRYING AFFECTS ARTEMISININ, DIHYDROARTEMISINIC ACID, ARTEMISINIC ACID, AND THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anti-parasitic, anti-cancer, and anti-viral sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, commercially extracted from Artemisia annua, is in high demand worldwide. However, limited information is available on how post-harvest drying procedures affect plant biochemistry leading to the biosynthesis of artem...

  9. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as antioxidants and their potential synergism with Artemisinin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since artemisinin was discovered as the active antimalarial component in a diethyl ether extract of Artemisia annua in early 1970’s, hundreds of papers have focused on the antimalarial effects of the artemisinin semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artem...

  10. Volatile Constituents of Artemisia vestita Oil1.

    PubMed

    Weyerstahl, P; Kaul, V K; Weirauch, M; Marschall-Weyerstahl, H

    1987-02-01

    The essential oil of ARTEMISIA VESTITA (Compositae) was investigated by GLC, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Main constituents are alpha-, beta-, gamma-himachalene, caryophyllene, germacrene D, himachalol, allohimachalol, alpha-, gamma-atlantone, 1,8-cineole, yomogi alcohol, artemisia, and santolina alcohol and their acetates, and the thujones and thujanols. The characteristic oder of the oil is determined by the freshly smelling, 1, 8-cineole and thujone, and by the woody and sweet note of himachalol and atlantone. PMID:17268966

  11. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    PubMed

    Irum, Shamaila; Ahmed, Haroon; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra; Donskow-Łysoniewska, Katarzyna; Qayyum, Mazhar; Simsek, Sami

    2015-09-15

    Current study was designed to evaluate in vivo and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus in comparison with ivermectin to investigate the effect of plant extracts on survival of infective L3 and adults under in vitro condition. Plant extracts were given to H. contortus infected sheep orally and it was infected with L3 stage of H. contortus at dose of 5000 larvae/sheep. Total of 25-30 larvae were incubated with plant extracts in PBS alone and ivermectin at different concentration used as positive control. It was recorded that there is a significant decrease in fecal egg count (FEC) after post-treatment period for both plants. The highest fecal egg count reduction for A. vestita was 87.2% at 100mg/kg while for A. maritima it was 84.5% on day 28 post-treatment. Investigated extracts indicated significant activity against larvae and adult worms. PMID:26194429

  12. Comparative evaluation of two different Artemisia dracunculus L. cultivars for blood sugar lowering effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Weinoehrl, Stefanie; Feistel, Bjoern; Pischel, Ivo; Kopp, Brigitte; Butterweck, Veronika

    2012-04-01

    Recent concerns about the potential carcinogenicity of estragole and methyleugenol led a number of regulatory bodies to call for restrictions on the use of herbs that contain these constituents. A number of medicinal plants produce essential oils that contain estragole and methyleugenol, including Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon). Previous studies have proven the antidiabetic properties of tarragon. In order to address the safety concerns of estragole containing tarragon extracts, an extraction procedure was developed to minimize the estragole and methyleugenol content in tarragon extracts and the ethanol versus aqueous extracts from two Artemisia dracunculus cultivars (French and Russian tarragon) were tested for blood glucose lowering effects in rats. It could be demonstrated that aqueous extracts of both Artemisia cultivars did not contain detectable amounts of estragole and methyleugenol, whereas ethanol extracts (60% v/v) of the French cultivar contained higher levels of the aforementioned compounds than those of the Russian cultivar. Further testing revealed that Russian tarragon lowered blood glucose levels in rats after glucose challenge, with the ethanol extract being as active as the aqueous extract. The results suggest that by using adequate production procedures the amount of potentially harmful compounds in extracts can be limited without affecting the overall pharmacological activities of these preparations. PMID:21953838

  13. A pilot randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of an extract of Artemisia annua administered over 12 weeks, for managing pain, stiffness, and functional limitation associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Simon; Beattie, Elizabeth; McNamara, Debra; Hunt, Sheena

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement, Arthrem, containing an extract from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua, on pain, stiffness, and functional limitation in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Forty-two patients were randomized to one of three groups (n = 14 in each group): 150-mg Artemisia annua extract (ART) twice daily (BD) (ART low dose), 300-mg ART BD (ART high dose), or placebo BD administered over 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC®) and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Participants treated with ART low dose demonstrated significant improvement in WOMAC total scores from baseline to 12 weeks (mean change, -12.2; standard deviation, [SD] 13.84; p = 0.0159); improvement was not shown in the placebo group (mean change, -7.8; SD, 19.80; p = 0.1029). Statistically significant reductions were seen from baseline in the ART low-dose group for individual WOMAC components stiffness and physical function. VAS pain scores were statistically significantly reduced from baseline to 12 weeks in the ART low-dose group (mean change, -21.4 mm; SD, 23.48 mm; p = 0.0082) but not the placebo group (mean change, -11.5 mm; SD, 28.97 mm, p = 0.1757). No statistically significant changes occurred from baseline in the placebo or ART high-dose groups for any parameter. ART low dose was well tolerated. ART has potential as an anti-inflammatory/analgesic in OA. Treatment with ART 150 mg BD is associated with clinically relevant reductions in pain over 12 weeks. Further studies are warranted. PMID:26631103

  14. Pollen dispersal by Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Kelly, R. D.; Gerow, K. G.

    2007-08-01

    While the biophysics of anemophilous pollen dispersal is understood in principle, empirical studies for testing such principles are rare, particularly in native ecosystems. This paper describes mechanisms underlying the dispersal of Artemisia pollen in a Wyoming sagebrush steppe. The relationships between meteorological variables and pollen flux were defined during the 1999 Artemisia flowering season, and detailed processes at the individual plant level were experimentally tested in the field in 2000. Results indicated that Artemisia pollen presentation is continuous but with early morning maxima. Atmospheric pollen concentrations and potential dispersal rates are controlled at diurnal time scales by individual flower development together with characteristic changes in temperature/humidity and wind speeds, at multi-day scales by frontal weather patterns, and at week-long scales by flowering phenology.

  15. The content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua tea infusion.

    PubMed

    van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The traditional use of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua for the treatment of malaria entails the preparation of a tea infusion. In the scientific literature there have been some discrepancies on the quantity of the active principle, artemisinin, in the tea infusion. Due to these discrepancies, we decided to quantify artemisinin in tea infusions prepared according to different methods. We also studied the water solubility of pure artemisinin at room temperature and at 100  °C and compared it to the solubility of artemisinin from the plant material. We found that the extraction efficiency is very sensitive to temperature and that efficiencies of above 90 % can be reached. We also showed that the solubility of artemisinin is not improved by other components in the extract but that a supersaturated solution of artemisinin might be formed, which is stable for at least 24 hours. PMID:21544776

  16. Mono- and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Tan, R X; Lu, H; Wolfender, J L; Yu, T T; Zheng, W F; Yang, L; Gafner, S; Hostettmann, K

    1999-02-01

    In addition to beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin detected in all the investigated species, the extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii var. giraldii gave stigmasterol, daucosterol, sesamine, luteolin, eupafolin, hispidulin, eupatilin, belamcanidin, pinitol, artemin, ridentin, and a new antifungal monoterpene (named santolinylol) while that of the aerial parts of A. mongolica afforded sesamine, eupafolin, eupatilin, matricarin, and a new germacranolide (3-oxo-11 alpha H-germacra-1(10)E,4Z-dien-12,6 alpha-olide), and that of the aerial parts of A. vestita yielded stigmasterol, daucosterol, umbelliferone, scopolin, scoparone, and isoscopoletin-O-glucoside. Pinitol, first reisolated from Artemisia genus, was shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Geotrichun candidum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Umbelliferone was also active against Candida tropicalis, A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. The flavones hispidulin and belamcanidin were almost equally inhibitory to the growth of A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum, and santolinylol to C. albicans, A. flavus, A. niger, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. In addition, ridentin was active against the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:10083848

  17. Artemisia tridenata seed bank densities following wildfires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived a...

  18. Cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites derived from Artemisia annua L. towards cancer cells in comparison to its designated active constituent artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Efferth, Thomas; Herrmann, Florian; Tahrani, Ahmed; Wink, Michael

    2011-08-15

    Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood, qinhao) has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine. The isolation of artemisinin from Artemisia annua and its worldwide accepted application in malaria therapy is one of the showcase success stories of phytomedicine during the past decades. Artemisinin-type compounds are also active towards other protozoal or viral diseases as well as cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Nowadays, Artemisia annua tea is used as a self-reliant treatment in developing countries. The unsupervised use of Artemisia annua tea has been criticized to foster the development of artemisinin resistance in malaria and cancer due to insufficient artemisinin amounts in the plant as compared to standardized tablets with isolated artemisinin or semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives. However, artemisinin is not the only bioactive compound in Artemisia annua. In the present investigation, we analyzed different Artemisia annua extracts. Dichloromethane extracts were more cytotoxic (range of IC₅₀: 1.8-14.4 μg/ml) than methanol extracts towards Trypanosoma b. brucei (TC221 cells). The range of IC₅₀ values for HeLa cancer cells was 54.1-275.5 μg/ml for dichloromethane extracts and 276.3-1540.8 μg/ml for methanol extracts. Cancer and trypanosomal cells did not reveal cross-resistance among other compounds of Artemisia annua, namely the artemisinin-related artemisitene and arteanuine B as well as the unrelated compounds, scopoletin and 1,8-cineole. This indicates that cells resistant to one compound retained sensitivity to another one. These results were also supported by microarray-based mRNA expression profiling showing that molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance were different between artemisinin and the other phytochemicals investigated. PMID:21831619

  19. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species

    PubMed Central

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as “Injinho” in Korean medicinal terminology and “Yin Chen Hao” in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. PMID:27313651

  20. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species.

    PubMed

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as "Injinho" in Korean medicinal terminology and "Yin Chen Hao" in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. PMID:27313651

  1. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7]. PMID:17396957

  2. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone.

    PubMed

    Haider, S Z; Andola, H C; Mohan, M

    2012-05-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34%) followed by α-thujone (9.91%) and 1,8-cineole (6.57%), Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%), whereas ar-curcumene (8.54%) was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%). Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes. PMID:23439844

  3. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis

    PubMed Central

    Oliaee, Davood; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Oliaee, Naiime

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p.) with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929) and ovary (Cho) cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥200 μg/mL significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/mL (P < 0.01). Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. Kopetdaghensis in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells. PMID:24711816

  4. [STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L].

    PubMed

    Youyou, Tu; Muyun, Ni; Yurong, Zhong; Lanna, Li; Shulian, Gui; Muqun, Zhang; Xiuzhen, Wang; Xiaotian, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Six crystalline components were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Artemisia annua L. They have been identified as four sesquiterpenes, one flavonol and one coumarin. Qinghaosu I and III are new sesquiterpenes. Five main constituents, camphene, iso-artemisia ketone, 1-camphor, β-carophyllene, and β-pinene were identified from the volatile oil of this herb. PMID:26837162

  5. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  6. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia annua essential oil.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Masotti, Veronique; Bessière, Jean Marie; Dherbomez, Michel; Viano, Josette

    2002-10-01

    The essential oil of Artemisia annua aerial parts, consisting of camphor (44%), germacrene D (16%), trans-pinocarveol (11%), beta-selinene (9%), beta-caryophyllene (9%) and artemisia ketone (3%), was screened for its antimicrobial activity. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of tested Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus hirae and both tested fungi. This oil has shown an antioxidant activity equivalent to 18% of the reference compound (alpha-tocopherol). PMID:12385883

  7. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zant, David; Gubler, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia australis (A. australis), a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma. Methods The dichloromethane extract of A. australis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement. Results The major chemical components of A. australis include eucalyptol, borneol, and caryophyllene. Conclusions The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine. PMID:25183270

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds. PMID:26118418

  9. Artemisia annua L. as a plant with potential use in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Cholewiński, Marcin; Skrzypczak, Łukasz; Grzondziel, Anna; Wojtkowiak-Giera, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of acanthamoebiasis is a great problem. Most cerebral invasions end with death, and the treatment of ocular invasions is usually long-lasting and not very effective. Numerous plant extracts and substances isolated from plants, which are effective against trophozoites or cysts, have been studied in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis. However, no agents that are simultaneously effective against both developing forms of amoebae have been discovered yet. It seems that such a plant which fulfils both tasks is Artemisia annua L. Our studies showed that water, alcohol and chloroform extracts from the herb A. annua L. can be applied in general and local treatment or in combined therapy with antibiotics in the treatment of acanthamoebiasis. Extracts from this plant show not only in vitro but also in vivo effects. Studies carried out on experimental animals infected with amoebae show that the application of these extracts significantly prolongs the survival of the animals. PMID:26782959

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs. PMID:23171441

  11. Chemical composition and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia persica Boiss. and Artemisia turcomanica Gand. essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht, M.R.; Sharifi, S.; Emami, S.A.; Khodaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia persica and Artemisia turcomanica were analyzed by GC/MS. While 28 components representing 91.01 % of A. persica were identified, the identity of 50 components, constituting 81.93 % of the total oil, was confirmed in A. turcomanica. β-thujone was the main compound (75.23%) in A. persica while the major identified phytochemicals in A. turcomanica were 1,8-cineol (19.23%), camphor (15.55%) and filifolone (15.53%). Both of the essential oils were predominantly made up of monoterpenes. Time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of A. persica and A. turcomanica on MCF-7 cell line evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h, showed that the highest cytotoxic effect of A. persica and A. turcomanica were appeared at 72 h incubation. At that incubation period, CI50 of A. persica was found to be 0.15 μg/ml, while that of A. turcomanica was 0.1 μg/ml. Thus, cytotoxicity of A. turcomanica was slightly higher than A. persica which could be attributed to the higher content of sesquiterpene present in A. turcomanica. As a conclusion, these volatile oils could have chemotherapeutic potentials. PMID:25657784

  12. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. PMID:25127023

  13. Hypolipidaemic Effect of Hericium erinaceum Grown in Artemisia capillaris on Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Sik; Kim, Young-Sun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jang-Eok; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2013-06-01

    In this study, ethanolic extracts from Hericium erinaceum cultivated with Artemisia capillaris (HEAC) were assessed for their ability to lower the cholesterol levels of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. Rats were randomly subdivided into seven test groups. Each group contained eight rats fed a high-fat diet during a growth period lasting 4 wk. Supplementation with the extracts was performed once a day for 2 wk after the high-fat diet. The control group (rats fed a high-fat diet) showed a high efficiency ratio (feed efficiency ratio) value compared to the normal group. Biochemical parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglyceride (TG) levels dramatically increased in the control group compared to the normal group. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) content in the control group was also significantly lower relative to the normal group. Two positive control groups, treated with simvastatin and atorvastatin, had lowered TC, LDL-c, and TG levels, and increased HDL-c content compared to the control group. Treatment with the tested extracts, including HEAC, ethanolic extracts from Hericium erinaceum, and ethanolic extracts from Artemisia capillaris reduced TC, LDL-c, and TG levels and elevated HDL-c content in the hyperlipidemia rats. The atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor values for the HEAC-treated group were 0.95 and 1.95, respectively. Simvastatin- and atorvastatin-treated groups showed atherogenic index values of 1.56 and 1.69, respectively, and cardiac risk factor values of 2.56 and 2.69, respectively. These results show HEAC possesses an ability to cure hyperlipidemia in rats and may serve as an effective natural medicine for treating hyperlipidemia in humans. PMID:23874132

  14. A new chemical tool for absinthe producers, quantification of α/β-thujone and the bitter components in Artemisia absinthium.

    PubMed

    Bach, Benoit; Cleroux, Marilyn; Saillen, Mayra; Schönenberger, Patrik; Burgos, Stephane; Ducruet, Julien; Vallat, Armelle

    2016-12-15

    The concentrations of α/β-thujone and the bitter components of Artemisia absinthium were quantified from alcoholic wormwood extracts during four phenological stages of their harvest period. A solid-phase micro-extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of the two isomeric forms of thujone. In parallel, the combination of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry allowed to quantify the compounds absinthin, artemisetin and dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B. This present study aimed at helping absinthe producers to determine the best harvesting period. PMID:27451252

  15. Effect of drying temperature on essential oil content and composition of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) growing wild in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khangholil, Shahpour; Rezaeinodehi, Ayatollah

    2008-03-15

    Studies were conducted to show the effect of different temperatures in the drying process on the amount and quality of essential oils of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.). The sweet wormwood aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time from an area around the Siahkal city in north of Iran in September 2005. In order to complete drying, the aerial parts were placed at shade (room temperature) and in oven at 35, 45, 55 and 65 degrees C temperatures. The aerial parts essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that higher drying temperatures decreased the essential oil content, from 1.12% (room temperature) 0.88% (35 degrees C), 0.55% (45 degrees C) to 0.50% (55 degrees C) and 0.37% (65 degrees C). Thirty-five components were determined in essential oils, which were mostly monoterpenes. The drying temperatures had a significant effect on the essential oils composition and proportion of the various components, as when the temperature increased, the monoterpenes content gradually decreased and vice versa for sesquiterpenes. The major components were artemisia ketone and 1, 8 cineol for room and 45 degrees C; artemisia ketone, 1, 8 cineol and camphor for 35 and 55 degrees C and beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D for 65 degrees C temperatures. PMID:18814660

  16. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    PubMed

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors. PMID:26460560

  17. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanescu, Bianca; Miron, Anca; Corciova, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation. PMID:26495156

  18. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivanescu, Bianca; Miron, Anca; Corciova, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation. PMID:26495156

  19. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25451863

  20. Protective capacity of Artemisia annua as a potent antioxidant remedy against free radical damage

    PubMed Central

    Chukwurah, Peter Nkachukwu; Brisibe, Ebiamadon Andi; Osuagwu, Aniefiok Ndubuisi; Okoko, Tebekeme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of four leaf-derived solvent extracts of Artemisia annua (A. annua), a medicinal plant widely touted for its vast phyto-therapeutic potential. Methods A. annua leaves were extracted with four solvents (absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, 70% ethanol and 70% methanol), and extracts obtained studied by five complementary in vitro antioxidant test systems using ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and rutin as standard references. Results The extracts remarkably inhibited lipid peroxidation (79.81%-86.70%), and erythrocyte haemolysis (40.02%-49.91%). Their IC50 values for hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities ranged from 2.39-3.81 mg/mL (superior to the standards), 107.24-144.49 µg/mL and 28.53-53.20 µg/mL, respectively. 70% alcohol extracts generally showed better antioxidant activity than absolute alcohol extracts. Conclusions The results indicate that A. annua leaf extracts have potent antioxidant activities that would have beneficial effect on human health, and aqueous organic solvents are superior to the absolute counterparts in yielding extracts with better antioxidant potential. PMID:25183155

  1. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  2. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  4. Profiling the phenolic compounds of Artemisia pectinata by HPLC-PAD-MSn.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao-Mei; Hattori, Masao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Cai, Shao-Qing; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    An HPLC-PAD-MS(n) method was employed to profile the phenolic compounds of the aerial part of Artemisia pectinata (Neopallasia pectinata), a plant with no previous reports concerning its phenolic constituents. Three isomers of trans-caffeoylquinic acid accompanied by cis-5-caffeoylquinic acid, six isomers of trans-dicaffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of methyl trans-dicaffeoylquinate (including one new isomer), a trans-caffeoylferuloylquinic acid and three flavanoids were identified unambiguously by analysis of their UV and MS(n) spectra in comparison with standard compounds that were isolated from natural sources, or synthesised, or were surrogate standards (green coffee extract). Other compounds were identified by analysis of their UV and MSn data in comparison with those reported in the literature. MS(n) experiments also suggested the presence of groups of dicaffeoylquinic acid glycosides, caffeoylquinic acid diglycosides, caffeoylquinic acid glycosides and quinic acid diglycosides. PMID:17994537

  5. Bioactivity of two major constituents isolated from the essential oil of Artemisia judaica L.

    PubMed

    Abdelgaleil, Samir A M; Abbassy, Moustafa A; Belal, Abdel-Salam H; Abdel Rasoul, Mona A A

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil of Artemisia judaica L., grown on Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, was extracted via hydrodistillation. Chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to isolate two compounds namely piperitone and trans-ethyl cinnamate. Insecticidal, antifeedant and antifungal properties of the isolated compounds were examined. Both compounds showed pronounced insecticidal and antifeedant activity against the third instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). trans-Ethyl cinnamate (LD(50)=0.37 microg/larva) was more toxic than piperitone (LD(50)=0.68microg/larva). The two isolated compounds revealed antifeedant activity in a concentration dependent manner, with complete feeding inhibition at a concentration of 1,000microg/ml. When tested for antifungal activity against four plant pathogenic fungi, the isolated compounds exhibited a moderate to high activity. PMID:18054484

  6. Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon): a critical review of its traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology, and safety.

    PubMed

    Obolskiy, Dmitry; Pischel, Ivo; Feistel, Bjoern; Glotov, Nikolay; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon) has a long history of use as a spice and remedy. Two well-described "cultivars" (Russian and French) are used widely and differ in ploidy level, morphology, and chemistry. Key biologically active secondary metabolites are essential oils (0.15-3.1%), coumarins (>1%), flavonoids, and phenolcarbonic acids. In vivo studies mainly in rodents, particularly from Russian sources, highlight potential anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antihyperglycemic effects. Despite concerns about the toxic effects of two of its main constituents, estragole (up to 82%) and methyleugenol (up to 39%), no acute toxicity or mutagenic activity has been reported at doses relevant for human consumption. Water extracts of A. dracunculus contain very low amounts of estragole and methyleugenol and, therefore, are considered to pose a very limited risk. Overall, a stronger focus on clinical studies and precise taxonomic and phytochemical definition of the source material will be essential for future research efforts. PMID:21942448

  7. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Mongolia Medicine Artemisia frigida and Phylogenetic Relationships with Other Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A.; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. Conclusion The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be

  8. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  9. Development of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Quantification of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua and Rat Serum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suqin; Cui, Yongliang; Wang, Kunbi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Guiyu; Wang, Baomin; Cui, Liwang

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin, extracted from Artemisia annua, and its derivatives are important frontline antimalarials. To produce specific antibodies for the detection and quantification of artemisinin, artemisinin was transformed to 9-hydroxyartemisinin by microbial fermentation, which was used to prepare a 9-succinate artemisinin hapten for conjugation with ovalbumin. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as 3H7A10, was selected from hybridoma cell lines which showed high specificity to artemisinin. No competitive inhibition was observed with artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether for up to 20,000 ng mL(-1). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed, which showed a concentration causing 50% of inhibition (IC50) for artemisinin as 2.6 ng mL(-1) and a working range of 0.6-11.5 ng mL(-1). The icELISA was applied for the quantification of artemisinin in crude extracts of wild A. annua and the study of pharmacokinetics of artemisinin in rat serum after intraperitoneal injection. The results were highly correlated with those determined by HPLC-UV analysis (R(2) = 0.9919). In comparison with reported antiartemisinin mAbs which have broad cross-reactivity with other artemisinin derivatives, the high specificity of 3H7A10 for artemisinin will enable development of methods for quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia plants and antimalarial drugs such as Arco and for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26822789

  10. Fungicidal activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mahmoud A; Belal, Mohamed H; el-Baroty, Gamal

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC/MS, GC/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds was estimated to be 5 microg/ml, 2 microg/ml against Penicillium citrinum and 7 microg/ml, 1.5 microg/ml against Mucora rouxii carvone and piperitone, respectively. PMID:16484084

  11. Tetraploid Artemisia annua hairy roots produce more artemisinin than diploids.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Gonzalez, L; Weathers, P J

    2003-04-01

    Hairy root cultures of diploid Artemisia annua L. (clone YUT16) grow rapidly and produce the antimalarial sesquiterpene artemisinin. Little is known about how polyploidy affects the growth of transformed hairy roots and the production of secondary metabolites. Using colchicine, we produced four stable tetraploid clones of A. annua L. from the YUT16 hairy root clone. Analysis showed major differences in growth and artemisinin production compared to the diploid clone. Tetraploid clones produced up to six times more artemisinin than the diploid parent. This study provides an initial step in increasing our understanding of the role of polyploidy in secondary metabolite production, especially in hairy roots. PMID:12789527

  12. Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Dimeric Sesquiterpenoids from Artemisia rupestris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Shu; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Li, Jun; Ferreira, Daneel; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Liu, Bing-Yu; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Hong-Wei; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-22

    Twelve new dimeric sesquiterpenoids (1-12) were isolated from the dried whole plants of Artemisia rupestris. Their structures were determined using MS and NMR data, and the absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Compounds 1-9 are presumably formed via biocatalyzed [2+2] or [4+2] cycloaddition reactions. Stereoselectivity of the [4+2] Diels-Alder reaction dictated the formation of endo-products. The dimeric sesquiterpenoids exhibited moderate inhibition on NO production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide in BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values in the range 17.0-71.8 μM. PMID:26696523

  13. Essential Oil Composition and Antigermination Activity of Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon).

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Flamini, Guido; Ricci, Donata

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition of an Italian oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) was analyzed by GC/EIMS. The major compound of the oil was estragole (73.3%), followed by limonene (5.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (5.3%), β-pinene (3.4%) and (Z)-β-ocimene (3.0%). The essential oil was tested "in vitro" for its antigermination activity against Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L, Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena fatua L. seeds and demonstrating a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. PMID:26434144

  14. Allergenicity of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is proportional to its mass.

    PubMed

    Nonotte-Varly, C

    2015-11-01

    Bee product mugwort is identified as being at the origin of allergic accidents but the biological potency of Artemisia contained in bee pollen is not well known. In this experiment, Artemisia mass was identified in bee pollen mass and after having calculated the proportion of Artemisia using the bee pollen melissopalynology spectrum. Skin reactivity to Artemisia was assessed by measuring wheal diameters (W) from skin prick tests using three serial dilutions of bee pollen on 11 allergic patients to Artemisia, in order to calculate the relationship between Artemisia mass (Massartemisia) in bee pollen and skin reactivity. The dose-response power regression curve (Wartemisia)=3.328 (Massartemisia)0.297 (R2=0.9947) and the linear function Log10 (Wartemisia)=0.297 (Log10 (Massartemisia)+0.520 (R=0.9974)) were established using a bee pollen sample with 0.246 mg of Artemisia pollen per mg. Mugwort allergens seem to be little or not altered by bee secretions and bee pollen retains its allergenic capacity. To our knowledge this is the first time it has been shown that skin reactivity of patients allergic to mugwort is proportional to the absolute mugwort mass contained in the bee pollen. PMID:26549340

  15. Anti-adipogenic effect of Artemisia annua in diet-induced-obesity mice model

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Hye Kyung; Shim, Hyeji; Lim, Hyunmook; Shim, Minju; Kim, Chul-Kyu; Park, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yong Seok; Song, Ki-Duk; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has increased continuously in western countries during the last several decades and recently become a problem in developing countries. Currently, anti-obesity drugs originating from natural products are being investigated for their potential to overcome adverse effects associated with chemical drugs. Artemisinic acid, which was isolated from the well-known anti-malaria herb Artemisia annua (AA) L., was recently shown to possess anti-adipogenic effects in vitro. However, the anti-adipogenic effects of AA in animal models have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we conducted daily oral administration with AA water extract in a diet-induced obesity animal model and treated 3T3-L1 cells with AA to confirm the anti-adipogenic effects in the related protein expressions. We then evaluated the physiology, adipose tissue histology and mRNA expressions of many related genes. Inhibition of adipogenesis by the AA water extract was observed in vitro. In the animal model, weight gain was significantly lower in the AA treated group, but there were no changes in food intake volume or calories. Reductions in lipid droplet size and mRNA expression associated with adipogenesis were also observed in animal epididymal fat. This study is the first to report that AA has an anti-obese effects in vivo. PMID:26243598

  16. Skin regeneration effect and chemical composition of essential oil from Artemisia Montana.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi-So; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2014-11-01

    Artemisia montana Pampan (Compositae) (AMP) contains various compounds, including phenolic acids, alkaloids, and essential oil. It has been widely used in oriental medicine due to a variety of biological effects. However, the biological activity of the essential oil from AMP (AMPEO) on skin has not been investigated. In the present study, AMPEO was evaluated for its composition and its effect on cellular events (migration and proliferation) related to skin regeneration using normal human keratinocytes (HaCats). AMPEO, which was extracted by steam distillation, contained 42 components. AMPEO increased proliferation in HaCats in a dose-dependent manner (EC 50, 8.5 ng/mL) and did not affect migration. AMPEO also enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK 1/2 and induced the synthesis of type IV collagen, but not type I collagen in HaCats. In addition, AMPEO promoted wound closure in the dorsal side skin of rat tail. These results demonstrated that AMPEO extracted by steam distillation induced proliferation and synthesis of type IV collagen in human skin keratinocytes, and may thereby exert positive effects on skin regeneration and wound healing in human skin. PMID:25532296

  17. Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P

    2008-05-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils. PMID:18417176

  18. Bioactivities of volatile components from Nepalese Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Kafle, Ananad; Pokharel, Suraj K; Lamichhane, Bimala; Dosoky, Noura S; Moriarity, Debra M; Setzer, William N

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Artemisia dubia, A. indica, and A. vulgaris growing wild in Nepal were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in A. dubia oil were chrysanthenone (29.0%), coumarin (18.3%), and camphor (16.4%). A. indica oil was dominated by ascaridole (15.4%), isoascaridole (9.9%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (9.7%), and trans-verbenol (8.4%). The essential oil of Nepalese A. vulgaris was rich in alpha-thujone (30.5%), 1,8-cineole (12.4%), and camphor (10.3%). The essential oils were screened for phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) using both seed germination and seedling growth, and all three Artemisia oils exhibited notable allelopathic activity. A. dubia oil showed in-vitro cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cells (100% kill at 100 microg/mL) and was also marginally antifungal against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 313 microg/mL). DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-31G*) revealed thermal decomposition of ascaridole to be energetically accessible at hydrodistillation and GC conditions, but these are spin-forbidden processes. If decomposition does occur, it likely proceeds by way of homolytic peroxide bond cleavage rather than retro-Diels-Alder elimination of molecular oxygen. PMID:23413575

  19. Flower morphology and development in Artemisia annua, a medicinal plant used as a treatment against malaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua produces a wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals that possess pharmacological properties including antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against multi-drug resistant Plasmodium fal...

