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Sample records for extravasamento arterial apos

  1. The effects of apoA-I/C-III/A-IV, apoE and apoB polymorphisms on carotid artery intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2006-03-01

    Different apolipoprotein combinations explain most of the functional differences between plasma lipoproteins. This emphasizes the pivotal role of apolipoproteins in the homeostasis and physiological control of lipid metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein (apo)A-I/C-III/A-IV, apoE and apoB have been suggested to modulate plasma lipid levels as well as the risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Carotid artery intima-media thickness has been shown to represent preclinical atherosclerosis and has, therefore, been used as a surrogate in quantifying the early stages of atherosclerosis. The effects of the polymorphisms in apoA-I/C-III/A-IV and apoB on carotid intima-media thickness are poorly known. The corresponding influence of apoE polymorphisms has been studied more extensively, but the results are not yet conclusive. In this review, these results are presented in detail and the potential reasons and mechanisms for the discrepancies are discussed. PMID:19804074

  2. Effect of Diet and Age on Arterial Stiffening Due to Atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Cilla, M; Pérez, M M; Peña, E; Martínez, M A

    2016-07-01

    This work analyzes the progressive stiffening of the aorta due to atherosclerosis development of both ApoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice fed on a Western (n = 5) and a normal (n = 5) chow diet for the ApoE(-/-) group and on a normal chow diet (n = 5) for the C57BL/6J group. Sets of 5 animals from the three groups were killed after 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks on their respective diets (corresponding to 17, 27, 37 and 47 weeks of age). Mechanical properties (inflation test and axial residual stress measurements) and histological properties were compared for both strains, ApoE(-/-) on the hyper-lipidic diet and both ApoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J on the normal diet, after the same period and after different periods of diet. The results indicated that the aorta stiffness in the ApoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice under normal diet remained approximately constant irrespective of their age. However, the arterial stiffness in the ApoE(-/-) on the hyper-lipidic diet increased over time. Statistical differences were found between the group after 10 weeks and the groups after 30 and 40 weeks of a hyper-lipidic diet. Comparing the hyper-lipidic and normal diet mice, statistical differences were also found between both diets in all cases after 40 weeks of diet, frequently after 30 weeks, and in some cases after 20 weeks. The early stages of lesion corresponded to the first 2 weeks of diet. Advanced lesions were found at 30 weeks and, finally, the aorta was completely damaged after 40 weeks of diet. In conclusion, we found substantial changes in the mechanical properties of the aorta walls of the ApoE(-/-) mice fed with the hyper-lipidic diet compared to the normal chow diet groups for both the ApoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J groups. These findings could serve as a reference for the study of changes in the arterial wall properties in cases of atherosclerosis. PMID:26502169

  3. Cardiovascular protection by apoE and apoE-HDL linked to suppression of ECM gene expression and arterial stiffening

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Devashish; Liu, Shu-Lin; Bae, Yong Ho; Monslow, James; Xu, Tina; Hawthorne, Elizabeth A.; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Castagnino, Paola; Rao, Shilpa; Rader, Daniel J.; Puré, Ellen; Phillips, Michael C.; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Janmey, Paul A.; Assoian, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Arterial stiffening is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but how arteries stay supple is unknown. Here, we show that apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apoE-containing HDL maintain arterial elasticity by suppressing the expression of extracellular matrix genes. ApoE interrupts a mechanically driven feed-forward loop which increases the expression of collagen-I, fibronectin, and lysyl oxidase in response to substratum stiffening. These effects are independent of the apoE lipid-binding domain and transduced by Cox2 and miR-145. Arterial stiffness is increased in apoE-null mice, this stiffening can be reduced by administration of the lysyl oxidase inhibitor, BAPN, and BAPN treatment attenuates atherosclerosis despite highly elevated cholesterol. Macrophage abundance in lesions is reduced by BAPN in vivo, and monocyte/macrophage adhesion is reduced by substratum softening in vitro. We conclude that apoE and apoE-containing HDL promote healthy arterial biomechanics, and this confers protection from cardiovascular disease independent of the established apoE-HDL effect on cholesterol. PMID:23103162

  4. LDLR, ApoB and ApoE genes polymorphisms and classical risk factors in premature coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Tarek A; Mohamed, Randa H

    2016-09-30

    Lipoproteins play a central role in the development of atherosclerotic disease. So, with their ability to affect lipid levels, the LDLR, ApoB and ApoE polymorphisms could be one of the factors influencing development of atherosclerosis. This hypothesis has been tested in different populations with conflicting results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the LDLR, ApoB and ApoE genes polymorphisms with premature CAD (PCAD) in Egyptians. One hundred thirty-five patients of PCAD and one hundred thirty-two ages and sex matched control subjects were included in the study. LDLR and ApoB genes polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ApoE genotypes were identified by multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (multi-AMRS). We found that LDLR A(+)A(+) genotype, ApoB X(+) allele and ApoE E4 allele increased the risk of PCAD by 1.8, 2.1 and 12.1 respectively. The present study proved that smoking, metabolic syndrome, ApoB X(+)X(+) genotype and ApoE E4 allele were independent risk factors for the development of PCAD. This is the first study investigate the association between low density lipoprotein receptor, apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E genes polymorphisms with PCAD and lipid levels in Egyptians and we concluded that the LDLR A(+)A(+) genotype, ApoB X(+) allele and ApoE E4 allele may be associated with an increased risk for development of PCAD by elevated levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDLc). The coexistence of CAD risk factors with LDLR A(+)A(+) genotype, ApoB X(+) allele and ApoE E4 allele may increase the risk of the development of PCAD in Egyptian patients. PMID:27236033

  5. Plasma ApoC-III Levels, Triglycerides, and Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 2 Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Khera, Amit V.; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates TRL metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of TRL. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower TG and reduce CHD risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist regarding the relationship of ApoC-III, TG, and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, TG and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in T2DM patients. Approach & Results Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest CHD. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), TG (r=0.59), LDL-C (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16) and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12) (P < 0.0001 for all). In age, gender, and race-adjusted analysis, ApoC-III levels were positively associated with CAC (Tobit regression ratio (TRR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.27–2.50 per SD-increase in ApoC-III, P <0.001). As expected for an intermediate mediator, these findings were attenuated when adjusted for both TG (TRR 1.43, 95% CI 0.94–2.18, P=0.086) and separately for VLDL-C (TRR 1.14, 95% ci 0.75–1.71, P=0.53). Conclusions In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher TG, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher CAC, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma TRLs and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:26069232

  6. Plasma lipoprotein (a) levels and Apo(a) isoforms in native population of Chukotka with and without arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Y P; Tikhonov, A V; Grigorieva, I N

    2001-04-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels and Apolipoprotien(a) (Apo(a)) isoforms in blood plasma were determined among the native population of Chukotka (Chukchee, Eskimo) in 32 persons with and 148 persons without Arterial Hypertension (AH). Plasma Lp(a) levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion using polyclonal antibodies raised against purified Lp(a) human plasma. The range of fluctuations of Lp(a) levels was wide: 0-77 mg/dl (Chukchee), 0-48 mg/dl (Eskimo). The distribution in the total population was also highly skewed, yielding a curve similar to a negative exponential function. Insignificant differences were found in the levels of Lp(a) between persons with and without AH: 22.9 +/- 2.6 vs. 20.6 +/- 0.8 mg/dl. Apo(a) isoform S4 as homozygous appears to be more frequent in patients with AH (8.1%), than in persons without AH (15.3%), isoform S2 in 30.2% and 19.2%, isoform S1 in 3.9% and 2.9%, respectively (in all cases p > 0.05). In conclusion, plasma Lp(a) levels in native population of Chukotka (Chukchee, Eskimo) did not differ between persons with AH and without AH. Apo(a) isoform distribution differed slightly between Chukchee and Eskimo with AH and without AH. PMID:11507972

  7. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Multilayered Territorialized Atherosclerosis B-Cell Responses in Aged ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Srikakulapu, Prasad; Hu, Desheng; Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Bontha, Sai Vineela; Peng, Li; Beer, Michael; Weber, Christian; McNamara, Coleen A.; Grassia, Gianluca; Maffia, Pasquale; Manz, Rudolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Explore aorta B-cell immunity in aged apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Approach and Results— Transcript maps, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunofluorescence analyses, cell transfers, and Ig-ELISPOT (enzyme-linked immunospot) assays showed multilayered atherosclerosis B-cell responses in artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs). Aging-associated aorta B-cell–related transcriptomes were identified, and transcript atlases revealed highly territorialized B-cell responses in ATLOs versus atherosclerotic lesions: ATLOs showed upregulation of bona fide B-cell genes, including Cd19, Ms4a1 (Cd20), Cd79a/b, and Ighm although intima plaques preferentially expressed molecules involved in non–B effector responses toward B-cell–derived mediators, that is, Fcgr3 (Cd16), Fcer1g (Cd23), and the C1q family. ATLOs promoted B-cell recruitment. ATLO B-2 B cells included naive, transitional, follicular, germinal center, switched IgG1+, IgA+, and IgE+ memory cells, plasmablasts, and long-lived plasma cells. ATLOs recruited large numbers of B-1 cells whose subtypes were skewed toward interleukin-10+ B-1b cells versus interleukin-10− B-1a cells. ATLO B-1 cells and plasma cells constitutively produced IgM and IgG and a fraction of plasma cells expressed interleukin-10. Moreover, ApoE−/− mice showed increased germinal center B cells in renal lymph nodes, IgM-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow, and higher IgM and anti–MDA-LDL (malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein) IgG serum titers. Conclusions— ATLOs orchestrate dichotomic, territorialized, and multilayered B-cell responses in the diseased aorta; germinal center reactions indicate generation of autoimmune B cells within the diseased arterial wall during aging. PMID:27102965

  8. Effect of open-label infusion of an apoA-I-containing particle (CER-001) on RCT and artery wall thickness in patients with FHA[S

    PubMed Central

    Kootte, Ruud S.; Smits, Loek P.; van der Valk, Fleur M.; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Keyserling, Constance H.; Barbaras, Ronald; Paolini, John F.; Santos, Raul D.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Dallinga-van Thie, Geesje M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Groen, Albert K.; Stroes, Erik S.

    2015-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) contributes to the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. Patients with the orphan disease, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA), are characterized by decreased tissue cholesterol removal and an increased atherogenic burden. We performed an open-label uncontrolled proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effect of infusions with a human apoA-I-containing HDL-mimetic particle (CER-001) on RCT and the arterial vessel wall in FHA. Subjects received 20 infusions of CER-001 (8 mg/kg) during 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by measuring (apo)lipoproteins, plasma-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux, fecal sterol excretion (FSE), and carotid artery wall dimension by MRI and artery wall inflammation by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. We included seven FHA patients: HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), 13.8 [1.8–29.1] mg/dl; apoA-I, 28.7 [7.9–59.1] mg/dl. Following nine infusions in 1 month, apoA-I and HDL-c increased directly after infusion by 27.0 and 16.1 mg/dl (P = 0.018). CER-001 induced a 44% relative increase (P = 0.018) in in vitro cellular cholesterol efflux with a trend toward increased FSE (P = 0.068). After nine infusions of CER-001, carotid mean vessel wall area decreased compared with baseline from 25.0 to 22.8 mm2 (P = 0.043) and target-to-background ratio from 2.04 to 1.81 (P = 0.046). In FHA-subjects, CER-001 stimulates cholesterol mobilization and reduces artery wall dimension and inflammation, supporting further evaluation of CER-001 in FHA patients. PMID:25561459

  9. Effect of open-label infusion of an apoA-I-containing particle (CER-001) on RCT and artery wall thickness in patients with FHA.

    PubMed

    Kootte, Ruud S; Smits, Loek P; van der Valk, Fleur M; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Keyserling, Constance H; Barbaras, Ronald; Paolini, John F; Santos, Raul D; van Dijk, Theo H; Dallinga-van Thie, Geesje M; Nederveen, Aart J; Mulder, Willem J M; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J P; Groen, Albert K; Stroes, Erik S

    2015-03-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) contributes to the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. Patients with the orphan disease, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA), are characterized by decreased tissue cholesterol removal and an increased atherogenic burden. We performed an open-label uncontrolled proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effect of infusions with a human apoA-I-containing HDL-mimetic particle (CER-001) on RCT and the arterial vessel wall in FHA. Subjects received 20 infusions of CER-001 (8 mg/kg) during 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by measuring (apo)lipoproteins, plasma-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux, fecal sterol excretion (FSE), and carotid artery wall dimension by MRI and artery wall inflammation by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. We included seven FHA patients: HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), 13.8 [1.8-29.1] mg/dl; apoA-I, 28.7 [7.9-59.1] mg/dl. Following nine infusions in 1 month, apoA-I and HDL-c increased directly after infusion by 27.0 and 16.1 mg/dl (P = 0.018). CER-001 induced a 44% relative increase (P = 0.018) in in vitro cellular cholesterol efflux with a trend toward increased FSE (P = 0.068). After nine infusions of CER-001, carotid mean vessel wall area decreased compared with baseline from 25.0 to 22.8 mm(2) (P = 0.043) and target-to-background ratio from 2.04 to 1.81 (P = 0.046). In FHA-subjects, CER-001 stimulates cholesterol mobilization and reduces artery wall dimension and inflammation, supporting further evaluation of CER-001 in FHA patients. PMID:25561459

  10. Genetic variants of ApoE and ApoER2 differentially modulate endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Victoria; Konaniah, Eddy S.; Herz, Joachim; Gerard, Robert D.; Jung, Eunjeong; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed; Hui, David Y.; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W.

    2014-01-01

    It is poorly understood why there is greater cardiovascular disease risk associated with the apolipoprotein E4 (apoE) allele vs. apoE3, and also greater risk with the LRP8/apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) variant ApoER2-R952Q. Little is known about the function of the apoE–ApoER2 tandem outside of the central nervous system. We now report that in endothelial cells apoE3 binding to ApoER2 stimulates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and endothelial cell migration, and it also attenuates monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion. However, apoE4 does not stimulate eNOS or endothelial cell migration or dampen cell adhesion, and alternatively it selectively antagonizes apoE3/ApoER2 actions. The contrasting endothelial actions of apoE4 vs. apoE3 require the N-terminal to C-terminal interaction in apoE4 that distinguishes it structurally from apoE3. Reconstitution experiments further reveal that ApoER2-R952Q is a loss-of-function variant of the receptor in endothelium. Carotid artery reendothelialization is decreased in ApoER2−/− mice, and whereas adenoviral-driven apoE3 expression in wild-type mice has no effect, apoE4 impairs reendothelialization. Moreover, in a model of neointima formation invoked by carotid artery endothelial denudation, ApoER2−/− mice display exaggerated neointima development. Thus, the apoE3/ApoER2 tandem promotes endothelial NO production, endothelial repair, and endothelial anti-inflammatory properties, and it prevents neointima formation. In contrast, apoE4 and ApoER2-R952Q display dominant-negative action and loss of function, respectively. Thus, genetic variants of apoE and ApoER2 impact cardiovascular health by differentially modulating endothelial function. PMID:25197062

  11. A single infusion of MDCO-216 (ApoA-1 Milano/POPC) increases ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and pre-beta 1 HDL in healthy volunteers and patients with stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Kallend, D.G.; Reijers, J.A.A.; Bellibas, S.E.; Bobillier, A.; Kempen, H.; Burggraaf, J.; Moerland, M.; Wijngaard, P.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), based on epidemiology, is inversely associated with cardiovascular (CV) events. Human carriers of the ApoA-1 Milano variant have a reduced incidence of CV disease. Regression of atherosclerotic plaque burden was previously observed on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) with ETC-216, a predecessor of MDCO-216. MDCO-216, a complex of dimeric ApoA-1 Milano and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, is being developed to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden and CV events. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a single infusion of MDCO-216 in healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results Twenty-four healthy volunteers and 24 patients with documented CAD received a 2-h infusion of MDCO-216 in a randomized, placebo controlled, single ascending dose study. Five cohorts of healthy volunteers and four cohorts of CAD patients received ApoA-1 Milano doses ranging from 5 to 40 mg/kg. Subjects were followed for 30 days. Dose-dependent increases in ApoA-1, phospholipid, and pre-beta 1 HDL and decreases in ApoE were observed. Prominent and sustained increases in triglyceride, and decreases in HDL-C, endogenous ApoA-1 and ApoA-II occurred at doses >20 mg/kg and profound increases in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux were observed. Other lipid and lipoprotein parameters were generally unchanged. MDCO-216 was well tolerated. Conclusions MDCO-216-modulated lipid parameters profoundly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and was well tolerated. These single-dose data support further development of this agent for reducing atherosclerotic disease and subsequent CV events. PMID:27418968

  12. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... the artery (arterial bypass) to create a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the ...

  13. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteries. Abnormal results may point to ...

  14. Association of the 12669G>A Apolipoprotein B Gene Polymorphism with Apo-B Serum Level and Lipid Profile in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Comparing with Individuals Without Coronary Artery Disease in Zanjan Population of Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Fariborz; Mortazavi, Yousef; Fouladsaz, Koorosh; Mazloomzadeh, Saeede

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a pathologic disorder which has an important role in the occurrence of coronary heart disease. It is determined as a focal, inflammatory proliferative response to several types of endothelial damage. Apolipoprotein B which is a requirement in the sustenance of cholesterol homeostasis, and is the major protein component of low density lipoprotein, characterized by multitude polymorphic sites, one of which (12669G>A) is related to the levels of serum lipid profiles, coronary artery disease and/or myocardial infarction. One Common polymorphism which is more important in this process is 12669G>A that is appraised in this research. We recruited 80 patients from the Mousavi hospital, Zanjan, Iran, diagnosed with coronary artery disease by the clinician on the basis of clinical symptoms, echocardiogram result, and angiography. Seventy-seven healthy individuals without any evident symptoms of Coronary stenosis and any past history of the disease were taken as controls from the general population. We carried out PCR using specific primers. Then, we digested PCR product by RFLP. Lipid parameters by biochemical methods and Apolipoprotein B serum level by immunoturbidometry method were done. Genotype frequencies for 12669G>A polymorphism were determined: 55 % R+R+, 45 % R+R- in case group, and 55.8 R+R+, 44.2 % R+R- in controls. The R-R- genotype was not seen. There was no significant relationship between this polymorphism and the risk of Coronary stenosis (P = 0.6). In the present study, higher plasma levels of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins in the subjects with R+R- genotype were found while there was no association between this polymorphism and coronary stenosis with ≥50 % in the Zanjan population. PMID:27382203

  15. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  16. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  17. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... limit tissue damage. Alternative Names Blood sample - arterial ... by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, ...

  18. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... rial line can provide valuable information to adjust oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give ...

  19. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; Peroneal artery - ...

  20. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dead bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... The arteries that supply blood to the intestines run directly from the aorta, the main artery from the heart. ...

  1. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  2. Focal accumulation of an apolipoprotein B-based synthetic oligopeptide in the healing rabbit arterial wall

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, I.L.; Lees, R.S.; Chang, M.Y.; Lees, A.M. )

    1990-02-01

    The functions of surface-accessible domains of apolipoprotein (apo) B, the protein moiety of low density lipoprotein (LDL), are unknown, aside from the LDL receptor-binding domain, which lies toward the carboxyl-terminal end of apoB. Since LDL accumulation in arterial lesions does not depend on recognition of LDLs by a cell-surface receptor, we synthesized an oligopeptide with the sequence of the trypsin-accessible domain of apoB that lies closest to the amino-terminal end of the protein and compared its biological activity to that of another synthetic oligopeptide with the sequence of the heparin- and apoB/apoE receptor-binding domains of apoE. (Tyrosine was added at the amino-terminal end of each peptide to facilitate radiolabeling.) The 18-amino acid apoB-based peptide included residues 1000-1016 of apoB, for which no function has been previously described. In radioautographs, the 125I-labeled peptide accumulated focally at the healing edges of regenerating endothelial islands in the balloon-catheter deendothelialized rabbit aorta. In contrast, the 21-residue apoE-based peptide, which included residues 129-148 of apoE, accumulated diffusely and uniformly throughout the deendothelialized areas of the aorta. The data show that focal binding of the apoB-based peptide can delineate arterial lesions and suggest that this arterial wall-binding domain of apoB mediates accumulation of LDLs in arterial lesions.

  3. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... side of the heart is smaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs. The left coronary artery, ... heart is larger and more muscular because it pumps blood to the rest of the body. Updated August ...

  4. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  5. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  6. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, ... narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  7. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... ischemia is often seen in people who have hardening of the arteries in other parts of the ... long-term (chronic) mesenteric artery ischemia caused by hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ): Abdominal pain after eating ...

  8. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  9. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a ...