  20. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    SciTech Connect

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  1. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in northern hilly areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Walia, Suresh; Sati, O P

    2013-01-01

    Essential oil extracted from aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Forty-three constituents amounting to 98.16% of the total essential oil contents were identified. The essential oil contained approximately 79.91% monoterpenoids and 18.25% sesquiterpenoids. α-Thujone (36.35%), β-thujone (9.37%), germacrene D (6.32%), 4-terpineol (6.31%), β-caryophyllene (5.43%), camphene (5.47%) and borneol (4.12%) were identified as the major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (ED(50), 85.75 mg L(-1)), Sclerotium rolfsii (ED(50), 87.63 mg L(-1)) and Macrophomina phaseolina (ED(50), 93.23 mg L(-1)). This study indicated that A. nilagirica essential oil can be used to control phytopathogenic fungi infesting agricultural crops and commodities. PMID:22348279

  2. Volatile oil of Artemisia santolina decreased morphine withdrawal jumping in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gohari, Ahmad R.; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Flowered aerial parts of Artemisia santolina Schrenk (Asteraceae), which is found in the central and western regions of Iran were collected from Khorasan province and the volatile oil extracted by hydro distillation. Materials and Methods: The oil (0.5% v/w) was analyzed by GC and GC/MS using DB-5 column. The effect of this oil on the withdrawal syndrome was determined in mice. After induction of dependency by morphine, mice were intraperitoneally administered different concentrations of the oil. Morphine-withdrawal inducing by naloxone was assessed by recording the incidence of escape jumps for 60 min. Results: The results indicated that a significant difference between the essential oil received group (at dose of 3.6 mg/kg) and control group was shown but the lower doses were not effective. Essential oil analysis showed that there were forty-six components, representing 95.4% of the oil. Conclusion: The oil of A. santolina which is rich in oxygenated monoterpenes with the major components, trans-verbenol (34.6%) and p-mentha3-en-8-ol (13.1%), can decreased the number of withdrawal jumping in addicted mice. PMID:23798887

  3. Effect of irradiated sodium alginate and phosphorus on biomass and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Siddiqi, T O; Moinuddin; Varshney, Lalit

    2014-09-22

    It is now being realized that irradiation products of natural bioactive agents can also be beneficially utilized to impart value addition in agriculture by converting these bioactive agents into more useful form. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. Artemisinin has been increasingly popular as an effective and safe alternative therapy against malaria; also proved effective against the highly adaptable malaria parasite, which has already become resistant to many other drugs. The drug artemisinin can be extracted from the leafy tissues of Artemisia annua. Therefore, experiments were conducted with an aim to evaluate artemisinin production and overall plant development though depolymerized sodium alginate application and nutrient supply. In the present study, sodium alginate, irradiated by Co-60 gamma rays together with various phosphorus doses, was used to study their effect on growth, physiological and biochemical processes and production of artemisinin in A. annua. Among various applied doses of phosphorus fertilizer, P40 (40 kg Pha(-1)) together with ISA80 (80 mg L(-1)) significantly improved all the parameters studied. Increase in plant height as well as weight was noted at this treatment. Dry leaf yield, artemisinin concentration in leaves and artemisinin yield was also significantly enhanced by the treatment. PMID:24906772

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn(2+) for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  5. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de las; del Prado, Gema; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant–environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  7. Effects of acetylation on the emulsifying properties of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjun; Hu, Xinzhong; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen

    2016-06-25

    In the present study, polysaccharides extracted from Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. seeds (ASKP) were acetylated to improve the emulsifying properties of the macromolecules. Several methods were applied for the acetylation purpose, among which the acetic anhydride-pyridine method with formamide as solvent was found to be the most effective one. Acetylated ASKPs with various degree of substitution (DS) were successfully produced and structurally characterized using HPSEC-MALS, FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques in this study. Results showed that acetylation treatment could cause the degradation of ASKP. Moreover, with the increase of DS, both the molecular weight and radius of gyration increased, as well as the molecular conformation trended to be more compact. Low DS (DS: 0.04 and 0.13) conferred acetylated ASKP a lower viscosity than that of ASKP. With the increase of DS, the viscosity of acetylated ASKPs increased and exceeded that of ASKP. Compared with ASKP, acetylated ASKPs could reduce the surface tension to a greater extent and demonstrated a much smaller droplet size (ZD) in an oil/water emulsion system. Acetylated ASKPs were capable of stabilizing the oil/water emulsion for 3 days at 60°C, whose performance was as good as that of gum acacia. In conclusion, such a hydrophobic modification on ASKP conferred it better emulsifying properties. PMID:27083845

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed Central

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities. PMID:24575401

  9. Antimicrobial activity of artemisinin and precursor derived from in vitro plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities. PMID:24575401

  10. Survey of artemisinin production by diverse Artemisia species in northern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Artemisinin is the current drug of choice for treatment of malaria and a number of other diseases. It is obtained from the annual herb, Artemisia annua and some microbial sources by genetic engineering. There is a great concern that the artemisinin production at current rate will not meet the increasing demand by the pharmaceutical industry, so looking for additional sources is imperative. Methods In current study, artemisinin concentration was analysed and compared in the flowers, leaves, roots and stems of Artemisia annua and 14 other Artemisia species including two varieties each for Artemisia roxburghiana and Artemisia dracunculus using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The highest artemisinin concentration was detected in the leaves (0.44 ± 0.03%) and flowers (0.42 ± 0.03%) of A. annua, followed by the flowers (0.34 ± .02%) of A. bushriences and leaves (0.27 ± 0%) of A. dracunculus var dracunculus. The average concentration of artemisinin varied in the order of flowers > leaves > stems > roots. Conclusion This study identifies twelve novel plant sources of artemisinin, which may be helpful for pharmaceutical production of artemisinin. This is the first report of quantitative comparison of artemisinin among a large number of Artemisia species. PMID:21047440

  11. Identification of volatile compounds emitted by Artemisia ordosica (Artemisia, Asteraceae) and changes due to mechanical damage and weevil infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Dayong; Luo, Youqing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by healthy, mechanically damaged, and weevil-infested Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) were obtained through a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight compounds in all were identified, and the qualitative as well as quantitative differences were compared. The green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were present in all of the damaged plants, but in relatively lower portions when plants were infested by the weevil Adosopius sp., while the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and the ester methyl salicylate were only present in weevil-damaged plants. The volatiles from healthy and weevil-infested leaves were dominated by D-limonene, whereas mechanically damaged leaves emitted beta-pinene as the dominant compound. PMID:24066517

  12. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    More, Garland; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1), 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2), scopoletin (3), α-amyrin (4), phytol (5), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6). The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans), Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1-6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin) which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC(50) value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL). Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC(50) of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC(50) value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC(50) values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22693528

  13. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    More, Garland; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1), 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2), scopoletin (3), α-amyrin (4), phytol (5), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6). The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans), Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin) which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL). Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22693528

  14. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  15. Assessing the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in semiarid shrublands dominated by Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Keith A; Smith, James F; White, Merlin M; Serpe, Marcelo D

    2014-05-01

    Variation in the abiotic environment and host plant preferences can affect the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) assemblages. This study analyzed the AMF taxa present in soil and seedlings of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis collected from sagebrush steppe communities in southwestern Idaho, USA. Our aims were to determine the AMF diversity within and among these communities and the extent to which preferential AMF-plant associations develop during seedling establishment. Mycorrhizae were identified using molecular methods following DNA extraction from field and pot culture samples. The extracted DNA was amplified using Glomeromycota specific primers, and identification of AMF was based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the large subunit-D2 rDNA region. The phylogenetic analyses revealed seven phylotypes, two within the Claroideoglomeraceae and five within the Glomeraceae. Four phylotypes clustered with known species including Claroideoglomus claroideum, Rhizophagus irregularis, Glomus microaggregatum, and Funneliformis mosseae. The other three phylotypes were similar to several published sequences not included in the phylogenetic analysis, but all of these were from uncultured and unnamed glomeromycetes. Pairwise distance analysis revealed some phylotypes with high genetic variation. The most diverse was the phylotype that included R. irregularis, which contained sequences showing pairwise differences up to 12 %. Most of the diversity in AMF sequences occurred within sites. The smaller genetic differentiation detected among sites was correlated with differences in soil texture. In addition, multiplication in pot cultures led to differentiation of AMF communities. Comparison of sequences obtained from the soil with those from A. tridentata roots revealed no significant differences between the AMF present in these samples. Overall, the sites sampled were dominated by cosmopolitan AMF taxa, and young seedlings of A. tridentata ssp

  16. Bioactives from Artemisia dracunculus L. Enhance Insulin Sensitivity via Modulation of Skeletal Muscle Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kheterpal, Indu; Scherp, Peter; Kelley, Lauren; Wang, Zhong; Johnson, William; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    A botanical extract from Artemisia dracunculus L., termed PMI 5011, has been shown previously to improve insulin sensitivity by increasing cellular insulin signaling in in vitro and in vivo studies. These studies suggest that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in insulin signaling. To explore effects of this promising botanical extract on the human skeletal muscle phosphoproteome, changes in site-specific protein phosphorylation levels in primary skeletal muscle cultures from obese, insulin resistant individuals were evaluated with and without insulin stimulation. Insulin resistance is a condition in which a normal or elevated insulin level results in an abnormal biologic response, e.g., glucose uptake. Using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ™) followed by phosphopeptide enrichment and liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry, 125 unique phosphopeptides and 159 unique phosphorylation sites from 80 unique proteins were identified and quantified. Insulin stimulation of primary cultured muscle cells from insulin resistant individuals resulted in minimal increase in phosphorylation, demonstrating impaired insulin action in this condition. Treatment with PMI 5011 resulted in significant up regulation of 35 phosphopeptides that were mapped to proteins participating in the regulation of transcription, translation, actin cytoskeleton signaling, caveolae translocation and GLUT4 transport. These data further showed that PMI 5011 increased phosphorylation levels of specific amino acids in proteins in the insulin resistant state that are normally phosphorylated by insulin (thus, increasing cellular insulin signaling) and PMI 5011 also increased the abundance of phosphorylation sites of proteins regulating anti-apoptotic effects. Thus, the phosphoproteomics analysis demonstrated conclusively that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins and identified novel pathways by which

  17. In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Aymé Fernández-Calienes; Martínez, Judith Mendiola; Lizama, Ramón Scull; Vermeersch, Marieke; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed. PMID:18949336

  18. Phytotoxic volatiles in the roots and shoots of Artemisia tridentata as detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Zamanizadehnajari, Simin; Baldwin, Ian Thomas

    2010-12-01

    In the vicinity of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the growth of Nicotiana attenuata is negatively affected, in part due to the alleopathic effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) which is produced in large quantities by the aerial parts of sagebrush. Preliminary experiments suggested that growth-inhibiting substances were being emitted from the sagebrush roots. To identify the allelochemical secondary metabolites, we tested different root extracts in seedling growth bioassays with the naturally co-occurring native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, in a two-chamber Petri dish assay, optimized for tests of volatiles. Fractions rich in volatile compounds were particularly phytotoxic. We analyzed the volatiles emitted from the roots of intact Artemisia tridentata plants grown in soil, sand, and hydroponic cultures by using dynamic headspace extraction, headspace solvent-microextraction (HSME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSPME), and GC-MS. Camphor, 1,8-cineol, nerol, and neryl isovalerate were phytotoxic and released as the major constituents. In addition to the phytotoxic monoterpenes, himachalenes, longifolene, caryophyllene, and acetylenic spiroethers, were found as characteristic components in the root's volatiles. The allelopathic potential of these root volatiles was compared with that of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), one of the most active compounds emitted from above-ground parts of the plant. PMID:21086024

  19. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH (ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS) VARIES SPATIALLY AND IS NOT RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF A SAGEBRUSH DIETARY SPECIALIST

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xinzhu; Lam, Lisa; Gehlken, Kristina; Ulappa, Amy C.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) in North America is an abundant native plant species that is ecologically and evolutionarily adapted to have a diverse array of biologically active chemicals. Several of these chemicals, specifically polyphenols, have antioxidant activity that may act as biomarkers of biotic or abiotic stress. This study investigated the spatial variation of antioxidant capacity, as well as the relationship between a mammalian herbivore and antioxidant capacity in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis). We quantified and compared total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts from sagebrush plants from different spatial scales and at different levels of browsing by a specialist mammalian herbivore, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). We found that antioxidant capacity of sagebrush extracts was positively correlated with total polyphenol content. Antioxidant capacity varied spatially within and among plants. Antioxidant capacity in sagebrush was not related to either browsing intensity or duration of association with rabbits. We propose that the patterns of antioxidant capacity observed in sagebrush may be a result of spatial variation in abiotic stress experienced by sagebrush. Antioxidants could therefore provide a biomarker of environmental stress for sagebrush that could aid in management and conservation of this plant in the threatened sagebrush steppe. PMID:26582971

  20. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil loaded beads: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Loy, Giuseppe; Manconi, Maria; Manca, Maria Letizia; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to prepare sodium alginate beads as a device for the controlled release of essential oil for oral administration as an antiviral agent. Different formulations were prepared with sodium alginate as a natural polymer and calcium chloride or glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Loading capacities of between 86% and 100% were obtained in freshly prepared beads by changing exposure time to the cross-linking agent. Drying of the calcium alginate beads caused only a slight decrease in the loading efficiency. The surface morphology of the different bead formulations were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability studies over a 3-month period showed that glutaraldehyde reacted with some components of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil, changing its composition. Calcium alginate beads showed an in vitro controlled release of the essential oil for the investigated 24 hours, while the use of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent was found not appropriate because of the interactions with azulene derivatives and the low degree of matrix cross-linkage. PMID:17915817

  1. Identification of Eupatilin from Artemisia argyi as a Selective PPARα Agonist Using Affinity Selection Ultrafiltration LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongsoo; Jung, Yujung; Kim, Su-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key nuclear receptors and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases through the regulation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Although a few drugs that target PPARs have been approved, more diverse and novel PPAR ligands are necessary to improve the safety and efficacy of available drugs. To expedite the search for new natural agonists of PPARs, we developed a screening assay based on ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) that is compatible with complex samples such as dietary foods or botanical extracts. The known PPARα and/or PPARγ ligands resveratrol and rosiglitazone were used as positive controls to validate the developed method. When applied to the screening of an Artemisia argyi extract, eupatilin was identified as a selective PPARα ligand. A PPAR competitive binding assay based on FRET detection also confirmed eupatilin as a selective PPARα agonist exhibiting a binding affinity of 1.18 μM (IC50). Furthermore, eupatilin activation of the transcriptional activity of PPARα was confirmed using a cell-based transactivation assay. Thus, ultrafiltration LC-MS is a suitable assay for the identification of PPAR ligands in complex matrixes such as extracts of dietary foods and botanicals. PMID:26225954

  2. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Results Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid. PMID:24731599

  3. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Want, Muzamil Y.; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml-1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml-1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  4. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  5. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  6. Fast and reliable artemisinin determination from different Artemisia annua leaves based alimentary products by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Carrà, Andrea; Bagnati, Renzo; Fanelli, Roberto; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In many tropical countries malaria is endemic, causing acute illness and killing people, especially children. The availability of recommended malaria medicines is scant, even though these medicines are based on artemisinin, a compound extracted from the Artemisia annua plant that grows in many of these countries. New sources of treatment drawn from traditional medicine are therefore used, such as the tea infusion. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify the artemisinin content of foods prepared with Artemisia annua leaves. A fast and reliable analytical method is described. The technique does not require any derivatisation prior to injection and offers excellent analytical intermediate precision. Robust qualitative and quantitative results were obtained using tea, biscuit or porridge specimens. Although further research is needed to define the potential therapeutic benefits of these alimentary formulations, the analytical method described can be employed in developing more convenient and appropriate foods for administering artemisinin to those infected with malaria. PMID:24001820

  7. Sequence characterized amplified region marker as a tool for selection of high-artemisinin containing species of Artemisia

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Matin; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Abdol Hadi; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Poorebrahim, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most important causes of mortality in developing countries. High resistance to available antimalarial drugs has been reported frequently, thus it is crucial to focus on the discovery of new antimalarial drugs. Artemisinin, an effective antimalarial medication, is isolated from various Artemisia species. To identify the Artemisia species producing high quantity of artemisinin, eight species of Artemisia were screened with the genetic sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for higher quantity of artemisinin. The DNA band corresponding to SCAR marker was cloned into pGEM®-T Easy vector and sequenced. The content of artemisinin in tested species was also measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. The primers designed for high-artemisinin SCAR marker could amplify a specific band of approximately 1000 bp which was present in two Artemisia annua and Artemisia absinthium species. These SCAR marker sequences for two selected species were submitted into the GenBank databases under KC337116 and KC465952 accession numbers. HPLC analysis indicated that two selected Artemisia species, genetically recognized as high-artemisinin yielding plants, had higher artemisinin content in comparison to other examined species. Therefore, in this study, we propose developed SCAR marker as a complementary tool for confidently detection of high-artemisinin content in Artemisia species. PMID:26752994

  8. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of "SAL," a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400-250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  9. Isolation and identification of an anti-algal compound from Artemisia annua and mechanisms of inhibitory effect on algae.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Acharya, Kumud; Hao, Xiangyang; Li, Shiyin

    2012-08-01

    The goals of this work were to isolate and identify an anti-algal compound from extracts of Artemisia annua and study its mode of action on Microcystis aeruginosa. The anti-algal compound was isolated from the extracts using column chromatography and activity-guided fractionation methods. Artemisinin with strong anti-algal activity was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The EC(50) of artemisinin on M. aeruginosa was 3.2mg L(-1). Artemisinin decreased the soluble protein content and increased the superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbic acid content of M. aeruginosa, but exerted no effect on soluble sugar content. The results suggested the mode of action of artemisinin on algae may primarily be the increasing level of reactive oxygen species in algae cells. The results of our research could aid in the development of new anti-algal substances and lead to further study of mechanisms of inhibitory effect on algae. PMID:22658940

  10. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  11. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation and In Vitro Antiproliferative Effects of Fractions of Artemisia nilagirica on THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Gul, Mir Zahoor; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; K, Manjulatha; Bhat, Mohd Yasin; Maurya, Radheshyam; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Ghazi, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    ABSTACT Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) is a widely used medicinal herb in Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of A. nilagirica extracts/fractions on inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in a human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cell line. The crude extracts (A. nilagirica ethyl acetate extract [ANE] and A. nilagirica methanolic extract [ANA]) showed cytotoxic activity toward THP-1 cells with the IC50 values of 38.21 ± 7.37 and 132.41 ± 7.19 µg/ml, respectively. However, the cytotoxic activity of active fractions (ANE-B and ANM-9) obtained after column chromatography was found to be much more pronounced than their parent extracts. The IC50 values of ANE-B and ANM-9 were found to be 27.04 ± 2.54 µg/ml and 12.70 ± 4.79 µg/ml, respectively, suggesting greater susceptibility of the malignant cells. Cell cycle analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed that inhibition of cell growth by A. nilagirica fractions on THP-1 cells was mediated by apoptosis. Active fractions of A. nilagirica increased the expression levels of caspase-3, -7, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. These results suggested that active fractions of A. nilagirica may play a promising role in growth suppression by inducing apoptosis in human monocytic leukemic cells via mitochondria-dependent and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways. PMID:27618154

  12. INFLUENCE OF MOWING ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS ON WINTER HABITAT FOR WILDLIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the in...

  13. Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S. Zafar; Mohan, Manindra; Andola, Harish Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The genus Artemisia is important due to its medicinal properties as well as vital aroma compounds of commercial value. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the potential of the essential oil of Artemisia indica wildly growing in Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of Artemisia indica Willd. (Asteraceae), collected from wild growing habitat of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand (north of India) at full flowering stage were hydro-distilled and gave pale yellow oil with the yield of 0.8% (v/w). The obtained essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and identified 32 components, amounting 95.42% of the oil. Results: Among detected compounds, the principal component was found to be davanone (30.80%), followed by β-pinene (15.30%) and germacrene-D (5.82%). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on A. indica from Himalayan region of India, which detected davanone as major component. The species, collected from a specific location, can be explored for isolation of davanone for its industrial utilization and as alternate source of Artemisia pallens, which have already established commercial value. PMID:25002808

  14. A non-pharmaceutical form of Artemisia annua is not effective in preventing Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Lagarce, Laurence; Lerolle, Nicolas; Asfar, Pierre; Le Govic, Yohann; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; de Gentile, Ludovic

    2016-05-01

    Non-pharmaceutical forms of Artemisia annua (a Chinese plant containing artemisinin) are used by some travellers who believe these products are safer than anti-malarial drugs. We report two cases of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requiring hospitalization in an Intensive Care Unit following prophylaxis with non-pharmaceutical A. annua in French travellers. PMID:27432906

  15. Water deficit on the accumulation of biomass and artemisinin in annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L., Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of Artemisia annua as the only source of the anti-parasitic drug artemisinin, little can be found on the role of biotic and abiotic stress on artemisinin. Water stress is the most limiting factor on plant growth, but can trigger secondary metabolite accumulation, depending on...

  16. Loss of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L. to the soil environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua L. synthesizes and accumulates the secondary metabolite artemisinin, a compound with antimalarial properties. As cultivation of the plant is still the only cost effective source of artemisinin, the production takes place in monocultures of A. annua. Artemisinin is known to have inse...

  17. [A glimpse of the history of the genus Artemisia from pollen analyses].

    PubMed

    Méon, H

    1987-06-01

    The first certain data about the pollen grains of Artemisia have been found about the Middle Miocene. A review of the recent works concerning Western Europe and Northern Africa allows us to have some confirmation of this point of view. The pollen of Artemisia is appearing in the Miocene (Serravallian) with very poor amounts, the first important spreading of this plant, as revealed by sporopollinic analysis, comes near the Tertiary-Quaternary boundary at the time of an important deterioration of the climate. For the Quaternary, Artemisia is often present with low percentages and is only developing during the glaciation. In the Upper Quaternary, after the glaciation, the vegetation with Artemisia especially widens because of the man influence: clearing and/or breeding. This plant, which actually gives us many environmental problems, seems to have been differentiated a short time ago. It is a wind-pollinated vegetable, perhaps issued from the Compositae Anthemidae which have an echinulate pollen grain, the spines have been reduced almost to relics by adaptation to the wind dispersion. PMID:3331271

  18. Chemical and biological diversity of the volatiles of five Artemisia species from far east of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from aerial parts of Artemisia argyi, A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, A. olgensis (Asteraceae). Plants were collected in the Far East region (Primorski Krai) of the Russian Federatio...