  10. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  11. Carotid artery anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

  12. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  13. Quantification of molecular interactions between ApoE, amyloid-beta (Aβ) and laminin: Relevance to accumulation of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zekonyte, Jurgita; Sakai, Kenji; Nicoll, James A R; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O

    2016-05-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in plaques in the brain and in artery walls as cerebral amyloid angiopathy indicates a failure of elimination of Aβ from the brain with age and Alzheimer's disease. A major pathway for elimination of Aβ and other soluble metabolites from the brain is along basement membranes within the walls of cerebral arteries that represent the lymphatic drainage pathways for the brain. The motive force for the elimination of Aβ along this perivascular pathway appears to be the contrary (reflection) wave that follows the arterial pulse wave. Following injection into brain parenchyma, Aβ rapidly drains out of the brain along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral arteries; such drainage is impaired in apolipoprotein E ε4 (ApoE4) mice. For drainage of Aβ to occur in a direction contrary to the pulse wave, some form of attachment to basement membrane would be required to prevent reflux of Aβ back into the brain during the passage of the subsequent pulse wave. In this study, we show first that apolipoprotein E co-localizes with Aβ in basement membrane drainage pathways in the walls of arteries. Secondly, we show by Atomic Force Microscopy that attachment of ApoE4/Aβ complexes to basement membrane laminin is significantly weaker than ApoE3/Aβ complexes. These results suggest that perivascular elimination of ApoE4/Aβ complexes would be less efficient than with other isoforms of apolipoprotein E, thus endowing a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Therapeutic correction for ApoE4/Aβ/laminin interactions may increase the efficiency of elimination of Aβ in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26327683

  14. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  15. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  16. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  17. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... These blockages are more likely if there is hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) in the eye. Clots ... Blindness and vision loss Blood clots Diabetes Glaucoma Hardening of the arteries High blood cholesterol levels High ...

  18. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...

  19. Carotid artery surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000238.htm Carotid artery surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had carotid artery surgery to restore proper blood flow to your ...

  20. Carotid artery surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100124.htm Carotid artery surgery - series To use the sharing features on ... 4 Normal anatomy Overview There are four carotid arteries, with a pair located on each side of ...

  1. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007315.htm Coronary artery fistula To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of ...

  2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  3. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  4. Combination of Rare Right Arterial Variation with Anomalous Origins of the Vertebral Artery, Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, H.; San Millán Ruíz, D.; Abdo, G.; Asakura, F.; Yilmaz, H.; Lovblad, K.O.; Rüfenacht, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  5. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and efficacy continues to be studied in several medical centers. This procedure involves the placement of a small flexible tube (catheter) into an artery from the groin. The catheter is then directed to the neck to reach the carotid artery blockage. A balloon pushes open the artery wall and a stent ( ...

  6. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  7. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  8. Acute Arterial Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dagnone, L. E.; Brown, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The response of the primary care physician in the initial assessment and management of acute arterial injuries will often be the deciding factor in survival of life, limb or organ system. Most arterial emergencies occur as a result of trauma, disruption of vessel wall and/or occlusion of flow. The common clinical syndromes of acute arterial emergencies are injuries to and beyond the aorta, acute aortic dissection, ruptured aortic aneurysm, and thromboembolic occlusive arterial disease. The role of arteriography and the urgency of definitive surgical repair in acute arterial emergencies is summarized. PMID:21283323

  9. Role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the development of neointimal thickening following arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vivek; Sinha, Satyesh K; Rajavashisth, Tripathi B

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) participates critically in atherosclerosis; little is known about the role of M-CSF in the development of neointimal hyperplasia following mechanical vascular injury. We examined the expression of M-CSF and its receptor, c-fms, in rodent and rabbit models of arterial injury. Injured rat carotid arteries expressed 3- to 10-fold higher levels of M-CSF and c-fms mRNA and protein following balloon injury as compared to uninjured arteries. In the rabbit, M-CSF protein expression was greatest in neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) postinjury, with some expression in medial SMCs. M-CSF-positive SMCs exhibited markers of proliferation. At 30days postinjury, neointimal SMCs in the adjacent healed area near the border between injured and uninjured zone lost both proliferative activity and overexpression of M-CSF. The presence of induced M-CSF and c-fms expression correlated with the initiation of SMCs proliferation. M-CSF stimulated incorporation of [(3)H] thymidine in human aortic smooth muscle cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Serum-free conditioned medium from aortic SMCs also promoted DNA synthesis, and this effect was blocked by M-CSF specific antibody. To test further the role of M-CSF in vivo, we induced arterial injury by placing a periadventitial collar around the carotid arteries in compound mutant mice lacking apolipoprotein apoE (apoE(-/-)) and M-CSF. Loss of M-CSF abolished the neointimal hyperplastic response to arterial injury in apoE(-/-) mice. Local delivery of M-CSF to the injured artery restored neointimal proliferation, suggesting a critical role of M-CSF for the development of neointimal thickening following arterial injury. PMID:27135205

  10. MR histology of advanced atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE- knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumova, A.; Yarnykh, V.; Ferguson, M.; Rosenfeld, M.; Yuan, C.

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the feasibility of determining the composition of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in fixed ApoE-knockout mice and to develop a time-efficient microimaging protocol for MR histological imaging on mice. Five formalin-fixed transgenic ApoE-knockout mice were imaged at the 9.4T Bruker BioSpec MR scanner using 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence with an isotropic field of view of 24 mm3; TR 20.8 ms; TE 2.6 ms; flip angle 20°, resulted voxel size 47 × 63 × 94 pm3. MRI examination has shown that advanced atherosclerotic lesions of aorta, innominate and carotid arteries in ApoE-knockout mice are characterized by high calcification and presence of the large fibrofatty nodules. MRI quantification of atherosclerotic lesion components corresponded to histological assessment of plaque composition with a correlation coefficient of 0.98.

  11. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... if they have a history of: Abnormal cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease (coronary artery disease) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Kidney disease involving hemodialysis Smoking Stroke ( cerebrovascular disease )

  12. Modulation of lipoprotein metabolism by inhibition of sphingomyelin synthesis in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Sik; Panek, Robert L; Rekhter, Mark D; Mueller, Sandra Bak; Rosebury, Wendy S; Robertson, Andrew; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Kindt, Erick; Homan, Reynold; Karathanasis, Sotirios K

    2006-12-01

    Plasma sphingomyelin (SM) has been suggested as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of cholesterol levels. A decrease of SM in lipoproteins is known to improve the activities of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in vitro. Inhibition of SM biosynthesis may reduce lipoprotein SM content and thus improve cholesterol distribution in lipoproteins by enhancing reverse cholesterol transport and clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. To examine this hypothesis, ApoE KO mice were fed a western diet and treated for 4 weeks with various concentrations of myriocin, a specific inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase. Myriocin treatment lowered plasma cholesterol and TG levels in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, myriocin treatment reduced cholesterol contents in VLDL and LDL and elevated HDL-cholesterol. Observed lipid-lowering effects of myriocin were associated with suppression of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase via reduced levels of SREBP-1 RNA and protein. Induction of apoAI and lecithin:cholesterol acytransferase (LCAT) in the liver by myriocin was associated with an increased HDL. Lesion area and macrophage area were also diminished in the cuffed femoral artery of ApoE KO mice. In conclusion, inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis can be a novel therapeutic target for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:16458317

  13. Students&apos;, Guardians&apos;, and Teachers&apos; Perceptions of Student-Led Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orso, Charlotte Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the ELL and non-ELL students&apos;, guardians&apos;, and the English as a second language (ESL) teachers&apos; perceptions of student-led conferences. Specifically, the study examined if ELL students&apos; and guardians&apos; preferences were similar to non-ELL students&apos; and guardians&apos; preferences…

  14. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  15. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  16. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  17. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  18. Bilateral popliteal arterial dissection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Liang; Ko, Shih-Yu; Tan, Ken-Hing

    2012-01-01

    A clinical feature of bilateral popliteal arterial dissection without involving the descending aorta, bilateral iliac, as well as femoral arteries has never been reported in the past literature. We report a 56-year-old man with hypertension and coronary artery disease who presented to our emergency department with complaints of bilateral knee pain after long-distance walking. Physical examination was notable for elevated blood pressure, but there was no palpable pulsation over dorsalis pedis arteries on his feet. Laboratory evaluation revealed a d-dimer level of 35.2 mg/L (FEU) on the day of the test and 1.2 mg/L one and a half months ago (normal level, <0.55). These findings were suggestive of a recent-onset peripheral arterial occlusive disorder. Computed tomography of the aorta showed bilateral popliteal arterial dissection with arterial intimal flap. Abdominal aorta, bilateral iliac, and femoral arteries remained intact with only arteriosclerotic change. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafting was then performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:21106320

  19. Weak Radial Artery Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Poothirikovil; Sivakumar, Puthuval; Ardley, Robert G.; Oates, Crispian

    2012-01-01

    We present an 11year-old boy with a weak right radial pulse, and describe the successful application of vascular ultrasound to identify the ulnar artery dominance and a thin right radial artery with below normal Doppler flow velocity that could explain the discrepancy. The implications of identifying this anomaly are discussed. PMID:22375269

  20. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... small balloon on its tip. They inflate the balloon at the blockage site in the carotid artery to flatten or compress the plaque against the artery wall. Carotid angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a small, metal, mesh-like device called a stent. When a stent is placed inside of a ...

  1. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  2. Novel action of apolipoprotein E (ApoE): ApoE isoform specifically inhibits lipid-particle-mediated cholesterol release from neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian-Sheng; Morita, Shin-ya; Kobayashi, Mariko; Handa, Tetsurou; Fujita, Shinobu C; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko; Michikawa, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Background Since the majority of apolipoprotein E (apoE) existing in the cerebrospinal fluid is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL), one should focus on the role of the apoE-HDL complex rather than on that of free apoE in cholesterol metabolism in the central nervous system. However, the apoE-isoform-specific effect of apoE-HDL on cholesterol transport remains unclarified. Results Here we show that apoE3-HDL induced a marked cholesterol release from neurons, while apoE4-HDL induced little. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we used a complex of lipid emulsion (EM) with recombinant apoE3 or apoE4 (apoE-EM) at various apoE concentrations. When a small number of apoE molecules were associated with EM, apoE3- and apoE4-EM, induced a marked cholesterol release to a level similar to that induced by EM alone. However, when apoE at given concentrations was incubated with EM, apoE3-EM induced a marked cholesterol release, while apoE4-EM induced little. Under these conditions, a greater number of apoE4 molecules were associated with EM than apoE3 molecules. When an increasing number of apoE molecules were associated with EM, both apoE3-EM and apoE4-EM induced little cholesterol release. Preincubation with β-mercaptoethanol increased the number of apoE3 molecules associated with EM similar to that of apoE4 molecules, indicating that the presence (apoE3) or absence (apoE4) of intermolecular disulfide bond formation is responsible for the association of a greater number of apoE4 molecules to EM than apoE3 molecules. Conclusion These results suggest that although apoE and a lipid particle are lipid acceptors, when apoE and a lipid particle form a complex, apoE on the particle surface inhibits the lipid particle-mediated cholesterol release from cells in an apoE-concentration-dependent manner. PMID:17504523

  3. ApoE (Apolipoprotein E) Genotyping

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are no clear-cut tests to diagnose Alzheimer disease during life. Health practitioners can, however, make a reasonably accurate clinical diagnosis of AD by ruling out other potential causes of dementia and checking for a genetic predisposition to AD with APOE genotyping as supplemental ...

  4. Vertebrobasilar Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Jessica C.; Boysen, Megan M.; Warren, Chase R.; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion varies with the cause of occlusion and location of ischemia. This often results in delay in diagnosis. Areas of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation are difficult to visualize and usually require angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Intravenous thrombolysis and local-intra arterial thrombolysis are the most common treatment approaches used. Recanalization of the occluded vessel significantly improves morbidity and mortality. Here we present a review of the literature and a case of a patient with altered mental status caused by vertebrobasilar artery occlusion. PMID:21691534

  5. Celiac Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, D. Michael; McBride, Michael; Livesay, James J.; Dougherty, Kathryn G.; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2006-01-01

    Aneurysm of the celiac artery is an uncommon clinical problem; fewer than 180 cases have been reported in the world medical literature. Most patients are symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. However, occasionally such aneurysms are detected incidentally during diagnostic imaging for other diseases. We present the case of a 72-year-old man who had an asymptomatic celiac artery aneurysm detected by computed tomographic angiography after endoluminal exclusion of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm. The patient underwent successful resection of the aneurysm and revascularization of the aorta–common hepatic and splenic arteries with use of an autologous saphenous vein graft. PMID:16878636

  6. Parents&apos; Views of Schools&apos; Involvement Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Blatz, Erin T.; Elbaum, Batya

    2014-01-01

    Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 96 parents of students with disabilities in 18 schools to explore parents&apos; views of schools&apos; efforts to engage them in their child&apos;s education. A mixed-methods approach was used to identify and evaluate the relative importance of eight themes related to schools&apos; efforts…

  7. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability. PMID:25661070

  8. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of PAD is atherosclerosis. This happens when plaque ... substance made up of fat and cholesterol. It causes the arteries to narrow or become blocked. This ...

  9. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ve started to help the medicine work. Other Organizations American Heart Association Questions to Ask Your Doctor Am I at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)? What lifestyle changes should I make to decrease my risk of ...

  10. Coronary artery spasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  11. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  12. Giant Subclavian Artery Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Counts, Sarah; Zeeshan, Ahmad; Elefteriades, John

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old construction executive presenting with chest pain, shortness of breath, and dizziness on exertion secondary to a giant left subclavian artery aneurysm and aortic valvular disease. PMID:27231430

  13. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have had a stroke or TIA, a nervous system (neurological) exam will show other problems. You may also have the following tests: Blood cholesterol and triglycerides test Blood sugar (glucose) test Ultrasound of the carotid arteries ( carotid ...

  14. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease.In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  15. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  16. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  17. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspirin and heart disease Butter, margarine, and cooking oils Carotid artery surgery - discharge Cholesterol and ... by: Daniel Kantor, MD, Kantor Neurology, Coconut Creek, FL and Immediate Past President of the ...

  18. Type VIII Collagen Mediates Vessel Wall Remodeling after Arterial Injury and Fibrous Cap Formation in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Joshua; Adiguzel, Eser; Gu, Steven; Liu, Shu-Lin; Hou, Guangpei; Heximer, Scott; Assoian, Richard K.; Bendeck, Michelle P.

    2014-01-01

    Collagens in the atherosclerotic plaque signal regulation of cell behavior and provide tensile strength to the fibrous cap. Type VIII collagen, a short-chain collagen, is up-regulated in atherosclerosis; however, little is known about its functions in vivo. We studied the response to arterial injury and the development of atherosclerosis in type VIII collagen knockout mice (Col8−/− mice). After wire injury of the femoral artery, Col8−/− mice had decreased vessel wall thickening and outward remodeling when compared with Col8+/+ mice. We discovered that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an endogenous repressor of the Col8a1 chain, and, therefore, in ApoE knockout mice, type VIII collagen was up-regulated. Deficiency of type VIII collagen in ApoE−/− mice (Col8−/−;ApoE−/−) resulted in development of plaques with thin fibrous caps because of decreased smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and reduced accumulation of fibrillar type I collagen. In contrast, macrophage accumulation was not affected, and the plaques had large lipid-rich necrotic cores. We conclude that in atherosclerosis, type VIII collagen is up-regulated in the absence of ApoE and functions to increase smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. This is an important mechanism for formation of a thick fibrous cap to protect the atherosclerotic plaque from rupture. PMID:23567639

  19. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Assessment ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Lipid Profile ; Triglycerides Were you looking instead for APOE genotyping ordered ... the skin called xanthomas, a high level of triglycerides in the blood, and atherosclerosis that develops at ...

  20. Evolution of complete arterial grafting. For coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, B F; Fuller, J A; Tatoulis, J

    1998-01-01

    Arterial grafting for the correction of coronary artery disease preceded the use of saphenous vein grafts, but the overwhelming popularity of the saphenous vein from 1970 to 1985 left the development of arterial grafting dormant. Excellent graft patency results from pedicled internal thoracic artery grafting and continued saphenous vein graft failure prompted our unit to explore complete arterial grafting with internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts. One thousand and fifty-three patients who received a combination of internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts were compared with 1,156 patients who received internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein grafts. All patients underwent primary coronary artery bypass surgery between 1995 and 1998. The early mortality and morbidity and the probability of survival at 2 years were similar in both groups of patients. Early graft patency studies of 35 radial artery grafts showed 33 (94%) were patent at a mean of 12 months. Complete arterial grafting using internal thoracic and radial arteries is safe and may provide a long-term benefit. Images PMID:9566058

  1. LDL-apheresis depletes apoE-HDL and pre-β1-HDL in familial hypercholesterolemia: relevance to atheroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Orsoni, Alexina; Saheb, Samir; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Atassi, Marielle; Bittar, Randa; Robillard, Paul; Bruckert, Eric; Kontush, Anatol; Carrié, Alain; Chapman, M. John

    2011-01-01

    Subnormal HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels are characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reflecting perturbed intravascular metabolism with compositional anomalies in HDL particles, including apoE enrichment. Does LDL-apheresis, which reduces HDL-cholesterol, apoAI, and apoE by adsorption, induce selective changes in HDL subpopulations, with relevance to atheroprotection? Five HDL subpopulations were fractionated from pre- and post-LDL-apheresis plasmas of normotriglyceridemic FH subjects (n = 11) on regular LDL-apheresis (>2 years). Apheresis lowered both plasma apoE (−62%) and apoAI (−16%) levels, with preferential, genotype-independent reduction in apoE. The mass ratio of HDL2:HDL3 was lowered from ∼1:1 to 0.72:1 by apheresis, reflecting selective removal of HDL2 mass (80% of total HDL adsorbed). Pre-LDL-apheresis, HDL2 subpopulations were markedly enriched in apoE, consistent with ∼1 copy of apoE per 4 HDL particles. Large amounts (50-66%) of apoE-HDL were removed by apheresis, preferentially in the HDL2b subfraction (−50%); minor absolute amounts of apoE-HDL were removed from HDL3 subfractions. Furthermore, pre-β1-HDL particle levels were subnormal following removal (−53%) upon apheresis, suggesting that cellular cholesterol efflux may be defective in the immediate postapheresis period. In LDL-receptor (LDL-R) deficiency, LDL-apheresis may enhance flux through the reverse cholesterol transport pathway and equally attenuate potential biglycan-mediated deposition of apoE-HDL in the arterial matrix. PMID:21957200

  2. Targeting ApoC-III to Reduce Coronary Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Qamar, Arman; Millar, John S; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are causal contributors to the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a component of TRLs that elevates plasma triglycerides (TGs) through delaying the lipolysis of TGs and the catabolism of TRL remnants. Recent human genetics approaches have shown that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, the gene encoding apoC-III, lower plasma TGs and protect from CAD. This observation has spawned new interest in therapeutic efforts to target apoC-III. Here, we briefly review both currently available as well as developing therapies for reducing apoC-III levels and function to lower TGs and cardiovascular risk. These therapies include existing options including statins, fibrates, thiazolidinediones, omega-3-fatty acids, and niacin, as well as an antisense oligonucleotide targeting APOC3 currently in clinical development. We review the mechanisms of action by which these drugs reduce apoC-III and the current understanding of how reduction in apoC-III may impact CAD risk. PMID:27443326

  3. Polymorphisms in ApoB gene are associated with risk of myocardial infarction and serum ApoB levels in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changqing; Yang, Jing; Han, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Shang, Xiaoming; Li, Xia; Lu, Feng; Liu, Xiaokun

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious result of coronary artery disease. Recent data from clinical trials have showed that the risk of MI was associated with high plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels. Mutations in ApoB gene were also found to be associated with plasma lipid levels. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ApoB polymorphisms on the risk of MI and plasma apoB levels in a Chinese population. Eight polymorphisms (rs676210, rs679899, rs3791980, rs2854725, rs11676704, rs512535, rs12720841 and rs2678379) in ApoB gene were genotyped in a case-control study in China, including 550 MI cases and 550 healthy controls. Carriers of GG genotype of rs676210 had significant increased risk of MI [odd ratio (OR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-3.03] compared to carriers of AA genotype. Haplotype analysis also showed that GTTGG (rs676210-rs2854725-rs11676704-rs3791980-rs2678379) haplotype had significant increased risk of MI (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.49-5.33) compared with ATTGA haplotype. Furthermore, apoB rs676210 and rs2678379 polymorphisms were significantly associated with plasma levels of apoB in healthy controls (P = 0.01 and 0.02). Our findings indicated that ApoB mutations may be associated with the risk of MI and plasma ApoB levels in healthy controls in Chinese population. PMID:26629186

  4. Tracheoinnominate artery fistula following tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Keçeligil, H T; Erk, M K; Kolbakir, F; Yildirim, A; Yilman, M; Unal, R

    1995-10-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula is a relatively rare but highly lethal complication occurring in patients with long-standing tracheostomies. Early evaluation of this problem and prompt aggressive therapy are necessary. When massive haemorrhage begins, immediate arterial compression, control of the airway and subsequent treatment of the injured artery may be lifesaving. Immediate surgical exploration through a median sternotomy is necessary to control the proximal and distal innominate artery. After the damaged artery has been excised, vascular reconstruction can be performed to preserve the connection between the proximal and distal ends of the innominate artery. A pedicled pericardial patch was successfully used for the tracheal reconstruction. PMID:8574535

  5. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  6. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  7. HtrA1 Proteolysis of ApoE In Vitro Is Allele Selective.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qian; Diedrich, Jolene K; Vaughan, Joan M; Donaldson, Cynthia J; Nunn, Michael F; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Saghatelian, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) belongs to a large class of proteins that solubilize lipids for physiological transport. Humans have three different APOE alleles, APOE ε2, APOE ε3, and APOE ε4, and genetic studies identified ApoE4 as the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). People who are homozygous for ApoE4 (i.e., ApoE4/E4) are an order of magnitude more likely to develop late-onset AD (LOAD) than ApoE3/E3 carriers. Several differences between ApoE3 and ApoE4 may contribute to AD including the observation that ApoE4 is degraded to a greater extent than ApoE3 in the human brain. Experiments with high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 (HtrA1), which is found in the nervous system, demonstrate that HtrA1 is an allele-selective ApoE-degrading enzyme that degrades ApoE4 more quickly than ApoE3. This activity is specific to HtrA1, as similar assays with HtrA2 showed minimal ApoE4 proteolysis and trypsin had no preference between ApoE4 and ApoE3. HtrA1 has also been reported to cleave the tau protein (Tau) and the amyloid protein precursor (APP) to hinder the formation of toxic amyloid deposits associated with AD. Competition assays with ApoE4, ApoE3, and Tau revealed that ApoE4 inhibits Tau degradation. Thus, the identification of ApoE4 as an in vitro HtrA1 substrate suggests a potential biochemical mechanism that links ApoE4 regulation of AD proteins such as Tau. PMID:27379525

  8. Bisphenol A Increases Atherosclerosis in Pregnane X Receptor‐Humanized ApoE Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yipeng; Park, Se‐Hyung; Helsley, Robert N.; Sunkara, Manjula; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Morris, Andrew J.; Zhou, Changcheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a base chemical used extensively in many consumer products. BPA has recently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in multiple large‐scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We previously reported that BPA activates the pregnane X receptor (PXR), which acts as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism and has pro‐atherogenic effects in animal models upon activation. Interestingly, BPA is a potent agonist of human PXR but does not activate mouse or rat PXR signaling, which confounds the use of rodent models to evaluate mechanisms of BPA‐mediated CVD risk. This study aimed to investigate the atherogenic mechanism of BPA using a PXR‐humanized mouse model. Methods and Results A PXR‐humanized ApoE deficient (huPXR•ApoE−/−) mouse line was generated that respond to human PXR ligands and feeding studies were performed to determine the effects of BPA exposure on atherosclerosis development. Exposure to BPA significantly increased atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic root and brachiocephalic artery of huPXR•ApoE−/− mice by 104% (P<0.001) and 120% (P<0.05), respectively. By contrast, BPA did not affect atherosclerosis development in the control littermates without human PXR. BPA exposure did not affect plasma lipid levels but increased CD36 expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages of huPXR•ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion These findings identify a molecular mechanism that could link BPA exposure to increased risk of CVD in exposed individuals. PXR is therefore a relevant target for future risk assessment of BPA and related environmental chemicals in humans. PMID:24755147

  9. All about Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... angioplasty (AN-gee-oh-plas-tee), also called balloon angioplasty , a narrow tube with a balloon attached is inserted and threaded into an artery. Then the balloon is inflated, opening the narrowed artery. Awire tube, ...