  19. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial

  20. Variations in key artemisinic and other metabolites throughout plant development in Artemisia annua L. for potential therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Towler, Melissa J.; Weathers, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Dried leaves of Artemisia annua show promise as an inexpensive and sustainable antimalarial therapeutic, especially for use in developing countries. Along with the potent terpene, artemisinin, many other small molecules produced by the plant seem to aid in the therapeutic response. However, little is known about the ontogenic and phenological production of artemisinin in the plant, and its plethora of other important secondary metabolites. From a consistently high artemisinin-producing A. annua clone (SAM) we extracted and analyzed by GC/MS 22 different metabolites including terpenes, flavonoids, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids as they varied during leaf development and growth of the plant from the vegetative stage through the reproductive, full flower stage. As leaves developed, the maximum amount of most metabolites was in the shoot apical meristem. Artemisinin, on the other hand, maximized once leaves matured. Leaf and apical tissues (e.g. buds, flowers) varied in their metabolite content with growth stage with maximum artemisinin and other important secondary metabolites determined to be at floral bud emergence. These results indicated that plants at the floral bud stage have the highest level of artemisinin and other therapeutic compounds for the treatment of malaria. PMID:25729214

  1. Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L. enhance insulin sensitivity by modulation of ceramide metabolism in rat skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Diana N.; Ribnicky, David; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An increase in ectopic lipids in peripheral tissues has been implicated in attenuating insulin action. The botanical extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI-5011) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism is not known. We sought to determine whether the mechanism by which the bioactive compounds in PMI-5011 improve insulin signaling is through regulation of ceramide metabolism Methods L6 Myotubes were separately preincubated with 250uM palmitic acid with or without PMI-5011 or four bioactive compounds isolated from PMI-5011 and postulated to be responsible for the effect. The effects on insulin signaling, ceramide and glucosylceramide profiles were determined. Results Treatment of L6 myotubes with palmitic acid resulted in increased levels of total ceramides and glucosylceramides, and cell surface expression of gangliosides. Palmitic acid also inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt and reduced glycogen accumulation. Bioactives from PMI-5011 had no effect on ceramide formation but one active compound (DMC-2) and its synthetic analogue significantly reduced glucosylceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via restoration of Akt phosphorylation. Conclusions The observations suggest that insulin sensitization by PMI-5011 is partly mediated through moderation of glycosphingolipid accumulation. PMID:24985108

  2. Artemisia arborescens Essential Oil Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antimicrobial Activity from Different Wild Populations from the Mediterranean Area.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Militello, Marcello; Saia, Sergio; Settanni, Luca; Aleo, Aurora; Mammina, Caterina; Bombarda, Isabelle; Vanloot, Pierre; Roussel, Christian; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Aerial parts of Artemisia arborescens were collected from different sites of the Mediterranean area (southwestern Algeria and southern Italy) and the chemical composition of their essential oil (EO) extracted by hydrodistillation was studied by both gas chromatography (GC) equipped with an enantioselective capillary column and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The EOs obtained were tested against several Listeria monocytogenes strains. Using GC and GC/MS, 41 compounds were identified, accounting for 96.0 - 98.8% of the total EO. All EOs showed a similar terpene profile, which was rich in chamazulene, β-thujone, and camphor. However, the concentration of such compounds varied among the EOs. A. arborescens EO inhibited up to 83.3% of the L. monocytogenes strains, but the inhibitory spectrum varied among the EOs, with those from Algeria showing a higher inhibition degree than the Italian EOs. Such effect likely depended on the ketone (β-thujone + camphor) content of the EO. The differences in the EO composition support the hypothesis that A. arborescens has at least two different chemotypes: a β-thujone and a chamazulene type. The EO inhibitory spectrum indicates the A. arborescens EO as a valuable option in the control of the food-borne pathogens. PMID:27447740

  3. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

    2013-03-01

    Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant. PMID:23678823

  4. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies. PMID:24116165

  5. Inhibition of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: A Novel Approach to Reduce Oxidative Browning in Plant Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies. PMID:24116165

  6. Phytochemical screening of Artemisia arborescens L. by means of advanced chromatographic techniques for identification of health-promoting compounds.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosaria; Ragusa, Salvatore; Russo, Marina; Certo, Giovanna; Franchina, Flavio A; Zanotto, Antonio; Grasso, Elisa; Mondello, Luigi; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene. Moreover, flavonoids in the dichloromethane extract were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detections (HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS). Six polymethoxyflavones were identified and three of them, including chrysosplenetin, eupatin, and cirsilineol, were described in this species for the first time. The anti-angiogenic activity was investigated in the dichloromethane extract by two in vivo models, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish embryos. Results showed that this extract produced a strong reduction on vessel formation, both on zebrafish (57% of inhibition, 0.1 mg/mL) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (58% of inhibition, 0.8 mg/mL). The high separation power and sensitivity of the analytical methodology applied confirmed the safety of A. arborescens essential oil for human consumption, due to the very low level of the psychotrope α-thujone determined. Moreover, the knowledge of the flavonoidic profile holds a great significance for the use of A. arborescens as a valuable source of anti-angiogenic compounds that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant. PMID:26476295

  7. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  8. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  9. The génépi Artemisia species. Ethnopharmacology, cultivation, phytochemistry, and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vouillamoz, José F; Carlen, Christoph; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Wormwoods (Artemisia species) from the génépi group are, along with Edelweiss, iconic plants of the Alpine region and true symbols of inaccessibility because of their rarity and their habitat, largely limited to moraines of glaciers and rock crevices. Infusions and liqueurs prepared from génépis have always enjoyed a panacea status in folk medicine, especially as thermogenic agents and remedies for fatigue, dyspepsia, and airway infections. In the wake of the successful cultivation of white génépi (Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.) and the expansion of its supply chain, modern studies have evidenced the occurrence of unique constituents, whose chemistry, biological profile, and sensory properties are reviewed along with the ethnopharmacology, botany, cultivation and conservation strategies of their plant sources. PMID:26358481

  10. Detecting the antimalarial artemisinin in plant extracts using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antimalarial artemisinin is produced by Artemisia annua L and can be used to kill the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, which is spread by mosquitoes. Artemisinin is extracted from these plants through tea preparation. The artemisinin content of the tea varies depending on how much artemisinin was ...

  11. Two natural compounds - a benzofuran and a phenylpropane - from Artemisia dracunculus.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Mohammed; Saadali, Bouchra; Boriky, Driss; Bennani, Laila; Elkouali, M'hammed; Ainane, Tarik

    2016-08-01

    The structure elucidation of three metabolites herniarin (7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one, 1), phytoalexin (5-acetyl-6-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)benzofuran, 2), and prestragol (3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-prop-1,2-diol, 3) isolated from Artemisia dracunculus was determined on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR methods and by an X-ray crystallographic determination. PMID:26982075

  12. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

    PubMed

    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant. PMID:27286334

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shuo; Tian, Na; Long, Jinhua; Chen, Yuhong; Qin, Yu; Feng, Jinyu; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Shuoqian

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe(2+). The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering. PMID:27070290

  14. Comparative study of the volatiles' composition of healthy and larvae-infested Artemisia ordosica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jinlin; Cao, Chuanjian

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by healthy Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) and plants infested with larvae of Sphenoptera sp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) or Holcocerus artemisiae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) were obtained using a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight major compounds were identified, and qualitative and quantitative differences were compared. The novel green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and the ester methyl salicylate were present in all infested plants. Volatiles from healthy plants were dominated by D-limonene (32.14%), beta-pinene (16.63%), beta-phellandrene (16.06%), and sabinene (12.88%). Volatiles from Sphenoptera sp. larvae-infested plants were dominated by D-limonene (24.74%), beta-pinene (21.05%), alpha-pinene (19.39%), and sabinene (11.64%), whereas volatiles from H. artemisiae larvae-infested plants were dominated by D-limonene (31.76%), sabinene (18.49%), ocimene (15.93%), and beta-phellandrene (10.59%). In addition to the qualitative variation, a larvae-induced quantitative change in the proportion of terpenoids in the blends was also a noticeable feature. PMID:23659167

  15. Mosquito larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activity of Artemisia nilagirica (Family: Compositae) against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy

    2012-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present study, to evaluate the larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent, and adulticidal activities of methanol crude extract of Artemisia nilagirica were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The fresh leaves of A. nilagirica were washed thoroughly in tap water and shade dried at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 5-8 days. The air-dried materials were powdered separately using commercial electrical blender. From the plants, 500 g powdered was macerated with 1.5 L organic solvents of methanol sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The larval and pupal mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. The first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 272.50, 311.40, 361.51, 442.51, and 477.23 ppm, and the LC(90) = 590.07, 688.81, 789.34, 901.59, and 959.30 ppm; the A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 300.84, 338.79, 394.69, 470.74, and 542.11 ppm, and the LC(90) = 646.67, 726.07, 805.49, 892.01, and 991.29 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of plant extract of A. nilagirica plants at five different concentrations of 50, 150, 250, 350, and 450 ppm were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, the plant crude extract gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. nilagirica, with the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 205.78 and 459.51 ppm for A. stephensi, and 242.52 and 523.73 ppm for A. aegypti

  16. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meiya; Jiang, Fusheng; Yu, Xiangli; Miao, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase) gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible. PMID:25705665

  17. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  18. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  19. Variations in mugwort (Artemisia spp.) airborne pollen concentrations at three sites in central Croatia, in period from 2002 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Culig, Josip

    2006-12-01

    In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of September with the highest concentrations in August. The percentage of the total pollen count ranged from 0.52% to 0.92%. The intradiurnal peak occurred between 10 a.m. and 12 a.m. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlations between higher air temperature and high pollen concentration as well as high precipitation and low pollen concentration. Results of this study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Artemisia pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:17243566

  20. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  1. Investigation of the Antiproliferative Properties of Natural Sesquiterpenes from Artemisia asiatica and Onopordum acanthium on HL-60 Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Judit; Szebeni, Gábor J.; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, Thomas; Saiko, Philipp; Ocsovszki, Imre; Puskás, László G.; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István

    2016-01-01

    Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1), 3β-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guaia-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3) and 4β,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4), were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica). When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6–13.5 μM. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1–3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1) population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258–propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents. PMID:26901188

  2. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  3. Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E.

    2005-12-01

    In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

  4. [A new indole derivative from endophyte Myrothecium roridum IFB-E091 in Artemisia annua].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Li, Ling-yu; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Li, Ming; Song, Yong-chun

    2015-10-01

    Three compounds were isolated from solid culture of endophyte Myrothecium roridum IFB-E091 in Artemisia annua. Their structures were determined as (S)-(-)-N-[2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl]-acetamide (1), N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)acetamide (2) and asperfumoid (3), in which compound 1 was a new indole derivative. In cytotoxicity assay, the compound 1 had no obvious inhibition activity in human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa. PMID:26837178

  5. [Responses of spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population to the precipitation gradient on Ordos Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-shuang; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fei; Lai, Li-ming; Zhang, Li; Li, Wen-ting; Bai, Hua; Zheng, Yuan-run

    2009-09-01

    Five sites along the precipitation gradient (336-249 mm x a(-1)) from east to west in Ordos Plateau were selected to study the spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population and its responses to the precipitation gradient by the methods of variance mean ratio, aggregative index, and point pattern analysis. The reduction of precipitation affected the spatial distribution pattern of A. ordosica population significantly. With decreasing precipitation gradient, the spatial pattern of A. ordosica population changed from uniform to random in small scale, and from random to clumpy in large scale, suggesting that in the ecological restoration of Ordos Plateau, a rational arrangement of A. ordosica should be made. PMID:20030129

  6. A Survey of Therapeutic Effects of Artemisia capillaris in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eungyeong; Kim, Bum-Joon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia capillaris has been recognized as an herb with therapeutic efficacy in liver diseases and widely used as an alternative therapy in Asia. Numerous studies have reported the antisteatotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, choleretic, antiviral, antifibrotic, and antitumor activities of A. capillaris. These reports support its therapeutic potential in various liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, several properties of its various constituents, which provide clues to the underlying mechanisms of its therapeutic effects, have been studied. This review describes the scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potential of A. capillaris and its constituents in various liver diseases. PMID:26366183

  7. Carbon isotopic composition of Ambrosia and Artemisia pollen: assessment of a C₃-plant paleophysiological indicator.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David M

    2012-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how shifts in plant physiological performance influence vegetation variations in the paleorecord. To evaluate δ¹³C of pollen from C₃ plants as an indicator of community-level physiology, small quantities (10-30 grains) of untreated pollen and sporopollenin from herbarium specimens of Ambrosia (A. tomentosa and A. psilostachya) and Artemisia (A. frigida, A. ludoviciana and A. dracunculus), genera abundant in grassland pollen profiles, were isolated by micromanipulation. Their δ¹³C values were measured using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. Leaf δ¹³C was also measured. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) for untreated pollen, sporopollenin and leaves was compared with historic records of seasonal precipitation amount, vapor pressure deficit and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Each species showed positive correlations between Δ of untreated pollen and sporopollenin. Sporopollenin Δ was most strongly correlated with PDSI. Correlations among leaf Δ and moisture indicators were stronger for Ambrosia than Artemisia. These results suggest that sporopollenin Δ indicates the level of moisture stress in C₃ plants. Therefore, δ¹³C analysis of pollen promises to help address important paleoecological questions, such as how community-level physiology contributes to shifts in vegetation composition. PMID:22742492

  8. Pyrolytic and kinetic analysis of two coastal plant species: Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum.

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Wang, Xiaoning; Sun, Jinsheng; Zhang, Yichen; Qin, Song

    2013-01-01

    The large amount of coastal plant species available makes them ideal candidates for energy production. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis was used to evaluate the fuel properties of two coastal plant species, and the distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was employed in kinetic analysis. The major mass loss due to devolatilization started at 154 and 162°C at the heating rate of 10°C min(-1) for Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum, respectively. The results showed that the average activation energies of Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum were 169.69 and 170.48 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the activation energy changed while the conversion rate increased, and the frequency factor k 0 decreased greatly while the activation energy decreased. The results also indicated that the devolatilization of the two coastal plant species underwent a set of first-order reactions and could be expressed by the DAEM. Additionally, a simplified mathematical model was proposed to facilitate the prediction of devolatilization curves. PMID:24350245

  9. Flavonoids from Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. and their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Haidan; Lu, Xuyang; Ma, Qianqian; Li, Di; Xu, Guanghua; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been demonstrated to have cytotoxic activities toward numerous human cancer cells, whereas they have little or no effect on normal cells. The numerous flavonoids in traditional Chinese herbs may be promising candidates for the development of novel anti-cancer drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that CH2Cl2 and 95% ethanol eluate (EE) fractions have the strongest cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines of the 9 fractions separated from Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb., which is widely used to prevent and treat diverse diseases in Northeast China. In the present study, 8 flavonoids were isolated from the 95% EE fraction of Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The following 5 flavonoids were isolated for the first time from this plant: Jaceosidin, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin and quercitrin. A total of 2 flavonoids from the CH2Cl2 fraction and 8 flavonoids from the 95% EE fraction were examined to evaluate their cytotoxic activities against human SK-HEP-1 hepatoma cancer cells and human HeLa cervical cancer cells, respectively. The results revealed that 2 flavonoids had marked cytotoxic activities against HeLa cells. PMID:27602097

  10. Enhancement of Cadmium Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soils with Artemisia princeps var. orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Yong Sik

    Phytoextraction using plants to remove toxic metals from the environment is an emerging technology for contaminated land remediation. The maximum efficiency of phytoextraction is controlled by the availability of metals in the soil. Plant availability of soil metals are often manipulated by additions of chelating agents. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the effects of chelator and ligands on phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils with an endemic plant, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis. Cadmium content in the plant was highest in (NH4)2SO4 treatment, but sulfur powder had little effect on Cd accumulation in the plant due to low buffering capacity of the soil and slow turnover rate of S° to SO42-. Cadmium content in the plant was slightly increased in oxalic acid and EDTA treatments by accompanying pH decrease in the soil. Phytoremediation Index (PI) increased in the order of control < sulfur powder (S°) < oxalic acid < (NH4)2SO4< EDTA treatments. In addition, Cd content in the plant showed the same trend with PI except for EDTA treatment. It could be postulated that EDTA addition should be avoided for the soil with high Cd availability as it might accelerate a continuous leaching of Cd-EDTA complexes from surface to subsoil during the phytoextraction. Overall results indicated that (NH4)2SO4 can be used to enhance Cd accumulation in the Artemisia princeps var. orientalis during phytoextraction.

  11. Pyrolytic and Kinetic Analysis of Two Coastal Plant Species: Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoning; Sun, Jinsheng; Zhang, Yichen; Qin, Song

    2013-01-01

    The large amount of coastal plant species available makes them ideal candidates for energy production. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis was used to evaluate the fuel properties of two coastal plant species, and the distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was employed in kinetic analysis. The major mass loss due to devolatilization started at 154 and 162°C at the heating rate of 10°C min−1 for Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum, respectively. The results showed that the average activation energies of Artemisia annua and Chenopodium glaucum were 169.69 and 170.48 kJ mol−1, respectively. Furthermore, the activation energy changed while the conversion rate increased, and the frequency factor k0 decreased greatly while the activation energy decreased. The results also indicated that the devolatilization of the two coastal plant species underwent a set of first-order reactions and could be expressed by the DAEM. Additionally, a simplified mathematical model was proposed to facilitate the prediction of devolatilization curves. PMID:24350245

  12. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. PMID:22421454

  13. Liposomal incorporation of Artemisia arborescens L. essential oil and in vitro antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Lai, Francesco; Valenti, Donatella; Manconi, Maria; Loy, Giuseppe; Bonsignore, Leonardo; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2005-01-01

    The effect of liposomal inclusion on the in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens L. essential oil was investigated. In order to study the influence of vesicle structure and composition on the antiviral activity of the vesicle-incorporated oil, multilamellar (MLV) and unilamellar (SUV) positively charged liposomes were prepared by the film method and sonication. Liposomes were obtained from hydrogenated (P90H) and non-hydrogenated (P90) soy phosphatidylcholine. Formulations were examined for their stability for over one year, monitoring the oil leakage from vesicles and the average size distribution. The antiviral activity was studied against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method. Results showed that Artemisia essential oil can be incorporated in good amounts in the prepared vesicular dispersions. Stability studies pointed out that vesicle dispersions were very stable for at least six months and neither oil leakage nor vesicle size alteration occurred during this period. After one year of storage oil retention was still good, but vesicle fusion was present. Antiviral assays demonstrated that the liposomal incorporation of A. arborescens essential oil enhanced its in vitro antiherpetic activity especially when vesicles were made with P90H. On the contrary, no significant difference in antiviral activity was observed between the free and SUV-incorporated oil. PMID:15567314

  14. [Pollen counts (from Ambrosia and Artemisia) in Lyon-Bron from 1982 to 1985].

    PubMed

    Dechamp, C; Hoch, D; Chouraqui, M; Bensoussan, M; Dechamp, J

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to distinguish the broad outlines of the pollen calendar in the Lyons area for the 5th year, using the same method (P. COUR) and the same location--Lyon-Bron weather station. Weekly data is given for 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985 (1986 data was not complete at the time of the conference, October 1986). This work is the fruit of numerical counts integrated into a data processing program which enables pollens tested and not tested in allergology to be identified. In Lyon, we observe 3 pollen seasons: early Spring (TREES), Spring (TREES and GRAMINEAE) and Summer-Autumn (TREES, GRAMINEAE, and COMPOSITAE). During the late the following are present: Artemisia vulgaris (last 10 days of July), RAGWEED (mid-August-1st fortnight of October), Artemisia annua (end September-early October). The particularity of our region is that not only ragweed pollen is collected but also two categories of Mugwort pollen, at different periods. PMID:3454179

  15. Essential Oil of Artemisia annua L.: An Extraordinary Component with Numerous Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Bilia, Anna Rita; Sacco, Cristiana; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Donato, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is native to China, now naturalised in many other countries, well known as the source of the unique sesquiterpene endoperoxide lactone artemisinin, and used in the treatment of the chloroquine-resistant and cerebral malaria. The essential oil is rich in mono- and sesquiterpenes and represents a by-product with medicinal properties. Besides significant variations in its percentage and composition have been reported (major constituents can be camphor (up to 48%), germacrene D (up to 18.9%), artemisia ketone (up to 68%), and 1,8 cineole (up to 51.5%)), the oil has been subjected to numerous studies supporting exciting antibacterial and antifungal activities. Both gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Listeria spp.), and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas spp.) and other microorganisms (Candida, Saccharomyces, and Aspergillus spp.) have been investigated. However, the experimental studies performed to date used different methods and diverse microorganisms; as a consequence, a comparative analysis on a quantitative basis is very difficult. The aim of this review is to sum up data on antimicrobial activity of A. annua essential oil and its major components to facilitate future approach of microbiological studies in this field. PMID:24799936

  16. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  17. STRESS-INDUCED METABOLIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POPULATIONS AND SUBSPECIES OF ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA (SAGEBRUSH) FROM A SINGLE HILLSIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush or Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana grows at slightly higher, cooler, and drier sites than does A. tridentata ssp. tridentata. The two sagebrush subspecies and natural hybrids between them are found along an elevational gradient in Salt Creek Canyon, near Nephi, UT, USA, where...

  18. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human. PMID:26665406

  19. Antimicrobial and Efflux Pump Inhibitory Activity of Caffeoylquinic Acids from Artemisia absinthium against Gram-Positive Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fiamegos, Yiannis C.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Han, Haley; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Vervoort, Jacques; Lewis, Kim; Hamblin, Michael R.; Tegos, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional antibiotics are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance amongst pathogenic bacteria leading to a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections being investigated as potential alternative treatments. One plausible antimicrobial alternative could be the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules which block multidrug efflux systems known as efflux pump inhibitors. Bioassay-driven purification and structural determination of compounds from plant sources have yielded a number of pump inhibitors which acted against gram positive bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we report the identification and characterization of 4′,5′-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4′,5′-ODCQA) from Artemisia absinthium as a pump inhibitor with a potential of targeting efflux systems in a wide panel of Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, 3′,5′-ODCQA, 4′,5′-ODCQA) was based on hyphenated chromatographic techniques such as liquid chromatography with post column solid-phase extraction coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. Microbial susceptibility testing and potentiation of well know pump substrates revealed at least two active compounds; chlorogenic acid with weak antimicrobial activity and 4′,5′-ODCQA with pump inhibitory activity whereas 3′,5′-ODCQA was ineffective. These intitial findings were further validated with checkerboard, berberine accumulation efflux assays using efflux-related phenotypes and clinical isolates as well as molecular modeling methodology. Conclusions/Significance These techniques facilitated the direct analysis of the active components from plant extracts, as well as dramatically reduced the time needed to analyze the compounds, without the need for prior isolation. The calculated energetics of the docking poses supported the

  20. [Optimal measure for cultivation of Artemisia annua with high seeds yield].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Hu, Yingi

    2009-09-01

    The relationship of Artemisia annua seed yield with density, N, P and K fertilizer applied amount was studied, and a mathematical model involving the 4 factors affecting seed yield was established using the orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression. The seed yield function model was established according to parameters through field tests and data treated by computer techniques. The best agronomic measures complex project was selected and developed by computer imitation. The effects on seed yield of A. annua are density > N > P > K in turn. To obtain the highest yield density should be 13 000-15 000 plants x hm(-2), Ureal 186-242 kg x hm(-2), calcium superphosphate 874-1 023 kg x hm(-2), potassium chloride 135-165 kg x hm(-2) in the experiment. Reasonable planting density and fertilizer application could improve the seed yield of A. annua. PMID:19943472

  1. Selective nematocidal effects of essential oils from two cultivated Artemisia absinthium populations.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Juan José; Andrés, María-Fé; Ibañez-Escribano, Alexandra; Julio, Luis F; Burillo, Jesús; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) obtained from two crops and populations of thujone-free cultivated Artemisia absinthium were tested against two nematode models, the mammalian parasite Trichinella spiralis, and the plant parasitic root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. The EOs were characterized by the presence of (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenol as major components and showed time and population dependent quantitative and qualitative variations in composition. The EOs showed a strong ex vivo activity against the L1 larvae of the nematode Trichinella spiralis with a reduction of infectivity between 72 and 100% at a dose range of 0.5-1 mg/ml in absence of cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Moreover, the in vivo activity of the EO against T. spiralis showed a 66% reduction of intestinal adults. However, these oils were not effective against M. javanica. PMID:26444350

  2. Isolation and characterization of culturable endophytic actinobacteria associated with Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Hai-Yu; Qin, Sheng; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun; Strobel, Gary

    2012-03-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria isolated from Artemisia annua were characterized and evaluated for their bioactivities. A total of 228 isolates representing at least 19 different genera of actinobacteria were obtained and several of them seemed to be novel taxa. An evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed that more isolates possessed activity towards plant pathogens than activity against other pathogenic bacteria or yeasts. High frequencies of PCR amplification were obtained for type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I, 21.1%), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II, 45.2%) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS, 32.5%). The results of herbicidal activity screening indicated that 19 out of 117 samples of fermentation broths completely inhibited the germination of Echinochloa crusgalli. This study indicated that endophytic actinobacteria associated with A. annua are abundant and have potentially beneficial and diverse bioactivities which should be pursued for their biotechnical promise. PMID:22038129

  3. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Croatia and France.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Jerkovic, Igor; Masotti, Véronique; Milos, Mladen; Mastelic, Josip; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Viano, Josette

    2003-02-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of two populations of Artemisia absinthium, from France and from Croatia, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of A. absinthium of French origin contain (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenyl acetate as major components while the oils of Croatian A. absinthium contain mainly (Z)-epoxyocimene and beta-thujone. Analysis of oils before and after anthesis showed some quantitative differences. Analysis of separated leaves and flowering heads showed only few differences among these organs. As they contain no thujone, antimicrobial screening was performed on samples of French origin and showed that A. absinthium oil inhibited the growth of both tested yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri). PMID:12624823

  4. Chlorogenic acid, an antioxidant principle from the aerial parts ofArtemisia iwayomogi that acts on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Lee, C K; Kang, S S; Jung, H A; Choi, J S

    1997-04-01

    The antioxidant activity ofArtemisia iwayomogi was determined by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical The methanol extract ofA. iwayomogi showed strong antioxidant activity, and thus fractionated with several solvents. The antioxidant activity potential of the individual fraction was in the order of ethyl acetate>n-butanol>water>chloroform>n-hexane fraction. The ethyl acetate andn-butanol soluble fractions exhibiting strong antioxidant activity were further purified by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Antioxidant chlorogenic acid was isolated as one of the active principles from then-butanol fraction, together with the inactive components, 1-octacosanol, scopoletin, scopolin, apigenin 7,4'-di-O-methylether luteolin 6,3'-di-O-methylether (jaceosidin), apigenin 7-methylether (genkwanin), 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and quebrachitol. The antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid, which is a well known antioxidant. PMID:18975193

  5. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs. PMID:19663482

  6. Genome-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of the Desert Shrub Artemisia sphaerocephala

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijing; Hu, Xiaowei; Miao, Xiumei; Chen, Xiaolong; Nan, Shuzhen; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Artemisia sphaerocephala, a semi-shrub belonging to the Artemisia genus of the Compositae family, is an important pioneer plant that inhabits moving and semi-stable sand dunes in the deserts and steppes of northwest and north-central China. It is very resilient in extreme environments. Additionally, its seeds have excellent nutritional value, and the abundant lipids and polysaccharides in the seeds make this plant a potential valuable source of bio-energy. However, partly due to the scarcity of genetic information, the genetic mechanisms controlling the traits and environmental adaptation capacity of A. sphaerocephala are unknown. Results Here, we present the first in-depth transcriptomic analysis of A. sphaerocephala. To maximize the representation of conditional transcripts, mRNA was obtained from 17 samples, including living tissues of desert-growing A. sphaerocephala, seeds germinated in the laboratory, and calli subjected to no stress (control) and high and low temperature, high and low osmotic, and salt stresses. De novo transcriptome assembly performed using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform resulted in the generation of 68,373 unigenes. We analyzed the key genes involved in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway and identified 26 A. sphaerocephala fad2 genes, which is the largest fad2 gene family reported to date. Furthermore, a set of genes responsible for resistance to extreme temperatures, salt, drought and a combination of stresses was identified. Conclusion The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the important traits of A. sphaerocephala and contributes to the current understanding of molecular adaptive mechanisms of A. sphaerocephala in the desert environment. Identification of the key genes in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway could increase understanding of the biological regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid composition traits in plants and facilitate genetic manipulation of the

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the volatile oil from seeds of Artemisia annua L. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Zohreh; Ghanian, Shamimeh; Ghasemi, Sabrieh; Yousefi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The composition of essential oil of the seeds of Artemisia annua L. was analysed by GC-MS. Overall, 16 volatile components were identified on the basis of their mass spectra characteristics and retention indices representing 95.5% of the total oil. Trans-3(10)-caren-4-ol (22.3%), artemisia ketone (18.6%), 1,8-cineole (14.9%), δ-selinene (13.0%) and α-pinene (8.2%) were the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main compounds with 51.6% followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (13.3%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (9.9%) and other compounds (8.3%). The essential oil was highly active against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. PMID:22348222

  8. GABA-A Receptor Modulation and Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Antidepressant Activities of Constituents from Artemisia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Karim, Nasiara; Ahmad, Waqar; Abdelhalim, Abeer; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia indica, also known as “Mugwort,” has been widely used in traditional medicines. However, few studies have investigated the effects of nonvolatile components of Artemisia indica on central nervous system's function. Fractionation of Artemisia indica led to the isolation of carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid which were evaluated for their effects on GABA-A receptors in electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes and were subsequently investigated in mouse models of acute toxicity, convulsions (pentylenetetrazole induced seizures), depression (tail suspension and forced swim tests), and anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms). Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be positive modulators of α1β2γ2L GABA-A receptors and the modulation was antagonized by flumazenil. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be devoid of any signs of acute toxicity (50–200 mg/kg) but elicited anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolytic activities. Thus carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid demonstrated CNS activity in mouse models of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolysis. The anxiolytic activity of all three compounds was ameliorated by flumazenil suggesting a mode of action via the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA-A receptors. PMID:27143980

  9. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land. PMID:27398271

  10. Comparative study of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and Achillea santolina L. (Asteraceae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, A M; Hafez, S S; Wink, M

    2004-03-01

    Essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and the flower, leaf and stem of A. santolina L. as well as their lipophilic constituents obtained by solvent extraction were analysed using GLC and GLC-mass spectrometry. Nineteen constituents in the essential oil of A. fragrantissima were identified, in addition to 41 compounds from its n-hexane-ether extract. The hydrodistilled oil and the solvent extract contain santolina alcohol, artemisia alcohol, artemisia ketone, cis-thujone and trans-thujone as major constituents. In A. santolina altogether 54 volatile components were detected. The major components were 1,8-cineole, fragranol, fragranyl acetate and terpin-4-ol. Furthermore, the essential oils and the n-hexane-ether extracts of the two plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity. PMID:15074599

  11. Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens, Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-wu; Gjesing, Birgitte; Kong, Xing-ai; Wang, Jing-yuan; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-xin; Zhong, Nan-shan; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide. The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia, Ambrosia, and Humulus in northern China. Methods: A total of 1 144 subjects (aged from 5 to 68 years) visiting our clinic from June to October 2011 underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources. Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and Humulus scandens, and against the purified allergens, Art v 1 and Amb a 1. Results: Of 1 144 subjects, 170 had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and 144 donated serum for IgE testing. The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia annua, A. artemisiifolia, and H. scandens was 11.0%, 10.2%, 3.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. Among the intradermal positive subjects, the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A. vulgaris was 58.3%, to A. artemisiifolia 14.7%, and to H. scandens 41.0%. The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was 46.9%, and to Amb a 1 was 11.2%. The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A. vulgaris and to the Art v 1 antigen was very high. Subjects with A. artemisiifolia specific IgE also had A. vulgaris specific IgE, but with relatively high levels of A. vulgaris IgE antibodies. There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H. scandens and A. vulgaris or to H. scandens and A. artemisiifolia. Conclusions: The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about 13.5%. Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization. PMID:23463767

  12. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR) protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15). A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis) obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush leaf transcriptome. SNP

  13. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Estrada, Karla Ramirez; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01–0.8% DW). There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g), artesunate (2.24μg/g), dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g) and artemether (12.8μg/g). Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1) showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism. PMID:26444558

  14. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Ramirez Estrada, Karla; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW). There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g), artesunate (2.24μg/g), dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g) and artemether (12.8μg/g). Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1) showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism. PMID:26444558

  15. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Kmoníèková, Eva; Zídek, Zdenìk

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  16. Promising anti-diabetic potential of capillin and capillinol isolated from Artemisia capillaris.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nurul; Choi, Ran Joo; Jung, Hyun Ah; Oh, Sang Ho; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-03-01

    Caffeoylquinic acids, flavonoids, and coumarins isolated from Artemisia capillaris have recently emerged as therapeutic candidates for diabetes and diabetic complications; however, there have been very few studies of the anti-diabetic potential of polyacetylenes. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of two polyacetylenes isolated from A. capillaris, namely capillin and capillinol by investigating their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR). Capillin displayed potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, PTP1B, and RLAR, while capillinol showed moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and PTP1B at the concentrations tested. In addition, a kinetic study revealed that capillin inhibited α-glucosidase and RLAR in a noncompetitive manner, while inhibited PTP1B in a mixed-type manner. Capillinol inhibited α-glucosidase and PTP1B in a mixed-type manner. Docking simulations of these compounds demonstrated negative binding energies and close proximity to residues in the binding pocket of PTP1B, indicating that these polyacetylenes have a high affinity and tight binding capacity for the active site of the enzyme. Furthermore, capillin dose-dependently inhibited peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-mediated tyrosine nitration. The results clearly demonstrate the promising potential of capillin and capillinol as therapeutic interventions for the management of diabetes as well as diabetes-associated complications. PMID:26832324

  17. [Ecosystem carbon exchange in Artemisia ordosica shrubland of Ordos Plateau in two different precipitation years].

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Dong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yu-Qing; Yan, Zhi-Jian; Baoyin, Tao-ge-tao; Wang, Hui; Dai, Ya-Ting

    2014-08-01

    Characteristics of ecosystem carbon exchange and its impact factors in Artemisia ordosica shrubland in 2011 (low precipitation) and 2012 (high precipitation), Ordos Plateau, were studied using eddy covariance methods. The results showed that the diurnal dynamics of ecosystem carbon exchange could be expressed as single-peak and double-peak curves in the two different precipitation years. In 2011, three carbon absorption peaks and three carbon release peaks of ecosystem carbon exchange presented in the growing season. In 2012, four carbon absorption peaks and one carbon release peak appeared in the growing season. The A. ordosica shrubland was a net carbon sink from June to September and a carbon source in October in 2011. In 2012, A. ordosica shrubland was a net carbon sink in the whole growing season. The amount of carbon fixed by A. ordosica shrubland in the growing season in 2012 was 268.90 mg CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) higher than that in 2011. The ecosystem carbon exchange of A. ordosica shrubland was controlled by PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) on the day scale, and affected by both abiotic (precipitation and soil water content) and biotic (aboveground net primary, productivity) factors on the growing season scale. PMID:25509064

  18. Relationship between the genetic diversity of Artemisia halodendron and climatic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenda; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yuqiang; Lian, Jie; Yun, Jianying

    2014-02-01

    Artemisia halodendron (Asteraceae) is a dominant sand-fixing semi-shrub species native to the Horqin Sandy Land of northeastern China. In this study, we evaluated levels of genetic variation within and among sampled A. halodendron populations from two different hydrothermal regions of the Horqin Sandy Land using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. We also investigated possible relationships between genetic diversity of this species and climatic factors. Our analysis revealed that A. halodendron is highly genetically diverse, with populations from a low hydrothermal level region having higher genetic diversity index values than those from a high hydrothermal level region. An analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) revealed relatively high levels (>89.83%) of within-population genetic variation. Based on cluster analysis, the 13 studied A. halodendron populations can be clustered into two clades. Genetic diversities of all populations have been influenced by many climatic factors, and Nei's genetic diversity (h) is strongly correlated with annual temperature range (ART). These results have important implications for restoration and management of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid areas.

  19. Protection of DNA during oxidative stress and cytotoxic potential of Artemisia absinthium.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Rahman, Khalilur; Jahan, Nazish; Jamil, Amer; Rashid, Abid; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites (alkoloids, glycosides, coumarins, flavonides, steroids, etc.) and considered to be more effective and a safer alternative source to manage a variety of diseases related to liver, heart and kidney disordered. This study determines in vitro antioxidant and in vivo toxicological profile including hemolytic, brine shrimp lethality and mutagenicity of aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium. DNA protection assay was performed on pUC19 plasmid vector using H(2)O(2) as oxidative agent. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric methods. Toxicity of the plant was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality, hemolytic and mutagenic activity. DNA protection assay of the plant showed concentration dependent protective effect and at concentration 10μL/mL revealed complete protective effect against H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage. Highest phenolic and flavonoid content was found to be 167.3 (mg GAE 100g DW(-1)) and 14 (mg CE 100g DW(-1)) respectively. Results showed that A. absinthium is potent against standard toxicological procedures, that indicates the presence of bioactive components in the plant and possess antioxidant activity that protects DNA against H(2)O(2) induced oxidative damage. Thus the results showed/support that A. absinthium provides significant health benefits. PMID:27005506

  20. Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete associated with Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Qin, Yu-Li; Miao, Cui-Ping; Wei, Da-Qiao; Zhang, Si; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-09-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, endophytic actinomycete, designated strain YIM 63235(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of Artemisia annua L., and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. The strain YIM 63235(T) formed well-differentiated aerial and substrate mycelia on media tested. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the new isolate formed a distinct lineage within the genus Pseudonocardia, and the strain YIM 63235(T) was closely related to Pseudonocardia parietis 04-St-002(T) (99.1%). However, DNA-DNA relatedness demonstrated that strain YIM 63235(T) was distinct from the closest phylogenetic neighbor. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain YIM 63235(T) were consistent with those of the genus Pseudonocardia: the diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(16:1) H. The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 63235(T) was 71.0 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the novel isolate was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia antimicrobica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 63235(T) =CCTCC AA 208080(T)=DSM 45303(T)) is proposed. PMID:22805759

  1. Computational identification of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) microRNA and their mRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Pani, Alok; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Behera, Niranjan; Naik, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Despite its efficacy against malaria, the relatively low yield (0.01%-0.8%) of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a serious limitation to the commercialization of the drug. A better understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and its regulation by both exogenous and endogenous factors is essential to improve artemisinin yield. Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play multiple roles in various biological processes. In this study, we used previously known miRNAs from Arabidopsis and rice against expressed sequence tag (EST) database of A. annua to search for potential miRNAs and their targets in A. annua. A total of six potential miRNAs were predicted, which belong to the miR414 and miR1310 families. Furthermore, eight potential target genes were identified in this species. Among them, seven genes encode proteins that play important roles in artemisinin biosynthesis, including HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) and cytochrome P450. In addition, a gene coding for putative AINTEGUMENTA, which is involved in signal transduction and development, was also predicted as one of the targets. This is the first in silico study to indicate that miRNAs target genes encoding enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, which may help to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. PMID:22289476

  2. Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.

    1997-09-01

    The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.

  3. Chemical and biological study on the essential oil of Artemisia caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora (Viv.).

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo L; Chessa, Mario; Piana, Andrea; Masia, Maria D; Foddai, Marzia; Mangano, Giuseppe; Culeddu, Nicola; Afifi, Fatma U; Pintore, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora (Viv.) is a wild shrub that grows in the archipelago of La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy. The antifungal activity of the volatile oil of this sub-species has not been evaluated earlier. This study aimed to identify the main components of the essential oil of A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora and to investigate its antifungal activity. Identification of the different components of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora was done by both techniques: GC-MS and NMR analyses ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC-NMR). Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion technique against environmental isolates of fungal strains: two yeasts (Rhodotorula spp., Candida spp.), three moulds (Aspergillus spp., Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp.) and a mixture of moulds. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil yielded 42 compounds, out of which, 26 compounds were identified. The main compound was identified as terpinen-4-ol (22%) followed by p-cymene (7.6%) and α-terpineol (3.02%). The significant inhibition spectrum of the essential oil of A. caerulescens L. ssp. densiflora can be considered as an alternative to common disinfectants. PMID:23244627

  4. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  5. Pulse hypothesis in the establishment of Artemisia seedlings at Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Hunter, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    New Artemisia seedlings are not established each year. Many that are established fail to survive because of unfavorable rainfall in succeeding years. A total of 184 young plants was examined for the number of annual growth rings to ascertain the year of establishment after all vegetation had been killed near the time of a nuclear test event in 1965. The three most important recent years for establishment and survival of new seedlings (as of 1976 and based on a sample of 184 plants) were 1966 (9 percent), 1969 (29%), and 1973 (36%). A total of 27% was established in the other years from 1965 to 1976. These three years were also the years with high rainfall input during preceding winter and spring months. If old plants are killed, seeds germinate with much lower inputs of precipitation. Many seedlings germinated in 1968 at a site where old ones had been burned off even though the rainfall was not favorable. Plants of a given age varied greatly in size according to their competition. Seedlings germinating in old stands grew little in comparison with those germinating in areas where old plants had been killed. One exception was an area where intense competition occurred due to large numbers of new plants, resulting in growth restriction on all plants.

  6. Vicenin 2 isolated from Artemisia capillaris exhibited potent anti-glycation properties.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nurul; Ishita, Ishrat Jahan; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2014-07-01

    Vicenin 2, isolated from a traditionally used medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris, is a 6,8-di-C-glucoside of apigenin which has been previously reported to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and hepatoprotective. However, there have not been any reports concerning its anti-diabetic potential until now. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of vicenin 2 via α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), and advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation inhibitory assays. Vicenin 2 strongly inhibited α-glucosidase, PTP1B, and RLAR in the corresponding assays. In addition, vicenin 2 inhibited the formation of both fluorescent AGE and nonfluorescent AGE, e.g., CML, as well as the level of fructosamine in glucose-fructose-induced bovine serum albumin (BSA) glycation. In the test system, vicenin 2 suppressed glycation-induced protein oxidation by attenuating the formation of protein carbonyl groups as well as by inhibiting the modification of protein thiol groups. Moreover, vicenin 2 was found to be a potent inhibitor of glycation-induced formation of amyloid cross-β structures in BSA. Taken together, vicenin 2 might be a useful lead for the development of multiple target-oriented therapeutic modalities for the treatment of diabetes and diabetes-associated complications. PMID:24713265

  7. Antiviral activity of chemical compound isolated from Artemisia morrisonensis against hepatitis B virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Liu, Shu-Heng; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Wen; Chou, Shen-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    The compound p-hydroxyacetophenone (PHAP) isolated from Artemisia morrisonensis was found to have potential anti-HBV effects in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. We clarified its antiviral mode further and HBV-transfected Huh7 cells were used as the platform. During viral gene expression, treatment with PHAP had no apparent effects on the viral precore/pregenomic RNA. However, the 2.4-kb preS RNA of viral surface gene increased significantly relative to the 2.1-kb S RNA with PHAP. Promoter activity analysis demonstrated that PHAP had a potent effect on augmenting the viral preS promoter activity. The subsequent increase in the large surface protein and induce endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress has been reported previously. Interestingly, PHAP specifically reduced ER stress related GRP78 RNA/protein levels, but not those of GRP94, in treated Huh7 cells while PHAP also led to the significant intracellular accumulation of virus. Moreover, treatment with the ER chaperone inducer thapsigargin relieved the inhibitory effect of PHAP based on the supernatant HBV DNA levels of HBV-expressed cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that the mechanism of HBV inhibition by PHAP might involve the regulation of viral surface gene expression and block virion secretion by interference with the ER stress signaling pathway. PMID:24269476

  8. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem; Varshney, Lalit

    2011-07-01

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by 60Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L -1, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L -1 increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H 2O 2 content in the leaves.

  9. Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant effects of various parts of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Desta, Kebede Taye; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yun-Hi; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2016-04-01

    An annual Korean weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of a number of diseases. Remarkably, among the 32 polyphenols characterized in various parts of plant tissue, including flowers, leafs, stems and roots, 10 compounds were detected for the first time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The quantification method was validated using structurally related external standards with determination coefficients (R(2) ) ≥0.9995. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.068-3.932 and 0.226-13.108 mg/L, respectively. The recoveries estimated at 50 and 100 mg/L ranged between 60.6-92.2 and 61.3-111%, respectively, with relative standard deviations <12%. The roots contained the largest concentration of identified components, while the flowers contained the least. The antioxidant capacity evaluated in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation-scavenging activities and reducing power was highest in the roots and lowest in the flowers. The findings are well correlated and suggest that the antioxidant capacities principally depend upon the polyphenol concentrations in each part of the plant. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26285146

  10. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  11. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county. PMID:25898599

  12. Artemisinin evaluation in Romanian Artemisia annua wild plants using a new HPLC/MS method.

    PubMed

    Ivanescu, B; Vlase, L; Corciova, A; Lazar, M I

    2011-04-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia annua L., has received considerable attention in the last few decades as a potent antimalarial drug. Artemisinin has rather low toxicity; it is effective against drug-resistant Plasmodium species and against cerebral malaria. This study reports the development of a rapid and sensitive assay for the quantification of artemisinin in A. annua by reversed phase HPLC/MS. In the selected optimal experimental conditions, artemisinin exhibited a well-defined chromatographic peak with a retention time of 2 ± 0.2 min. The chromatographic signal shows a linear dependence with artemisinin concentration, enabling the use of this signal for artemisinin quantification according to the following regression equation: y = 2665.40x - 14697.61. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9989. For every concentration within the range of the standard curve (0.1-2 µg mL(-1)), accuracy was between 95 and 104%. Artemisinin content in Romanian A. annua wild plants varies between 0.17 and 0.21% (dry weight basis). PMID:21360406

  13. Chemical and biomolecular characterization of Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important ingredient of the alpine liqueur "Genepi".

    PubMed

    Rubiolo, Patrizia; Matteodo, Maura; Bicchi, Carlo; Appendino, Giovanni; Gnavi, Giorgio; Bertea, Cinzia; Maffei, Massimo

    2009-05-13

    Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important alpine plant used for the preparation of flavored beverages, showed a remarkable intraspecific variability, at both genomic and gene product (secondary metabolites) levels. The variability of A. umbelliformis Lam. currently cultivated in Piedmont (Italy, Au1) and in Switzerland (Au2) was investigated by combining the chemical analysis of essential oil and sesquiterpene lactones and the molecular characterization of the 5S-rRNA-NTS gene by PCR and PCR-RFLP. Marked differences were observed between the two plants. Au1 essential oil contained alpha- and beta-thujones as the main components, whereas Au2 contained 1,8-cineole, borneol, and beta-pinene. Au1 sesquiterpene lactone fractions contained cis-8-eudesmanolide derivatives and Au2 the trans-6-germacranolide costunolide. Specific A. umbelliformis Au1 and Au2 primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. Furthermore, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using RsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Chemical and biomolecular data contributed to the characterization of A. umbeliformis chemotypes. PMID:19326948

  14. Volatiles fingerprint of Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha by headspace-solid phase microextraction GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Reale, Samantha; Pace, Loretta; D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; De Angelis, Francesco; Marcozzi, Giordana

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha is a protected species, whose essential oil is used in liqueur industry. Volatile profiles of fresh leaves and flowers from wild plants in comparison with regenerated in vitro plants introduced in experimental fields within an Italian national park were evaluated by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles appear to be qualitatively similar. The content of thujones, the characteristic metabolites of this species, is comparable with that obtained by analysis of essential oils. Principal component analysis of the HS-SPME-GC-MS data supports the possibility of differentiating scent blends of genetically identical plants, and even flowers and leaves from the same individual. HS-SPME-GC-MS is shown to be a very efficient method to analyse and to describe the pattern of components of A. umbelliformis subsp. eriantha cultivars' scents. It represents a rapid screening method highly recommended for the study of protected species, because it is non-destructive and it only requires small amounts of fresh material. PMID:23962361

  15. Genepolide, a sesterpene gamma-lactone with a novel carbon skeleton from mountain wormwood (Artemisia umbelliformis).

    PubMed

    Appendino, Giovanni; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Romano, Adriana; Pollastro, Federica; Avonto, Cristina; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2009-03-27

    The sesterpene gamma-lactone genepolide (5) has been isolated from a Swiss horticultural variety of mountain wormwood (Artemisia umbelliformis) developed as a thujones-free alternative to native Western Alps wormwoods for the production of liqueurs. Genepolide is the formal Diels-Alder adduct of the exomethylene-gamma-lactone costunolide (2) and the diene myrcene (6), two poorly reactive partners in cycloaddition reactions, and its structure was elucidated through a combination of spectroscopic methods. An investigation on the thermal stability of mixtures of 2 and 6, as well as considerations on the sensitivity of 2 to Brønsted and Lewis acids, suggests that 5 is a genuine natural product and that the Swiss chemotype of A. umbelliformis contains Diels-Alderase enzymatic activity that is lacking in native mountain wormwoods from Western Alps. Remarkable differences in thermal and acid-catalyzed reactions of the cyclodecadiene moiety of 2 and 5 suggest that quaternarization at C-11 has far-reaching effects on the reactivity of their homoconjugated medium-sized diene system. The wide occurrence of this structural motif in sesquiterpenoids makes this issue worth a systematic investigation. PMID:19053512

  16. Methyl jasmonate and miconazole differently affect arteminisin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Caretto, S; Quarta, A; Durante, M; Nisi, R; De Paolis, A; Blando, F; Mita, G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a herb traditionally used for treatment of fevers. The glandular trichomes of this plant accumulate, although at low levels, artemisinin, which is highly effective against malaria. Due to the great importance of this compound, many efforts have been made to improve knowledge on artemisinin production both in plants and in cell cultures. In this study, A. annua suspension cultures were established in order to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and miconazole on artemisinin biosynthesis. Twenty-two micro molar MeJA induced a three-fold increase of artemisinin production in around 30 min; while 200 μm miconazole induced a 2.5-fold increase of artemisinin production after 24 h, but had severe effects on cell viability. The influence of these treatments on expression of biosynthetic genes was also investigated. MeJA induced up-regulation of CYP71AV1, while miconazole induced up-regulation of CPR and DBR2. PMID:21143725

  17. β-Cyclodextrins enhance artemisinin production in Artemisia annua suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Quarta, Angela; De Paolis, Angelo; Nisi, Rossella; Mita, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene antimalarial compound produced, though at low levels (0.1-1% dry weight), in Artemisia annua in which it accumulates in the glandular trichomes of the plant. Due to its antimalarial properties and short supply, efforts are being made to improve our understanding of artemisinin biosynthesis and its production. Native β-cyclodextrins, as well as the chemically modified heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins, were added to the culture medium of A. annua suspension cultures, and their effects on artemisinin production were analysed. The effects of a joint cyclodextrin and methyl jasmonate treatment were also investigated. Fifty millimolar DIMEB, as well as a combination of 50 mM DIMEB and 100 μM methyl jasmonate, was highly effective in increasing the artemisinin levels in the culture medium. The observed artemisinin level (27 μmol g(-1) dry weight) was about 300-fold higher than that observed in untreated suspensions. The influence of β-cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate on the expression of artemisinin biosynthetic genes was also investigated. PMID:21468706

  18. How the Plant Temperature Links to the Air Temperature in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant temperature and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high temperatures is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of temperature control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant temperature as an index. PMID:26280557

  19. [Bioaccessibility of heavy metal in wild Artemisia annua and its health risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang-yun; Yue, Hong; Li, Xuan; Mo, Ge; Kang, Li-ping; Guo, Lan-ping

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the bioaccessibility of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg) in wild Artemisia annua and use target hazard quotients (THQ) proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the health risk under the heavy metal exposure. The results showed that the bioaccessibility of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg in A. annua are 0.77, 0.66, 0.46, 0.68 and 0, respectively, and that the value of THQ for adults and children were 0.030 and 0.025 calculated by risk assessment model. The results indicated that the heavy metals in A. annua were not able to be completely absorbed by human body and that their contents were in a safe range. In this study, by combining the bioavailability of heavy metal and health risk assessment, we assessed the security of heavy metals of wild A. annua, which will provide reference for the standard of heavy metals for medicinal materials. PMID:26390645

  20. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage. PMID:24583334

  1. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, A.; Sani, T. Ahmadzadeh; Ameri, A. A.; Imani, M.; Golmakani, E.; Kamali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae) family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering) from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene). Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC50. Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium. PMID:26692746

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity of Artemisia vulgaris L. essential oil is mediated by a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in HL-60 leukemic cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The essential oil (EO) of Artemisia vulgaris L. has been traditionally used worldwide for treating a large number of diseases. Although major components in A. vulgaris EO have been shown to inhibit growth of different cancer cells, as pure compounds or part of other plants extracted oil, no information is known about its anti-proliferative activities. Therefore, the current investigation has evaluated the toxicity of the plant extracted oil from buds (AVO-b) and leaves (AVO-l) and characterized their growth inhibitory effects on cancer cells. Methods AVO-b and AVO-l from A. vulgaris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their effect on the viability of human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia and various other cancer cell lines was tested using MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation assay, caspases enzymatic activities and Western blotting were used to determine the apoptotic pathway triggered by their action on HL-60 cells. Results Low concentrations of AVO-b and AVO-l inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing flow cytometric, DNA fragmentation and caspase activation analyses, demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of the oils is mediated by a caspase-dependent apoptosis. Kinetic studies in the presence and absence specific caspase inhibitors showed that activation of caspase-8 was dependent and subsequent to the activation of caspases-9 and -3. In addition, the essential oil caused a disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), increased the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and altered the expression of certain members of Bcl-2 family (Bcl-2, Bax and Bid), Apaf-1 and XIAP. Interestingly, low doses of AVO-b and AVO-1 also induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, but not in noncancerous cells. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the EO-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells is mediated by caspase-dependent pathways, involving caspases-3, -9, and -8

  3. Seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses around Artemisia halodendron shrubs in a sandy habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Rui; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Kang, Ling-Fen; Liu, Ji-Liang; Huang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    In a natural population of the perennial semi-shrub Artemisia halodendron in a shifting sandy habitat in the Horqin Desert of eastern Inner Mongolia, six isolated adult A. halodendron individuals of similar canopy size were chosen as target plants. The density of seeds in the top 5 cm soil depth around shrubs was measured using transects aligned to the four main wind directions and at different distances from the shrub base on both the windward and leeward sides. The effects of shrub presence on seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses were examined by linking seed distribution to seed traits. Of the four species, Setaris viridis and Eragrostis pilosa had small but similar seed mass, while Chloris virgata and Aristida adscensionis had large but similar seed mass. The species were grouped into two cohorts: small-seeded vs. large-seeded cohorts, and shrub presence effects on seed distribution of both cohorts were examined. We found marked difference in the seed distribution pattern among species, especially between the small-seeded and large-seeded cohorts. The small-seeded cohort had significantly higher seed accumulation on the windward than the leeward sides in the most and least prevailing wind directions and much higher seed accumulation on the leeward than the windward sides in the second and third most prevailing wind directions, while opposite patterns occurred in the large-seeded cohort. Four species also showed marked variation in the seed distribution pattern among transects and between windward and leeward sides of each transect. This study provided further evidence that shrubs embedded in a matrix of herbaceous plants is a key cause of spatial heterogeneity in seed availability of herbaceous species. However, seed distribution responses to the presence of shrubs will vary with species as well as with wind direction, sampling position (windward vs. leeward sides of the shrub) and distance from the shrub.