  10. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100160.htm Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series To use the sharing features ... out of 9 Normal anatomy Overview The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. The right ...

  11. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 People with ... developing atherosclerosis, the most common cause of peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  12. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  13. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  14. Combination of rare right arterial variation with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, H; San Millán Ruíz, D; Abdo, G; Asakura, F; Yilmaz, H; Lovblad, K O; Rüfenacht, D A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Arterial Stiffening

    PubMed Central

    Cecelja, Marina; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Stiffening of large arteries is a hallmark of vascular aging and one of the most important determinants of the age-related increase in blood pressure and cardiovascular disease events. Despite a substantial genetic component, the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic variability in arterial stiffness remain unknown. Previous genetic studies have identified several genetic variants that are associated with measures of arterial stiffness. Here, we review the relevant advances in the identification of pathways underlying arterial stiffness from genomic studies. PMID:27493903

  16. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  17. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... the procedure. UAE is less invasive than surgical treatments for uterine fibroids. Many women may return more quickly to activities ... SC, Spies JB, Worthington-Kirsch R, et al. Uterine artery embolization for ... from the FIBROID registry. Obstet Gynecol . 2008; 111:22-33. Munro ...

  18. Basilar Artery Aneurysm at a Persistent Trigeminal Artery Junction

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, G.B.; Conti, M.L.M.; Veiga, J.C.E.; Jory, M.; Souza, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The trigeminal artery is an anastomosis between the embryonic precursors of the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems, and may persist into adult life. The association of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) with cerebral aneurysm is well documented in the literature and, in general, aneurysms are located in the anterior circulation. We describe a patient who presented with a panencephalic Fisher III subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Digital arteriography showed a saccular aneurysm in the middle third of the basilar artery, adjacent to the junction with a persistent trigeminal artery. She was submitted to endovascular treatment with embolization of the basilar artery aneurysm with coils. Aneurysms at the PTA junction with the basilar artery are rare. This paper describes a case of PTA associated with an aneurysm in the basilar artery at PTA junction and briefly reviews the literature. PMID:22005697

  19. Markers of arterial stiffness in peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Marc; Jacomella, Vincenzo; Thalhammer, Christoph; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R

    2015-09-01

    Increased arterial stiffness results from reduced elasticity of the arterial wall and is an independent predictor for cardiovascular risk. The gold standard for assessment of arterial stiffness is the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Other parameters such as central aortic pulse pressure and aortic augmentation index are indirect, surrogate markers of arterial stiffness, but provide additional information on the characteristics of wave reflection. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterised by its association with systolic hypertension, increased arterial stiffness, disturbed wave reflexion and prognosis depending on ankle-brachial pressure index. This review summarises the physiology of pulse wave propagation and reflection and its changes due to aging and atherosclerosis. We discuss different non-invasive assessment techniques and highlight the importance of the understanding of arterial pulse wave analysis for each vascular specialist and primary care physician alike in the context of PAD. PMID:26317253

  20. A 1D model of the arterial circulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Aslanidou, Lydia; Trachet, Bram; Reymond, Philippe; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Segers, Patrick; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over the ethics of animal experimentation, mouse models are still an indispensable source of insight into the cardiovascular system and its most frequent pathologies. Nevertheless, reference data on the murine cardiovascular anatomy and physiology are lacking. In this work, we developed and validated an in silico, one dimensional model of the murine systemic arterial tree consisting of 85 arterial segments. Detailed aortic dimensions were obtained in vivo from contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography in 3 male, C57BL/6J anesthetized mice and 3 male ApoE(-/-) mice, all 12-weeks old. Physiological input data were gathered from a wide range of literature data. The integrated form of the Navier-Stokes equations was solved numerically to yield pressures and flows throughout the arterial network. The resulting model predictions have been validated against invasive pressure waveforms and non-invasive velocity and diameter waveforms that were measured in vivo on an independent set of 47 mice. In conclusion, we present a validated one-dimensional model of the anesthetized murine cardiovascular system that can serve as a versatile tool in the field of preclinical cardiovascular research. PMID:26555250

  1. Right-sided reverse T composite arterial grafting to complete revascularization of the right coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Aazami, Mathias H.; Abbasi-Teshnizi, Mohammad; Amini, Shahram; Lotfinejad, Nasim Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Complete arterial revascularization for the right coronary artery is underused mainly due to technical issues. Herein we report on a new approach for complete arterial revascularization of arterial revascularization for the right coronary artery branches. Complete arterial revascularization for the right coronary artery revascularization was performed in 8 patients using a reverse T composite arterial graft. None of the patients suffered perioperative myocardial infarction. All patients underwent noninvasive coronary imaging, displaying an early patency rate of 100%. Complete arterial arterial revascularization for the right coronary artery revascularization using a reverse T graft offers a new paradigm with enhanced technical flexibility in performing all arterial myocardial complete revascularizations in selected patients. PMID:25714223

  2. No association between ApoE polymorphism and febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Cachat, François; Gehri, Mario; Juvet, Typhaine

    2016-01-01

    Seizures associated with fever are a common pediatric problem, affecting about 2-7 % of children between 3 months and 5 years of age. Differentiation of febrile seizures from acute symptomatic seizures secondary to central nervous system infections or seizures associated with fever in children with epilepsy is essential to provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care. Here, we tested the hypothesis that children who exhibit simple febrile seizures during early childhood, but do not develop epileptic seizures later in life, might preferentially carry the ApoE2 allele of the gene coding for the apolipoprotein E. We did not find any differences in the distribution of ApoE alleles or genotypes between individuals who exhibited simple febrile seizures (n = 93) and age-matched, typically developing subjects (n = 80). We found that the observed allele and genotype frequencies did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which suggests that the frequencies of ApoE alleles and genotypes are stable in the Swiss population from which our samples were derived. Across both groups of subjects (n = 173), we found an ApoE2 allele frequency of 0.064, an ApoE3 frequency of 0.829 and an ApoE4 frequency of 0.107. Our findings are consistent with previous reports of the distribution of ApoE polymorphism for European subjects free of any neurological disorders, and show that the different alleles of the gene coding for the apolipoprotein E are not associated with the occurrence of simple febrile seizures. PMID:26233231

  3. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdle, Sara; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Ray, Nilanjan; Ley, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe-/-Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP+ macrophages "dancing on the spot" and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells.

  4. Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Katie; Radwan, Rami; Shingler, Guy; Davies, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of an elderly man who presented with an upper arm swelling that had developed following a humeral fracture 8 months previously. The swelling was painless but associated with significantly diminished motor function of his right hand and concurrent paraesthaesia. On examination, a large pulsatile mass was identified and CT angiography confirmed the presence of an 11×7 cm brachial artery pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent surgical repair in which a fragment of the humerus was found to have punctured the brachial artery resulting in a pseudoaneurysm. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative period and was discharged 2 days later having regained some motor function in his right hand. PMID:24859555

  5. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  6. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Kaba, Shajadi Pardo; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Lemos Júnior, Celso Augusto; Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi

    2015-01-01

    Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA) of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints. PMID:26448884

  7. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  8. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klooster, N J; Kitslaar, P; Janevski, B K

    1988-06-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called "functional" PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. PMID:2837797

  9. Apparent arterial compliance.

    PubMed

    Quick, C M; Berger, D S; Noordergraaf, A

    1998-04-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in estimating total arterial compliance. Because it cannot be measured directly, a lumped model is usually applied to derive compliance from aortic pressure and flow. The archetypical model, the classical two-element windkessel, assumes 1) system linearity and 2) infinite pulse wave velocity. To generalize this model, investigators have added more elements and have incorporated nonlinearities. A different approach is taken here. It is assumed that the arterial system 1) is linear and 2) has finite pulse wave velocity. In doing so, the windkessel is generalized by describing compliance as a complex function of frequency that relates input pressure to volume stored. By applying transmission theory, this relationship is shown to be a function of heart rate, peripheral resistance, and pulse wave reflection. Because this pressure-volume relationship is generally not equal to total arterial compliance, it is termed "apparent compliance." This new concept forms the natural counterpart to the established concept of apparent pulse wave velocity. PMID:9575945

  10. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased. PMID:19867337

  11. Peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009. (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 59 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents; bypass surgery; cilostazol; exercise; pentoxifylline; percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); prostaglandins; smoking cessation; and statins. PMID:19454099

  12. Peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010. Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review. We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 70 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents, bypass surgery, cilostazol, exercise, pentoxifylline, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), prostaglandins, smoking cessation, and statins. PMID:21477401

  13. Extracellular proteolysis of apolipoprotein E (apoE) by secreted serine neuronal protease.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Irfan Y; Heo, Dongeun; Rebeck, G William

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) is secreted and lipidated by astrocytes, then taken up by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis. Free apoE is either degraded in intraneuronal lysosomal compartments or released. Here we identified a novel way by which apoE undergoes proteolysis in the extracellular space via a secreted neuronal protease. We show that apoE is cleaved in neuronal conditioned media by a secreted serine protease. This apoE cleavage was inhibited by PMSF and α1-antichymotrypsin, but not neuroserpin-1 or inhibitors of thrombin and cathepsin G, supporting its identity as a chymotrypsin like protease. In addition, apoE incubation with purified chymotrypsin produced a similar pattern of apoE fragments. Analysis of apoE fragments by mass spectrometry showed cleavages occurring at the C-terminal side of apoE tryptophan residues, further supporting our identification of cleavage by chymotrypsin like protease. Hippocampal neurons were more efficient in mediating this apoE cleavage than cortical neurons. Proteolysis of apoE4 generated higher levels of low molecular weight fragments compared to apoE3. Primary glial cultures released an inhibitor of this proteolytic activity. Together, these studies reveal novel mechanism by which apoE can be regulated and therefore could be useful in designing apoE directed AD therapeutic approaches. PMID:24675880

  14. Extracellular Proteolysis of Apolipoprotein E (apoE) by Secreted Serine Neuronal Protease

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Irfan Y.; Heo, Dongeun; Rebeck, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) is secreted and lipidated by astrocytes, then taken up by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis. Free apoE is either degraded in intraneuronal lysosomal compartments or released. Here we identified a novel way by which apoE undergoes proteolysis in the extracellular space via a secreted neuronal protease. We show that apoE is cleaved in neuronal conditioned media by a secreted serine protease. This apoE cleavage was inhibited by PMSF and α1-antichymotrypsin, but not neuroserpin-1 or inhibitors of thrombin and cathepsin G, supporting its identity as a chymotrypsin like protease. In addition, apoE incubation with purified chymotrypsin produced a similar pattern of apoE fragments. Analysis of apoE fragments by mass spectrometry showed cleavages occuring at the C-terminal side of apoE tryptophan residues, further supporting our identification of cleavage by chymotrypsin like protease. Hippocampal neurons were more efficient in mediating this apoE cleavage than cortical neurons. Proteolysis of apoE4 generated higher levels of low molecular weight fragments compared to apoE3. Primary glial cultures released an inhibitor of this proteolytic activity. Together, these studies reveal novel mechanism by which apoE can be regulated and therefore could be useful in designing apoE directed AD therapeutic approaches. PMID:24675880

  15. [Staged reconstruction of brachiocephalic arteries and coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, A V; Belov, Iu V; Stonogin, A V

    2015-01-01

    It is presented the results of staged treatment of 28 patients with lesion of brachiocephalic arteries and ischemic heart disease. Patients underwent reconstructive surgery on brachiocephalic arteries (n=34) and coronary artery bypass grafting (n=28). Diagnostic and surgical features are described and indications for this technique are defined. The authors studied Russian and international experience, described postoperative complications and suggested ways to improve the results of simultaneous interventions. PMID:26081182

  16. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    PubMed

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms. PMID:20865459

  17. Management of tracheoinnominate artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Wright, C D

    1996-11-01

    TIF is a rare and often fatal complication of tracheostomy. Bleeding from the trachea after tracheostomy demands urgent investigation. Bronchoscopy is the diagnostic procedure of choice. Bedside control of hemorrhage by cuff overinflation or digital arterial compression can be lifesaving. Prompt operation with division of the innominate artery and separation of the trachea from the divided artery by viable tissue is indicated. Neurologic complications are rare. PMID:8934014

  18. Lipid-sensing high-throughput ApoA-I assays.

    PubMed

    Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Lad, Latesh; Chisholm, Jeffrey W; Lagpacan, Leanna; Schwartz, Karen; Hung, Magdeleine; Jin, Debi; Fung, Wanchi; Brendza, Katherine M; Liu, Xiaohong; Pagratis, Nikos; Sakowicz, Roman

    2012-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a primary protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism mediating the formation of HDL and the efflux of cellular cholesterol from macrophage foam cells in arterial walls. Lipidation of ApoA-I is mediated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette A1 (ABCA1). Insufficient ABCA1 activity may lead to increased risk of atherosclerosis due to reduced HDL formation and cholesterol efflux. The standard radioactive assay for measuring cholesterol transport to ApoA-I has low throughput and poor dynamic range, and it fails to measure phospholipid transfer. We describe the development of two sensitive, nonradioactive high-throughput assays that report on the lipidation of ApoA-I: a homogeneous assay based on time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and a discontinuous assay that uses the label-free Epic platform. The TR-FRET assay employs HiLyte Fluor 647-labeled ApoA-I with N-terminal biotin bound to streptavidin-terbium. When fluorescent ApoA-I was incorporated into HDL, TR-FRET decreased proportionally to the increase in the ratio of lipids to ApoA-I, demonstrating that the assay was sensitive to the amount of lipid bound to ApoA-I. In the Epic assay, biotinylated ApoA-I was captured on a streptavidin-coated biosensor. Measured resonant wavelength shift was proportional to the amount of lipids associated with ApoA-I, indicating that the assay senses ApoA-I lipidation. PMID:22811478

  19. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  20. Proinflammation of Aging Central Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyi; Monticone, Robert E.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial aging is a cornerstone of organismal aging. The central arterial wall structurally and functionally remodels under chronic proinflammatory stress over a lifetime. The low grade proinflammation that accompanies advancing age causes arterial wall thickening and stiffening. These structural and functional alterations are consequences of adverse molecular and cellular events, e.g., an increase in local angiotensin II signaling that induces an inflammatory phenotypic shift of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, interventions to restrict proinflammatory signaling are a rational approach to delay or prevent age-associated adverse arterial remodeling. PMID:25171100

  1. Divergent Systemic and Local Inflammatory Response to Hind Limb Demand Ischemia in Wild Type And ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Robert S.; Albadawi, Hassan; Robaldo, Alessandro; Peck, Michael A.; Abularrage, Christopher J.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; LaMuraglia, Glenn M.; Watkins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies were designed to determine whether the ApoE−/− phenotype modulates the local skeletal muscle and systemic inflammatory (plasma) responses to lower extremity demand ischemia. The ApoE−/− phenotype is an experimental model for atherosclerosis in humans. Methods Aged female ApoE −/− and C57BL6 mice underwent femoral artery ligation, then divided into sedentary and demand ischemia (exercise) groups on day 14. Baseline and post exercise limb perfusion and hind limb function were assessed. On day 14, animals in the demand ischemia group underwent daily treadmill exercise through day 28. Sedentary mice were not exercised. On day 28, plasma and skeletal muscle from ischemic limbs were harvested from sedentary and exercised mice. Muscle was assayed for angiogenic and pro-inflammatory proteins, markers of skeletal muscle regeneration, and evidence of skeletal muscle fiber maturation. Results Hind limb ischemia was similar in ApoE −/− and C57 mice prior to the onset of exercise. Under sedentary conditions, plasma VEGF, IL-6, but not KC or MIP-2 were higher in ApoE (P<0.0001). Following exercise, plasma levels of VEGF, KC and MIP-2, but not IL-6 were lower in ApoE (P<0.004). The cytokines KC and MIP-2 in muscle was greater in exercised ApoE−/− mice as compared to C57BL6 mice (p=0.01). Increased PAR activity, and mature muscle regeneration was associated with demand ischemia in the C57BL6 mice as compared to the ApoE −/− mice (p=0.01). Conclusion Demand limb ischemia in the ApoE−/− phenotype exacerbated the expression of select systemic cytokines in plasma and blunted indices of muscle regeneration. PMID:23528286

  2. ApoE isoform-specific regulation of regeneration in the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Comley, Laura H.; Fuller, Heidi R.; Wishart, Thomas M.; Mutsaers, Chantal A.; Thomson, Derek; Wright, Ann K.; Ribchester, Richard R.; Morris, Glenn E.; Parson, Simon H.; Horsburgh, Karen; Gillingwater, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a 34 kDa glycoprotein with three distinct isoforms in the human population (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) known to play a major role in differentially influencing risk to, as well as outcome from, disease and injury in the central nervous system. In general, the apoE4 allele is associated with poorer outcomes after disease or injury, whereas apoE3 is associated with better responses. The extent to which different apoE isoforms influence degenerative and regenerative events in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is still to be established, and the mechanisms through which apoE exerts its isoform-specific effects remain unclear. Here, we have investigated isoform-specific effects of human apoE on the mouse PNS. Experiments in mice ubiquitously expressing human apoE3 or human apoE4 on a null mouse apoE background revealed that apoE4 expression significantly disrupted peripheral nerve regeneration and subsequent neuromuscular junction re-innervation following nerve injury compared with apoE3, with no observable effects on normal development, maturation or Wallerian degeneration. Proteomic isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) screens comparing healthy and regenerating peripheral nerves from mice expressing apoE3 or apoE4 revealed significant differences in networks of proteins regulating cellular outgrowth and regeneration (myosin/actin proteins), as well as differences in expression levels of proteins involved in regulating the blood–nerve barrier (including orosomucoid 1). Taken together, these findings have identified isoform-specific roles for apoE in determining the protein composition of peripheral nerve as well as regulating nerve regeneration pathways in vivo. PMID:21478199

  3. [The single coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Godart, F; Berzin, B; Rihani, R; Pecheux, M; Dutoit, A

    1992-04-01

    Single coronary artery is a fairly rare entity which may nevertheless be found in 0.4 per cent of coronary arteriograms. The authors report 3 cases seen in 2 departments of cardiology. In each patient, despite the existence of definite cardiovascular risk factors, this distribution was a factor worsening coronary ischemia, leading to complete thrombosis in one case. Although most often a chance discovery, a review of the literature justifies the attribution to this anomaly of the onset of angina, infarction or even sudden death. PMID:1642437

  4. Molecular imaging of inflammation in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis with IodoDPA

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, Catherine A.; Bedja, Djahida; Mease, Ronnie C.; Wang, Haofan; Kass, David A.; Chatterjee, Subroto; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-05-22

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a common and serious vascular disease predisposing individuals to myocardial infarction and stroke. Intravascular plaques, the pathologic lesions of atherosclerosis, are largely composed of cholesterol-laden luminal macrophage-rich infiltrates within a fibrous cap. The ability to detect those macrophages non-invasively within the aorta, carotid artery and other vessels would allow physicians to determine plaque burden, aiding management of patients with atherosclerosis. Methods and results: We previously developed a low-molecular-weight imaging agent, [{sup 125}I]iodo-DPA-713 (iodoDPA), which selectively targets macrophages. Here we use it to detect both intravascular macrophages and macrophage infiltrates within the myocardium in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT data were confirmed by echocardiography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging and histology. SPECT images showed focal uptake of radiotracer at the aortic root in all ApoE -/- mice, while the age-matched controls were nearly devoid of radiotracer uptake. Focal radiotracer uptake along the descending aorta and within the myocardium was also observed in affected animals. Conclusions: IodoDPA is a promising new imaging agent for atherosclerosis, with specificity for the macrophage component of the lesions involved. - Highlights: • [{sup 125}I]iodoDPA SPECT detects atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE -/- mice with high contrast. • Plaques are detected in ApoE -/- mice regardless of diet with iodoDPA. • iodoDPA has very low uptake in healthy tissue including healthy TSPO + tissues at 24 h.