  4. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Responses by Essential Oil of Artemisia kotuchovii and Its Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V.; Özek, Gulmira; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A.; Kotukhov, Yuriy A.; Danilova, Alevtina N.; Özek, Temel; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Quinn, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers+leaves and stems of Artemisia kotuchovii Kupr. (AKEOf+l and AKEOstm, respectively) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The primary components of the oils were estragole, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimenes, methyl eugenol, limonene, spathulenol, β-pinene, myrcene, and (E)-methyl cinnamate. Seventy four constituents were present at concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0%, and 34 compounds were identified in trace (<0.1%) amounts in one or both plant components. Screening of the essential oils for biological activity showed that AKEOstm, but not AKEOf+l, inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils. Selected pure constituents, representing >96% of the AKEOstm composition, were also tested in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). We found that one component, 6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one (MHDO), inhibited fMLF- and interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated Ca2+ flux, fMLF-induced chemotaxis, and PMA-induced ROS production in human neutrophils. MHDO also inhibited fMLF-induced Ca2+ flux in FPR1-HL60 cells. These results suggest that MHDO may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by an inhibition of neutrophil migration and ROS production. PMID:25959257

  5. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  6. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water

  7. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Artemisia gilvescens against Anopheles anthropophagus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Tian, Yingjuan

    2013-03-01

    Artemisia gilvescens, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from A. gilvescens was investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and larvicidal activity of the oil and its six main compounds against Anopheles anthropophagus was carried out by WHO method. In total, 56 compounds corresponding to 98.20 % of the total oil were identified and the major compounds identified were camphor (13.49 %), eucalyptol (12.13 %), terpine-4-ol (9.65 %), germacrene D (8.62 %), caryophyllene oxide (4.65 %), and caryophyllene (4.29 %). Essential oil induced 8, 46, 80, 85, 94, and 100 % larval mortality at the concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg/l, and the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 49.95 and 97.36 mg/l, respectively. Among the six compounds, the most potent larvicidal compound was caryophyllene oxide and germacrene D, with LC(50) values of 49.46 and 49.81 mg/l and LC(90) values of 115.38 and 106.19 mg/l, respectively. Terpine-4-ol had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 76.70 and 139.42 mg/l followed by camphor which showed LC(50) and LC(90) values of 129.17 and 192.42 mg/l, respectively. The least potent among the six compounds were eucalyptol and caryophyllene, with and LC(50) value exceeding 200 mg/l. In general, it also shows a dose-dependent effect on mortality, with increasing concentrations of essential oil and compounds increasing mortality of the larvae. The essential oil of A. gilvescens and its several major compounds may have potential for use in control of A. anthropophagus. PMID:23263328

  8. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate. PMID:26822944

  9. Dried-leaf Artemisia annua: A practical malaria therapeutic for developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa; Hassanali, Ahmed; Lutgen, Pierre; Engeu, Patrick Ogwang

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua (A. annua) L, and used as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), is the current best therapeutic for treating malaria, a disease that hits children and adults especially in developing countries. Traditionally, A. annua was used by the Chinese as a tea to treat “fever”. More recently, investigators have shown that tea infusions and oral consumption of the dried leaves of the plant have prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. The presence of a complex matrix of chemicals within the leaves seems to enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of artemisinin. Although about 1000-fold less potent than artemisinin in their antiplasmodial activity, these plant chemicals are mainly small molecules that include other artemisinic compounds, terpenes (mainly mono and sesqui), flavonoids, and polyphenolic acids. In addition, polysaccharide constituents of A. annua may enhance bioavailability of artemisinin. Rodent pharmacokinetics showed longer T1/2 and Tmax and greater Cmax and AUC in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice treated with A. annua dried leaves than in healthy mice. Pharmacokinetics of deoxyartemisinin, a liver metabolite of artemisinin, was more inhibited in infected than in healthy mice. In healthy mice, artemisinin serum levels were > 40-fold greater in dried leaf fed mice than those fed with pure artemisinin. Human trial data showed that when delivered as dried leaves, 40-fold less artemisinin was required to obtain a therapeutic response compared to pure artemisinin. ACTs are still unaffordable for many malaria patients, and cost estimates for A. annua dried leaf tablet production are orders of magnitude less than for ACT, despite improvements in the production capacity. Considering that for > 2000 years this plant was used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of fever with no apparent appearance of artemisinin drug resistance, the evidence argues for inclusion of affordable A. annua dried leaf tablets into

  10. Winter snowfall and summer photosynthesis for the Great Basin Desert shrubs Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loik, M. E.; Griffith, A. B.; Alpert, H.; Concilio, A. L.; Martinson, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Snowfall provides the majority of soil water recharge in many western high-elevation North American ecosystems, but climate change may alter the magnitude and timing of snowfall and snow melt events thereby affecting ecosystem processes. Experiments were conducted to test hypotheses about multi-scale linkages of antecedent snow depth variation with soil water content and physiological performance of deeply-rooted shrubs in the western Great Basin Desert. Snow depth was manipulated using eight 50-year old snow fences near Mammoth Lakes, California, USA. Water potential and photosynthetic gas exchange were measured annually in early summer (1 - 2 mo following snowmelt), between 2004 and 2008 for Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae) on plots with increased ("+ snow"), decreased ("- snow") and ambient snow depth. Seasonal patterns were measured from May - September 2005, and four to five months after snowmelt in wet and dry years. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient-depth plots in most years. Depth was about 20% lower on -snow plots. Soil water content in May on +snow plots was roughly double that on ambient and 220% of that on -snow plots. Water potential patterns varied across daily, seasonal, and annual scales, but only on a few occasions was there a significant snow-depth effect. Stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) increased for several months after snowmelt in 2005, but there were only a few times when there was a snow depth effect. Photosynthetic gas exchange reflected inter-annual snow depth, but the magnitude of the variation was lower. There was a threshold response of A to October 1 - June 1 cumulative precipitation. For A. tridentata, A differed as a function of Snow Water Equivalents (SWE) across five years of measurements. Results suggest that plant water relations for these two deeply-rooted shrub species are resilient to variation in winter snow depth and subsequent spring soil water

  11. Seasonal variation of responses to herbivory and volatile communication in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Satomi; Shiojiri, Kaori; Karban, Richard; Ohara, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Plants can respond to insect herbivory in various ways to avoid reductions in fitness. However, the effect of herbivory on plant performance can vary depending on the seasonal timing of herbivory. We investigated the effects of the seasonal timing of herbivory on the performance of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Sagebrush is known to induce systemic resistance by receiving volatiles emitted from clipped leaves of the same or neighboring plants, which is called volatile communication. Resistance to leaf herbivory is known to be induced most effectively after volatile communication in spring. We experimentally clipped 25 % of leaves of sagebrush in May when leaves were expanding, or in July when inflorescences were forming. We measured the growth and flower production of clipped plants and neighboring plants which were exposed to volatiles emitted from clipped plants. The treatment conducted in spring reduced the growth of clipped plants. This suggests that early season leaf herbivory is detrimental because it reduces the opportunities for resource acquisition after herbivory, resulting in strong induction of resistance in leaves. On the other hand, the late season treatment increased flower production in plants exposed to volatiles, which was caused mainly by the increase in the number of inflorescences. Because the late season treatment occurred when sagebrush produces inflorescences, sagebrush may respond to late herbivory by increasing compensation ability and/or resistance in inflorescences rather than in leaves. Our results suggest that sagebrush can change responses to herbivory and subsequent volatile communication seasonally and that the seasonal variation in responses may reduce the cost of induced resistance. PMID:27056097

  12. Increased susceptibility of ethanol-treated gastric mucosa to naproxen and its inhibition by DA-9601, an Artemisia asiatica extract

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Young; Ahn, Gook Jun; Choi, Seul Min; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Kim, Won Bae

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of DA-9601, a new gastroprotective agent, on the vulnerability of ethanol-treated rat’s stomach to naproxen (NAP). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 1 mL of 50% ethanol twice a day for 5 d and then NAP (50 mg/kg) was administered. DA-9601 was administered 1 h before NAP. Four hours after NAP, the rats were killed to examine gross injury index (mm2), histologic change and to determine mucosal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). RESULTS: Pretreatment of ethanol significantly increased NAP-induced gastric lesions, as well as an increase in MDA and MPO. On the contrary, mucosal PGE2 and GSH contents were decreased dramatically by ethanol pretreatment, which were aggravated by NAP. DA-9601 significantly reduced NAP-induced gastric injury grossly and microscopically, regardless of pretreatment with ethanol. DA-9601 preserved, or rather, increased mucosal PGE2 and GSH in NAP-treated rats (P<0.05), with reduction in mucosal MDA and MPO levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that repeated alcohol consumption renders gastric mucosa more susceptible to NSAIDs though, at least in part, reduction of endogenous cytoprotectants including PGE2 and GSH, and increase in MPO activation, and that DA-9601, a new gastroprotectant, can reduce the increased vulnerability of ethanol consumers to NSAIDs-induced gastric damage via the mechanism in which PGE2 and GSH are involved. PMID:16437715

  13. Crude extracts of asteraceous weeds : Growth inhibitors for variegated cutworm.

    PubMed

    Salloum, G S; Isman, M B

    1989-04-01

    Petrol and ethanolic extracts of six asteraceous weeds were added to artificial diets to screen for growth inhibition and mortality of the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Hbn). Petrol and ethanolic extracts ofArtemisia tridentata andChamomilla suaveolens and ethanolic extracts ofChrysothamnus nauseosus andCentaurea diffusa severely inhibited larval growth at five times the natural concentrations. The twoC. suaveolens extracts and the ethanol extract ofA. tridentata were active at the natural concentration (100%) and were further examined at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of this level. Inhibition of larval growth was directly related to concentration for each of the three extracts tested. EC50s (effective concentration to inhibit growth by 50% relative to controls) for the three extracts were 36-42% of the naturally occurring level in the plants. Nutritional indices were calculated for secondinstarP. saucia feeding on the activeA. tridentata EtOH extract and the petrol extract fromC. suaveolens. Addition of the activeA. tridentata EtOH or theC. suaveolens petrol extract to the diet resulted in significant reduction in the relative growth rate of larvae, although theA. tridentata extract was much more inhibitory. Dietary utilization was significantly lower for larvae fed theA. tridentata EtOH extract. PMID:24272019

  14. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control. Results showed that both SLN formulations were able to entrap the essential oil in high yields and that the mean particle size increased only slightly after two years of storage, indicating a high physical stability. In vitro antiviral assays showed that SLN incorporation did not affect the essential oil antiherpetic activity. The in vitro skin permeation experiments demonstrated the capability of SLN of greatly improving the oil accumulation into the skin, while oil permeation occurred only when the oil was delivered from the control solution. PMID:18019840

  15. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: in vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot-pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control. Results showed that both SLN formulations were able to entrap the essential oil in high yields and that the mean particle size increased only slightly after two years of storage, indicating a high physical stability. In vitro antiviral assays showed that SLN incorporation did not affect the essential oil antiherpetic activity. The in vitro skin permeation experiments demonstrated the capability of SLN of greatly improving the oil accumulation into the skin, while oil permeation occurred only when the oil was delivered from the control solution. PMID:18019840

  16. Mount St. Helens ash: recreating its effects on the steppe environment and ecophysiology. [Artemisia tridentata; Lupinus sulphureus

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.A.; Mack, R.N.

    1986-10-01

    The 18 May 1980 ash fall from Mount St. Helens was experimentally reproduced in May 1982 by applying silt-sized ash to a stand of the Artemisia tridentata/Agropyron spicatum association in south-central Washington. Compared to the adjacent control site, ash caused an immediate increase in albedo from 13% to 28%, while other parameters of the energy budget were simultaneously lowered: net radiation by approx. = 20%, soil surface temperatures by as much as 10/sup 0/C, and soil heat flux by as much as 50%. The ash's mulching action initially increased water availability and delayed leaf abscission in Artemisia tridentata (Big sagebrush) by 2 wk in summer 1982. But after summer 1982 water availability declined, while water use increased, illustrating the diverse effects of the ash. Increased reflection from the ash-covered surface increased the radiation load on plant canopies. In turn, air temperature at 0.5 m increased, latent heat flux often doubled in summer, and xylem pressure potentials decreased. Available water at the -1 m soil depth eventually decreased as much as 40%. This decrease was the result of the increase in latent heat flux and the decline in infiltration through the stratified layer created by the ash cap. In addition to allowing assessment of the effects of the 18 May 1980 ash fall on arid steppe, application of ash provided an unexpected level of precision in detecting the often subtle effects that occur when some microenvironmental parameters change while the overall macroclimate remains the same.

  17. The use of Bayesian nonlinear regression techniques for the modelling of the retention behaviour of volatile components of Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, M; Mani-Varnosfaderani, A; Taherinia, D; Mahmoodi, M M

    2012-07-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the ability of Bayesian multivariate adaptive regression splines (BMARS) and Bayesian radial basis function (BRBF) techniques for modelling the gas chromatographic retention indices of volatile components of Artemisia species. A diverse set of molecular descriptors was calculated and used as descriptor pool for modelling the retention indices. The ability of BMARS and BRBF techniques was explored for the selection of the most relevant descriptors and proper basis functions for modelling. The results revealed that BRBF technique is more reproducible than BMARS for modelling the retention indices and can be used as a method for variable selection and modelling in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies. It is also concluded that the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) search engine, implemented in BRBF algorithm, is a suitable method for selecting the most important features from a vast number of them. The values of correlation between the calculated retention indices and the experimental ones for the training and prediction sets (0.935 and 0.902, respectively) revealed the prediction power of the BRBF model in estimating the retention index of volatile components of Artemisia species. PMID:22452344

  18. Functional Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase (ADS) Homologs from Non-Artemisinin-Producing Artemisia Species: The Discovery of Novel Koidzumiol and (+)-α-Bisabolol Synthases.

    PubMed

    Muangphrom, Paskorn; Seki, Hikaru; Suzuki, Munenori; Komori, Aya; Nishiwaki, Mika; Mikawa, Ryota; Fukushima, Ery Odette; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2016-08-01

    The production of artemisinin, the most effective antimalarial compound, is limited to Artemisia annua. Enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis include amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), amorpha-4,11-diene 12-monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and artemisinic aldehyde Δ(11)13 reductase (DBR2). Although artemisinin and its specific intermediates are not detected in other Artemisia species, we reported previously that CYP71AV1 and DBR2 homologs were expressed in some non-artemisinin-producing Artemisia plants. These homologous enzymes showed similar functions to their counterparts in A. annua and can convert fed intermediates into the following products along the artemisinin biosynthesis in planta These findings suggested a partial artemisinin-producing ability in those species. In this study, we examined genes highly homologous to ADS, the first committed gene in the pathway, in 13 Artemisia species. We detected ADS homologs in A. absinthium, A. kurramensis and A. maritima. We analyzed the enzymatic functions of all of the ADS homologs after obtaining their cDNA. We found that the ADS homolog from A. absinthium exhibited novel activity in the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to koidzumiol, a rare natural sesquiterpenoid. Those from A. kurramensis and A. maritima showed similar, but novel, activities in the cyclization of FPP to (+)-α-bisabolol. The unique functions of the novel sesquiterpene synthases highly homologous to ADS found in this study could provide insight into the molecular basis of the exceptional artemisinin-producing ability in A. annua. PMID:27273626

  19. Interactive Effects of Moss-Dominated Crusts and Artemisia ordosica on Wind Erosion and Soil Moisture in Mu Us Sandland, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion. PMID:24982973

  20. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and +/- supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a...

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Artemisia umbelliformis Lam, an endangered aromatic species in Southern French Alps, influence plant P and essential oil contents.

    PubMed

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Deprêtre, Nicolas; Koszela, Nathalie; Chambon, Catherine; Gianinazzi, Silvio

    2011-08-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of Artemisia umbelliformis, investigated in natural and cultivated sites in the Southern Alps of France, showed typical structures (arbuscules, vesicles, hyphae) as well as spores and mycelia in its rhizosphere. Several native AM fungi belonging to different Glomeromycota genera were identified as colonizers of A. umbelliformis roots, including Glomus tenue, Glomus intraradices, G. claroideum/etunicatum and a new Acaulospora species. The use of the highly mycorrhizal species Trifolium pratense as a companion plant impacted positively on mycorrhizal colonization of A. umbelliformis under greenhouse conditions. The symbiotic performance of an alpine microbial community including native AM fungi used as inoculum on A. umbelliformis was evaluated in greenhouse conditions by comparison with mycorrhizal responses of two other alpine Artemisia species, Artemisia glacialis and Artemisia genipi Weber. Contrary to A. genipi Weber, both A. umbelliformis and A. glacialis showed a significant increase of P concentration in shoots. Volatile components were analyzed by GC-MS in shoots of A. umbelliformis 6 months after inoculation. The alpine microbial inoculum increased significantly the percentage of E-β-ocimene and reduced those of E-2-decenal and (E,E)-2-4-decadienal indicating an influence of alpine microbial inoculum on essential oil production. This work provides practical indications for the use of native AM fungi for A. umbelliformis field culture. PMID:21243378

  2. Standardization of Weed Pollen Extracts, Japanese Hop and Mugwort, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Hye Jung; Hong, Chein-Soo; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Japanese hop (Humulus spp.) and mugwort (Artemisia spp.) are notable causes of autumn pollinosis in East Asia. However, Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts, which are widely used for the diagnosis, have not been standardized. This study was performed to standardize Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts. Materials and Methods Allergen extracts were prepared in a standardized way using locally collected Humulus japonicus and purchased Artemisia vulgaris pollens. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivities of prepared extracts were compared with commercial extracts via IgE immunoblotting and inhibition analyses. Intradermal skin tests were performed to determine the bioequivalent allergy unit (BAU). Results The IgE reactive components of the extracts via IgE immunoblotting were similar to those of commercial extracts. A 11-kDa allergen showed the strongest IgE reactivity in Japanese hop, as did a 28-kDa allergen in mugwort pollen extracts. Allergenic potencies of the investigatory Japanese hop and mugwort extracts were essentially indistinguishable from the commercial ones. Sums of erythema of 50 mm by the intradermal skin test (ΣED50) were calculated to be 14.4th and 13.6th three-fold dilutions for Japanese hop and mugwort extracts, respectively. Therefore, the allergenic activity of the prepared extracts was 90827.4 BAU/mg for Japanese hop and 34412 BAU/mg for mugwort. Conclusion We produced Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts using a standardized method. Standardized Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts will facilitate the production of improved diagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents. PMID:26847293

  3. Antimicrobial, antioxidative, and insect repellent effects of Artemisia absinthium essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Jovanović, Boris; Jović, Jovana; Ilić, Budimir; Miladinović, Dragoljub; Matejić, Jelena; Rajković, Jelena; Dorđević, Ljubiša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Zlatković, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ethnopharmacological uses of this plant species in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and wounds, and as an insect repellent. The aerial part of the plant was hydrodistilled, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty-seven compounds, corresponding to 94.65 % of the total oil, were identified, with the main constituents being sabinene (24.49 %), sabinyl acetate (13.64 %), and α-phellandrene (10.29 %). The oil yield was 0.23 % (v/w). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated against ten bacterial isolates (from patients wounds and stools) and seven American Type Culture Collection strains using a microwell dilution assay. The minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentration of the oil ranged from < 0.08 to 2.43 mg/mL and from 0.08 to 38.80 mg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical-scavenging methods and assessed as significant. Skin irritation potential and acute toxicity of the oil were also investigated. Results of the skin irritant reaction showed that none of the 30 volunteers developed a positive skin irritant reaction to undiluted A. absinthium essential oil. Acute oral exposure to the essential oil did not cause mortality in the treated mice, but it did cause neurological, muscle, and gastrointestinal problems. A subchronic toxicity test on Drosophila melanogaster showed that the essential oil of A. absinthium is toxic for developing insect larvae. Starting with the concentration of 0.38 % of essential oil in medium, significant mortality of larvae exposed to the oil was noted when compared to the control. Probit

  4. Modeling regeneration responses of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to abiotic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), which are the most widespread ecosystems in semiarid western North America, have been affected by land use practices and invasive species. Loss of big sagebrush and the decline of associated species, such as greater sage-grouse, are a concern to land managers and conservationists. However, big sagebrush regeneration remains difficult to achieve by restoration and reclamation efforts and there is no regeneration simulation model available. We present here the first process-based, daily time-step, simulation model to predict yearly big sagebrush regeneration including relevant germination and seedling responses to abiotic factors. We estimated values, uncertainty, and importance of 27 model parameters using a total of 1435 site-years of observation. Our model explained 74% of variability of number of years with successful regeneration at 46 sites. It also achieved 60% overall accuracy predicting yearly regeneration success/failure. Our results identify specific future research needed to improve our understanding of big sagebrush regeneration, including data at the subspecies level and improved parameter estimates for start of seed dispersal, modified wet thermal-time model of germination, and soil water potential influences. We found that relationships between big sagebrush regeneration and climate conditions were site specific, varying across the distribution of big sagebrush. This indicates that statistical models based on climate are unsuitable for understanding range-wide regeneration patterns or for assessing the potential consequences of changing climate on sagebrush regeneration and underscores the value of this process-based model. We used our model to predict potential regeneration across the range of sagebrush ecosystems in the western United States, which confirmed that seedling survival is a limiting factor, whereas germination is not. Our results also suggested that modeled

  5. Th1-Biased Immunomodulation and Therapeutic Potential of Artemisia annua in Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Farooque, Abdullah; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Background In the absence of vaccines and limitations of currently available chemotherapy, development of safe and efficacious drugs is urgently needed for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that is fatal, if left untreated. Earlier we reported in vitro apoptotic antileishmanial activity of n-hexane fractions of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL) and seeds (AAS) against Leishmania donovani. In the present study, we investigated the immunostimulatory and therapeutic efficacy of AAL and AAS. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten-weeks post infection, BALB/c mice were orally administered AAL and AAS for ten consecutive days. Significant reduction in hepatic (86.67% and 89.12%) and splenic (95.45% and 95.84%) parasite burden with decrease in spleen weight was observed. AAL and AAS treated mice induced the strongest DTH response, as well as three-fold decrease in IgG1 and two-fold increase in IgG2a levels, as compared to infected controls. Cytometric bead array further affirmed the elicitation of Th1 immune response as indicated by increased levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in serum as well as in culture supernatant of lymphocytes from treated mice. Lymphoproliferative response, IFN-γ producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and nitrite levels were significantly enhanced upon antigen recall in vitro. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 on macrophages was significantly augmented. CD8+ T cells exhibited CD62Llow and CD44hi phenotype, signifying induction of immunological memory in AAL and AAS treated groups. Serum enzyme markers were in the normal range indicating inertness against nephro- and hepato-toxicity. Conclusions/Significance Our results establish the two-prong antileishmanial efficacy of AAL and AAS for cure against L. donovani that is dependent on both the direct leishmanicidal action as well as switching-on of Th1-biased protective cell-mediated immunity with generation of memory. AAL and AAS could represent adjunct therapies for the treatment

  6. Cloning, expression, and characterization of epi-cedrol synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Mercke, P; Crock, J; Croteau, R; Brodelius, P E

    1999-09-15

    Sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases) catalyze the conversion of the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate to various sesquiterpene structural types. In plants, many sesquiterpenes are produced as defensive chemicals (phytoalexins) or mediators of chemical communication (i.e., pollinator attractants). A number of sesquiterpene synthases are present in Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood). We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding one of these, epi-cedrol synthase. This clone contains a 1641-bp open reading frame coding for 547 amino acids (63.5 kDa), a 38-bp 5'-untranslated end, and a 272-bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence was 32 to 43% identical with the sequences of other known sesquiterpene cyclases from angiosperms. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed the formation of both olefinic (3%) and oxygenated (97%) sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate. GC-MS analysis identified the olefins as alpha-cedrene (57% of the olefins), beta-cedrene (13%), (E)-beta-farnesene (5%), alpha-acoradiene (1%), (E)-alpha-bisabolene (8%), and three unknown olefins (16%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (97% of total sesquiterpene generated, exclusive of farnesol and nerolidol) as cedrol (4%) and epi-cedrol (96%). epi-Cedrol synthase was not active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate, whereas geranyl diphosphate was converted to monoterpenes by the recombinant enzyme at a rate of about 15% of that observed with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. The monoterpene olefin products are limonene (45%), terpinolene (42%), gamma-terpinene (8%), myrcene (5%), and alpha-terpinene (2%); a small amount of the monoterpene alcohol terpinen-4-ol is also produced. The pH optimum for the recombinant enzyme is 8.5-9.0 (with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate) and the K(m) values for farnesyl diphosphate are 0.4 and 1.3 microM at pH 7. 0 and 9.0, respectively. The K(m) for Mg(2+) is 80 microM at pH 7.0 and 9.0. PMID:10486140

  7. In-Vitro Assessment of the Acaricidal Properties of Artemisia annua and Zataria multiflora Essential Oils to Control Cattle Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, KH; Teixeira da Silva, JA

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect’ of Zataria multiflora and Artemisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Methods This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3) of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus) annulatus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were recorded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi). Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, and comparison of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure. Results The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3) to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3) and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively) by the end of the experiment (36 hpi). No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. annua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essential oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged female ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent. Conclusion Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro. PMID:22347275

  8. Enhancement of artemisinin content in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants by modulating the expression of genes in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyan; Zhou, Yin; Zhang, Jianjun; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Shen, Qian; Wu, Shaoyan; Chen, Yunfei; Wang, Tao; Tang, Kexuan

    2011-01-01

    Tetraploid Artemisia annua plants were successfully inducted by using colchicine, and their ploidy was confirmed by flow cytometry. Higher stomatal length but lower frequency in tetraploids were revealed and could be considered as indicators of polyploidy. The average level of artemisinin in tetraploids was increased from 39% to 56% than that of the diploids during vegetation period, as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector. Gene expressions of 10 key enzymes related to artemisinin biosynthetic pathway in different ploidy level were analyzed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and significant upregulation of FPS, HMGR, and artemisinin metabolite-specific Aldh1 genes were revealed in tetraploids. Slight increased expression of ADS was also detected. Our results suggest that higher artemisinin content in tetraploid A. annua may result from the upregulated expression of some key enzyme genes related to artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:21446959

  9. Detecting the Differences in Responses of Stomatal Conductance to Moisture Stresses between Deciduous Shrubs and Artemisia Subshrubs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei; Zhou, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Shrubs and subshrubs can tolerate wider ranges of moisture stresses in both soil and air than other plant life forms, and thus represent greater nonlinearity and uncertainty in ecosystem physiology. The objectives of this paper are to model shrub/subshrub stomatal conductance by synthesizing the field leaf gas exchanges data of 24 species in China, in order to detect the differences between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs in their responses of stomatal conductance to changes in the moisture stresses. We revised a model of stomatal conductance by incorporating the tradeoff between xylem hydraulic efficiency and cavitation loss risk. We then fit the model at the three hierarchical levels: global (pooling all data as a single group), three functional groups (deciduous non-legume shrubs, deciduous legume shrubs, and subshrubs in Artemisia genus), and individual observations (species × sites). Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was applied to obtain the model parameters at the three levels. We found that the model at the level of functional groups is a significant improvement over that at the global level, indicating the significant differences in the stomatal behavior among the three functional groups. The differences in tolerance and sensitivities to changes in moisture stresses are the most evident between the shrubs and the subshrubs: The two shrub groups can tolerate much higher soil water stress than the subshrubs. The analysis at the observation level is also a significant improvement over that at the functional group level, indicating great variations within each group. Our analysis offered a clue for the equivocal issue of shrub encroachment into grasslands: While the invasion by the shrubs may be irreversible, the dominance of subshrubs, due to their lower resistance and tolerance to moisture stresses, may be put down by appropriate grassland management. PMID:24386351

  10. Bioactivity of essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van. and its main compounds against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Su, Yang; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:25017866

  11. Transcription factors as targets of the anti-inflammatory treatment. A cell culture study with extracts from some Mediterranean diet plants.

    PubMed

    Stalińska, K; Guzdek, A; Rokicki, M; Koj, A

    2005-03-01

    During the inflammatory response at least 2 transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1, are involved in the altered profile of gene expression. We used human hepatoma (HepG2) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as a model system: NF-kappaB and AP-1 were activated by the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 in the absence or presence of 21 selected plant extracts and the effect was evaluated by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In both types of cells activation of NF-kappaB by IL-1 was significantly inhibited by extracts from Scandix australis and Artemisia alba, whereas extracts from Amaranthus sp., Eryngium campestre, Thymus pulegioides and Reichardia picroides elicited cell-type dependent response. The IL-1-induced AP-1 activation was diminished by extracts from Scandix australis, Amaranthus sp. and Artemisia alba more potently in HUVEC, while extracts from Urospermum picroides and Scandix pecten-veneris in HepG2 cells. Inhibitory activities of plant extracts towards cytokine activated NF-kappaB and AP-1 depend to some extent on the order of addition of IL-1 and plant extract to the cell culture, but the mechanism of action of extract components is not clear: although plant polyphenols may participate they are unlikely to be the only mediators, and MAP kinases were found generally not involved in down-regulation of transcription factors activity by plant extracts. PMID:15800392

  12. The biosynthesis of artemisinin (Qinghaosu) and the phytochemistry of Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao).