  5. An Anti-apoE4 Specific Monoclonal Antibody Counteracts the Pathological Effects of apoE4 In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Luz, Ishai; Liraz, Ori; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2016-06-01

    ApolipoproteinE4 (apoE4) is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and as such is a promising therapeutic target. This study examined the extent to which the pathological effects of apoE4 can be counteracted in vivo utilizing an immunological approach in which anti-apoE4 antibodies are applied peripherally by i.p. injections into apoE4-targeted replacement mice. Prerequisites for the successful pursuit of this objective are the availability of antibodies that specifically bind brain apoE4 and not apoE3, and demonstrating that direct application of these antibodies into the brain can counteract the effects of apoE4. Accordingly, it was shown that the antiapoE4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9D11 binds specifically to brain apoE4 and not apoE3. Direct i.c.v. application of mAb 9D11 prevented the apoE4-driven accumulation of Aβ in hippocampal neurons following activation of the amyloid cascade by inhibiting the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. These findings provide a proof-of-concept that anti-apoE4 mAb 9D11, when introduced into the brain, can counteract the apoE4 effects in vivo. Subsequent experiments, utilizing repeated i.p. injections of mAb 9D11, resulted in the formation of apoE/IgG complexes specifically in apoE4 mice. This was associated with reversal of the cognitive impairments of apoE4 in the Morris water maze and the novel object recognition test as well as with reversal of key apoE4-driven pathologies including the hyperphosphorylated tau and the reduced levels of the apoER2 receptor. These results indicate that anti-apoE4 immunotherapy counteracts the cognitive and brain pathological effects of apoE4, and suggest that such an approach could also benefit human apoE4 carriers. PMID:27040139

  6. The Distribution of Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Apolipoprotein E Levels among Coronary Artery Patients Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Atis, Omer; Sahin, Semsettin; Ceyhan, Koksal; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Akbas, Ali; Benli, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease that is caused by various genetics and environmental factors. Genetically, predisposition is an important component for CAD. The candidate apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is the most studied one. ApoE is composed of e2, e3, e4 alleles and E2/2, E2/3, E2/4, E3/3, E3/4, E4/4 genotypes. In this study, the relationship between CAD and apoE polymorphism and apoE level has been studied in Tokat region. Materials and Methods: The study population is composed of 100 CAD patients diagnosed by coronary angiography and 100 control patients of whom fifty have normal coronary angiography and fifty did not have any CAD symptoms. The serum lipid and apoE levels and apoE genotypes of all participants have been measured, and the relationship between these parameters has been evaluated. Results: Apolipoprotein E, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were statistically low at CAD patients than control patients (p=0.0004, p=0.0005, p=0.0107, p=0.0052 respectively). There was not any significant difference between triglyceride levels (p=0.0848). Waist circumferences were significantly high at CAD patients (p=0.0012). Allele frequencies were as e2 (7.25%), e3 (83.5%), e4 (9.25%) and genotype distributions were as E2/2 (0.5%), E2/3 (13%), E2/4 (0.5%), E3/3 (68.5%), E3/4 (16.5%), E4/4 (1%). The distribution of alleles and genotypes were not significantly different (p>0.05). ApoE levels were higher at e2 allele carriers than e3 and e4 allele carriers (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between e3 and e4 allele carriers. Conclusion: In conclusion, the distribution of apoE genotype and allele at our region is similar to the general of Turkey. The low apoE levels in CAD patients may show the influence of apoE on CAD by local and systemic mechanisms. PMID:27551170

  7. The inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery.

    PubMed

    Won, Hyung-Sun; Won, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Chang-Seok; Han, Seung-Ho; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Hoan

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of a left inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery in an 84-year-old female cadaver. A common trunk for the inferior epigastric and obturator arteries firstly originated from the left internal iliac artery, at 3.0 mm below the bifurcation of the left common iliac artery. This trunk ran straight between the left external iliac artery and left external iliac vein, and was finally divided into the left inferior epigastric and left obturator arteries just superior to the inguinal ligament. PMID:23301197

  8. The inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hyung-Sun; Won, Hyung-Jin; Han, Seung-Ho; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Hoan

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of a left inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery in an 84-year-old female cadaver. A common trunk for the inferior epigastric and obturator arteries firstly originated from the left internal iliac artery, at 3.0 mm below the bifurcation of the left common iliac artery. This trunk ran straight between the left external iliac artery and left external iliac vein, and was finally divided into the left inferior epigastric and left obturator arteries just superior to the inguinal ligament. PMID:23301197

  9. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rogerio; Jardim, Carlos; Humbert, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), formerly called primary pulmonary hypertension, is a rare disease (incidence and prevalence rates of approximately one and six cases per million inhabitants, respectively) with different clinical phenotypes. A group of diverse conditions manifest pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and share similar pathological and/or clinical findings with IPAH. By definition, IPAH is diagnosed only after alternative diagnoses have been ruled out. Extensive investigation is needed to determine if PAH is associated with thyroid diseases, infectious diseases, autoimmune conditions, exposure to certain drugs (particularly anorexigens), certain genetic mutations, and so on. The presence of genetic abnormalities and risk factors (such as specific drug exposures) reinforces the "multiple hit" concept for the development of pulmonary hypertension. Fortunately, within the past two decades, therapeutic options have become available for IPAH, resulting in improved survival and clinical outcomes. At least seven different compounds have been registered for PAH treatment. However, even with aggressive PAH-specific therapy, mortality rates remain high (∼40% at 5 years). Given the high mortality rates, the use of combinations of agents that work by different pathways has been advocated (either as "add-on" therapy or initial "up front" therapy). Further, new therapeutic agents and treatment strategies are on the near horizon, aiming to further improve survival from the remarkable progress already seen. PMID:24037625

  11. Coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Weir, Ian

    2006-05-01

    The near exponential rise in percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease and the consequent decline in referral of patients for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has lead to a crisis in cardiac surgery. Is CABG, one of the most successful and widely applied surgical procedures, about to follow surgery for peptic ulcer disease into obsolescence? The question has serious implications for service provision and training as well as for informed patient consent. Keith Dawkins puts the case for PCI and gives a very clear and concise account of its inexorable rise to pre-eminence. David Taggart has taken on the Goliath of interventional cardiology and its associated industry by persuasively marshalling the data from the evidence base which strongly favours surgery in triple vessel and left main coronary disease. He points to the lack of long-term results and also to the weaknesses of many of the comparative studies so far published. His arguments have been positively received on both sides of the Atlantic but it is by no means certain that they will bring about the multidisciplinary approach to providing patients with treatment options which he and others advocate. It also remains to be seen whether the evidence base when it is eventually acquired will vindicate the present increasing dominance of PCI over CABG. PMID:16719994

  12. Under-Threes&apos; Mathematical Learning--Teachers&apos; Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzén, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This project highlights preschool teachers&apos; views of toddlers&apos; learning in mathematics. The Swedish national curriculum covers even the youngest children who are 1-3?years old. Interesting questions are thus: what should mathematics be for this age group and how should preschool teachers work with maths to achieve the curriculum…

  13. Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Biros, Erik; Bingley, John; Iyer, Vikram; Krishna, Smriti M

    2016-04-01

    The term epigenetics is usually used to describe inheritable changes in gene function which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These typically include non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. Smoking and older age are recognised risk factors for peripheral artery diseases, such as occlusive lower limb artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and have been implicated in promoting epigenetic changes. This brief review describes studies that have associated epigenetic factors with peripheral artery diseases and investigations which have examined the effect of epigenetic modifications on the outcome of peripheral artery diseases in mouse models. Investigations have largely focused on microRNAs and have identified a number of circulating microRNAs associated with human peripheral artery diseases. Upregulating or antagonising a number of microRNAs has also been reported to limit aortic aneurysm development and hind limb ischemia in mouse models. The importance of DNA methylation and histone modifications in peripheral artery disease has been relatively little studied. Whether circulating microRNAs can be used to assist identification of patients with peripheral artery diseases and be modified in order to improve the outcome of peripheral artery disease will require further investigation. PMID:26888065

  14. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  15. Peripheral arterial injuries: a reassessment.

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, H F; Parnell, C L; Williams, G D; Campbell, G S

    1976-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with peripheral arterial injuries were subjected to acute repair, negative exploration, or late repair of the complications of the arterial injury (false aneurysm, A-V fistula, and/or limb ischemia). The causes of failure after acute injury include extensive local soft tissue and bony damage, severe concomitant head, chest or abdominal wounding, stubborn reliance on negative arteriograms in patients with probable arterial injury, failure to repair simultaneous venous injuries, or harvesting of a vein graft from a severely damaged extremity. There is a positive correlation between non-operative expectant treatment and the incidence of late vascular complications requiring late arterial repair. Delayed complications of arterial injuries occurred most frequently in wounds below the elbow and knee. PMID:973757

  16. Central Nervous System Lipoproteins: ApoE and Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mahley, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    ApoE on high-density lipoproteins is primarily responsible for lipid transport and cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Normally produced mostly by astrocytes, apoE is also produced under neuropathologic conditions by neurons. ApoE on high-density lipoproteins is critical in redistributing cholesterol and phospholipids for membrane repair and remodeling. The 3 main structural isoforms differ in their effectiveness. Unlike apoE2 and apoE3, apoE4 has markedly altered CNS metabolism, is associated with Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, and is expressed at lower levels in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. ApoE4-expressing cultured astrocytes and neurons have reduced cholesterol and phospholipid secretion, decreased lipid-binding capacity, and increased intracellular degradation. Two structural features are responsible for apoE4 dysfunction: domain interaction, in which arginine-61 interacts ionically with glutamic acid-255, and a less stable conformation than apoE3 and apoE2. Blocking domain interaction by gene targeting (replacing arginine-61 with threonine) or by small-molecule structure correctors increases CNS apoE4 levels and lipid-binding capacity and decreases intracellular degradation. Small molecules (drugs) that disrupt domain interaction, so-called structure correctors, could prevent the apoE4-associated neuropathology by blocking the formation of neurotoxic fragments. Understanding how to modulate CNS cholesterol transport and metabolism is providing important insights into CNS health and disease. PMID:27174096

  17. Interactive effect of APOE genotype and blood pressure on cognitive decline: the PATH through life study.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Shea; Das, Debjani; Anstey, Kaarin J; Easteal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) *ε4 allele and hypertension are two of the most prevalent risk factors for cognitive decline in later life. Here we investigate whether cognitive decline is affected by interaction between these two risk factors. Specifically, we examine whether APOE*ε4 moderates the association between high blood pressure and cognition in later life. Cognitive function was assessed at three time points over a period of 8 years in 1,474 cognitively normal, community-dwelling adults aged 60-64 years at baseline. Blood pressure and APOE genotype were assessed at baseline. Blood pressure was measured categorically as 'Hypertension' and continuously as 'Mean Arterial Pressure' (MAP). Multilevel models were used to investigate main and interactive effects of APOE genotype and both hypertension and MAP on the rate of change of episodic memory, working memory, verbal ability, perceptual speed, and global cognition. The APOE-hypertension interaction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the rate of decline of episodic memory, verbal ability, and global cognition. However, its inclusion in the model did not increase the amount of outcome variation explained beyond that already explained by the effect of time. In contrast, the APOE-MAP interaction had no effect on the rate of decline in any of these domains of cognitive performance. These results provide tentative evidence that APOE genotype moderates the association between high blood pressure and cognitive decline in later life. PMID:25672766

  18. Deletion of L-Selectin Increases Atherosclerosis Development in ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rozenberg, Izabela; Sluka, Susanna H. M.; Mocharla, Pavani; Hallenberg, Anders; Rotzius, Pierre; Borén, Jan; Kränkel, Nicolle; Landmesser, Ulf; Borsig, Lubor; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Eriksson, Einar E.; Tanner, Felix C.

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by accumulation of leukocytes in the arterial intima. Members of the selectin family of adhesion molecules are important mediators of leukocyte extravasation. However, it is unclear whether L-selectin (L-sel) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, mice deficient in L-selectin (L-sel−/−) animals were crossed with mice lacking Apolipoprotein E (ApoE−/−). The development of atherosclerosis was analyzed in double-knockout ApoE/L-sel (ApoE−/− L-sel−/−) mice and the corresponding ApoE−/− controls fed either a normal or a high cholesterol diet (HCD). After 6 weeks of HCD, aortic lesions were increased two-fold in ApoE−/− L-sel−/− mice as compared to ApoE−/− controls (2.46%±0.54% vs 1.28%±0.24% of total aortic area; p<0.05). Formation of atherosclerotic lesions was also enhanced in 6-month-old ApoE−/− L-sel−/− animals fed a normal diet (10.45%±2.58% vs 1.87%±0.37%; p<0.05). In contrast, after 12 weeks of HCD, there was no difference in atheroma formation between ApoE−/− L-sel−/− and ApoE−/− mice. Serum cholesterol levels remained unchanged by L-sel deletion. Atherosclerotic plaques did not exhibit any differences in cellular composition assessed by immunohistochemistry for CD68, CD3, CD4, and CD8 in ApoE−/− L-sel−/− as compared to ApoE−/− mice. Leukocyte rolling on lesions in the aorta was similar in ApoE−/− L-sel−/− and ApoE−/− animals. ApoE−/− L-sel−/− mice exhibited reduced size and cellularity of peripheral lymph nodes, increased size of spleen, and increased number of peripheral lymphocytes as compared to ApoE−/− controls. These data indicate that L-sel does not promote atherosclerotic lesion formation and suggest that it rather protects from early atherosclerosis. PMID:21760899

  19. Patent arterial duct

    PubMed Central

    Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

    2009-01-01

    Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation

  20. Patent arterial duct.

    PubMed

    Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

    2009-01-01

    Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation

  1. Higher Brain Perfusion May Not Support Memory Functions in Cognitively Normal Carriers of the ApoE ε4 Allele Compared to Non-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Hays, Chelsea C.; Liu, Thomas T.; Meloy, M. J.; Rissman, Robert A.; Bondi, Mark W.; Wierenga, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), which carries necessary nutrients to the brain, are associated with increased risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Whether the association between CBF and cognition is moderated by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype, a known risk factor for AD, remains understudied, with most research focusing on exploring brain regions in which there are diagnostic group differences in CBF (i.e., cognitively normal vs. MCI vs. AD). This study measured resting CBF via arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and verbal memory functions using a composite score in 59 older adults with normal cognition (38 ε3; 21 ε4). Linear mixed effect models were employed to investigate if the voxel-wise relationship between verbal memory performance and resting CBF was modified by ApoE genotype. Results indicated that carriers of the ApoE ε4 allele display negative associations between verbal memory functions and CBF in medial frontal cortex, medial and lateral temporal cortex, parietal regions, insula, and the basal ganglia. Contrarily, ε3 carriers exhibited positive associations between verbal memory functions and CBF in medial frontal cortex, thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia. Findings suggest that higher CBF was associated with worse verbal memory functions in cognitively normal ε4 carriers, perhaps reflecting dysregulation within the neurovascular unit, which is no longer supportive of cognition. Results are discussed within the context of the vascular theory of AD risk. PMID:27445794

  2. Higher Brain Perfusion May Not Support Memory Functions in Cognitively Normal Carriers of the ApoE ε4 Allele Compared to Non-Carriers.

    PubMed

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Hays, Chelsea C; Liu, Thomas T; Meloy, M J; Rissman, Robert A; Bondi, Mark W; Wierenga, Christina E

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), which carries necessary nutrients to the brain, are associated with increased risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether the association between CBF and cognition is moderated by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype, a known risk factor for AD, remains understudied, with most research focusing on exploring brain regions in which there are diagnostic group differences in CBF (i.e., cognitively normal vs. MCI vs. AD). This study measured resting CBF via arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and verbal memory functions using a composite score in 59 older adults with normal cognition (38 ε3; 21 ε4). Linear mixed effect models were employed to investigate if the voxel-wise relationship between verbal memory performance and resting CBF was modified by ApoE genotype. Results indicated that carriers of the ApoE ε4 allele display negative associations between verbal memory functions and CBF in medial frontal cortex, medial and lateral temporal cortex, parietal regions, insula, and the basal ganglia. Contrarily, ε3 carriers exhibited positive associations between verbal memory functions and CBF in medial frontal cortex, thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia. Findings suggest that higher CBF was associated with worse verbal memory functions in cognitively normal ε4 carriers, perhaps reflecting dysregulation within the neurovascular unit, which is no longer supportive of cognition. Results are discussed within the context of the vascular theory of AD risk. PMID:27445794

  3. Deleuze&apos;s Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey-Moody, Anna Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Children, the image of the child, and the gendered figures of the girl and the boy are thematics that run through the work of Deleuze and feature prominently in his joint writing with Guattari. However, there are many different children in Deleuze&apos;s writings. Various child figures do distinct things in Deleuze&apos;s work. In this article, I…

  4. Gove&apos;s War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Policy pursued by Education Secretary Michael Gove promises to bring about the first national teachers&apos; strike for a generation. This article reviews the nature and effect of Gove&apos;s intensification of academisation, and outlines ways in which edu-business is involved.

  5. Artery phantoms for intravascular optical coherence tomography: healthy arteries.

    PubMed

    Bisaillon, Charles-Étienne; Dufour, Marc L; Lamouche, Guy

    2011-09-01

    We present a method to make phantoms of coronary arteries for intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT). The phantoms provide a calibrated OCT response similar to the layered structure of arteries. The optical properties of each layer are achieved with specific concentrations of alumina and carbon black in a silicone matrix. This composition insures high durability and also approximates the elastic properties of arteries. The phantoms are fabricated in a tubular shape by the successive deposition and curing of liquid silicone mixtures on a lathe setup. PMID:21991552

  6. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge. PMID:27216840

  7. ApoE: In Vitro Studies of a Small Molecule Effector.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Tridib; Wang, Hanliu; DeKoster, Gregory T; Baban, Berevan; Gross, Michael L; Frieden, Carl

    2016-05-10

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), one of three isoforms of apoE, is the major risk factor for developing late onset Alzheimer's disease. The only differences among these isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4) are single amino acid changes. Yet these proteins are functionally very different. One approach to ameliorating the effect of apoE4 with respect to Alzheimer's disease would be to find small molecular weight compounds that affect the behavior of apoE4. Few studies of this approach have been carried out in part because there was no complete structure of any full-length apoE isoform until 2011. Here, we focus on one small molecular weight compound, EZ-482, and explore the effects of its binding to apoE. Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange, we determined that EZ-482 binds to the C-terminal domains of both apoE3 and apoE4. The binding to apoE4, however, is accompanied by a unique N-terminal allosteric effect. Using fluorescence methods, we determined an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 8 μM. Although EZ-482 binds to the C-terminal domain, it blocks heparin binding to the N-terminal domain. The residues of apoE that bind heparin are the same as those involved in apoE binding to LDL and LRP-1 receptors. The methods and the data presented here may serve as a template for future studies using small molecular weight compounds to modulate the behavior of apoE. PMID:27065061

  8. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  9. Medial Arterial Calcification: An Overlooked Player in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chin Yee; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a global health issue that is becoming more prevalent in an aging world population. Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease are also on the increase, and both are associated with accelerated vascular calcification and an unfavorable prognosis in PAD. These data challenge the traditional athero-centric view of PAD, instead pointing toward a disease process complicated by medial arterial calcification. Like atherosclerosis, aging is a potent risk factor for medial arterial calcification, and accelerated vascular aging may underpin the devastating manifestations of PAD, particularly in patients prone to calcification. Consequently, this review will attempt to dissect the relationship between medial arterial calcification and atherosclerosis in PAD and identify common as well as novel risk factors that may contribute to and accelerate progression of PAD. In this context, we focus on the complex interplay between oxidative stress, DNA damage, and vascular aging, as well as the unexplored role of neuropathy. PMID:27312224

  10. Left Subclavian Artery Occlusion: Femoro-Axillary Artery Retrograde Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The treatment tactics for subclavian artery occlusion include the more commonly used endovascular therapy rather than surgical intervention. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure who experienced left finger necrosis in the left upper extremity. To salvage the limb, we performed femoro-axillary (fem-ax) artery bypass using an autologous saphenous vein graft. However, 10 months later, she experienced coldness in the left forearm. Angiography revealed chronic total occlusion of the venous bypass. Despite emergent thrombectomy, redo fem-ax artery bypass operation was performed using a prosthetic graft. Upper limb salvage can be achieved by fem-ax artery retrograde bypass. PMID:27386454

  11. [Simultaneous brachiocephalic arteries reconstruction and coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, A V; Belov, Iu V; Stonogin, A V

    2015-01-01

    It is presented the results of simultaneous surgical treatment of 55 patients with brachiocephalic arteries lesion and ischemic heart disease. All patients underwent reconstructive operations on brachiocephalic arteries and CABG. The features of diagnosis and surgical stage are described. The indications for this method are defined. The authors studied russian and world experience; complications of simultaneous operations are presented. It is suggested ways for improvement of results of simultaneous reconstructions. PMID:26031945

  12. Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  13. Peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Atmer, B; Jogestrand, T; Laska, J; Lund, F

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in patients with coronary artery disease has been investigated in many different ways and depends on the diagnostic methods and the definition of the atherosclerotic manifestations in the different vascular beds. In this study we used the non-invasive methods digital volume pulse plethysmography and ankle and toe blood pressure measurements to identify arterial abnormalities in the lower limbs in 58 patients (49 males and 9 females; age 37-72 years) examined with coronary angiography. The prevalence of peripheral artery disease was 22%, in agreement with the results of most previous investigations. There was a tendency towards increasing prevalence of peripheral artery disease with more advanced coronary artery disease: 14% of the patients with no or minimal coronary atheromotous lesions, 18% of the patients with moderate coronary atheromotous lesions and 32% of the patients with marked coronary atheromotous disease. For this reason a non-invasive investigation of the peripheral arterial circulation should be included early in the clinical consideration of patients with chest pain or similar symptoms suggesting coronary heart disease. Toe pressure measurement appears to be the most appropriate technique being rather simple in management and also in evaluation of results. PMID:7658111

  14. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Chen; Torng, Pao-Ling; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Ming-Fong; Liau, Chiau-Suong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited. Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD), compliance (BAC), and resistance (BAR). Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured. Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity. Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than omnivores. Prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency might be beneficial for cardiovascular health in vegetarians. PMID:21915169

  15. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... this depends on which arteries are affected. Coronary Arteries Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the ...