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoffrey D

    2010-11-01

    The Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao) is the only known source of the sesquiterpene artemisinin (Qinghaosu), which is used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin is a highly oxygenated sesquiterpene, containing a unique 1,2,4-trioxane ring structure, which is responsible for the antimalarial activity of this natural product. The phytochemistry of A. annua is dominated by both sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, as is the case for many other plants in the Asteraceae family. However, A. annua is distinguished from the other members of the family both by the very large number of natural products which have been characterised to date (almost six hundred in total, including around fifty amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes), and by the highly oxygenated nature of many of the terpenoidal secondary metabolites. In addition, this species also contains an unusually large number of terpene allylic hydroperoxides and endoperoxides. This observation forms the basis of a proposal that the biogenesis of many of the highly oxygenated terpene metabolites from A. annua - including artemisinin itself - may proceed by spontaneous oxidation reactions of terpene precursors, which involve these highly reactive allyllic hydroperoxides as intermediates. Although several studies of the biosynthesis of artemisinin have been reported in the literature from the 1980s and early 1990s, the collective results from these studies were rather confusing because they implied that an unfeasibly large number of different sesquiterpenes could all function as direct precursors to artemisinin (and some of the experiments also appeared to contradict one another). As a result, the complete biosynthetic pathway to artemisinin could not be stated conclusively at the time. Fortunately, studies which have been published in the last decade are now providing a clearer picture of the biosynthetic pathways in A. annua. By synthesising some of the sesquiterpene natural products which have been

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  14. Characterization of Nutritional Composition, Antioxidative Capacity, and Sensory Attributes of Seomae Mugwort, a Native Korean Variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Cho Rong; Suh, Soo Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Gwi Gun; Park, Cheung-Seog; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jong Hun; Song, Sang-Wook; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated Seomae mugwort (a Korean native mugwort variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot), exclusively cultivated in the southern Korean peninsula, and the possibility of its use as a food resource. In the present study, we compared the nutritional and chemical properties as well as sensory attributes of Seomae mugwort and the commonly consumed species Artemisia princeps Pamp. In comparison with A. princeps, Seomae mugwort had higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and essential amino acids. In addition, Seomae mugwort had better radical scavenging activity and more diverse volatile compounds than A. princeps as well as favorable sensory attributes when consumed as tea. Given that scant information is available regarding the Seomae mugwort and its biological, chemical, and sensory characteristics, the results herein may provide important characterization data for further industrial and research applications of this mugwort variety. PMID:26550520

  15. Characterization of Nutritional Composition, Antioxidative Capacity, and Sensory Attributes of Seomae Mugwort, a Native Korean Variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Cho Rong; Suh, Soo Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Gwi Gun; Park, Cheung-Seog; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jong Hun; Song, Sang-Wook; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated Seomae mugwort (a Korean native mugwort variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot), exclusively cultivated in the southern Korean peninsula, and the possibility of its use as a food resource. In the present study, we compared the nutritional and chemical properties as well as sensory attributes of Seomae mugwort and the commonly consumed species Artemisia princeps Pamp. In comparison with A. princeps, Seomae mugwort had higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and essential amino acids. In addition, Seomae mugwort had better radical scavenging activity and more diverse volatile compounds than A. princeps as well as favorable sensory attributes when consumed as tea. Given that scant information is available regarding the Seomae mugwort and its biological, chemical, and sensory characteristics, the results herein may provide important characterization data for further industrial and research applications of this mugwort variety. PMID:26550520

  16. Effect of the dietary supplementation of essential oils from rosemary and artemisia on muscle fatty acids and volatile compound profiles in Barbarine lambs.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Aouadi, Dorra; Brogna, Daniela M R; Scerra, Manuel; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; Ben Salem, Hichem

    2013-10-01

    Eighteen Barbarine lambs (3 months of age), were assigned for 95 days to 3 treatments: six lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate plus oat hay ad libitum (control group, C); other lambs received the control diet plus essential oil (400 ppm DM) either of Rosmarinus officinalis (R400 group; n=6) or of Artemisia herba alba (A400 group; n=6). At slaughter the muscle longissimus dorsi was sampled and subjected to fatty acid and volatile organic compounds (VOC) analyses. The A400 lambs presented a greater amount of vaccenic, rumenic and linolenic acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in meat than the C and R400 animals. Essential oils supplementation did not affect meat VOC profile though the sesquiterpenes copaene and β-caryophyllene were detected only in the meat of R400 and A400 lambs. It is concluded that the supplementation of rosemary or artemisia essential oils does not produce detrimental effects on lamb meat VOC profile. The supplementation of artemisia can improve meat healthy properties. PMID:23747617

  17. Regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and sulphotransferase 2A1 gene expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected sex-steroids and plant secondary metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and wormwood (Artemisia sp.).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Ekstrand, Bo

    2014-02-15

    In pigs the endogenously produced compound androstenone is metabolised in the liver in two steps by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and sulphotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1). The present study investigated the effect of selected sex-steroids (0.01-1 μM androstenone, testosterone and estradiol), skatole (1-100 μM) and secondary plant metabolites (1-100 μM) on the expression of 3β-HSD and SULT2A1 mRNA. Additionally the effect of a global methanolic extract of dried chicory root was investigated and compared to previous obtained in vivo effects. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of piglets (crossbreed: Landrace×Yorkshire and Duroc) and cultured for 24h before treatment for an additionally 24h. RNA was isolated from the hepatocytes and specific gene expression determined by RT-PCR using TaqMan probes. The investigated sex-steroids had no effect on the mRNA expression of 3β-HSD and SULT2A1, while skatole decreased the content of SULT2A1 30% compared to control. Of the investigated secondary plant metabolites artemisinin and scoparone (found in Artemisia sp.) lowered the content of SULT2A1 by 20 and 30% compared to control, respectively. Moreover, we tested three secondary plant metabolites (lactucin, esculetin and esculin) found in chicory root. Lactucin increased the mRNA content of both 3β-HSD and SULT2A1 by 200% compared to control. An extract of chicory root was shown to decrease the expression of both 3β-HSD and SULT2A1. It is concluded that the gene expression of enzymes with importance for androstenone metabolism is regulated by secondary plant metabolites in a complex manner. PMID:24333270

  18. Enhanced production of artemisinin by hairy root cultivation of Artemisia annua in a modified stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2014-11-01

    Artemisinin is an important drug commonly used in the treatment of malaria as a combination therapy. It is primarily produced by a plant Artemisia annua, however, its supply from plant is significantly lower than its huge demand and therefore alternative in vitro production routes are sought. Hairy root cultivation could be one such alternative production protocol. Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used to induce hairy roots of A. annua. Statistical optimization of media was thereafter attempted to maximize the biomass/artemisinin production. The growth and product formation kinetics and the significant role of O2 in hairy root propagation were established in optimized media. Mass cultivation of hairy roots was, thereafter, attempted in a modified 3-L Stirred Tank Bioreactor (Applikon Dependable Instruments, The Netherlands) using optimized culture conditions. The reactor was suitably modified to obtain profuse growth of hairy roots by segregating and protecting the growing roots from the agitator rotation in the reactor using a perforated Teflon disk. It was possible to produce 18 g biomass L(-1) (on dry weight basis) and 4.63 mg L(-1) of artemisinin in 28 days, which increased to 10.33 mg L(-1) by the addition of elicitor methyl jasmonate. PMID:25172060

  19. The jasmonate-responsive AaMYC2 transcription factor positively regulates artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qian; Lu, Xu; Yan, Tingxiang; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Zhang, Fangyuan; Pan, Qifang; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-06-01

    The plant Artemisia annua is well known due to the production of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone that is widely used in malaria treatment. Phytohormones play important roles in plant secondary metabolism, such as jasmonic acid (JA), which can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Nevertheless, the JA-inducing mechanism remains poorly understood. The expression of gene AaMYC2 was rapidly induced by JA and AaMYC2 binds the G-box-like motifs within the promoters of gene CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which are key structural genes in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Overexpression of AaMYC2 in A. annua significantly activated the transcript levels of CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which resulted in an increased artemisinin content. By contrast, artemisinin content was reduced in the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants in which the expression of AaMYC2 was suppressed. Meanwhile, the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants showed lower sensitivity to methyl jasmonate treatment than the wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that AaMYC2 is a positive regulator of artemisinin biosynthesis and is of great value in genetic engineering of A. annua for increased artemisinin production. PMID:26864531

  20. The Use of Combining Ability Analysis to Identify Elite Parents for Artemisia annua F1 Hybrid Production

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Theresa; Segura, Vincent; Chigeza, Godfree; Penfield, Teresa; Rae, Anne; Harvey, David; Bowles, Dianna; Graham, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA) values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach. PMID:23626762

  1. Cumulative role of bioinoculants on growth, antioxidant potential and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. under organic field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia annua L. is mostly known for a bioactive metabolite, artemisinin, an effective sesquiterpene lactone used against malaria without any reputed cases of resistance. In this experiment, bioinoculants viz., Streptomyces sp. MTN14, Bacillus megaterium MTN2RP and Trichoderma harzianum Thu were applied as growth promoting substances to exploit full genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake and particularly artemisinin content. Further, multi-use of the bioinoculants singly and in combinations for the enhancement of antioxidant potential and therapeutic value was also undertaken which to our knowledge has never been investigated in context with microbial application. The results demonstrated that a significant (P < 0.05) increase in growth, nutrient uptake, total phenolic, flavonoid, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were observed in the A. annua treated with a combination of bioinoculants in comparison to control. Most importantly, an increase in artemisinin content and yield by 34 and 72 % respectively in the treatment having all the three microbes was observed. These results were further authenticated by the PCA analysis which showed positive correlation between plant macronutrients and antioxidant content with plant growth and artemisinin yield of A. annua. The present study thus highlights a possible new application of compatible bioinoculants for enhancing the growth along with antioxidant and therapeutic value of A. annua. PMID:27565777

  2. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  3. Enhanced production of bioactive isoprenoid compounds from cell suspension cultures of Artemisia annua L. using β-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production. PMID:25366131

  5. [Extraction of artemisinin and synthesis of its derivates artesunate and artemether].

    PubMed

    Chekem, L; Wierucki, S

    2006-12-01

    Artemisinin is extracted from Artemisia annua, a shrub also known as sweet wormwood that was used in traditional medicine in Asia for more than 1500 years. Recent studies in numerous malarious zones have demonstrated the effectiveness of artemisinin and have reported no evidence of the resistance now associated with almost all other antimalarials on the market. Despite its remarkable activity, artermisinin is not accessible to many patients due to high cost. This situation confronts all players in the fight against malaria with the urgent need to develop a simple process to produce massive supplies of artemisinin and its derivative at an affordable price. The purpose of the study described here was to develop a simple, cost-effective method that could be used by all professionals to extract artemisinin and transform it into artesunate or artemether. Artemisinin was extracted with dichloromethane and purified on the basis of variations in polarity and in the hydrophile/lipophile balance of solvents. Transformation into artesunate was a two-step process involving reduction to dihydroartemisinin using diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAL) followed by esterification using succinic anhydride. Artemether was obtained from dihydroartemisinin using boron trifluoride. Extraction using dichloromethane presents several advantages. Since dichloromethane is not explosive it can be safely transported and used for extraction on farms where Artemisia annua is grown. Evaporation and recovery of dichloromethane is relatively easy so that it can be re-used. These advantages result in a significant decrease in purchasing and shipping costs. Extraction on the farm eliminates the expense and facilities that would otherwise be required to transport and store leaves at the laboratory (250 kg of leaves yield 4 to 5 kg of raw artemisinin extract that yields approximately 1 kg of pure artemisinin). The low-cost process described here is feasible for any pharmaceutical laboratory including

  6. Antihaemolytic activity of thirty herbal extracts in mouse red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masoumeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to haemolysis and eventually to diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia. Their action can be counteracted by the antihaemolytic activity of therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify plants that most efficiently counteract ROS-caused haemolysis. From ten plants known for their antioxidant activity (Orobanche orientalis G. Beck, Cucumis melo L., Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, Galium verum L., Scutellaria tournefortii Benth, Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer, Sambucus ebulus L., Danae racemosa L., Rubus fruticsos L., and Artemisia absinthium L.) we prepared 30 extracts using three extraction methods (percolation, Soxhlet, and ultrasound-assisted extraction) to see whether the extraction method affects antihaemolytic efficiency, and one extraction method (polyphenol extraction) to see how much of this action is phenol-related. Extract antihaemolytic activity was determined in mice red blood cells and compared to that of vitamin C as a known antioxidant. Nine of our extracts were more potent than vitamin C, of which G. verum (aerial parts/percolation) and S. tournefortii (aerial parts/polyphenol) extracts were the most potent, with an IC50 of 1.32 and 2.08 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Haemolysis inhibition depended on extract concentration and the method of extraction. These plants could provide accessible sources of natural antioxidants to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25720027

  7. Polyphenols from Artemisia annua L Inhibit Adhesion and EMT of Highly Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Shin; Lee, Won Sup; Panchanathan, Radha; Joo, Young Nak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that polyphenolic compounds from plants have anti-invasion and anti-metastasis capabilities. The Korean annual weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Here, we isolated and characterized polyphenols from Korean A. annua L (pKAL). We investigated anti-metastatic effects of pKAL on the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells especially focusing on cancer cell adhesion to the endothelial cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Firstly, pKAL inhibited cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Polyphenols from Korean A. annua L inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to ECs through reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression of MDA-MB-231 and ECs, but not intracellular adhesion molecule-1 at the concentrations where pKAL did not influence the cell viability of either MDA-MB-231 cells nor EC. Further, pKAL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-activated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and EMT. Moreover, pKAL inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, but not that of protein kinase C. These results suggest that pKAL may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis at least in part by inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion to ECs through suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and invasion through suppression of EMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27151203

  8. Wind-dispersed Seed Deposition Patterns and Seedling Recruitment of Artemisia halodendron in a Moving Sandy Land

    PubMed Central

    LI, FENG-RUI; WANG, TAO; ZHANG, AI-SHENG; ZHAO, LI-YA; KANG, LING-FEN; CHEN, WEN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Artemisia halodendron is a native sub-shrub that occurs mainly in moving and semi-fixed sandy lands in Inner Mongolia, China. Information on the spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron inhabiting moving sandy lands is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and post-dispersal recruitment of A. halodendron seedlings. •Methods The spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron were examined by investigating the numbers of deposited seeds, emerged and surviving seedlings using sampling points at a range of distances from the parent plant in eight compass directions for two consecutive growing seasons. •Key Results Wind-dispersed seed deposition showed considerable variation between directions and years. Wind transported A. halodendron seeds only a few meters away from the parent plant in all eight directions. Seedling emergence and establishment also showed between-direction and between-year variability, but the spatial pattern of seedling distribution differed from that of seed deposition. Only a very small fraction (<1 %) of the deposited seeds emerged in the field and survived for long enough to be included in our seedling censuses at the end of the growing season. •Conclusions The spatial variation in wind speed and frequency strongly affects the pattern of seed deposition, although the variation in seed deposition does not determine the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment. Seeds of A. halodendron are not dispersed very well by wind. The low probability of recruitment success for A. halodendron seedlings suggests that this species does not rely on seedling recruitment for its persistence and maintenance of population. PMID:15857850

  9. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:26018915

  10. Synthesis of selenium-containing Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides: Solution conformation and anti-tumor activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Li, Qingyao; Bao, Aijuan; Liu, Xiurong; Zeng, Junyuan; Yang, Xiaopin; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-11-01

    It has been reported in our previous work that selenized Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (SeASPs) with the Se content range of 168-1703μg/g were synthesized by using Na2SeO3/HNO3/BaCl2 system. In the present work, the solution property of SeASP was studied by using size exclusion chromatography combined with multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). A decrease in df values indicated that SeASPs with different conformational features that were highly dependent on MW. SeASPs exhibited a more rigid conformation (df value of 1.29-1.52) in low molecular weight range (MW of 1.026-1.426×10(4)g/mol) and compact spherical conformation in high molecular weight range (MW of 2.268-4.363×10(4)g/mol). It could be due to the degradation of polysaccharide chains in HNO3, which was supported in monosaccharide composition analysis. Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results also confirmed the conformational transition and the evidence on the shape of the rigid chains. In vitro anti-tumor assays, SeASP2 displayed greater anti-proliferative effects against three tumor cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells, lung adenocarcinom A549 cells and cervical squamous carcinoma Hela cells) in a dose-dependent manner. This suggested that selenylation could significantly enhance the anti-tumor activities of polysaccharide derivatives in vitro. PMID:27516251

  11. In vitro regeneration and optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated transformation in Artemisia Pallens, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Alok, Anshu; Shukla, Vishnu; Pala, Zarna; Kumar, Jitesh; Kudale, Subhash; Desai, Neetin

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia pallens is an important medicinal plant. In-vitro regeneration and multiplication of A. pallens have been established using attached cotyledons. Different growth regulators were considered for regeneration of multiple shoots. An average of 36 shoots per explants were obtained by culturing attached cotyledons on Murashige and Skoog's medium containing 2 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA, after 45 days. The shoots were rooted best on half Murashige and Skoog's medium with respect to media containing 1 mg/L IBA or 1 mg/L NAA. Different parameters such as type of bacterial strains, OD600 of bacterial culture, co-cultivation duration, concentration of acetosyringone and explants type were optimized for transient expression of the reporter gene. Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring pCambia1301 plasmid carrying β-glucuronidase as a reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as plant selectable marker genes were used for genetic transformation of A. pallens. Hygromycin lethality test showed concentration of 15 mg/L were sufficient to inhibit the growth of attached cotyledons and multiple shoot buds of nontransgenics in selection media. Up to 83 % transient transformation was found when attached cotyledons were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 for 2 days at 22 °C on shoot induction medium. The bacterial growth was eliminated by addition of cefotaxime (200 mg/L) in selection media. T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and further by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using uidA and hpt gene specific primers. The study is useful in establishing technological improvement in A. pallens by genetic engineering. PMID:27436917

  12. Effects of Sand Dune Stabilization on the Spatial Pattern of Artemisia ordosica Population in Mu Us Desert, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Dongqing; Qin, Shugao; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by sand mobility in desert ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial patterns of Artemisia ordosica, a dominant shrub in the Mu Us desert of Northwest China, in relation to sand fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate and contrast the effects of sand dune stabilization on the population and spatial distribution of this desert shrub. Spatial autocorrelation, semi-variance analysis, and point-pattern analysis were used jointly in this study to investigate the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations on dunes in Yanchi County of Ningxia, China. The results showed that the spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity declined gradually, and the distance between the clustered individuals shortened following sand dune fixation. Seedlings were more aggregated than adults in all stage of dune stabilization, and both were more aggregated on shifting sand dunes separately. Spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were mostly positive at distances of 0-5 m in shifting sand dunes, and the spatial association changed from positive to neutral in semi-fixed sand dunes. The seedlings were spaced in an almost random pattern around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations in semi-fixed sand dunes. Furthermore, spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were negative in the fixed sand dune. These findings demonstrate that sand stabilization is an important factor affecting the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations in the Mu Us desert. These findings suggest that, strong association between individuals may be the mechanism to explain the spatial pattern formation at preliminary stage of dune fixation. Sand dune stabilization can change the spatial pattern of shrub population by weakening the spatial association between native shrub individuals, which may affect the development direction of desert shrubs. PMID:26102584

  13. Effects of Sand Dune Stabilization on the Spatial Pattern of Artemisia ordosica Population in Mu Us Desert, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Dongqing; Qin, Shugao; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by sand mobility in desert ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial patterns of Artemisia ordosica, a dominant shrub in the Mu Us desert of Northwest China, in relation to sand fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate and contrast the effects of sand dune stabilization on the population and spatial distribution of this desert shrub. Spatial autocorrelation, semi-variance analysis, and point-pattern analysis were used jointly in this study to investigate the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations on dunes in Yanchi County of Ningxia, China. The results showed that the spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity declined gradually, and the distance between the clustered individuals shortened following sand dune fixation. Seedlings were more aggregated than adults in all stage of dune stabilization, and both were more aggregated on shifting sand dunes separately. Spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were mostly positive at distances of 0–5 m in shifting sand dunes, and the spatial association changed from positive to neutral in semi-fixed sand dunes. The seedlings were spaced in an almost random pattern around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations in semi-fixed sand dunes. Furthermore, spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were negative in the fixed sand dune. These findings demonstrate that sand stabilization is an important factor affecting the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations in the Mu Us desert. These findings suggest that, strong association between individuals may be the mechanism to explain the spatial pattern formation at preliminary stage of dune fixation. Sand dune stabilization can change the spatial pattern of shrub population by weakening the spatial association between native shrub individuals, which may affect the development direction of desert shrubs. PMID:26102584

  14. Studies on the Expression of Sesquiterpene Synthases Using Promoter-β-Glucuronidase Fusions in Transgenic Artemisia annua L

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongzhen; Han, Junli; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS), epi-cedrol (ECS) and β-farnesene (FS) synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expression. Transgenic A. annua plants carrying promoter-GUS fusions were studied to elucidate the expression pattern of the three sesquiterpene synthases and compared to the previously studied promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. The CPS and ECS promoters were active in T-shaped trichomes of leaves and stems, basal bracts of flower buds and also in some florets cells but not in glandular secretory trichome while FS promoter activity was only observed in leaf cells and trichomes of transgenic shoots. ADS, CPS, ECS and FS transcripts were induced by wounding in a time depended manner. The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment triggered activation of the promoters of all four sesquiterpene synthases in a time depended manner. Southern blot result showed that the GUS gene was inserted into genomic DNA of transgenic lines as a single copy or two copies. The relative amounts of CPS and ECS as well as germacrene A synthase (GAS) transcripts are much lower than that of ADS transcript. Consequently, down-regulation of the expression of the CPS, ECS or GAS gene may not improve artemsinin yield. However, blocking the expression of FS may have effects on artemisinin production. PMID:24278301

  15. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Methods Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Results Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used. PMID:26196123

  16. Seasonal variation of artemisinin, artemisinic acid, and dihydroartemisinic acid in Brazilian, Chinese, and Swiss cultivars of Artemisia annua in WV, and effect of drying procedures on artemisinin and its precursors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased demand for artemisinin worldwide has led to the increased worldwide cultivation of Artemisia annua for the production of artemisinin. Artemisinin is a safe and effective sesquiterpene lactone effective against a range of diseases caused by protozoa (e.g., malaria, coccidiosis, leishma...

  17. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Sánchez-Peña, María J; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. The institutional ethics committee approved the protocol. After A. dracunculus administration, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 120.0 ± 11.3 vs. 113.0 ± 11.2 mmHg, P < .05), A1C (5.8 ± 0.3 vs. 5.6% ± 0.4%, P < .05), AUC of insulin (56,136.0 ± 27,426.0 vs. 44,472.0 ± 23,370.0 pmol/L, P < .05), and total insulin secretion (0.45 ± 0.23 vs. 0.35 ± 0.18, P < .05), with a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P < .05). There were no significant differences after placebo administration. A. dracunculus administration for 90 days in patients with IGT significantly decreased SBP, A1C, AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion with a significant increase in HDL-C levels. PMID:27097076

  18. Identification of repellent and insecticidal constituents of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Li, Yin Ping; Li, He Qin; Deng, Zhi Wei; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%), spathulenol (10.65%), α-terpineol (10.09%), and linalool (7.56%), followed by 4-terpineol (3.92%) and patchoulol (3.05%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD₅₀ value of 414.48 µg/cm². α-Terpinyl acetate (LD₅₀ = 92.59 µg/cm²) exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 140.30 µg/cm²), 4-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 211.35 µg/cm²), and linalool (LD5₅₀ = 393.16 µg/cm²). The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC₅₀ = 6.67 mg/L air) also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC₅₀ values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:24005967

  19. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  20. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  1. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  2. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    PubMed

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD). PMID:25115624

  3. Effects of enhanced soil P on photosynthesis, root respiration and nutrient uptake of Artemisia tridentata in different photosynthetic photon flux densities and CO[sub 2] conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, M.; Caldwell, M.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Responses of leaf photosynthesis, root respiration and P uptake by Artemisia tridentata seedlings to study root physiological adjustments to utilize available nutrient resources in a changing soil environment. Root respiration was measured for intact root systems in split-root chambers. Increasing P in 0.2 [times] Hoagland's solution from 0.04 mmol to 2.0 mmol increased leaf photosynthesis by 6% in 3 days, increased nighttime leaf respiration rate by 8% and root respiration by 18%. After PPFD was reduced from 800 to 200 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] leaf photosynthesis deceased by 67%, and root respiration by 26% in the following day but then decreased by 35% over the next three days. Shading may limit root growth and nutrient uptake by lowering the carbohydrate supply to root systems.

  4. Application of Essential Oil of Artemisia Herba Alba as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in 0.5 M H2SO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouachikh, O.; Bouyanzer, A.; Bouklah, M.; Desjobert, J.-M.; Costa, J.; Hammouti, B.; Majidi, L.

    Essential oil from Artemisia herba alba (Art) was hydrodistilled and tested as corrosion inhibitor of steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization methods. Results gathered show that this natural oil reduced the corrosion rate by the cathodic action. Its inhibition efficiency attains the maximum (74%) at 1 g/L. The inhibition efficiency of Arm oil increases with the rise of temperature. The adsorption isotherm of natural product on the steel has been determined. A. herba alba essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition oil was investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS. The major components were chrysanthenone (30.6%) and camphor (24.4%).

  5. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. PMID:24329606

  6. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia - Italy).

    PubMed

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. PMID:26327252

  7. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia.

    PubMed

    Alzoreky, N S; Nakahara, K

    2003-02-15

    Extracts of edible plants (26 species) from China, Japan, Thailand and Yemen were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella infantis. Buffered methanol (80% methanol and 20% PBS) and acetone extracted inhibitory substances against tested bacteria from 16 plants, as revealed by the disc assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the agar dilution method ranged from 165 to 2640 mg l(-1). The most sensitive microorganism to extracts from Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum cassia, Rumex nervosus, Ruta graveolens, Thymus serpyllum and Zingiber officinale was B. cereus, with MIC of 165 to 660 mg l(-1). E. coli and S. infantis were only inhibited by Cinnamomum cassia extracts at the highest MIC (2640 mg l(-1)). L. monocytogenes (Tottori) was more resistant than the ATCC 7644 strain to extracts from Ruta chalepensis, Artemisia absinthium and Cissus spp. EDTA (0.85 mM) reduced the MICs of Cinnamomum cassia and Cissus rotundifolia by at least 50% when tested against E. coli, S. infantis, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. PMID:12423924

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from some traditional Mediterranean diet plants.