  16. Urine proteome analysis reflects atherosclerotic disease in an ApoE-/- mouse model and allows the discovery of new candidate biomarkers in mouse and human atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    von zur Muhlen, Constantin; Schiffer, Eric; Sackmann, Christine; Zürbig, Petra; Neudorfer, Irene; Zirlik, Andreas; Htun, Nay; Iphöfer, Alexander; Jänsch, Lothar; Mischak, Harald; Bode, Christoph; Chen, Yung C; Peter, Karlheinz

    2012-07-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis of atherosclerosis via single biomarkers has been attempted but remains elusive. However, a previous polymarker or pattern approach of urine polypeptides in humans reflected coronary artery disease with high accuracy. The aim of the current study is to use urine proteomics in ApoE(-/-) mice to discover proteins with pathophysiological roles in atherogenesis and to identify urinary polypeptide patterns reflecting early stages of atherosclerosis. Urine of ApoE(-/-) mice either on high fat diet (HFD) or chow diet was collected over 12 weeks; urine of wild type mice on HFD was used to exclude diet-related proteome changes. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) of samples identified 16 polypeptides specific for ApoE(-/-) mice on HFD. In a blinded test set, these polypeptides allowed identification of atherosclerosis at a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 100%, as well as monitoring of disease progression. Sequencing of the discovered polypeptides identified fragments of α(1)-antitrypsin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), kidney androgen-regulated protein, and collagen. Using immunohistochemistry, α(1)-antitrypsin, EGF, and collagen type I were shown to be highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE(-/-) mice on HFD. Urinary excretion levels of collagen and α(1)-antitrypsin fragments also significantly correlated with intraplaque collagen and α(1)-antitrypsin content, mirroring plaque protein expression in the urine proteome. To provide further confirmation that the newly identified proteins are relevant in humans, the presence of collagen type I, α(1)-antitrypsin, and EGF was also confirmed in human atherosclerotic disease. Urine proteome analysis in mice exemplifies the potential of a novel multimarker approach for the noninvasive detection of atherosclerosis and monitoring of disease progression. Furthermore, this approach represents a novel discovery tool for the identification of proteins relevant in

  17. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  18. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  19. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  20. Management of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Gey, Daniela C; Lesho, Emil P; Manngold, Johannes

    2004-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive modalities to locate lesions include magnetic resonance angiography, duplex scanning, and hemodynamic localization. Major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease are cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, older age (older than 40 years), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperhomocystinemia. Nonsurgical therapy for intermittent claudication involves risk-factor modification, exercise, and pharmacologic therapy. Based on available evidence, a supervised exercise program is the most effective treatment. All patients with peripheral arterial disease should undergo aggressive control of blood pressure, sugar intake, and lipid levels. All available strategies to help patients quit smoking, such as counseling and nicotine replacement, should be used. Effective drug therapies for peripheral arterial disease include aspirin (with or without dipyridamole), clopidogrel, cilostazol, and pentoxifylline. PMID:14971833

  1. Coronary artery wall imaging in mice using osmium tetroxide and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Vinay M.; Kozlowski, Megan; Donahue, Danielle; Miller, Elishiah; Xiao, Xianghui; Chen, Marcus Y.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Connelly, Patricia; Jeffries, Kenneth; Wen, Han

    2012-05-10

    The high spatial resolution of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is ideal for 3D imaging of coronary arteries in intact mouse heart specimens. Previously, micro-CT of mouse heart specimens utilized intravascular contrast agents that hardened within the vessel lumen and allowed a vascular cast to be made. However, for mouse coronary artery disease models, it is highly desirable to image coronary artery walls and highlight plaques. For this purpose, we describe an ex vivo contrast-enhanced micro-CT imaging technique based on tissue staining with osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) solution. As a tissue-staining contrast agent, OsO{sub 4} is retained in the vessel wall and surrounding tissue during the fixation process and cleared from the vessel lumens. Its high X-ray attenuation makes the artery wall visible in CT. Additionally, since OsO{sub 4} preferentially binds to lipids, it highlights lipid deposition in the artery wall. We performed micro-CT of heart specimens of 5- to 25-week-old C57BL/6 wild-type mice and 5- to 13-week-old apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE{sup -/-}) mice at 10 {mu}m resolution. The results show that walls of coronary arteries as small as 45 {mu}m in diameter are visible using a table-top micro-CT scanner. Similar image clarity was achieved with 1/2000th the scan time using a synchrotron CT scanner. In 13-week-old apoE mice, lipid-rich plaques are visible in the aorta. Our study shows that the combination of OsO{sub 4} and micro-CT permits the visualization of the coronary artery wall in intact mouse hearts.

  2. Novel, congenital iliac arterial anatomy: Absent common iliac arteries and left internal iliac artery

    PubMed Central

    Green, Christopher S.; Helmy, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the iliac arterial system are rare and can be associated with ischemia. With an increase in vascular imaging and interventions, such anomalies are likely to be encountered with greater frequency. We present the case of a 25-year-old female who was incidentally found to have absence of the common iliac arteries bilaterally and the left internal iliac artery, a constellation not previously reported in the literature. We present relevant imaging findings, review embryonic vascular development, and discuss potential clinical implications.

  3. Cervical arterial dissection: current concepts .

    PubMed

    Menon, Ranjith K; Norris, John W

    2008-10-01

    The increasing use and safety of noninvasive imaging in recent years has revealed the surprising frequency of dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries (cervical arterial dissection [CAD]) as a cause of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. This review is an overview of current concepts and practice of patients with CAD, but our ideas are constantly evolving with new discoveries from neurovascular imaging and medical and surgical management in this area. PMID:18990128

  4. Effects of simulated heat waves on ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunling; Zhang, Shuyu; Tian, Ying; Wang, Baojian; Shen, Shuanghe

    2014-02-01

    The effects of simulated heat waves on body weight, body temperature, and biomarkers of cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice were investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a meteorological environment simulation chamber according to data from a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen ApoE-/- mice were divided into control group, heat wave group, and heat wave BH4 group. Mice in the heat wave and BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. Mice in BH4 group were treated with gastric lavage with BH4 2 h prior to heat wave exposure. Results showed that the heat waves did not significantly affect body weight or ET-1 levels. However, mice in the heat wave group had significantly higher rectal temperature and NO level and lower SOD activity compared with mice in the control group (p < 0.01), indicating that heat wave had negative effects on cardiac function in ApoE-/- mice. Gastric lavage with BH4 prior to heat wave exposure significantly reduced heat wave-induced increases in rectal temperature and decreases in SOD activity. Additionally, pretreatment with BH4 further increased NO level in plasma. Collectively, these beneficial effects demonstrate that BH4 may potentially mitigate the risk of coronary heart disease in mice under heat wave exposure. These results may be useful when studying the effects of heat waves on humans. PMID:24477215

  5. Inferior epigastric artery pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Avula, SK

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inferior epigastric artery (IEA) pseudoaneurysms are recognised complications of abdominal wall procedures, and a variety of approaches including surgical excision and ligation, percutaneous procedures and conservative management have been employed in treating this rare complication. Methods We describe a case of an IEA pseudoaneurysm diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) angiography, 14 days following a laparoscopic assisted low anterior resection, which was managed successfully with surgical excision and ligation. A review of the literature identified 32 reports of this complication since 1973 with 69% of cases occurring since 2000. Findings The main aetiology of IEA pseudoaneurysm was abdominal surgery (n=20); 65% of cases were attributable to abdominal wound closure or laparoscopic surgery. Two-thirds (66%) of patients presented between 11 and 63 days, and all except 1 case presented with discomfort, abdominal mass or haemodynamic instability. Colour Doppler ultrasonography was the imaging modality of choice (n=18), either alone or in combination with computed tomography and/or angiography. Surgical ligation and excision and percutaneous coil embolisation formed the mainstay of attempted treatments (69%), particularly following treatment failure using an alternative technique. Conclusions The incidence of iatrogenic IEA pseudoaneurysms appears to be increasing. Awareness of this rare complication is of clinical importance to avoid excessive morbidity for affected individuals. PMID:26263930

  6. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... exercise routine produced a strong heart!" Fast Facts Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood ...

  7. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / ... narrows or blocks these arteries—a condition called coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary heart disease (CHD) occurs. A ...

  8. Plasma proteomic analysis of stable coronary artery disease indicates impairment of reverse cholesterol pathway

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Trayambak; Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Ahmad, Shadab; Garg, Gaurav; V, Sreenivas; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Seth, Sandeep; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the largest causes of death worldwide yet the traditional risk factors, although useful in identifying people at high risk, lack the desired predictive accuracy. Techniques like quantitative plasma proteomics holds immense potential to identify newer markers and this study (conducted in three phases) was aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in stable CAD patients. In the first (discovery) phase, plasma from CAD cases (angiographically proven) and controls were subjected to iTRAQ based proteomic analysis. Proteins found to be differentially expressed were then validated in the second and third (verification and validation) phases in larger number of (n = 546) samples. After multivariate logistic regression adjusting for confounding factors (age, diet, etc.), four proteins involved in the reverse cholesterol pathway (Apo A1, ApoA4, Apo C1 and albumin) along with diabetes and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with CAD and could account for approximately 88% of the cases as revealed by ROC analysis. The maximum odds ratio was found to be 6.70 for albumin (p < 0.0001), followed by Apo AI (5.07, p < 0.0001), Apo CI (4.03, p = 0.001), and Apo AIV (2.63, p = 0.003). Down-regulation of apolipoproteins and albumin implicates the impairment of reverse cholesterol pathway in CAD. PMID:27350024

  9. Plasma proteomic analysis of stable coronary artery disease indicates impairment of reverse cholesterol pathway.

    PubMed

    Basak, Trayambak; Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Ahmad, Shadab; Garg, Gaurav; V, Sreenivas; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Seth, Sandeep; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the largest causes of death worldwide yet the traditional risk factors, although useful in identifying people at high risk, lack the desired predictive accuracy. Techniques like quantitative plasma proteomics holds immense potential to identify newer markers and this study (conducted in three phases) was aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in stable CAD patients. In the first (discovery) phase, plasma from CAD cases (angiographically proven) and controls were subjected to iTRAQ based proteomic analysis. Proteins found to be differentially expressed were then validated in the second and third (verification and validation) phases in larger number of (n = 546) samples. After multivariate logistic regression adjusting for confounding factors (age, diet, etc.), four proteins involved in the reverse cholesterol pathway (Apo A1, ApoA4, Apo C1 and albumin) along with diabetes and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with CAD and could account for approximately 88% of the cases as revealed by ROC analysis. The maximum odds ratio was found to be 6.70 for albumin (p < 0.0001), followed by Apo AI (5.07, p < 0.0001), Apo CI (4.03, p = 0.001), and Apo AIV (2.63, p = 0.003). Down-regulation of apolipoproteins and albumin implicates the impairment of reverse cholesterol pathway in CAD. PMID:27350024

  10. ApoA-I mimetics.

    PubMed

    Stoekenbroek, R M; Stroes, E S; Hovingh, G K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of evidence indicates that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Consequently, HDL-C has been considered a target for therapy in order to reduce the residual CVD burden that remains significant, even after application of current state-of-the-art medical interventions. In recent years, however, a number of clinical trials of therapeutic strategies that increase HDL-C levels failed to show the anticipated beneficial effect on CVD outcomes. As a result, attention has begun to shift toward strategies to improve HDL functionality, rather than levels of HDL-C per se. ApoA-I, the major protein component of HDL, is considered to play an important role in many of the antiatherogenic functions of HDL, most notably reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and several therapies have been developed to mimic apoA-I function, including administration of apoA-I, mutated variants of apoA-I, and apoA-I mimetic peptides. Based on the potential anti-inflammatory effects, apoA-I mimetics hold promise not only as anti-atherosclerotic therapy but also in other therapeutic areas. PMID:25523005

  11. CSF Apo-E levels associate with cognitive decline and MRI changes

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Jon B.; Da, Xiao; Weiner, Michael W.; Wolk, David A.; Xie, Sharon X.; Arnold, Steven E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Shaw, Leslie M.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the most important genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and it is thought to do so by modulating levels of the its product, apolipoprotein E (Apo-E), and regulating amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance. However, information on clinical and biomarker correlates of Apo-E proteins is scarce. We examined the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma Apo-E protein levels, and APOE genotype to cognition and AD biomarker changes in 311 AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects with CSF Apo-E measurements and 565 subjects with plasma Apo-E measurements. At baseline, higher CSF Apo-E levels were associated with higher total and phosphorylated CSF tau levels. CSF Apo-E levels were associated with longitudinal cognitive decline, MCI conversion to dementia, and grey matter atrophy rate in total tau/Aβ1–42 ratio and APOE genotype adjusted analyses. In analyses stratified by APOE genotype, our results were only significant in the group without the ε4 allele. Baseline CSF Apo-E levels did not predict longitudinal CSF Aβ or tau changes. Plasma Apo-E levels show a mild correlation with CSF Apo-E levels, but were not associated with longitudinal cognitive and MRI changes. Based on our analyses, we speculate that increased CSF Apo-E2 or -E3 levels might represent a protective response to injury in AD and may have neuroprotective effects by decreasing neuronal damage independent of tau and amyloid deposition in addition to its effects on amyloid clearance. PMID:24385135

  12. Deep circumflex iliac artery as a free arterial graft for myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed

    Yaginuma, G; Sakurai, M; Meguro, T; Ota, K; Abe, K

    2000-02-01

    When complete revascularization cannot be obtained with the internal thoracic artery and the other arterial grafts, the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) may be an excellent alternative conduit. The deep circumflex iliac artery was used as a free graft for direct myocardial revascularization in 4 patients from January to July 1999. We describe our experience with this arterial conduit, review the anatomy of the artery, and present our harvesting technique. PMID:10735725

  13. Cardioprotective role of vitamin D receptor in circulating endothelial cells of ApoE-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan; Liao, Wang; Yi, Zhuwen; Xiang, Wei; He, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the key course of coronary heart disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of vitamin D receptor on serum 1,25-(OH)2D levels, lipid profiles, nitric oxide expression, apoptosis-related gene Bcl-2, fas protein levels, in ApoE-deficient mice. The proliferation activity of VDR-RNAi transfected endothelial cells was decreased, the ability of apoptosis was increased, nitric oxide concentration was decreased and eNOS protein level was significantly reduced. VDR-RNAi induced lipid metabolism abnormality, reduced eNOS and ApoE levels, promoted lipid peroxidation, damaged the endothelial function and accelerated the process of atheroscleros. Together, our data presented a novel role for VDR in the pathogenesis process of atheroscleros by up regulating eNOS protein expression which could lay a solid foundation of VDR-specific activator treatment for coronary artery disease. PMID:26131079

  14. Arterial air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Nicks, Rowan

    1967-01-01

    The incidence and the outcome of systemic air embolism in 340 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass in this unit for congenital defects of the cardiac septa and diseases involving the aortic and mitral valves have been studied. This was thought to have occurred in 40 patients, of whom 10 died. The distribution of air embolism according to the types of operation undertaken was as follows: six of 127 for atrial septal defect; six of 36 for ventricular septal defect; seven of 42 for mitral valve replacement; seven of 47 for aortic valve débridement; and 14 of 55 for aortic valve replacement. The cause was considered to have been systolic ejection of air into the aorta which, following cardiotomy, had been trapped in the pulmonary veins, the left atrium, the ventricular trabeculae, and the aortic root. Since the adoption of a more rigid `debubbling' routine, air embolism has not occurred. The incidence of pulmonary complications occurring in these patients after bypass was studied. Unilateral atelectasis, which occurred in five patients, resulted from retained bronchial secretions in all and was cured by bronchoscopic aspiration in all. The cause of bilateral atelectases, occurring in nine patients and fatal in eight of these, appeared to be related to cardiopulmonary factors and not to air embolism. Acute air injection made into the pulmonary artery of a dog resulted in pulmonary hypertension and a grossly deficient pulmonary circulation, but changes were largely resolved within a week. In view of this, it is considered that pulmonary air embolism may temporarily embarrass the right heart after the repair of a ventricular septal defect in a patient with an elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and diminished pulmonary vascular bed. Images PMID:6035795

  15. The Effect of a High-Fat Diet on Brain Plasticity, Inflammation and Cognition in Female ApoE4-Knockin and ApoE-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Carola I F; Jansen, Diane; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Dederen, Pieter J W C; Geenen, Bram; Mulder, Monique T; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), one of three common isoforms of ApoE, is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). ApoE-deficient mice, as well as mice expressing human ApoE4, display impaired learning and memory functions and signs of neurodegeneration. Moreover, ApoE protects against high-fat (HF) diet induced neurodegeneration by its role in the maintenance of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The influence of a HF diet on the progression of AD-like cognitive and neuropathological changes was assessed in wild-type (WT), human ApoE4 and ApoE-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to evaluate the modulatory role of ApoE in this process. From 12 months of age, female WT, ApoE4, and ApoE-/- mice were fed either a standard or a HF diet (19% butter, 0.5% cholate, 1.25% cholesterol) throughout life. At 15 months of age mice performed the Morris water maze, evaluating spatial learning and memory. ApoE-/- showed increased spatial learning compared to WT mice (p = 0.009). HF diet improved spatial learning in WT mice (p = 0.045), but did not affect ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampus demonstrated increased neuroinflammation (CD68) in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region in ApoE4 (p = 0.001) and in ApoE-/- (p = 0.032) mice on standard diet. HF diet tended to increase CD68 in the CA1 in WT mice (p = 0.052), while it decreased in ApoE4 (p = 0.009), but ApoE-/- remained unaffected. A trend towards increased neurogenesis (DCX) was found in both ApoE4 (p = 0.052) and ApoE-/- mice (p = 0.068). In conclusion, these data suggest that HF intake induces different effects in WT mice compared to ApoE4 and ApoE-/- with respect to markers for cognition and neurodegeneration. We propose that HF intake inhibits the compensatory mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in aged female ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. PMID:27171180

  16. The Effect of a High-Fat Diet on Brain Plasticity, Inflammation and Cognition in Female ApoE4-Knockin and ApoE-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Carola I. F.; Jansen, Diane; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; Dederen, Pieter J. W. C.; Geenen, Bram; Mulder, Monique T.; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), one of three common isoforms of ApoE, is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). ApoE-deficient mice, as well as mice expressing human ApoE4, display impaired learning and memory functions and signs of neurodegeneration. Moreover, ApoE protects against high-fat (HF) diet induced neurodegeneration by its role in the maintenance of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The influence of a HF diet on the progression of AD-like cognitive and neuropathological changes was assessed in wild-type (WT), human ApoE4 and ApoE-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to evaluate the modulatory role of ApoE in this process. From 12 months of age, female WT, ApoE4, and ApoE-/- mice were fed either a standard or a HF diet (19% butter, 0.5% cholate, 1.25% cholesterol) throughout life. At 15 months of age mice performed the Morris water maze, evaluating spatial learning and memory. ApoE-/- showed increased spatial learning compared to WT mice (p = 0.009). HF diet improved spatial learning in WT mice (p = 0.045), but did not affect ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampus demonstrated increased neuroinflammation (CD68) in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region in ApoE4 (p = 0.001) and in ApoE-/- (p = 0.032) mice on standard diet. HF diet tended to increase CD68 in the CA1 in WT mice (p = 0.052), while it decreased in ApoE4 (p = 0.009), but ApoE-/- remained unaffected. A trend towards increased neurogenesis (DCX) was found in both ApoE4 (p = 0.052) and ApoE-/- mice (p = 0.068). In conclusion, these data suggest that HF intake induces different effects in WT mice compared to ApoE4 and ApoE-/- with respect to markers for cognition and neurodegeneration. We propose that HF intake inhibits the compensatory mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in aged female ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. PMID:27171180

  17. Arterial and Aortic Valve Calcification Abolished by Elastolytic Cathepsin S Deficiency in Chronic Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, Elena; Aikawa, Masanori; Libby, Peter; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Rusanescu, Gabriel; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Fukuda, Daiju; Kohler, Rainer H.; Shi, Guo-Ping; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have demonstrated that 50% of individuals with chronic renal disease (CRD) die of cardiovascular causes, including advanced calcific arterial and valvular disease; however, the mechanisms of accelerated calcification in CRD remain obscure, and no therapies can prevent disease progression. We recently demonstrated in vivo that inflammation triggers cardiovascular calcification. In vitro evidence also indicates that elastin degradation products may promote osteogenesis. Here, we used genetically modified mice and molecular imaging to test the hypothesis in vivo that cathepsin S (catS), a potent elastolytic proteinase, accelerates calcification in atherosclerotic mice with CRD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Methods and Results Apolipoprotein-deficient (apoE−/−)/catS+/+ (n = 24) and apoE−/−/catS−/− (n = 24) mice were assigned to CRD and control groups. CRD mice had significantly higher serum phosphate, creatinine, and cystatin C levels than those without CRD. To visualize catS activity and osteogenesis in vivo, we coadministered catS-activatable and calcification-targeted molecular imaging agents 10 weeks after nephrectomy. Imaging coregistered increased catS and osteogenic activities in the CRD apoE−/−/catS+/+ cohort, whereas CRD apoE−/−/catS−/− mice exhibited less calcification. Quantitative histology demonstrated greater catS-associated elastin fragmentation and calcification in CRD apoE−/−/catS+/+ than CRD apoE−/−/catS−/− aortas and aortic valves. Notably, catS deletion did not cause compensatory increases in RNA levels of other elastolytic cathepsins or matrix metalloproteinases. Elastin peptide and recombinant catS significantly increased calcification in smooth muscle cells in vitro, a process further amplified in phosphate-enriched culture medium. Conclusions The present study provides direct in vivo evidence that catS-induced elastolysis accelerates arterial and aortic valve calcification in CRD

  18. Engineering of arteries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela H; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    This review will focus on two elements that are essential for functional arterial regeneration in vitro: the mechanical environment and the bioreactors used for tissue growth. The importance of the mechanical environment to embryological development, vascular functionality, and vascular graft regeneration will be discussed. Bioreactors generate mechanical stimuli to simulate biomechanical environment of arterial system. This system has been used to reconstruct arterial grafts with appropriate mechanical strength for implantation by controlling the chemical and mechanical environments in which the grafts are grown. Bioreactors are powerful tools to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on extracellular matrix architecture and mechanical properties of engineered vessels. Hence, biomimetic systems enable us to optimize chemo-biomechanical culture conditions to regenerate engineered vessels with physiological properties similar to those of native arteries. In addition, this article reviews various bioreactors designed especially to apply axial loading to engineered arteries. This review will also introduce and examine different approaches and techniques that have been used to engineer biologically based vascular grafts, including collagen-based grafts, fibrin-gel grafts, cell sheet engineering, biodegradable polymers, and decellularization of native vessels. PMID:24399290

  19. 56Fe accelerates development of atherosclerosis in apoE -/-mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucik, Dennis; Yu, Tao; Parks, Brian; Yu, Shaohua; Srivastava, Roshni; Gupta, Kiran; Wu, Xing; Khaled, Saman; Chang, Polly; Kabarowski, Janusz

    Exposure to radiation from a variety of sources is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke. For example, for women with early breast cancer, the benefit of radiotherapy can be nearly offset by the increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. Head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiation treatment are at significantly elevated risk of stroke, even in a relatively young patient population that would not normally be at risk for atheroscle-rosis. Similarly, atomic bomb survivors had an increased incidence of mortality from coronary artery disease and stroke. Even radiation technologists working before 1950 (when occupational exposure was higher) had increased mortality due to circulatory diseases. Although much is known about the cardiovascular consequences these exposures to X-raus and gamma radiation, the response to the type of radiation likely to be encountered in prolonged space flight has not been determined. A key component of this cosmic radiation is 56Fe, which is particularly damaging to tissues. Using collimated beams, we selectively irradiated aortic arches and carotids (only) of the well-established apoE -/-atherosclerosis mouse model to test directly whether 56Fe exposure is a cardiovascular risk factor. Mice were sacrificed at 13 weeks post-irradiation and dissected, and aortas were divided into areas that had been targeted by the ion beam and those that were not. The area that was covered by plaques was then quantified. Plaque area at 13 weeks post-irradiation was significantly greater in targeted areas of mice that had received 5 Gy of 56Fe as compared to age-and sex-matched un-irradiated controls. In the carotid arteries and aortic roots, significantly greater atherosclerosis was apparent for a 2Gy exposure as well (the lowest dose tested). This demonstrates that even a single exposure to heavy ion radiation is capable of triggering events that culminate in cardiovascular disease, even long after the exposure has

  20. Coronary Artery Imaging with Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masaaki; Nakazono, Akemi

    2016-07-01

    Coronary artery imaging with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is a simple and useful technique to diagnose significant coronary artery stenosis. The visualization of mosaic flow in the proximal left coronary artery provides a direct indication of the presence of significant stenosis at the corresponding site during routine echocardiography. Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) has a high diagnostic accuracy and feasibility in detecting the presence of functionally significant coronary stenosis in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and in the right coronary artery. The measurement of CFVR in the LAD also provides prognostic information in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis. This review summarizes the utility of transthoracic coronary artery imaging. PMID:27216843

  1. ApoE4-specific Misfolded Intermediate Identified by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Williams II, Benfeard; Convertino, Marino; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    The increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with the APOE gene, which encodes for three variants of Apolipoprotein E, namely E2, E3, E4, differing only by two amino acids at positions 112 and 158. ApoE4 is known to be the strongest risk factor for AD onset, while ApoE3 and ApoE2 are considered to be the AD-neutral and AD-protective isoforms, respectively. It has been hypothesized that the ApoE isoforms may contribute to the development of AD by modifying the homeostasis of ApoE physiological partners and AD-related proteins in an isoform-specific fashion. Here we find that, despite the high sequence similarity among the three ApoE variants, only ApoE4 exhibits a misfolded intermediate state characterized by isoform-specific domain-domain interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. The existence of an ApoE4-specific intermediate state can contribute to the onset of AD by altering multiple cellular pathways involved in ApoE-dependent lipid transport efficiency or in AD-related protein aggregation and clearance. We present what we believe to be the first structural model of an ApoE4 misfolded intermediate state, which may serve to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ApoE4 in AD pathogenesis. The knowledge of the structure for the ApoE4 folding intermediate provides a new platform for the rational design of alternative therapeutic strategies to fight AD. PMID:26506597

  2. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions. PMID:25102397

  3. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  4. The role of APOE in cerebrovascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tai, Leon M; Thomas, Riya; Marottoli, Felecia M; Koster, Kevin P; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Morris, Alan W J; Bu, Guojun

    2016-05-01

    The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE4) is associated with cognitive decline during aging, is the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and has links to other neurodegenerative conditions that affect cognition. Increasing evidence indicates that APOE genotypes differentially modulate the function of the cerebrovasculature (CV), with apoE and its receptors expressed by different cell types at the CV interface (astrocytes, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, brain endothelial cells). However, research on the role of apoE in CV dysfunction has not advanced as quickly as other apoE-modulated pathways. This review will assess what aspects of the CV are modulated by APOE genotypes during aging and under disease states, discuss potential mechanisms, and summarize the therapeutic significance of the topic. We propose that APOE4 induces CV dysfunction through direct signaling at the CV, and indirectly via modulation of peripheral and central pathways. Further, that APOE4 predisposes the CV to damage by, and exacerbates the effects of, additional risk factors (such as sex, hypertension, and diabetes). ApoE4-induced detrimental CV changes include reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), modified neuron-CBF coupling, increased blood-brain barrier leakiness, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hemorrhages and disrupted transport of nutrients and toxins. The apoE4-induced detrimental changes may be linked to pericyte migration/activation, astrocyte activation, smooth muscle cell damage, basement membrane degradation and alterations in brain endothelial cells. PMID:26884068

  5. Persistent trigeminal artery arising from the arterial ring/fenestration of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Kurita, Hiroki; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2012-09-01

    A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, usually arising from the cavernous or precavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and connecting to the distal basilar artery. There are two types of PTA, lateral and medial. We present the first case of a lateral-type PTA arising from the large arterial ring/fenestration of the cavernous segment of the left ICA with findings from both magnetic resonance angiography and selective catheter angiography. PMID:22215430

  6. Angiographic Enigma: A Single Coronary Artery with the Right Coronary Artery Originating from the Distal Left Circumflex Artery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyajit; Sahoo, Sanat Kumar; Tripathy, Mahendra Prasad; Jena, Giridhari

    2015-01-01

    An isolated single coronary artery (SCA) is a rare anomaly. A SCA originating from the left sinus of Valsalva is even rarer than one arising from the right. Most patients with a congenital coronary artery anomaly are asymptomatic. Herein, we report an extremely uncommon variant, where the right coronary artery arose from the distal segment of the left circumflex artery with slow coronary flow leading to myocardial ischemia. PMID:27326353

  7. Branches and arterial supply of the recurrent artery of Heubner.

    PubMed

    Maga, Paweł; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Krzyżewski, Roger M; Golec, Joanna; Depukat, Paweł; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Skrzat, Janusz

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the branches and arterial supply of the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) in order to provide detailed information to neurosurgeons operating in this area of the brain. A total of 70 human brains (39 male and 31 female) obtained from cadavers (aged 31-75 years) during routine autopsies were examined; brains from individuals who died due to neurological disorders were not included in the study. Immediately after dissection the arteries were perfused with acrylic paint emulsion through the circle of Willis or electively through the RAH. Brains were fixed in a 10 % solution of formaldehyde and sectioned; the sections were analyzed under a stereoscopic light microscope (magnification 2-40×). The RAH was present in 138 hemispheres with a mean of 1.99 per hemisphere. Mean RAH length was 25.2 mm and the mean diameter, in its place of origin, was 1 mm. Between two and 30 (mean 9.4) branches originated from the stem of the RAH. Each branch then divided into 2-40 smaller branches (mean 19). Primary branches were divided and named in accordance with their course and arterial supply. Primary RAH branches include the anterior perforating substance, sylvian fissure, olfactory, frontal, hypothalamic, optic tract and connecting branches. Left and right hemispheres were asymmetrically supplied by RAH branches, but none of these discrepancies were of statistical significance. PMID:23860669

  8. Flows In Model Human Femoral Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug Y.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Flow is visualized with dye traces, and pressure measurements made. Report describes experimental study of flow in models of human femoral artery. Conducted to examine effect of slight curvature of artery on flow paths and distribution of pressure.

  9. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery: a review.

    PubMed

    Azab, Waleed; Delashaw, Johnny; Mohammed, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The trigeminal artery is the largest of the fetal carotid-basilar anastomotic arteries, and it persists for the longest embryonic period. The artery usually involutes after the development of the posterior communicating artery. The exact causes of persistence of this primitive vessel into adulthood are not completely clear. Angiographic and anatomical descriptions of the various persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) configurations and their relation to the remainder of the cerebrovascular tree and the other surrounding structures have been reported. Persistent trigeminal artery can be associated with many other vascular anomalies and disorders including aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations and carotid-cavernous fistulae. A thorough understanding of the anatomical and angiographic features of this persistent embryonic arterial channel is of utmost importance when making therapeutic decisions and embarking on surgical or endovascular intervention for any pertinent pathological condition. We review the embryology, angiographic features, microsurgical anatomy and associated vascular anomalies and disorders of the persistent trigeminal artery. PMID:22843453

  10. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of patients and may eliminate the need for coronary artery bypass surgery. The outcome is relief from chest pain ... of the narrowing is not accomplished, heart surgery (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, also called a CABG) may be ...

  11. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting; CAS; Angioplasty - carotid artery; Carotid artery stenosis - angioplasty; ... Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is done using a small surgical cut. Your surgeon will make a surgical cut in your groin after using some ...

  12. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left ... of the heart—the pulmonary artery and the aorta —are switched in position, or “transposed”. Normally, blood ...

  13. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances Aortic Valve ... Transposition of the Great Arteries Coarctation of the Aorta Truncus Arteriosus Single Ventricle Defects Lung, Esophageal, and ...

  14. MedlinePlus: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Blood Institute Start Here Coronary Artery Bypass (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish Coronary Artery Bypass ... and Blood Institute) Specifics Limited-Access Heart Surgery (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish Types of Coronary ...

  15. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins inhibit cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein (apo) A1 from human macrophage foam cells.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Anna M; Murphy, Nuala; Graham, Annette

    2004-03-01

    High circulating levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) represent an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Here, we show that TGRL inhibit the efflux of cholesterol from 'foam cell' macrophages to lipid-poor apolipoprotein (apo) A1, and may thereby inhibit arterial reverse cholesterol transport and promote the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Human (THP-1) monocyte-derived macrophages were pre-incubated (48 h) with acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) to provide a foam cell model of cholesterol efflux to apoA1. Pre-incubation of macrophage 'foam cells' with TGRL (0-200 microg/ml, 0-24 h) inhibited the efflux of exogenously radiolabelled ([3H]), endogenously synthesised ([14C]) and cellular cholesterol mass to lipid-poor apoA1, but not control medium, during a (subsequent) efflux period. This inhibition is dependent upon the length of prior exposure to, and concentration of, TGRL employed, but is independent of changes in intracellular triglyceride accumulation or turnover of the cholesteryl ester pool. Despite the negative impact of TGRL on cholesterol efflux, major proteins involved in this process--namely apoE, ABCA1, SR-B1 and caveolin-1--were unaffected by TGRL pre-incubation, suggesting that exposure to these lipoproteins inhibits an alternate, and possibly novel, anti-atherogenic pathway. PMID:15177121

  16. An effective approach to reduce inflammation and stenosis in carotid artery: polypyrrole nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiyou; Qin, Jinbao; Li, Bo; Ye, Kaichuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Yang, Xinrui; Yuan, Fukang; Huang, Lijia; Hu, Junqing; Lu, Xinwu

    2015-04-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT), as a promising treatment for tumours, has rarely been reported for application in artery restenosis, which is a common complication of endovascular management due to enduring chronic inflammation and abnormal cell proliferation. In our study, biodegradable polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPy-NPs) were synthesized and characterized, including their size distribution, UV-vis-NIR absorbance, molar extinction coefficients, and photothermal properties. We then verified that PPy-NP incubation followed by 915 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation could effectively ablate inflammatory macrophages in vitro, leading to significant cell apoptosis and cell death. Further, it was found that a combination of local PPy-NP injection with 915 nm NIR laser irradiation could significantly alleviate arterial inflammation by eliminating infiltrating macrophages and further ameliorating artery stenosis in an ApoE-/- mouse model, without showing any obvious toxic side effects. Thus, we propose that PTT based on PPy-NPs as photothermal agents and a 915 nm NIR laser as a power source can serve as a new effective treatment for reducing inflammation and stenosis formation in inflamed arteries after endovascular management.Photothermal therapy (PTT), as a promising treatment for tumours, has rarely been reported for application in artery restenosis, which is a common complication of endovascular management due to enduring chronic inflammation and abnormal cell proliferation. In our study, biodegradable polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPy-NPs) were synthesized and characterized, including their size distribution, UV-vis-NIR absorbance, molar extinction coefficients, and photothermal properties. We then verified that PPy-NP incubation followed by 915 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation could effectively ablate inflammatory macrophages in vitro, leading to significant cell apoptosis and cell death. Further, it was found that a combination of local PPy-NP injection with

  17. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A; Kothari, V M

    1997-01-01

    A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I)/Relinquishes (Principle II) Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine's attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass) or lumen--restoration (plasty) has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time. PMID:10740714

  18. Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Configuration for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Boodhwani, Munir; Hanet, Claude; de Kerchove, Laurent; Navarra, Emiliano; Astarci, Parla; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-01-01

    Background— Bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) have demonstrated superior patency and improved survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the optimal configuration for BITA utilization and its effect on long-term outcome remains uncertain. Methods and Results— We randomly assigned 304 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using BITA to either in situ or Y grafting configurations. The primary end point was 3-year angiographic patency. Secondary end points included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (ie, death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization) at 7 years. More coronary targets were able to be revascularized using internal thoracic arteries in patients randomized to Y grafting versus in situ group (3.2±0.8 versus 2.4±0.5 arteries/patient; P<0.01). The primary end point did not show significant differences in graft patency between groups. Secondary end points occurred more frequently in the in situ group (P=0.03), with 7-year rates of 34±10% in the in situ and 25±12% in the Y grafting groups, driven largely by a higher incidence of repeat revascularization in the in situ group (14±4.5% versus 7.4±3.2% at 7 years; P=0.009). There were no significant differences in hospital mortality or morbidity or in late survival, myocardial infarction, or stroke between groups. Conclusions— Three-year systematic angiographic follow-up revealed no significant difference in graft patency between the 2 BITA configurations. However, compared with in situ configuration, the use of BITA in a Y grafting configuration results in lower rates of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events at 7 years. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01666366. PMID:27406988

  19. Principals&apos; Views on Teachers&apos; Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabhani, Mona; Nicolas, Maureen O'Day; Bahous, Rima

    2014-01-01

    This article is an account of a study that aimed to elicit the perceptions of school principals and middle managers in Lebanon on teachers&apos; professional development (PD) and to promote an understanding of PD that extends beyond workshops. The study was qualitative and exploratory and used online interviewing to collect data. Questions were…

  20. Anti-Apolipoprotein A-1 IgG Levels Predict Coronary Artery Calcification in Obese but Otherwise Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Quercioli, Alessandra; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Galan, Katia; Ratib, Osman; Roux-Lombard, Pascale; Pagano, Sabrina; Mach, François; Schindler, Thomas H.; Vuilleumier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    We aimed at determining whether anti-apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 IgG levels are independent predictors of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and coronary endothelial dysfunction in obese and nonobese subjects without cardiovascular disease. 48 nonobese and 43 obese subjects were included. CAC score was measured by thorax scanner and defined by an Agatston score > 0. Coronary endothelial dysfunction was determined by measuring myocardial blood flow responses to cold pressor test (CPT) on PET/CT. Serum anti-apoA-1 IgG levels were measured by ELISA. Prevalence of coronary calcification was similar between the two study groups, but the prevalence of coronary endothelial dysfunction was higher in obese subjects. Anti-apoA-1 IgG levels and positivity rate were higher in obese than in nonobese individuals. CAC score was higher in anti-apoA-1 IgG positive subjects. ROC analyses indicated that anti-apoA-1 IgG levels were significant predictors of CAC > 0, but not of coronary endothelial dysfunction with a negative predictive value of 94%. Anti-apoA-1 IgG positivity was associated with a 17-fold independent increased risk of CAC > 0. In conclusion, those preliminary results indicate that anti-apoA-1 IgG autoantibodies are raised in obese subjects and independently predict the presence of coronary calcification in this population but not the presence of coronary endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23258951

  1. Spontaneous Recanalization of Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion Following Angioplasty and Stenting of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Akpinar, Erhan Cil, Barbaros E.; Arat, Anil; Baykal, Atac; Karaman, Kerem; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-02-15

    An 84-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease was admitted with a progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography revealed occlusion of the origin and proximal portion of superior mesenteric artery. Aortography also showed severe origin stenosis of inferior mesenteric artery and that the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery was supplied by a prominent marginal artery of Drummond. Patient was effectively treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the inferior mesenteric artery. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated patency of the stent and spontaneous recanalization of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  2. apoE3[K146N/R147W] acts as a dominant negative apoE form that prevents remnant clearance and inhibits the biogenesis of HDL.