    PubMed

    Strzelecka, M; Bzowska, M; Kozieł, J; Szuba, B; Dubiel, O; Riviera Núńez, D; Heinrich, M; Bereta, J

    2005-03-01

    It is believed that bioactive compounds from plant foods may have health beneficial effects and reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study extracts of 121 plants typical for the traditional Mediterranean diet have been screened for their potential anti-inflammatory activities. The ability of the extracts to inhibit cytokine-stimulated, iNOS-dependent synthesis of nitric oxide in murine endothelial cells, without affecting cell viability, was the primary indicator of their anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these experiments we selected eight plant extracts for further analysis: Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Scandix pecten-veneris L., Urospermum picroides (L.) Scop. Ex F. W. Smith, Amaranthus cf. graecizans L., Onopordum macracanthum Schousboe, Eryngium campestre L., Artemisia alba Turra and Merendera pyrenaica (Pourret) Fourn. Only the effects of Onopordum macracanthum could be non-specific since the extract strongly inhibited total protein synthesis. All remaining 7 extracts decreased nitric oxide and TNFalpha synthesis in the cells of monocyte origin activated with LPS, and 4 of them significantly reduced surface expression of VCAM1 on TNFalpha-stimulated endothelial cells. All seven plant extracts decreased cytokine or LPS-stimulated iNOS mRNA levels in both cell types. Further research to identify bioactive compounds influencing intracellular signaling pathways activated by cytokines and LPS will consequently be needed in order to better understand these in vitro effects. PMID:15800391

  9. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  10. Bevalac extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  11. Effects of some botanical extracts on the midgut, integument and fat body of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A

    2010-08-01

    Botanical extracts (8%) of four plants (Artemisia monosperma, Zygophyllum cocccineum, Lupinus termis and Brassica tournifortii) fed to the 4th larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis induced histopathological changes in the structure of the midgut, integument and fat body of the 5th instars. Zygophyllum cocci-neum and Lupinus termis induced severe damages in the midgut. The integument of treated larvae showed degeneration in the cuticle and epidermal cells which were also detached from each other. Water extracts of A. monosperma, Z. coccinieum and L. termis were the most promising in inducing shrinkage in the fat body cells and detachment of midgut muscle layers. Also, the degeneration of the midgut membrane and epithelial layer occurs in different degrees with the tested plants. This study supports the use of botanical extracts in pest control programs of lepidopterous insects. PMID:21246948

  12. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  13. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (p<0.05) reduced number of excreted oocysts during the infection with no interaction to genotype. Females generally had a significantly higher shedding of oocysts than males (p<0.05). The overall body weight gain and the daily weight gain when infection was subdued showed a three-way interaction among genotype, sex and treatment - accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded

  14. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  15. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Materials and Methods: A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. Results: C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Conclusion: Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  16. The role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongcui; Alberto, Busso Carlos; Jiang, Deming; Ala, Musa; Li, Xuehua; Zhou, Quanlai; Lin, Jixiang; Ren, Guohua; Jia, Lian

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia wudanica is an endemic, perennial, pioneering psammophyte species in the sand dune ecosystems of western Horqin Sand Land in northern China. However, no studies have addressed how sexual and asexual reproduction modes of A. wudanica perform at the transitional zones between active dune inter-dune lowlands and active dunes. In early spring, quadrats were randomly set up in the study area to monitor surviving seedling and/or ramet density and frequency coming from sexual/asexual reproduction of A. wudanica. Iron sticks were inserted near each quadrat to determine wind erosion intensity (WE). Additionally, soil samples were collected nearby each quadrat to test for soil moisture (SM), organic matter (OM) and pH. Surviving seedlings of A. wudanica showed an inverse response in comparison with ramets to SM, OM and WE. Soil moisture showed the most positive effect, and WE the negative effect, on surviving, sexual reproduction seedlings. Contrarily, WE had the most positive effect, and SM the negative effect, on asexual reproduction ramets. This suggests that increases in SM and decreases in WE should benefit recruitment of A. wudanica seedlings. On the contrary, ramets coming from asexual reproduction showed a different response to environmental factors in transition zone habitats. While SM was not a key constraint for the survival of seedlings, they showed a better, positive response to wind erosion environments. Overall, various study environmental parameters could be improved to foster A. wudanica invasion and settlement in the plant community through different reproductive modes, thereby promoting vegetation restoration and rehabilitation.

  17. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure. PMID:27152297

  18. Salicylic acid-induced changes in physiological parameters and genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Artemisia vulgaris and Dendranthema nankingense during aphid feeding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Xia, X L; Jiang, J F; Chen, S M; Chen, F D; Lv, G S

    2016-01-01

    Phloem-feeding aphids cause serious damage to plants. The mechanisms of plant-aphid interactions are only partially understood and involve multiple pathways, including phytohormones. In order to investigate whether salicylic acid (SA) is involved and how it plays a part in the defense response to the aphid Macrosiphoniella sanbourni, physiological changes and gene expression profiles in response to aphid inoculation with or without SA pretreatment were compared between the aphid-resistant Artemisia vulgaris 'Variegata' and the susceptible chrysanthemum, Dendranthema nankingense. Changes in levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), and flavonoids, and in the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), F3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase), F3'H (flavanone 3'-hydroxylase), and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), were investigated. Levels of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions, MDA, and flavonoids, and their related gene expression, increased after aphid infestation and SA pretreatment followed by aphid infestation; the aphid-resistant A. vulgaris exhibited a more rapid response than the aphid-susceptible D. nankingense to SA treatment and aphid infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that SA could be used to increase aphid resistance in the chrysanthemum. PMID:26909993

  19. Challenges of establishing big sgebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in rangeland restoration: effects of herbicide, mowing, whole-community seeding, and sagebrush seed sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabec, Martha M.; Germino, Matthew J.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Pilliod, David S.; McIlroy, Susan K.; Arkle, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) on sites disturbed by fire has motivated restoration seeding and planting efforts. However, the resulting sagebrush establishment is often lower than desired, especially in dry areas. Sagebrush establishment may be increased by addressing factors such as seed source and condition or management of the plant community. We assessed initial establishment of seeded sagebrush and four populations of small outplants (from different geographies, climates, and cytotypes) and small sagebrush outplants in an early seral community where mowing, herbicide, and seeding of other native plants had been experimentally applied. No emergence of seeded sagebrush was detected. Mowing the site before planting seedlings led to greater initial survival probabilities for sagebrush outplants, except where seeding also occurred, and these effects were related to corresponding changes in bare soil exposure. Initial survival probabilities were > 30% greater for the local population of big sagebrush relative to populations imported to the site from typical seed transfer distances of ~320–800 km. Overcoming the high first-year mortality of outplanted or seeded sagebrush is one of the most challenging aspects of postfire restoration and rehabilitation, and further evaluation of the impacts of herb treatments and sagebrush seed sources across different site types and years is needed.

  20. Effect of long-term salinity on cellular antioxidants, compatible solute and fatty acid profile of Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua L.).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Irfan; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Ahmad, Javed; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2013-11-01

    Impact of long-term salinity and subsequent oxidative stress was studied on cellular antioxidants, proline accumulation and lipid profile of Artemisia annua L. (Sweet Annie or Qinghao) which yields artemisinin (Qinghaosu), effective against cerebral malaria-causing strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Under salinity (0.0-160 mM NaCl), in A. annua, proline accumulation, contents of ascorbate and glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) increased, but the contents of reduced forms of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate declined. The fatty-acid profiling revealed a major salinity-induced shift towards long-chain and mono-saturated fatty acids. Myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), linoleic acid (18:2) and erucic acid (22:1) increased by 141%, 186%, 34% and 908%, respectively, in comparison with the control. Contents of oleic acid (18:1), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidonic acid (22:0) and lignoceric acid (24:0) decreased by 50%, 17%, 44% and 78%, respectively. Thus, in A. annua, salinity declines ascorbate and GSH contents. However, increased levels of proline and total glutathione (GSH+GSSG), and activities of antioxidant enzymes might provide a certain level of tolerance. Modification in fatty-acid composition might be a membrane adaptation to long-term salinity and oxidative stress. PMID:23871298

  1. Stress-gradient hypothesis explains susceptibility to Bromus tectorum invasion and community stability in North America's semi-arid Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisner, Michael D.; Doescher, Paul S.; Pyke, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Results/Conclusions: Cattle herbivory, a novel disturbance and selective force, was a significant component of two overlapping stress gradients most strongly associated with observed shifts in interactions. Facilitation and competition were strongest and most frequent at the highest and lowest stress levels along both gradients, respectively. Contrasting ecological optima among native and non-native beneficiaries led to strikingly different patterns of interactions. The four native bunchgrasses with the strongest competitive response abilities exhibited the strongest facilitation at their upper limits of stress tolerance, while the two non-natives exhibited the strongest competition at the highest stress levels, which coincided with their maximum abundance. Artemisia facilitation enhanced stability at intermediate stress levels by providing a refuge for native bunchgrasses, which in turn reduced the magnitude of B. tectorum invasion. However, facilitation was a destabilizing force at the highest stress levels when native bunchgrasses became obligate beneficiaries dependent on facilitation for their persistence. B. tectorum dominated these communities, and the next fire may convert them to annual grasslands.

  2. The Achene Mucilage Hydrated in Desert Dew Assists Seed Cells in Maintaining DNA Integrity: Adaptive Strategy of Desert Plant Artemisia sphaerocephala

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wenhao; Dong, Ming; Boubriak, Ivan; Huang, Zhenying

    2011-01-01

    Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats. PMID:21912689

  3. OSC2 and CYP716A14v2 Catalyze the Biosynthesis of Triterpenoids for the Cuticle of Aerial Organs of Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Shen, Qian; Soetaert, Sandra; Reed, James; Erffelinck, Marie-Laure; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip C.W.; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Osbourn, Anne; Thevelein, Johan M.; Deforce, Dieter; Tang, Kexuan

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the antimalarial sesquiterpenoid artemisinin. In addition to producing a variety of sesquiterpenoids, A. annua also accumulates mono-, di-, and triterpenoids, the majority of which are produced in the glandular trichomes. A. annua also has filamentous trichomes on its aerial parts, but little is known of their biosynthesis potential. Here, through a comparative transcriptome analysis between glandular and filamentous trichomes, we identified two genes, OSC2 and CYP716A14v2, encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of specialized triterpenoids in A. annua. By expressing these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we characterized the catalytic function of these proteins and could reconstitute the specialized triterpenoid spectrum of A. annua in these heterologous hosts. OSC2 is a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase that produces α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and δ-amyrin. CYP716A14v2 is a P450 belonging to the functionally diverse CYP716 family and catalyzes the oxidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, leading to triterpenes with a carbonyl group at position C-3, thereby providing an alternative biosynthesis pathway to 3-oxo triterpenes. Together, these enzymes produce specialized triterpenoids that are constituents of the wax layer of the cuticle covering the aerial parts of A. annua and likely function in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25576188

  4. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions. PMID:23147140

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, Diego A; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Omarova, Akerke B; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2016-09-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were β-thujone (66.5 ± 0.2%), and trans-sabinyl acetate (12.1 ± 0.2%) in A. deserticola; α-thujone (66.9 ± 0.4%) in A. proceriformis; 1,8-cineole (26.9 ± 0.5%), and camphor (17.7 ± 0.3%) in A. micrantha and cis-β-ocimene (23.3 ± 0.3%), and trans-β-ocimene (18.4 ± 0.2%) in L. buchtormensis. The oils showed a weak antimicrobial effect (MIC100 > 1.5 mg/ml) on most phytopathogens tested. A moderate antimicrobial activity (MIC100 between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/ml) was displayed by the oils of A. deserticola, A. micrantha and L. buchtormensis on Septoria tritici and by the oil of A. deserticola on Septoria glycine. The antimicrobial activity was associated to the contents of β-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetate and trans-sabinol. Our results indicate that the tested essential oils have little inhibitory potency not suitable for use as plant protection products against the phytopathogens assayed. PMID:26404704

  6. The achene mucilage hydrated in desert dew assists seed cells in maintaining DNA integrity: adaptive strategy of desert plant Artemisia sphaerocephala.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wenhao; Dong, Ming; Boubriak, Ivan; Huang, Zhenying

    2011-01-01

    Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats. PMID:21912689

  7. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Objective: An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Results: Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.55–7.07 μg/mL and 1.67–21.44 μg/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03–104.91%. Conclusion: The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea. PMID:25829768

  8. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Nadia; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Yim, Soon-Ho; Batkhuu, Galzad Javzan; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R

    2016-01-01

    There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders. PMID:27528883

  9. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Nadia; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Yim, Soon-Ho; Batkhuu, Galzad Javzan

    2016-01-01

    There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders. PMID:27528883

  10. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Carbon Metabolism Favor Arsenic Tolerance in Artemisia annua, a Medicinal Plant as Revealed by Homology-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sarita; Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Pandey Rai, Shashi

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the first proteomic evidence of arsenic (As) tolerance and interactive regulatory network between primary and secondary metabolism in the medicinal plant, Artemisia annua. While chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic rate depicted mild inhibition, there was a significant enhancement in PSI activity, whole chain, ATP, and NADPH contents in 100 μM As treatments compared to the control plants. However, a decrease in the above variables was recorded under 150 μM treatments. Proteomic decoding of the survival strategy of A. annua under As stress using 2-DE followed by MALDI-MS/MS revealed a total of 46 differentially expressed protein spots. In contrast to other plants where As inhibits photosynthesis, A. annua showed appreciable photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and allocation of carbon resources at 100 μM As concentration. While an increased accumulation of ATP synthase, ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase, and FeS-rieske proteins supported the operation of cyclic electron transport, mdr ABC transporter protein and pcs gene might be involved in As detoxification. The most interesting observation was an increased accumulation of LEAFY like novel protein conceivably responsible for an early onset of flowering in A. annua under As stress. This study not only affirmed the role of energy metabolism proteins but also identified potential candidates responsible for As tolerance in plants. PMID:24868464

  11. The Development and Application of Novel IR and NMR-Based Model for the Evaluation of Carminative Effect of Artemisia judaica L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alzweiri, Muhammed; Alrawashdeh, Ibrahim M.; Bardaweel, Sanaa K.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia judaica L. is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to relieve abdominal pains through its carminative activity. In this study, spectroscopic analysis was employed to investigate the carminative activity associated with A. judaica. Using infrared spectroscopy, the carminative activity was evaluated based on the first derivative of IR-characteristic stretching signal of CO2. Our results indicate that A. judaica oil effectively reduced the response of CO2 signal equivalent to thymol standard. Additionally, 1H-NMR spectroscopy was utilized to assess surface activity of A. judaica crude oil through the reduction of interfacial tension in a D2O/CDCl3 system. Apparently, 10 mg of the oil was able to solubilize water in a chloroform layer up to 4.3% (w/w). In order to correlate the observed surface activity of the oil to its actual composition, GC-MS and GC-FID structural analysis were undertaken. The results revealed that the oil composition consists of oxygenated terpenes which might be responsible for the carminative effect. Furthermore, owing to its sensitivity, our model provides a fundamental basis for the pharmacological assessment of trace amounts of oils with high precision and accuracy. PMID:25614741

  12. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants. PMID:26340695

  13. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Na Rae; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure. PMID:27152297

  14. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  15. The use of sagebrush (Artemisia) as a biogeochemical indicator of base-metal deposits in Precambrian rocks of west-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.; Hedal, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of sagebrush (Artemisia) as a biogeochemical indicator of base-metal mineralization in stratabound Precambrian ore deposits in west-central Colorado was investigated by collecting new (mostly flowering) growth from several sagebrush shrubs over and near five such deposits in three different areas. These are the Sedalia mine and two mines in the Turret district near Salida, and two mines in the Cochetopa district southeast of Gunnison. Two species were used, A. tridentata and A. frigida, depending on the area. Sagebrush clippings were separated into two subsamples consisting of (1) stems, and (2) leaves and blossoms stripped from the stems. These subsamples were ashed separately and the ash analyzed with an emission spectrograph for 30 elements. There appear to be no appreciable differences in the analyses of the two subsamples, indicating that composite samples would provide adequate information for further investigations. Eight of these elements, Ag, Bi, Cu, Pb, Sn, Y, Zn, and Zr, are present in notably higher concentrations in the ash of samples growing over mineralized ground than in that of control samples growing over barren ground. Although the distribution pattern, and the number of these anomalous elements, differs at each of the five localities, three of them, silver, copper, and lead, show good contrast and close association with subjacent mineralization in all five study areas. ?? 1983.

  16. Composition and intraspecific chemical variability of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in a Tunisian arid zone.

    PubMed

    Mighri, Hédi; Akrout, Ahmed; El-jeni, Hajer; Zaidi, Slah; Tomi, Félix; Casanova, Joseph; Neffati, Mohamed

    2010-11-01

    The intraspecific chemical variability of essential oils (50 samples) isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso growing wild in the arid zone of Southeastern Tunisia was investigated. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 54 essential oil components. The main compounds were β-thujone and α-thujone, followed by 1,8-cineole, camphor, chrysanthenone, trans-sabinyl acetate, trans-pinocarveol, and borneol. Chemometric analysis (k-means clustering and PCA) led to the partitioning into three groups. The composition of two thirds of the samples was dominated by α-thujone or β-thujone. Therefore, it could be expected that wild plants of A. herba-alba randomly harvested in the area of Kirchaou and transplanted by local farmers for the cultivation in arid zones of Southern Tunisia produce an essential oil belonging to the α-thujone/β-thujone chemotype and containing also 1,8-cineole, camphor, and trans-sabinyl acetate at appreciable amounts. PMID:21072770

  17. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  18. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  19. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  20. Antioxidant activity in extracts of 27 indigenous Taiwanese vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan's indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  1. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: α‑pinene, β‑pinene, limonene, 1,8‑cineole, piperitone, β‑caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin‑gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose‑dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus-fermented Artemisia princeps on growth performance, meat lipid peroxidation, and intestinal microflora in Hy-line Brown male chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Kim, G-B; Chang, M B; Bae, G S; Paik, I K; Kil, D Y

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus-fermented Artemisia princeps (LFA) on growth performance, meat lipid peroxidation, and intestinal microflora in Hy-line Brown male chickens. A total of six hundred twenty-four 1-d-old Hy-Line Brown male chicks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicated pens consisting of 52 chicks. The control diet was formulated to be adequate in energy and nutrients. Two additional diets were prepared by adding 2.5 or 5.0 g/kg of LFA to the control diet. The experimental diets were fed on an ad libitum basis to the birds during 7 wk. Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded at 2 and 7 wk. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds from each treatment were killed by cervical dislocation and the samples for ileal content, breast, and thigh meat were collected for the determination of meat lipid peroxidation and microbial population. Results indicated that increasing inclusion level of LFA in diets improved BW gain (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) and tended to improve feed efficiency (linear and quadratic, P < 0.10) of birds during 0 to 7 wk. Feeding the diets containing increasing amounts of LFA to birds reduced (quadratic, P < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) values in breast and thigh meat during 15 d of storage. The concentrations of Lactobacillus spp. in the ileal content of birds increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), but those of Salmonella spp. tended to be decreased (quadratic, P < 0.10) as inclusion level of LFA in diets increased. These results suggest that dietary LFA may be used as a functional ingredient to improve growth performance, meat lipid stability, and intestinal health of birds. PMID:23091141

  3. Methyl jasmonate counteracts boron toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem

    2011-07-01

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient, but it is phytotoxic if present in excessive amounts in soil for certain plants such as Artemisia annua L. that contains artemisinin (an important antimalarial drug) in its areal parts. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is quite expensive compound because the only commercial source available is A. annua and the compound present in the plant is in very low concentration. Since A. annua is a major source of the antimalarial drug and B stress is a deadly threat to its cultivation, the present research was conducted to determine whether the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could combat the ill effects of excessive B present in the soil. According to the results obtained, the B toxicity induced oxidative stress and reduced the stem height as well as fresh and dry masses of the plant remarkably. The excessive amounts of soil B also lowered the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content in the leaves. In contrast, the foliar application of MeJA enhanced the growth and photosynthetic efficiency both in the stressed and non-stressed plants. The excessive B levels also increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Endogenous H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) levels were also high in the stressed plants. However, the MeJA application to the stressed plants reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation and stimulated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing the content and yield of artemisinin as well. Thus, it was concluded that MeJA might be utilized in mitigating the B toxicity and improving the content and yield of artemisinin in A. annua plant. PMID:20957501

  4. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice. PMID:27442951

  5. Affordable and rapid HPTLC method for the simultaneous analysis of artemisinin and its metabolite artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shazia; Ali, Athar; Ahmad, Shahzad; Abdin, Malik Zainul

    2015-10-01

    Artemisinin (AN) and artemisinic acid (AA), valuable phyto-pharmaceutical molecules, are well known anti-malarials, but their activities against diseases like cancer, schistosomiasis, HIV, hepatitis-B and leishmaniasis are also being reported. For the simultaneous estimation of AN and AA in the callus and leaf extracts of A. annua L. plants, we embarked upon a simple, rapid, selective, reliable and fairly economical high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. Experimental conditions such as band size, chamber saturation time, migration of solvent front and slit width were critically studied and the optimum conditions were selected. The separations were achieved using toluene-ethyl acetate, 9:1 (v/v) as mobile phase on pre-coated silica gel plates, G 60F254 . Good resolution was achieved with Rf values of 0.35 ± 0.02 and 0.26 ± 0.02 at 536 nm for AN and 626 nm for AA, respectively, in absorption-reflectance mode. The method displayed a linear relationship with r(2) value 0.992 and 0.994 for AN and AA, respectively, in the concentration range of 300-1500 ng for AN and 200-1000 ng for AA. The method was validated for specificity by obtaining in-situ UV overlay spectra and sensitivity by estimating limit of detection (30 ng for AN and 15 ng for AA) and limit of quantitation (80 ng for AN and 45 ng for AA) values. The accuracy was checked by the recovery studies conducted at three different levels with the known concentrations and the average percentage recovery was 101.99% for AN and 103.84% for AA. The precision was analyzed by interday and intraday precision and was 1.09 and 1.00% RSD for AN and 1.22 and 6.05% RSD for AA. The analysis of statistical data substantiates that this HPTLC method can be used for the simultaneous estimation of AN and AA in biological samples. PMID:25829259

  6. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  7. Consequences of inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis seedlings after transplanting.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Bill E; Novak, Stephen J; Serpe, Marcelo D

    2016-08-01

    In arid environments, the propagule density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may limit the extent of the plant-AMF symbiosis. Inoculation of seedlings with AMF could alleviate this problem, but the success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These phenomena were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings inoculated with native AMF. Seedlings were first grown in a greenhouse in soil without AMF (non-inoculated seedlings) or with AMF (inoculated seedlings). In spring and fall, 3-month-old seedlings were transplanted outdoors to 24-L pots containing soil from a sagebrush habitat (spring and fall mesocosm experiments) or to a recently burned sagebrush habitat (spring and fall field experiments). Five or 8 months after transplanting, colonization was about twofold higher in inoculated than non-inoculated seedlings, except for the spring field experiment. In the mesocosm experiments, inoculation increased survival during the summer by 24 % (p = 0.011). In the field experiments, increased AMF colonization was associated with increases in survival during cold and dry periods; 1 year after transplanting, survival of inoculated seedlings was 27 % higher than that of non-inoculated ones (p < 0.001). To investigate possible mechanisms by which AMF increased survival, we analyzed water use efficiency (WUE) based on foliar (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios (δ (13)C). A positive correlation between AMF colonization and δ (13)C values was observed in the spring mesocosm experiment. In contrast, inoculation did not affect the δ (13)C values of fall transplanted seedlings that were collected the subsequent spring. The effectiveness of AMF inoculation on enhancing colonization and reducing seedling mortality varied among the different experiments, but average effects were estimated by meta-analyses. Several months after

  8. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jakyeom; Jung, Jae Keun; Seo, Seongwon

    2015-01-01

    Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans) to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps) residues (APR) as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC). The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG), APR, and its fermented form (FAPR). The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01); pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07), especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM) after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW). Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06). Conversely, the fermentation

  9. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jakyeom; Jung, Jae Keun

    2015-01-01

    Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans) to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps) residues (APR) as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC). The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG), APR, and its fermented form (FAPR). The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01); pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07), especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM) after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW). Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06). Conversely, the fermentation

  10. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  11. Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis by extract of South African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mativandlela, Sannah Patience Nkami; Meyer, Jacob Jacobus Marion; Hussein, Ahmed A; Houghton, Peter J; Hamilton, Chris J; Lall, Namrita

    2008-06-01

    Seven ethnobotanically selected medicinal plants were screened for their antimycobacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four plants namely Artemisia afra, Dodonea angustifolia, Drosera capensis and Galenia africana ranged from 0.781 to 6.25 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. G. africana showed the best activity exhibiting an MIC of 0.78 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 mg/mL. The MICs of ethanol extracts of D. angustifolia and G. africana against M. tuberculosis were found to be 5.0 and 1.2 mg/mL respectively. The mammalian cytotoxicity IC(50) value of the most active antimycobacterial extract, from G. africana, was found to be 101.3 microg/mL against monkey kidney Vero cells. Since the ethanol G. africana displayed the best antimycobacterial activity, it was subjected to fractionation which led to the isolation of a flavone, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavone. The MIC of this compound was found to be 0.031 mg/mL against M. smegmatis and 0.10 mg/mL against M. tuberculosis. This study gives some scientific basis to the traditional use of these plants for TB-related symptoms. PMID:18412151

  12. Bioactivity of six plant extracts on adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  13. Bioactivity of Six Plant Extracts on Adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  14. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Prescribed fire in a Great Basin sagebrush ecosystem: Dynamics of soil extractable nitrogen and phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinyon and juniper have been expanding into sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) ecosystems since settlement of the Great Basin around 1860. Herbaceous understory vegetation is eliminated as stand densities increase and the potential for catastrophic fires increases. Prescribed fire is increasingly used...

  16. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (<50 μA). Bradykinin acetate, angiotensin II antipeptide, angiotensin II acetate, neurotensin, angiotensin I trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than 50 μA, and extraction recoveries for the model peptides were in the range of 77-94%, with RSD values less than 10%. PMID:25467476

  17. Update on beam extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, L.P.

    1983-08-26

    At the time of the 1981 Workshop on Experimental Use of the SLC, we published an extraction scheme for the MINIQUAD final focus (FF) optics. Since then a different FF optics design has been selected. With the same achromat section and outboard telescope, it allows a number of options for the inboard telescope. This note describes the new extraction system and briefly considers electron-electron extraction and the consequences of an extraction kicker malfunction. 4 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  18. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  19. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  20. Precolumn for extract concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Bloom, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    AUDRI requires test sample separation into organic compound families for subsequent insertion into several parallel chromatographs. Sample is first extracted by selective organic solvents. Solvent is then removed from extract to increase extract-to-solvent ratio, increasing system sensitivity. Backflushing of precolumn serves as cleanser.