    PubMed

    Fotakis, Panagiotis; Vezeridis, Alexander; Dafnis, Ioannis; Chroni, Angeliki; Kardassis, Dimitris; Zannis, Vassilis I

    2014-07-01

    The K146N/R147W substitutions in apoE3 were described in patients with a dominant form of type III hyperlipoproteinemia. The effects of these mutations on the in vivo functions of apoE were studied by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in different mouse models. Expression of the apoE3[K146N/R147W] mutant in apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) or apoA-I-deficient (apoA-I(-/-))×apoE(-/-) mice exacerbated the hypercholesterolemia and increased plasma apoE and triglyceride levels. In apoE(-/-) mice, the apoE3[K146N/R147W] mutant displaced apoA-I from the VLDL/LDL/HDL region and caused the accumulation of discoidal apoE-containing HDL. The WT apoE3 cleared the cholesterol of apoE(-/-) mice without induction of hypertriglyceridemia and promoted formation of spherical HDL. A unique property of the truncated apoE3[K146N/R147W]202 mutant, compared with similarly truncated apoE forms, is that it did not correct the hypercholesterolemia. The contribution of LPL and LCAT in the induction of the dyslipidemia was studied. Treatment of apoE(-/-) mice with apoE3[K146N/R147W] and LPL corrected the hypertriglyceridemia, but did not prevent the formation of discoidal HDL. Treatment with LCAT corrected hypertriglyceridemia and generated spherical HDL. The combined data indicate that the K146N/R147W substitutions convert the full-length and the truncated apoE3[K146N/R147W] mutant into a dominant negative ligand that prevents receptor-mediated remnant clearance, exacerbates the dyslipidemia, and inhibits the biogenesis of HDL. PMID:24776540

  3. Hemimelia and absence of the peroneal artery.

    PubMed

    Huda, S; Sangster, G; Pramanik, A; Sankararaman, S; Tice, H; Ibrahim, H

    2014-02-01

    The arterial patterns of the lower extremities of three patients with congenital absence fibulae (hemimelia) were evaluated to determine whether the relationship existed between the absence of peroneal artery and hemimelia. Computerized tomograph angiography revealed the absence of peroneal artery in all the patients with dysplastic limbs and absent fibula. PMID:24476661

  4. Endovascular treatment of isolated arterial pulmonary malinosculation

    PubMed Central

    Mammen, Suraj; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Moses, Vinu; Chiramel, George Koshy; Irodi, Aparna; Gnanamuthu, Birla Roy

    2015-01-01

    We report the endovascular management of a series of four cases of isolated systemic supply to normal lung or isolated arterial pulmonary malinosculation of the left lung. In these cases, the basal segments of the left lung lacked normal pulmonary arterial supply and instead received systemic arterial blood from the descending thoracic aorta. The relevant anatomy and literature are also reviewed. PMID:26288517

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Peripheral Artery Disease (P.A.D.) What is P.A.D.? Arteries Clogged With Plaque Peripheral arterial disease (P. ... button on your keyboard.) Why Is P.A.D. Dangerous? Click for more information Blocked blood flow ...

  6. Compliant transducer measures artery profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Culler, V. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Spears, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Instrument consisting of compliant fingers with attached semiconductor pickups measures inside contours of narrow vessels. Instrument, originally designed to monitor human arteries, is drawn through vessel to allow finges to follow contours. Lead wires transmit electrical signals to external processing equipment.

  7. Engineering of arteries in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela H.; Niklason, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    This review will focus on two elements that are essential for functional arterial regeneration in vitro: the mechanical environment and the bioreactors used for tissue growth. The importance of the mechanical environment to embryological development, vascular functionality, and vascular graft regeneration will be discussed. Bioreactors generate mechanical stimuli to simulate the biomechanical environment of the arterial system. This system has been used to reconstruct arterial grafts with appropriate mechanical strength for implantation by controlling the chemical and mechanical environments in which the grafts are grown. Bioreactors are powerful tools to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture and the mechanical properties of engineered vessels. Hence biomimetic systems enable us to optimize chemo-biomechanical culture conditions to regenerate engineered vessels with physiological properties similar to those of native arterial vessels. In addition, this review will introduce and examine various approaches and techniques that have been used to engineer biologically-based vascular grafts, including collagen-based grafts, fibrin-gel grafts, cell sheet engineering, biodegradable polymers, and decellularization of native vessels. PMID:24399290

  8. [PREDICTORS OF RESISTANT ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION].

    PubMed

    Lazutkina, A Y; Gorbunov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of 6 year prospective observation of 7959 members of locomotive crews engaged at the Transbaikal Railways. The study aimed to estimate the probability and time of development of resistant arterial hypertension under effect of predictors of this disease. The data obtained are of value for diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic practice. PMID:27522725

  9. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  10. Relationship between Principals&apos; Sense of Achievement and Teachers&apos; Perceptions of Their Principals&apos; Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Javaid Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between principals&apos; sense of achievement and teachers&apos; perceptions of their principals&apos; leadership behaviors. This was determined by examining job satisfaction of principals and leadership style using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the School…

  11. The Right Gastroepiploic Artery Graft for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A 30-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Suma, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its 30-year history, the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been useful for in situ grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The early graft patency rate is high, and the late patency rate has improved by using the skeletonized GEA graft and proper target selection, which involves having a target coronary artery with a tight >90% stenosis. Total arterial revascularization with the internal thoracic artery and GEA grafts is an option for achieving better outcomes from CABG procedures. PMID:27525230

  12. Missed Total Occlusion Due to the Occipital Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Ustunsoz, Bahri Gumus, Burcak; Koksal, Ali; Koroglu, Mert; Akhan, Okan

    2007-02-15

    A 56-year-old man was referred for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with an ultrasound diagnosis of right proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis for possible carotid artery stenting. DSA revealed total occlusion of the ICA and an occipital artery arising from the stump and simulating continuation of the ICA. An ascending pharyngeal artery also arose from the same occipital artery. This case is of interest because this is a rare variation besides being a cause of misdiagnosis at carotid ultrasound.

  13. Mutilocus genetic determinants of LDL particle size in coronary artery disease families

    SciTech Connect

    Rotter, J.I.; Bu, X.; Cantor, R.M.

    1996-03-01

    Recent interest in atherosclerosis has focused on the genetic determinants of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, because of (1) the association of small dense LDL particles with a three-fold increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and (2) the recent report of linkage of the trait to the LDL receptor (chromosome 19). By utilizing nonparametric quantitative sib-pair and relative-pair-analysis methods in CAD families, we tested for linkage of a gene or genes controlling LDL particle sizes with the genetic loci for the major apolipoproteins and enzymes participating in lipoprotein metabolism. We confirmed evidence for linkage to the LDL receptor locus (P = .008). For six candidate gene loci, including apolipoprotein(apo)B, apoAII, apo(a), apoE-CI-CII, lipoprotein lipase, and high-density lipoprotein-binding protein, no evidence for linkage was observed by sib-pair linkage analyses (P values ranged from .24 to .81). However, in addition, we did find tentative evidence for linkage with the apoAI-CIII-AIV locus (chromosome 11) (P = .06) and significant evidence for linkage of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein locus (chromosome 16) (P = .01) and the manganese superoxide dismutase locus (chromosome 6) (P = .001), thus indicating multilocus determination of this atherogenic trait. 73 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Celiac artery stenting: a new strategy for patients with pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with stenosis of the celiac artery.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yu-Wen; Kao, Hsien-Li; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2004-01-01

    We report a new strategy--celiac artery stenting--to relieve stenosis of the celiac arterial root. This was performed in two patients with pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDA) aneurysm associated with a stenotic celiac arterial root. The first patient was a 66-year-old man complaining of abrupt onset of upper abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a huge retroperitoneal hematoma behind the duodenum, and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) angiography demonstrated an aneurysm arising from inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery and celiac arteriography showed a stenotic celiac arterial root. Transcatheter embolization of the aneurysm was tried, but failed. Because of his unstable hemodynamics, emergent laparotomy with resection of the aneurysm was performed. Fourteen days after the operation, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with celiac arterial stenting was done. The patient was discharged 2 days later, and has had no further bleeding episode for 3 years. The second patient was a 46-year-old woman, who also complained of acute upper abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography disclosed a huge retroperitoneal hematoma, and selective SMA angiography demonstrated an aneurysm arising from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, and celiac arteriography showed a stenotic celiac arterial root. Because angiography showed no active bleeding from the aneurysm, percutaneous transluminal angioplastic stenting of the stenotic celiac artery was performed. She was discharged 5 days later and has had no further bleeding episode for 2 years. Celiac arterial stenting, as shown in our two patients, could be easily and safely employed in patients with PDA aneurysm associated with a stenotic celiac arterial root to release the stenosis of the celiac arterial root and to prevent further possible bleeding. PMID:14767741

  15. Atherosclerosis, inflammation and lipoprotein glomerulopathy in kidneys of apoE-/-/LDL-/- double knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The apoE-/-/LDL-/- double knockout mice are bearing considerable structural homology to human atherosclerosis. We hypothesized, that advanced lesion formation in the renal artery is associated with kidney alterations in these mice. Methods Kidneys from apoE-/-/LDL-/- double knockout mice at the age of 80 weeks (n = 6) and C57/BL control mice (n = 5) were infused with Microfil, harvested and scanned with micro-CT (12 μm cubic voxels) and Nano-CT (900 nm cubic voxels). We quantitated the total vascular volume using micro-CT. Number and cross-sectional area (μm2) of glomeruli were measured using histology. Results At the age of 80 weeks, the renal total vascular volume fraction decreased significantly (p < 0.001) compared to controls. Moreover, the renal artery showed advanced atherosclerotic lesions with adventitial Vasa vasorum neovascularization. Perivascular inflammation was present in kidneys of apoE-/-/LDL-/- double knockout mice, predominantly involved are plasma cells and leucocytes. Glomeruli cross-sectional area (9959 ± 1083 μm2) and number (24.8 ± 4.5) increased in apoE-/-/LDL-/- double knockout mice compared to controls (3533 ± 398 μm2; 17.6 ± 3, respectively), whereas 41% of the total number of glomeruli showed evidence for lipoprotein associated glomerulopathy (LPG). Moreover, immunohistochemistry demonstrated capillary aneurysms of the glomeruli filled with factor 8 containing emboli. Conclusion The reduced intra-renal total vascular volume is associated with systemic atherosclerosis and glomeruli alterations in the apoE-/-/LDL-/- double knockout mouse model. PMID:20727187

  16. Relationships between Educators&apos; Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Administrators&apos; Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Stephanie Litton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to examine the differences between teachers&apos; mean job satisfaction scores based on the administrators&apos; gender and examine the relationship between the administrators&apos; gender and teachers&apos; organizational commitment plans in Tennessee middle schools. Job satisfaction…

  17. Children&apos;s Talking and Listening within the Classroom: Teachers&apos; Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that social communication (verbal and non-verbal) plays a key role in students&apos; and teachers&apos; elementary-school experiences. Within the framework of sociocognitive developmental theory, this qualitative study investigates teachers&apos; experiences and perceptions of children&apos;s talking and listening habits within…

  18. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers&apos; Ability and Effort Explanations for Students&apos; Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students&apos; performance in math. Whereas boys&apos; successes in math are attributed to ability, girls&apos; successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys&apos; failures in math are attributed to a…

  19. ApoE and the role of very low density lipoproteins in adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was too identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet induced obesity. Male apoE-/- and C57BL/6J wild-type mice fed high fat diets for 12 weeks were assessed for metab...

  20. Childrens&apos; Conceptions of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study of sixth grade children&apos;s conceptions of nature and the environment. In so doing, it asks that environmental educators pay more attention to children&apos;s preconceived notions of environment and nature. Should this occur the theory-practice gap in environmental education may be diminished. Learners&apos; concept…

  1. Jack Michael&apos;s Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael&apos;s contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner&apos;s (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael&apos;s term helped us change our focus on…

  2. An unusual course of the radial artery.

    PubMed

    Pelin, C; Zagyapan, R; Mas, N; Karabay, G

    2006-11-01

    Radial artery variations are of importance for clinicians, whether in angiographic examinations or surgical approaches. The high origin radial artery is the most frequent arterial variation observed in the upper limb, showing an incidence of 14.27% in dissection material and 9.75% in angiographic examination. In the present study an unusual course of the radial artery and its relation with the median nerve has been evaluated. During embryological development the radial artery sprouts from two arterial buds arising from the lateral side of the brachial artery and coalescing with each other. The artery lies in the forearm and is overlapped by the brachioradial muscle. In this particular case the radial artery originated from the medial side of the brachial artery and crossed the median nerve twice in an unusual manner 8 cm below the point at which the deep brachial artery arose and 12 cm above the intercondylar line. These results will enhance anatomical knowledge of the region and reduce complication in surgical approaches. PMID:17171625

  3. CCL5 deficiency reduces neointima formation following arterial injury and thrombosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Czepluch, Frauke S; Meier, Julia; Binder, Claudia; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Schäfer, Katrin

    2016-08-01

    Activated platelets secrete different chemokines, among others CCL5, thereby triggering inflammatory cell recruitment into the vessel wall. Here, we investigated how CCL5 deficiency influences vascular remodeling processes. Experiments were performed in apolipoprotein E and CCL5 double deficient (ApoE(-/-)×CCL5(-/-)) mice, using ApoE(-/-)×CCL5(+/+) mice as controls. The ferric chloride model was applied to induce thrombosis at the site of carotid artery injury within minutes and the formation of a smooth muscle cell-rich neointima within 3weeks. In both groups, vascular injury resulted in thrombus formation. CCL5 deficiency did not alter thrombus resolution examined at day 7. Analysis at 21days revealed that CCL5 absence was associated with a significant reduction in the neointima area (p<0.05), neointima-to-media ratio (p<0.05) and lumen stenosis (p<0.05) compared to ApoE(-/-)×CCL5(+/+) mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of CCL5 receptors showed decreased CCR5 positive staining in ApoE(-/-)×CCL5(-/-) mice (p<0.01), whereas the amount of CCR1 (p=0.053) and Mac2-positive macrophages (p<0.05) was increased. The amount of SMA-positive smooth muscle cells was lower in ApoE(-/-) mice lacking CCL5 (p<0.05). Positive staining for Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), an atheroprotective transcription factor, was increased in the neointima of ApoE(-/-)×CCL5(-/-) mice (p<0.05) and found to co-localize with smooth muscle cells. In summary, CCL5 deficiency resulted in reduced neointima formation after carotid artery injury and thrombosis. Hemodynamic and histochemical analyses suggested that this was not due to differences in thrombus formation or resolution. Possibly, the atheroprotective effect of CCL5 deficiency is mediated by KLF4 upregulation in smooth muscle cells. PMID:27337700

  4. Specific high-affinity binding of high density lipoproteins to cultured human skin fibroblasts and arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Biesbroeck, R; Oram, J F; Albers, J J; Bierman, E L

    1983-03-01

    Binding of human high density lipoproteins (HDL, d = 1.063-1.21) to cultured human fibroblasts and human arterial smooth muscle cells was studied using HDL subjected to heparin-agarose affinity chromatography to remove apoprotein (apo) E and B. Saturation curves for binding of apo E-free 125I-HDL showed at least two components: low-affinity nonsaturable binding and high-affinity binding that saturated at approximately 20 micrograms HDL protein/ml. Scatchard analysis of high-affinity binding of apo E-free 125I-HDL to normal fibroblasts yielded plots that were significantly linear, indicative of a single class of binding sites. Saturation curves for binding of both 125I-HDL3 (d = 1.125-1.21) and apo E-free 125I-HDL to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-negative fibroblasts also showed high-affinity binding that yielded linear Scatchard plots. On a total protein basis, HDL2 (d = 1.063-1.10), HDL3 and very high density lipoproteins (VHDL, d = 1.21-1.25) competed as effectively as apo E-free HDL for binding of apo E-free 125I-HDL to normal fibroblasts. Also, HDL2, HDL3, and VHDL competed similarly for binding of 125I-HDL3 to LDL receptor-negative fibroblasts. In contrast, LDL was a weak competitor for HDL binding. These results indicate that both human fibroblasts and arterial smooth muscle cells possess specific high affinity HDL binding sites. As indicated by enhanced LDL binding and degradation and increased sterol synthesis, apo E-free HDL3 promoted cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts. These effects also saturated at HDL3 concentrations of 20 micrograms/ml, suggesting that promotion of cholesterol efflux by HDL is mediated by binding to the high-affinity cell surface sites. PMID:6826722

  5. Proinflammation: The Key to Arterial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyi; Jiang, Liqun; Monticone, Robert E.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial aging is the major contributing factor to increases in the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, due mainly to the presence of chronic, low-grade, “sterile” arterial inflammation. Inflammatory signaling driven by the angiotensin II cascade perpetrates adverse age-associated arterial structural and functional remodeling. The aged artery is characterized by endothelial disruption, enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, elastin fracture, and matrix calcification/amyloidosis/glycation. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms of arterial aging are also relevant to the pathogenesis of hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Age-associated arterial proinflammation is, to some extent, mutable, and interventions to suppress or delay it may have the potential to ameliorate or retard age-associated arterial diseases. PMID:24365513

  6. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  7. [Accessory renal arteries in human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Gościcka, D; Szpinda, M; Kochan, J

    1996-12-01

    Using conventional anatomical methods, renal arteries of 140 human fetuses were studied. It was found (21.1%) that the accessory renal arteries occurred in a three-fold manner: 1. as single arteries (19.2%), 2. as double arteries (2.1%) and 3. as triplex arteries (0.7%). More often they originated from the right part of the circumference of the abdominal aorta, mainly in the female fetuses. These arteries penetrated the following segments of the kidney: the inferior (12.9%), the superior (2.3%), the anterior inferior (2.8%), the posterior (2.1%) and the anterior superior (1.5%). They crossed the renal pelvis more often in front (12.2%) than from behind of it (5%). The frequency of the occurrence of the accessory arteries depends not from the age of the fetus. PMID:9082875

  8. Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kriz, Joseph P.; Munfakh, Nabil A.; King, Gregory S.; Carden, Juan O.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas are rare and lethal malignant tumors that typically affect larger vessels: the aorta, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary arteries. Since symptoms and imaging of pulmonary arterial intimal sarcomas mimic pulmonary thromboembolism, the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with chest pain, dyspnea, and filling defect within the pulmonary arteries should include intimal sarcoma. Often right ventricular failure is observed due to pulmonary hypertension caused by the obstructive effect of the tumor and concomitant chronic thromboembolism. We report the case of a 72-year-old African-American male with arterial intimal sarcoma of the left and right pulmonary artery with extension through the right artery into the bronchus and right lung. PMID:27239183

  9. Netrin-1 controls sympathetic arterial innervation

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Isabelle; Gordon, Emma; Han, Jinah; Cristofaro, Brunella; Broqueres-You, Dong; Liu, Chun; Bouvrée, Karine; Zhang, Jiasheng; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Larrivée, Bruno; Jagu, Julia; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Pardanaud, Luc; Machado, Maria J.C.; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Zhuang, Zhen; Simons, Michael; Levy, Bernard I.; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger; Eichmann, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type–specific deletion of the genes encoding Ntn1 in SMCs and Dcc in sympathetic neurons, led to severe and selective reduction of sympathetic innervation and to defective vasoconstriction in resistance arteries. These findings indicate that netrin-1 and DCC are critical for the control of arterial innervation and blood flow regulation in peripheral organs. PMID:24937433

  10. Physiologic assessment of coronary artery fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.C.; Beauvais, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon clinical entity. The most common coronary artery fistula is from the right coronary artery to the right side of the heart, and it is less frequent to the pulmonary artery. The effect of a coronary artery fistula may be physiologically significant because of the steal phenomenon resulting in coronary ischemia. Based on published reports, it is recommended that patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas be considered candidates for elective surgical correction to prevent complications including development of congestive heart failure, angina, subacute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and coronary aneurysm formation with rupture or embolization. A patient is presented in whom treadmill-exercise thallium imaging was effective in determining the degree of coronary steal from a coronary artery fistula, leading to successful corrective surgery.