  1. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  2. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  3. Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Bensch, K; Tiralongo, J; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2011-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhoea in the industrialized world, being associated with the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and inducing diseases partially through intestinal adherence. With increasing reports of C. jejuni drug resistance against standard antibiotics, investigations into antiadhesive agents for the prevention of bacterial infection are highly significant. Given the consumer-driven development towards holistic and integrative healthcare, research into additional anti-Campylobacter effects of herbal medicines that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions is important. Twenty-one herbal extracts were screened for antiadhesive activity against C. jejuni using modifications of previously published antiadhesion assays. Antiadhesion effects with IC(50) values <3 mg/mL were obtained for seven ethanol plant extracts, with Zingiber officinale (ginger), Capsicum annum (cayenne) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) displaying the highest antiadhesion activity against C. jejuni (IC(50) : <0.1 mg/mL, 0.29 mg/mL and 0.65 mg/mL, respectively). Differences in antiadhesion activity were found for two different Echinacea species, with E. purpurea displaying significantly higher and dose dependent antiadhesion activity than E. angustifolia. No significant antiadhesion activity (IC(50) values >35 mg/mL) was found for Agrimonia eupatoria (agrimony), Andrographis paniculata (andrographis), Matricaria recutita (chamomile), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet) and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) extracts. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of marketed herbal medicines in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21280113

  4. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  5. Anticoccidial effects of herbal extracts on Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Hasan; Firouzi, Sobhan; Nili, Hasan; Razavi, Mostafa; Asadi, Seyedeh Leili; Daneshi, Sajad

    2016-06-01

    Safe alternative anticoccidial drug to chemical feed additives are herbal extracts, because they don't results to tissue residue and drug resistance. In order to evaluate the effects of herbal extracts to control avian coccidiosis, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into nine equal groups, as follows: (1) Biarum bovei (2) Nectaroscordum tripedale( 3) Dorema aucheri (4) Cichorium intybus (5) Prangos ferulaceae (6) diclazuril (7) Artemisia absinthium (8) infected control (9) uninfected control (each contains two groups). Administration of herbal extracts and supplementation of diclazuril was began 2 days before challenge and lasted for the duration of the experiment. The chicks of all the groups except uninfected control group were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts (3 × 10(3) oocysts of Eimeria tenella) on the day 22 of age. The criteria employed were: body weight, feed conversion ratio, blood in feces, survival rate, lesion scoring, number of oocyst output per gram feces and histopathological changes. For histopathological evaluation, on day 12 post inoculation three birds from each group were randomly selected and humanly sacrificed. N. tripedale and diclazuril revealed better results in terms of growth performance, lesion score, extent of bloody diarrhea and oocyst count as compared to other herbal extracts. The increase in the severity of lesions was observed in groups of D. aucheri, A. absinthium, B. bovei, P. ferulaceae, C. intybus, diclazuril and N. tripedale, respectively. In conclusion, the current study showed that herbal extracts were effective in control of coccidiosis caused by the E. tenella infection. PMID:27413312

  6. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  7. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  8. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction We report our experience with lead extraction in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and discuss the indications for extraction in these patients. Patients Eighteen patients with an ICD (mean age 58±12 years) were referred for lead extraction: two patients with infection and 16 with lead dysfunction. Methods Lead extraction was performed with a laser sheath (Excimer) if traction with a locking device was insufficient. New leads were implanted during the same procedure, if applicable. Results Shock leads were successfully extracted in 16 patients and additional pace-sense leads in seven patients. In two patients, the shock conductor was considered unaffected and only a pace-sense lead was exchanged or an additional pace-sense lead inserted. After extraction, new shock leads were implanted in 14 patients. Major complications occurred in one patient: a pericardial tamponade after perforation of the superior caval vein necessitating acute surgery. Conclusion Lead extraction with a laser sheath is effective in ICD patients, but major complications can occur. Our current policy with malfunctioning leads is to extract all leads in which insulation defects cannot be ruled out to avoid interference, but to abandon leads that are without insulation defects and properly insulated. In case of infection, extraction remains the primary treatment of choice. PMID:25696709

  9. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  11. Extractive distillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.

    1984-05-08

    A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.

  12. Activity of Six Essential Oils Extracted from Tunisian Plants against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Quellard, Nathalie; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of six essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants, i.e., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Thymus vulgaris L., and to evaluate their activity against Legionella pneumophila (microdilution assays). Eight Legionella pneumophila strains were studied, including the two well-known serogroup 1 Lens and Paris strains as controls and six environmental strains isolated from Tunisian spas belonging to serogroups 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8. The essential oils were generally active against L. pneumophila. The activities of the A. herba-alba, C. sinensis, and R. officinalis essential oils were strain-dependent, whereas those of the J. phoenicea and T. vulgaris oils, showing the highest anti-Legionella activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than 0.03 and lower than or equal to 0.07 mg/ml, respectively, were independent of the strains' serogroup. Moreover, the microorganisms treated with T. vulgaris essential oil were shorter, swollen, and less electron-dense compared to the untreated controls. Isoborneol (20.91%), (1S)-α-pinene (18.30%) β-phellandrene (8.08%), α-campholenal (7.91%), and α-phellandrene (7.58%) were the major components isolated from the J. phoenicea oil, while carvacrol (88.50%) was the main compound of the T. vulgaris oil, followed by p-cymene (7.86%). This study highlighted the potential interest of some essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants as biocides to prevent the Legionella risk. PMID:26460561

  13. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    PubMed

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  15. Oilseed extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. A.

    1985-05-07

    A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

  16. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-01-19

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.

  17. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Methods Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Results Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Conclusions Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit

  18. Production and quantification of sesquiterpenes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including extraction, detection and quantification of terpene products and key related metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sarah; Kirby, James; Denby, Charles M; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-08-01

    The procedures described here are designed for engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce sesquiterpenes with an aim to either increase product titers or to simply generate a quantity of product sufficient for identification and/or downstream experimentation. Engineering high-level sesquiterpene production in S. cerevisiae often requires iterations of strain modifications and metabolite analysis. To address the latter, the methods described here were tailored for robust measurement of metabolites that we have found to be fundamental indicators of pathway flux, using only gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrumentation. Thus, by focusing on heterologous production of sesquiterpenes via the mevalonate (MEV) pathway in S. cerevisiae, we detail procedures for extraction and detection of the key pathway metabolites MEV, squalene and ergosterol, as well as the farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP)-derived side products farnesol and nerolidol. Analysis of these compounds is important for quality control, because they are possible indicators of pathway imbalance. As many of the sesquiterpene synthase (STS) genes encountered in nature are of plant origin and often not optimal for expression in yeast, we provide guidelines for designing gene expression cassettes to enable expression in S. cerevisiae. As a case study for these protocols, we have selected the sesquiterpene amorphadiene, native to Artemisia annua and related plants. The analytical steps can be completed within 1-2 working days, and a typical experiment might take 1 week. PMID:25058645

  19. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Basheir, Zeinab M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

    2002-12-01

    Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%). PMID:12512805

  20. Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

    2004-02-01

    To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  2. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  3. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  4. Extraction processes for bioproduct separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartl, J.; Marr, R.

    1993-01-01

    The three-phase extraction process, a modification of reactive extraction, was investigated for its applicability in the separation of organic acids from fermentation broth. It was compared with reactive extraction, liquid membrane permeation, and supercritical fluid extraction. These processes are based on the use of amine extractants, which have to be dissolved in nonpolar solvents, for the extraction of carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, and aminocarboxylic acids. This paper considers the comparison of the above-mentioned processes. Furthermore, the extractability of acids from synthetic aqueous solutions and fermented broths was compared. Principal consideration was paid to the extraction of lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, and L-leucine.

  5. Overexpression of a Novel NAC Domain-Containing Transcription Factor Gene (AaNAC1) Enhances the Content of Artemisinin and Increases Tolerance to Drought and Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zongyou; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Chen, Lingxian; Hao, Xiaolong; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Li, Ling; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-09-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) superfamily is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor families. NAC transcription factors always play important roles in response to various abiotic stresses. A NAC transcription factor gene AaNAC1 containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp was cloned from Artemisia annua. The expression of AaNAC1 could be induced by dehydration, cold, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), suggesting that it might be a key regulator of stress signaling pathways in A. annua. AaNAC1 was shown to be localized to the nuclei by transforming tobacco leaf epidermal cells. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in A. annua, the content of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid was increased by 79% and 150%, respectively. The expression levels of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes, i.e. amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), were increased. Dual luciferase (dual-LUC) assays showed that AaNAC1 could activate the transcription of ADS in vivo. The transgenic A. annua exhibited increased tolerance to drought and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis were markedly more tolerant to drought. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed increased resistance to B. cinerea. These results indicate that AaNAC1 can potentially be used in transgenic breeding for improving the content of artemisinin and drought tolerance in A. annua. PMID:27388340

  6. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Magma energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric.

  8. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  9. [Femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx)].

    PubMed

    Blum, M; Sekundo, W

    2010-10-01

    Starting in 2006 a new "all femto" method of refractive correction for myopia and myopic astigmatism was introduced. This new method was originally introduced as femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and further developed with a small incision into SMILE (small incision lenticule extraction). To simplify the terminology the manufacturer brought this onto the market in April 2010 as ReLEx (refractive lenticule extraction). In this procedure a lenticule of intrastromal corneal tissue and a flap-like access cut are subsequently cut utilizing the VisuMax® femtosecond system (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). The lenticule is then manually removed and the flap repositioned (only by FLEx). In approximately 1,000 successful surgical operations only few side effects were found. The number of eyes treated is currently being expanded in order to further standardize this new clinical procedure. PMID:20694728

  10. Extraction for ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.; Foelsche, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design specifications for ISABELLE, a superconducting proton storage ring facility under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory call for circulating beam intensities of up to 6 x 10/sup 14/ protons at 400 GeV energy in each ring. The energy stored in the beam is 41 Megajoules, an order of magnitude more than what has been dealt with in the past. This beam energy cannot be safely disposed of within the confines of the ISABELLE lattice if damage to the dump or quenching of the superconducting magnets is to be avoided. Therefore the full intensity beam must be extracted from the storage rings under all circumstances of emergency or routine beam disposal. Beam losses in excess of 10/sup -3/ of the full beam can jeoardize the extraction components and lead to magnet quenching as well. In this note a conceptual design of the extraction system is summarized and the major constraints which lead to the parameters chosen are discussed.

  11. Slow extraction of LAMPF 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, E. P.

    Half integer resonant extraction are used to slowly extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  12. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-10-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  15. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  16. Atraumatic extractions: a biomechanical rationale.

    PubMed

    Misch, Carl E; Perez, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Biomechanical aspects of force have been applied to tooth extraction for centuries. However, the mechanical advantages available to extract the teeth were primarily applied to hold the crown of the tooth, rather than help extract it. An extraction device (Physics Forceps) has been developed to apply a biomechanical rationale to the extraction process of a tooth using a class 1 lever, creep, and shear components of force. PMID:18717405

  17. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  19. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  20. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  1. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction.

    PubMed

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  2. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  3. Artemisia capillaris formula inhibits hepatic steatosis via an miR‑122‑induced decrease in fatty acid synthase expression in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liya; Zhao, Jinyan; Li, Ying; Wan, Yun; Lin, Jiumao; Shen, Aling; Xu, Wei; Li, Huang; Zhang, Yuchen; Xu, Jianfeng; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2016-06-01

    Non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a widespread health concern, and there is currently insufficient understanding regarding its pathogenesis and treatment. The present study aimed to explore the effects of Artemisia capillaris formula (ACF) on high‑fat diet‑induced hepatic steatosis and fatty acid‑induced intracellular lipid accumulation, by micro (mi)RNA regulation. A total of 72 Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=12/group). One group was designated as the control group and fed a normal diet, and the remaining five groups were allowed ad libitum access to a high‑fat diet for eight weeks, in order to establish an NAFLD rat model. The rats were subsequently administered polyene phosphatidylcholine (PP; 0.076 g/kg body weight/day), low dose of ACF (0.462 g/kg body weight/day), middle dose of ACF (0.924 g/kg body weight/day) or high dose of ACF (1.848 g/kg body weight/day) intragastrically for four weeks. HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were treated with oleic acid and palm acid, followed by treatment with various concentrations of ACF. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‑C), and steatotic HepG2 human liver carcinoma cell TC and TG levels were measured. ACF and PP treatments attenuated high‑fat diet‑induced hepatic steatosis and fatty acid‑induced intracellular lipid accumulation. A modified high‑fat diet significantly increased ALT, AST, TG, TC, LDL‑C levels and decreased HDL‑C levels. Treatment with ACF and PP abrogated the increase in liver enzymes and TG, TC and LDL‑C levels, but did not influence HDL‑C levels in a high‑fat diet induced rat model of steotosis. Steatotic HepG2 cells exhibited significantly increased levels of both TG and TC. Treatment with ACF significantly decreased TC and TG levels in vivo, and ACF and PP

  4. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement

    PubMed Central

    YANG, CHANG; HU, DONG-HUI; FENG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 μg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 μg/mouse) and grandisol (135 μg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (P<0.01). However, intake of 100 μg/mouse of essential oil or grandisol 135 μg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly

  5. Analysis of the major chiral compounds of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils (EOs) using reconstructed vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra: En route to a VCD chiral signature of EOs.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Vanloot, Pierre; Bombarda, Isabelle; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Dahmane, El Montassir; Aamouche, Ahmed; Jean, Marion; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Dupuy, Nathalie; Roussel, Christian

    2016-01-15

    An unprecedented methodology was developed to simultaneously assign the relative percentages of the major chiral compounds and their prevailing enantiomeric form in crude essential oils (EOs). In a first step the infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the crude essential oils were recorded and in a second step they were modelized as a linear weighted combination of the IR and VCD spectra of the individual spectra of pure enantiomer of the major chiral compounds present in the EOs. The VCD spectra of enantiomer of known enantiomeric excess shall be recorded if they are not yet available in a library of VCD spectra. For IR, the spectra of pure enantiomer or racemic mixture can be used. The full spectra modelizations were performed using a well known and powerful mathematical model (least square estimation: LSE) which resulted in a weighting of each contributing compound. For VCD modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the associate compound while the attached sign addressed the correctness of the enantiomeric form used to build the model. As an example, a model built with the non-prevailing enantiomer will show a negative sign of the weighting value. For IR spectra modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the compounds without of course accounting for the chirality of the prevailing enantiomers. Comparison of the weighting values issuing from IR and VCD spectra modelizations is a valuable source of information: if they are identical, the EOs are composed of nearly pure enantiomers, if they are different the chiral compounds of the EOs are not in an optically pure form. The method was applied on four samples of essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba in which the three major compounds namely (-)-α-thujone, (+)-β-thujone and (-)-camphor were found in different proportions as determined by GC-MS and chiral HPLC using polarimetric detector. In order to validate the

  6. Extracting concentrated guided light.

    PubMed

    Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

    1997-05-01

    The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture. PMID:18253285

  7. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  8. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  9. Solid phase extraction membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Kurt C; Langer, Roger L

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  10. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  11. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  13. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extration efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Potential antioxidant properties and hepatoprotective effects of an aqueous extract formula derived from three Chinese medicinal herbs against CCl(4)-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Ching; Fang, Jong-Yi; Hong, Tuan-Liang; Wang, Tzu-Ching; Zhou, Ya-En; Lin, Ta-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of an aqueous extract formula (AEF) derived from Artemisia capillaris, Lonicera japonica and Silybum marianum (ratio 1:1:1) were evaluated by its antioxidant properties and its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in rats. The antioxidant analyses revealed that the AEF showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities as well as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) compared with the individual herbs, suggesting a synergism in antioxidation between the three herbs. The animal experiments showed that the CCl(4) treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, but decreased triglyceride (TG) and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, AEF administration can successfully lower serum ALT and AST activities, restore the GSH level, ameliorate or restore GPx and CAT activities as well as improve SOD action depending on AEF dosage. Histological examination of liver showed that CCl(4) increased the extent of bile duct proliferation, necrosis, fibrosis and fatty vacuolation throughout the liver, but AEF can improve bile duct proliferation, vacuolation and fibrosis, and restore necrosis. The present study demonstrated the hepatoprotective potential of AEF as an alternative to the traditional silymarin. PMID:23142091

  15. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  16. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  17. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  18. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

  19. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  20. Impurity Extraction by Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G.; Kincaid, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The goals are to model and to measure the phase equilibrium properties of a finely divided fluid containing a large number of chemically similar species. The objective is to develop an accurate, usable model for such phenomena as pollutant extraction of rain clouds, industrial separation in spray towers, and separation in emulsions. The project was designed as a hierarchy of complementary theoretical and experimental steps. A theory was developed to describe the segregation of complex impurities at the interface of a solvent. This phenomenon is important in phase behavior when a large fraction of molecules in a material are near an interface, the situation in a finely divided material. The theory will be modified to account for the effect of surface curvature on the surface tension. The study of mixtures differs from pure fluids not only because of the surface effects but also because composition differences between the droplet and the surrounding vapor can stabilize a droplet with respect to a bulk phase.

  1. Liquefaction for cataract extraction

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  2. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  3. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  4. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  5. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  6. Femoral approach to lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Mulpuru, Siva K; Hayes, David L; Osborn, Michael J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2015-03-01

    Laser and radiofrequency energy-assisted lead extraction has greatly facilitated this complex procedure. Although success rates are high, in some instances alternate methods of extraction are required. In this review, we discuss techniques for femoral extraction of implanted leads and retained fragments. The major tools available, including commonly used snares and delivery tools, are discussed. We briefly describe combined internal jugular and femoral venous extraction approaches, as well as complimentary utilization of more than one technique via the femoral vein. Animated and procedural sequences are included to help the reader visualize the key components of these techniques. PMID:25311643

  7. Liquid membrane extraction of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Breembroek, G.R.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M van

    1996-12-31

    Three Liquid Membrane extraction designs are compared by their experimental extraction performance of cadmium ions from an aqueous phase with tri-laurylamine dissolved in an aliphatic kerosene. The compared designs are Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM), Flat Sheet Supported Liquid Membrane (FSSLM) and Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM4) extraction units. The results demonstrated that ELM possesses the best extraction performance per volume of equipment, but that HFSLM is a good alternative because of its less complicated design and greater flexibility. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  9. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  10. Developments in multiple headspace extraction.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Minna

    2007-03-10

    This paper reviews new developments in multiple headspace extraction (MHE), especially its combination with two miniaturized extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME). The combination of the techniques broadens the applicability of SPME and SDME to quantitative determination of analytes in complex liquid and solid matrixes. These new methods offer several advantages over traditional liquid-solid, liquid-liquid and headspace extraction techniques. The potential applications include extraction of volatiles and semivolatiles from environmental and physiological samples and from different polymer products such as medical and biomedical materials, food packaging and building materials. The theoretical principals of the techniques are also briefly reviewed. PMID:17081616

  11. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  12. Pollen dispersal by Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterl, Andreas; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Hazeleger, Wilco; Burgers, Gerrit

    2007-10-01

    Using observations covering the last 128 years we show that apparent changes in El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections can be explained by chance and stem from sampling variability. This result is backed by experiments in which an atmosphere model is driven by 123 years of observed sea surface temperature. The possibility of ENSO teleconnection changes in a warming climate is further investigated using coupled GCMs driven by past and projected future greenhouse gas concentrations. These runs do not exclude physical changes in the teleconnection strength but do not agree on their magnitude and location. If existing at all, changes in the strength of ENSO teleconnection, other than obtained by chance, are small and will only be detectable on centennial time scales.

  13. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  14. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  15. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  17. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  18. Information Extraction: Beyond Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaizauskas, Robert; Wilks, Yorick

    1998-01-01

    Information extraction (IE) is the extraction and recording of information about a prespecified set of entities, relations, or events from natural language texts in structured representations called templates. This article provides an overview of IE from the 1960s to the present, discusses techniques, describes applications, and highlights future…

  19. Metabolomic fingerprinting of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Mattoli, L; Cangi, F; Maidecchi, A; Ghiara, C; Ragazzi, E; Tubaro, M; Stella, L; Tisato, F; Traldi, P

    2006-12-01

    The standardization and quality control of plant extracts is an important topic, in particular, when such extracts are used for medicinal purposes. Consequently, the development of fast and effective analytical methods for metabolomic fingerprinting of plant extracts is of high interest. In this investigation, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and (1)H NMR techniques were employed with further statistical analyses of the acquired data. The results showed that negative ion mode ESI-MS is particularly effective for characterization of plant extracts. Different samples of the same species appear well-clustered and separated from the other species. To verify the effectiveness of the method, two other batches of extracts from a species, in which the principal components were already identified (Cynara scolymus), were analyzed, and the components that were verified by the principal component analysis (PCA) were found to be within the region identified as characteristic of Cynara Scolymus extracts. The data from extracts of the other species were well separated from those pertaining to the species previously characterized. Only the case of a species that was strictly correlated from a botanical point of view, with extracts that were previously analyzed, showed overlapping. PMID:17051519

  20. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  1. Extractive condensation: A new separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitsch, K.J.

    1999-10-01

    A new highly selective vapor-phase extraction process is described. Hydrogen bonding between a scavenging extractant and the substance to be extracted results in a high-boiling complex forming fog droplets readily separable from the remaining vapor. The process is exemplified by the extraction of acetic acid from the predominantly aqueous vapor stream of furfural reactors. Triethylamine is used as the extractant.

  2. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  3. Extraction of fat-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-11-23

    An overview of the different extraction procedures of fat-soluble vitamins from human fluids, foods and pharmaceutical preparations is presented. Methods using organic solvent extraction (both liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction), supercritical fluid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the different types of both vitamins and matrices are discussed. PMID:11762782

  4. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  5. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is...

  6. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is...

  7. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated. PMID:10321141

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  9. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    PubMed Central

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V.; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements. PMID:26130934

  10. Specific extraction of chromium(VI) using supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2000-02-01

    In some situations, it is no longer sufficient to give a total concentration of a metal. Instead, what is required to understand the potential toxicity of a sample is the concentration of metal species or oxidation state. When developing species specific methods, the major concern is that the integrity of the species ratio is not changed. In other words, the sample preparation or the analytical method will not convert metal ions from one oxidation state to another. Normal extraction techniques and chromatography methods have shown some tendencies to change species ratios. An ideal extraction method would extract the metal efficiently while retaining the metal's oxidation state. The properties of supercritical fluids should approach the ideal of retention of oxidation states. For example, the need for speciation of chromium is obvious since Cr(III) is considered an essential element while Cr(VI) is thought to be toxic and carcinogenic. This paper presents the results of a species specific extraction of Cr(VI) using two different carbamate derivatives as the chelator. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) coupled with a fluorinated dithiocarbamate and a methanol modifier allows extraction of 1 ppm Cr(VI) from a solid matrix with a recovery level of 88.4+/-2.57% using the NIST standard sample. The optimized conditions using the HP 7680 supercritical fluid extractor were: 0.1 ml of methanol, 0.05 ml of pure water, and 0.01 g of chelate via a saturation chamber. PMID:18967865

  11. Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cure the infection without completely removing all hardware from the body. This requires removal of the ... Footnotes References Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Article Tools Print Citation Tools Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction ...

  12. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  13. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

  14. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  15. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  16. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  17. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  18. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  19. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  20. 21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirulina extract is prepared by the filtered aqueous extraction of the dried biomass of Arthrospira platensis. The color additive contains phycocyanins as the principal coloring components. (2) Color...

  1. Pulsed electromembrane extraction: a new concept of electrically enhanced extraction.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Esrafili, Ali

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, pulsed electromembrane extraction (PEME) is introduced for the first time as an efficient and inexpensive method for the extraction of ionizable compounds from different matrices. The setup proposed for electromembrane extraction (EME) provides a very stable system and satisfactory repeatability (RSDs<4.4) in comparison with existing methods. In this paper, PEME is conducted for the extraction of model analytes from biological fluids. The effective parameters such as extraction time, applied voltage and the duration of pulse and outage period are optimized using the experimental design. Preconcentration factors in the range of 100-140 and recoveries in the range of 95-108 were obtained in different biological matrices. The linear dynamic ranges of 5-200 ng mL(-1) (with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9955) and limits of detection of 1.0 ng mL(-1) were obtained for both of the drugs. The figures of merit of PEME were compared with the results from conventional EME, which proves the advantages of the proposed technique. PMID:22999198

  2. Isoflavone extraction from okara using water as extractant.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak, Lena; Kantzas, Nikolaos; Boom, Remko; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2014-10-01

    We here report on the use of water as a 'green' extraction solvent for the isolation of isoflavones from okara, a by-product of soymilk production. At a low liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 to 1 and 20 °C, 47% of the isoflavones that can be extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol were extracted. The malonyl-glucosides were fully recovered with a ratio of 20 to 1, while β-glucosides were recovered with an increased liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 to 1. The extraction of aglycones was better at higher ratios, but leveled off before reaching a 100% yield. Temperature hardly affected the total amount of isoflavones. At a 20 to 1 ratio, 20 °C, and pH 10, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between isoflavone extraction in water and in 70% aqueous ethanol. The results suggest that water may be used as a green alternative for separation of isoflavones from okara. PMID:24799251

  3. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  4. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  5. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  6. NEFI: Network Extraction From Images

    PubMed Central

    Dirnberger, M.; Kehl, T.; Neumann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Networks are amongst the central building blocks of many systems. Given a graph of a network, methods from graph theory enable a precise investigation of its properties. Software for the analysis of graphs is widely available and has been applied to study various types of networks. In some applications, graph acquisition is relatively simple. However, for many networks data collection relies on images where graph extraction requires domain-specific solutions. Here we introduce NEFI, a tool that extracts graphs from images of networks originating in various domains. Regarding previous work on graph extraction, theoretical results are fully accessible only to an expert audience and ready-to-use implementations for non-experts are rarely available or insufficiently documented. NEFI provides a novel platform allowing practitioners to easily extract graphs from images by combining basic tools from image processing, computer vision and graph theory. Thus, NEFI constitutes an alternative to tedious manual graph extraction and special purpose tools. We anticipate NEFI to enable time-efficient collection of large datasets. The analysis of these novel datasets may open up the possibility to gain new insights into the structure and function of various networks. NEFI is open source and available at http://nefi.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:26521675

  7. Protein extraction from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Denecke, M

    2006-01-01

    Two methods for the separation of protein originating from activated sludge were compared. In one method, the total protein was isolated out of the activated sludge (crude extract). These samples included all dissolved proteins originating from the bacterial cells and biofilm made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Every time polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was done, the protein bands from samples of crude extract were covered by polymeric substances including carbohydrates, uronic acids or humic compounds. Using the immunoblot technique it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the heat shock protein HSP70 in crude extracts of activated sludge. The comparison of protein fingerprints required that clear and distinct bands appear on the PAGE analysis. To this end, a procedure to separates bacterial cells from the EPS was developed. Bacterial cells were separated by incubation with EDTA and subsequent filtration. The isolated cells were directly incubated in a sample buffer. PMID:16898150

  8. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  9. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  10. Extraction of Silver by Glucose.

    PubMed

    Baksi, Ananya; Gandi, Mounika; Chaudhari, Swathi; Bag, Soumabha; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-06-27

    Unprecedented silver ion leaching, in the range of 0.7 ppm was seen when metallic silver was heated in water at 70 °C in presence of simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, making it a green method of silver extraction. Extraction was facilitated by the presence of anions, such as carbonate and phosphate. Studies confirm a two-step mechanism of silver release, first forming silver ions at the metal surface and later complexation of ionic silver with glucose; such complexes have been detected by mass spectrometry. Extraction leads to microscopic roughening of the surface making it Raman active with an enhancement factor of 5×10(8) . PMID:27119514

  11. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  12. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  13. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  14. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  15. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents. PMID:24088789

  16. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  17. SAM -- A Spectral Extraction Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. R.

    In this note a description is given of SAM, a package written at RGO for the extraction of spectra from two dimensional data frames. The need to extract spectra from two dimensional frames in an optimal manner (e.g. one in which the signal to noise ratio was maximised) was the primary reason for the writing of the package. The programs were originally written with FOS, ISIS and IDS in mind, but contain nothing which is instrument specific and hence should be applicable to any two dimensional spectral data frame.

  18. The Overview of Entity Relation Extraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xian-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Jin

    The Information extraction can be defined as the task of extracting information of specified events or facts, and then stored in a database for the users' querying. Only with the correct relationship between the various entities, the database can be correctly store in. Entity relation extraction becomes a key technology of information Extraction system. In this paper, we analyze the status of entity relation extraction method; propose several problems for this field to be solved.

  19. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-02-01

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000μL of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

  20. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…