  11. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  12. Chemical sympathectomy induces arterial accumulation of native and oxidized LDL in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Hachani, Rafik; Dab, Houcine; Sakly, Mohsen; Vicaut, Eric; Callebert, Jacques; Sercombe, Richard; Kacem, Kamel

    2012-01-26

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sympathectomy on plasmatic and arterial native and oxLDL levels, as well as arterial LDL receptors (LDLR) and scavenger receptors in hypercholesterolemic rats, which are normally protected against atherosclerosis. Neonatal Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of either guanethidine for sympathectomy (Gua+HC) or vehicle (HC), then were fed 1% cholesterol for three months. Intact normocholesterolemic rats were used as control of the HC group. Total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol were evaluated in the plasma and the abdominal aorta by an auto-analyzer. Plasmatic and aortic oxLDL and native LDL-apo B100 were assessed by a sandwich ELISA. Aortic and hepatic native LDLR and aortic scavenger receptors (CD36 and SR-A) were quantified at mRNA and protein levels by real time PCR and western immunoblot. The effect of hypercholesterolemia was limited to an increase in plasmatic TC and LDL-cholesterol and a decrease in aortic apoB100 and aortic and hepatic LDLR. Hypercholesterolemia and sympathectomy in combination increased markedly plasmatic and aortic TC, LDL-cholesterol, apo B100 and oxLDL together with aortic scavenger receptors, but reduced markedly aortic and hepatic LDLR. Sympathectomy broke down the rat's protection against hypercholesterolemia by promoting accumulation of native and oxLDL in the aorta via scavenger receptors. PMID:21917529

  13. Hyperdensity of the Basilar Artery on Postmortem CT: A Potential Indicator for Basilar Artery Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Garland, Jack; Tse, Rexson; Beh, Raymond J; Lyons, Timothy J; Cala, Allan D

    2016-06-01

    Basilar artery thrombosis constitutes 1% of all types of stroke, carries a mortality rate of up to 90%, and is one of the rarer causes of sudden death. It leads to brain stem ischemia and commonly presents with impaired consciousness, cranial nerve palsy, hemiplegia or quadriplegia, and sudden collapse. Clinically, the diagnosis of basilar artery thrombosis is made on clinical symptoms, along with a hyperdense basilar artery in antemortem computed tomography (CT) scan. To our knowledge, whether a hyperdense basilar artery indicates basilar artery thrombosis on postmortem CT scan is not documented in the literature. We present a case report of a 55-year-old man who on postmortem CT scan showed a hyperdense basilar artery and was subsequently confirmed to be a fatal basilar artery thrombosis. We suggest that a hyperdense basilar artery on postmortem CT should prompt the pathologist to consider basilar artery thrombosis. PMID:27049662

  14. Total ApoE and ApoE4 Isoform Assays in an Alzheimer's Disease Case-control Study by Targeted Mass Spectrometry (n = 669): A Pilot Assay for Methionine-containing Proteotypic Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Romain; Girod, Marion; Fonbonne, Catherine; Salvador, Arnaud; Clément, Yohann; Lantéri, Pierre; Amouyel, Philippe; Lambert, Jean Charles; Lemoine, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Allelic polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene (ApoE ε2, ApoE ε3 and ApoE ε4 alleles) gives rise to three protein isoforms (ApoE2, ApoE3 and ApoE4) that differ by 1 or 2 amino acids. Inheritance of the ApoE ε4 allele is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The potential diagnostic value of ApoE protein levels in biological fluids (i.e. cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and serum) for distinguishing between AD patients and healthy elderly subjects is subject to great controversy. Although a recent study reported subnormal total ApoE and ApoE4 levels in the plasma of AD patients, other studies have found normal or even elevated protein levels (versus controls). Because all previously reported assays were based on immunoenzymatic techniques, we decided to develop an orthogonal assay based on targeted mass spectrometry by tracking (i) a proteotypic peptide common to all ApoE isoforms and (ii) a peptide that is specific for the ε4 allele. After trypsin digestion, the ApoE4-specific peptide contains an oxidation-prone methionine residue. The endogenous methionine oxidation level was evaluated in a small cohort (n = 68) of heterozygous ε3ε4 carriers containing both healthy controls and AD patients. As expected, the proportion of oxidized residues varied from 0 to 10%, with an average of 5%. We therefore developed a standardized strategy for the unbiased, absolute quantification of ApoE4, based on performic acid oxidization of methionine. Once the sample workflow had been thoroughly validated, it was applied to the concomitant quantification of total ApoE and ApoE4 isoform in a large case-control study (n = 669). The final measurements were consistent with most previously reported ApoE concentration values and confirm the influence of the different alleles on the protein expression level. Our results illustrate (i) the reliability of selected reaction monitoring-based assays and (ii) the value of the oxidization step for unbiased monitoring of

  15. Dietary α-linolenic acid increases the platelet count in ApoE-/- mice by reducing clearance.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Simona; Reiner, Martin F; Lohmann, Christine; Lüscher, Thomas F; Matter, Christian M; Beer, Juerg H

    2013-08-01

    Previously we reported that dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduces atherogenesis and inhibits arterial thrombosis. Here, we analyze the substantial increase in platelet count induced by ALA and the mechanisms of reduced platelet clearance. Eight-week-old male apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed a 0.21g% cholesterol diet complemented by either a high- (7.3g%) or low-ALA (0.03g%) content. Platelet counts doubled after 16 weeks of ALA feeding, whereas the bleeding time remained similar. Plasma glycocalicin and glycocalicin index were reduced, while reticulated platelets, thrombopoietin, and bone marrow megakaryocyte colony-forming units remained unchanged. Platelet contents of liver and spleen were substantially reduced, without affecting macrophage function and number. Glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) shedding, exposure of P-selectin, and activated integrin αIIbβ3 upon activation with thrombin were reduced. Dietary ALA increased the platelet count by reducing platelet clearance in the reticulo-endothelial system. The latter appears to be mediated by reduced cleavage of GPIb by tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme and reduced platelet activation/expression of procoagulant signaling. Ex vivo, there was less adhesion of human platelets to von Willebrand factor under high shear conditions after ALA treatment. Thus, ALA may be a promising tool in transfusion medicine and in high turnover/high activation platelet disorders. PMID:23801636

  16. Mineralization (calcification) of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, M; Pfitzner, R; Wachowiak, J

    1994-01-01

    Mineralogical investigations of calcifications located in coronary vessels were performed on the material obtained from the endarterectomized arteries of 18 patients (15 M, 3 F, aged 36-65) during surgical revascularization procedures consisting in coronary artery bypass grafting. The samples were tested using scanning microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe and neutron activation spectroscopy. The results of analyses were calculated with the use of computer programmes. Two types of mineralization were determined: 1. secret mineralization identified as higher than normal content of elements in biological tissues, not demonstrating any mineral grains, and 2. apparent mineralization, appearing micro- and macroscopically as grains composed mainly of hydroxyapatite containing admixture of carbonate groups, i.e. a mineral identical with apatite present in bones, or as calcification of other tissues (heart valves, lungs etc.). The authors suggest that the phenomenon of mineralization should be taken into consideration in the preventive treatment of coronary atheriosclerosis. PMID:7808039

  17. Management of Carotid Artery Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas S.; Ducic, Yadranko; Gordin, Eli; Stroman, David

    2014-01-01

    With increased awareness and liberal screening of trauma patients with identified risk factors, recent case series demonstrate improved early diagnosis of carotid artery trauma before they become problematio. There remains a need for unified screening criteria for both intracranial and extracranial carotid trauma. In the absence of contraindications, antithrombotic agents should be considered in blunt carotid artery injuries, as there is a significant risk of progression of vessel injury with observation alone. Despite CTA being used as a common screening modality, it appears to lack sufficient sensitivity. DSA remains to be the gold standard in screening. Endovascular techniques are becoming more widely accepted as the primary surgical modality in the treatment of blunt extracranial carotid injuries and penetrating/blunt intracranial carotid lessions. Nonetheless, open surgical approaches are still needed for the treatment of penetrating extracranial carotid injuries and in patients with unfavorable lesions for endovascular intervention. PMID:25136406

  18. ApoL1 levels in high density lipoprotein and cardiovascular event presentation in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Alonso, Rodrigo; Mata, Pedro; Badimon, Lina

    2016-06-01

    HDL composition rather than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels seems to be a key determinant of HDL-induced atheroprotection. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, with lifelong exposure to high LDL levels, show a high prevalence of premature coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that HDL of FH patients might have a modified protein composition and investigated the proteomic signature of HDL obtained from FH patients and their unaffected relatives. HDLs were characterized by 2D electrophoresis/MS in 10 families from the SAFEHEART cohort (3 individuals/family: 2 with genetic FH diagnosis and 1 non-FH relative) clinically characterized and treated as per guidelines. FH patients had lower apoA-I levels and a differential HDL distribution profile of apoL1 and apoA-IV. ELISA validation revealed decreased apoL1 serum levels in FH patients. ApoL1 levels were able to predict presentation of an ischemic cardiac event, and apoL1/HDL-C ratio was associated with the survival rate after the event. FH patients who died because of a fatal cardiac event had lower apoL1 and LCAT content in HDL3 an average of 3.5 years before the event than those who survived. Changes in HDL protein composition could affect patients' prognosis. The proteomic profile of apoL1 is modified in HDLs of high cardiovascular risk patients, and apoL1 plasma levels are significantly lower in serum and in HDL3 of patients that will suffer an adverse cardiac event within 3 years. PMID:27112635

  19. [Cerebral artery thrombosis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Charco Roca, L M; Ortiz Sanchez, V E; Hernandez Gutierrez-Manchon, O; Quesada Villar, J; Bonmatí García, L; Rubio Postigo, G

    2015-11-01

    A 28 year old woman, ASA I, who, in the final stages of her pregnancy presented with signs of neural deficit that consisted of distortion of the oral commissure, dysphagia, dysarthria, and weakness on the left side of the body. She was diagnosed with thrombosis in a segment of the right middle cerebral artery which led to an ischemic area in the right frontal lobe. Termination of pregnancy and conservative treatment was decided, with good resolution of the symptoms. PMID:25698610

  20. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA infarction, no aetiological cause was identified. Unlike the transient nature of symptoms in some cases following unilateral infarction, his deficits persisted on 2-month follow-up. PMID:22798298

  1. Ultrasonic Imaging Of Deep Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.; Heyser, Richard C.; Lecroissette, Dennis H.

    1990-01-01

    Swept-frequency sound replaces pulsed sound. Ultrasonic medical instrument produces images of peripheral and coronary arteries with resolutions higher and at depths greater than attainable by previous ultrasonic systems. Time-delay-spectrometry imager includes scanning, image-processing, and displaying equipment. It sweeps in frequency from 0 to 10 MHz in 20 ms, pauses for 5 ms, and repeats sweep. Intended for use in noninvasive detection and measurement of atherosclerotic lesions.

  2. Aneurysm of the Splenic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, P. D.; Lodge, Brian

    1960-01-01

    This paper records an incidence of 10·4% of aneurysm of the splenic artery in 250 consecutive routine post-mortem examinations. Medial degeneration seemed to be the commonest cause of such aneurysms and although a number were associated with other intraabdominal pathology, including portal hypertension, the association may be fortuitous and not causal. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:13688586

  3. Digital subtraction angiography of a persistent trigeminal artery variant.

    PubMed

    Temizöz, Osman; Genchellac, Hakan; Unlü, Ercüment; Cağli, Bekir; Ozdemir, Hüseyin; Demir, M Kemal

    2010-09-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery variants are described as cerebellar arteries that directly originate from the precavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. This has been observed in 0.18% of cerebral catheter angiograms. On the other hand, a persistent trigeminal artery variant feeding both the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory is very rare. We present this uncommon anomalous artery along with digital subtraction angiography findings and discuss its clinical significance in light of the literature. PMID:19821254

  4. Apolipoprotein B but not LDL Cholesterol Is Associated With Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 2 Diabetic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Seth S.; Qasim, Atif N.; Mehta, Nehal N.; Wolfe, Megan; Terembula, Karen; Schwartz, Stanley; Iqbal, Nayyar; Schutta, Mark; Bagheri, Roshanak; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evidence favors apolipoprotein B (apoB) over LDL cholesterol as a predictor of cardiovascular events, but data are lacking on coronary artery calcification (CAC), especially in type 2 diabetes, where LDL cholesterol may underestimate atherosclerotic burden. We investigated the hypothesis that apoB is a superior marker of CAC relative to LDL cholesterol. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed cross-sectional analyses of white subjects in two community-based studies: the Penn Diabetes Heart Study (N = 611 type 2 diabetic subjects, 71.4% men) and the Study of Inherited Risk of Coronary Atherosclerosis (N = 803 nondiabetic subjects, 52.8% men) using multivariate analysis of apoB and LDL cholesterol stratified by diabetes status. RESULTS In type 2 diabetes, apoB was associated with CAC after adjusting for age, sex, and medications [Tobit regression ratio of increased CAC for 1-SD increase in apoB; 1.36 (95% CI 1.06–1.75), P = 0.016] whereas LDL cholesterol was not [1.09 (0.85–1.41)]. In nondiabetic subjects, both were associated with CAC [apoB 1.65 (1.38–1.96), P < 0.001; LDL cholesterol 1.56 (1.30–1.86), P < 0.001]. In combined analysis of diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, apoB provided value in predicting CAC scores beyond LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratios, and marginally beyond non-HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS Plasma apoB, but not LDL cholesterol, levels were associated with CAC scores in type 2 diabetic whites. ApoB levels may be particularly useful in assessing atherosclerotic burden and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. PMID:19491209

  5. Aberrant ovarian collateral originating from external iliac artery during uterine artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE. PMID:22565531

  6. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  7. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries.

    PubMed

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  8. Coronary artery fistula connecting the left main coronary artery with the superior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidou, C; Gourassas, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery fistulas are rare congenital coronary artery abnormalities, with direct communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber, great vessel or other structure. Description of case We report a case of a large coronary artery fistula connecting the left main coronary artery with the superior vena cava in a 70-year-old patient undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography for a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The patient rejected closure of the fistula and remains asymptomatic on follow-up. Conclusion Angiographic recognition of coronary artery fistulas is important for the appropriate diagnosis and management of patients. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):186-188.

  9. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  10. Endovascular parent artery occlusion of proximal posterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Hidenori; Tanoue, Shunsuke; Teranishi, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Senshu; Magami, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Munetaka; Arai, Hajime

    2016-06-01

    We report two cases of proximal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion (PAO) with coils. In both cases, selective injection from the 4 F distal access catheter clearly showed the perforating arteries arising from the PCA. Case No 1, a 49-year-old woman, was successfully treated with preservation of a paramedian artery. Case No 2, a 54-year-old woman, was treated in the same manner. The patient underwent extensive thalamic infarction after the procedure because of paramedian artery occlusion. Endovascular PAO with coils is feasible for proximal PCA aneurysms; however, preservation of perforating arteries arising from the PCA is mandatory. PMID:25969452

  11. Growing collateral arteries on demand.

    PubMed

    Oh, Charles C; Klein, Jason D; Migrino, Raymond Q; Thornburg, Kent L

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have significantly advanced our understanding of arteriogenesis, raising hope that therapies to increase collateral arterial formation may become important new tools in the treatment of ischemic disease. The most important initiating trigger for arteriogenesis is the marked increase in shear stress which is sensed by the endothelium and leads to characteristic changes. Intracellularly, it was shown that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to increased shear stress, suggesting a role as a possible mechanoreceptor for dynamic and continual monitoring of shear stress. The signal generated by PECAM-1 leads to the activation of the Rho pathway among others. More than 40 genes have been shown to have a shear stress responsive element. The Rho pathway is activated early and appears to be essential to the arteriogenic response as inhibiting it abolished the effect of fluid shear stress. Overexpression of a Rho pathway member, Actin-binding Rho protein (Abra), led to a 60% increase in collateral perfusion over simple femoral artery occlusion. A patent for the Abra gene has been filed recently. It may be a harbinger of a future where collateral arteries grown on demand may become an effective treatment for ischemic vascular disease. PMID:21861827

  12. Management of carotid artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Louridas, George; Junaid, Asad

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify the definition of carotid artery diseases, the appropriateness of screening for disease, investigation and management of patients presenting with transient ischemic attacks, and management of asymptomatic carotid bruits. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using the terms carotid endarterectomy, carotid disease, and carotid stenosis. Most studies offer level II or III evidence. Consensus statements and guidelines from various neurovascular societies were also consulted. MAIN MESSAGE Patients with symptoms of hemispheric transient ischemic attacks associated with >70% stenosis of the internal carotid artery are at highest risk of major stroke or death. Risk is greatest within 48 hours of symptom onset; patients should have urgent evaluation by a vascular surgeon for consideration of carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients with 50% to 69% stenosis might benefit from urgent surgical intervention depending on clinical features and associated comorbidity. Patients with <50% stenosis do not benefit from surgery. Asymptomatic patients with >60% stenosis should be considered for elective CEA. CONCLUSION Symptomatic carotid artery syndromes need urgent carotid duplex evaluation to determine the need for urgent surgery. Those with the greatest degree of stenosis derive the greatest benefit from timely CEA. PMID:16060177

  13. Arterial endofibrosis in professional cyclists

    PubMed Central

    VERALDI, G.F.; MACRÌ, M.; CRISCENTI, P.; SCORSONE, L.; ZINGARETTI, C.C.; GNONI, M.; MEZZETTO, L.

    2015-01-01

    External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis (EIAE) is an uncommon disease usually affecting young, otherwise healthy, patients. It usually involves cyclists but cases have been reported in other groups of endurance athletes. The external iliac artery is the most affected anatomical site but other locations are described too. The precise pathophysiology and long-term evolution of the disease still remain unknown. The diagnosis may be challenging and delayed as the patients usually present symptoms only in extreme conditions and physical and instrumental examinations may be normal at rest. We present two cases of young professional cyclists who suffered of exercise-induced leg pain which led them to reduce running. Both patients were firstly treated with balloon angioplasty that rapidly failed to improve their symptoms. The successive open surgery with endofibrosectomy and autologous saphenous vein closure patch completely resolved physical limitations. EIAE is a rare disease that can induce arterial stenosis, thrombosis, dissection and secondary atheroma. After-exercise ankle-brachial index represents a useful diagnostic criterion. Careful observation of angio-CT may strengthen the suspect. Knowledge of the these features allows a better pre-operative assessment and an early effective treatment. Surgical revascularization remains the gold standard approach. PMID:26888703

  14. Morphology of atherosclerotic coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Margaret N.; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Hieber, Simone Elke; Weitkamp, Timm; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia; Lobrinus, Johannes A.; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Saxer, Till; Müller, Bert

    2012-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the narrowing of vessel diameter and build-up of plaques in coronary arteries, leads to an increase in the shear stresses present, which can be used as a physics-based trigger for targeted drug delivery. In order to develop appropriate nanometer-size containers, one has to know the morphology of the critical stenoses with isotropic micrometer resolution. Micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast mode provides the necessary spatial resolution and contrast. The present communication describes the pros and cons of the conventional and synchrotron radiation-based approaches in the visualization of diseased human and murine arteries. Using registered datasets, it also demonstrates that multi-modal imaging, including established histology, is even more powerful. The tomography data were evaluated with respect to cross-section, vessel radius and maximal constriction. The average cross-section of the diseased human artery (2.31 mm2) was almost an order of magnitude larger than the murine one (0.27 mm2), whereas the minimal radius differs only by a factor of two (0.51 mm versus 0.24 mm). The maximal constriction, however, was much larger for the human specimen (85% versus 49%). We could also show that a plastic model used for recent experiments in targeted drug delivery represents a very similar morphology, which is, for example, characterized by a maximal constriction of 82%. The tomography data build a sound basis for flow simulations, which allows for conclusions on shear stress distributions in stenosed blood vessels.

  15. Anomalous Origin of Left Circumflex Artery

    PubMed Central

    Çitaku, Hajdin; Kamberi, Lulzim; Gorani, Daut; Koçinaj, Dardan; Krasniqi, Xhevdet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The coronary anatomic variation of the left circumflex artery (LCx) is considered as the most common anatomic variation with a separate ostium from the right sinus, and very unusual variation as a proximal branch of right coronary artery (RCA). Case report: We report two cases, the first case is a 64-year-old man with chest pain and with history of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and current smoker, and the second case is a 67-year-old who presented to the emergency department with chest pain and with a past medical history of arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the coronarography of the first case is detected an ectopic left circumflex coronary artery from the right coronary sinus with stenotic changes in RCA and LCx. The second case in the coronary angiography revealed an ectopic left circumflex coronary artery from the proximal part of the right coronary artery with stenotic changes in LAD, RCA and LCx. Based on guidelines for revascularization our patients successfully underwent treatment procedures. We present two cases that because of the atherosclerotic coronary artery disease leads to the need of coronarography find out the presence of coronary artery anomalies. Conclusion: During the coronarography we should think about coronary artery anomaly or missing artery knowing that type of these anomalies, considering that may be a contributing factor in the development of the atherosclerosis determines the method of the treatment. PMID:26843740

  16. True Aneurysm of the Proximal Brachial Artery

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Pinjala; Mahapatra, Sandeep; Rajesh, Ratna

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old farmer presented with complaints of pain in the right upper limb for 1 month and bluish discoloration of the right-hand finger tips with tingling and numbness. He sustained injury to the right upper limb while lifting a heavy object 1 mo previously. There was an ovoid swelling of 4 × 2 cm on the medial aspect of the right arm, 12 cm above the medial epicondyle at the level of the armpit with visible pulsations. There was distal neurovascular deficit. Duplex scan of the right upper limb arterial system revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal right brachial artery, with dampened monophasic flow in the ulnar artery and no flow in the radial artery. Spiral computed tomography angiogram showed the presence of an echogenic periarterial lesion in the proximal brachial artery suggestive of pseudoaneurysm or an extrinsic compression by hematoma. Distal brachial artery was found to have filled with thrombus, with non-opacification of the radial and the distal ulnar artery. The patient was posted for excision of the aneurysmal arterial segment. A 5-cm-long reversed segment of vein graft was interposed in between the cut ends of the brachial artery. Histopathology: Specimen shows a part of the vessel wall composed of intimal, medial, and adventitial layers with intraluminal thrombus showing evidence of recanalization suggestive of true aneurysm of the brachial artery. PMID:26798692

  17. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  18. The clinical anatomy of the conal artery.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Patel, Swetal; Cesmebasi, Alper; Muresian, Horia; Tubbs, R Shane; Spicer, Diane; Dabrowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Coronary arteries have been extensively described and recognized by gross anatomic studies. However, in the clinical setting, the recognition of the conal artery is essential during coronary angiography, as well as certain congenital heart conditions such as tetralogy of Fallot. In order to provide a complete anatomic and physiologic correlation of the actual incidence and distribution of the conal artery we examined 300 formalin fixed hearts with gross dissections and 300 coronary angiograms. The conal artery was identified in all hearts examined and five main patterns were recognized. In Type A (193, 32.1%), the conal artery arose as a branch of the right coronary artery (RCA); in Type B (96, 16%), the conal artery arose from the common coronary ostium with the RCA; in Type C (242, 40.3%), the conal artery took origin from the right aortic sinus as an independent artery; in Type D (48, 8%), multiple conal arteries were present and arose from the RCA as separate branches (32, 66.6%), from a common ostium with the RCA (8, 16.6%) or from the aortic sinus (8, 16.6%); in Type E (22, 3.6%), the conal artery arose as a branch of the right ventricular branch (17, 2.8%) or acute marginal artery (5, 0.8%). The relative prevalence of the five patterns as well as the morphology and the topography of the conal artery varied significantly with the degree of coronary luminal stenosis (as observed during angiography) and also with the degree of hypertrophied ventricular wall (as observed during gross dissections). Clin. Anat. 29:371-379, 2016. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25255889

  19. Mothers&apos; Beliefs about Children&apos;s Learning in Hong Kong and the United States: Implications for Mothers&apos; Child-Based Worth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Lam, Shui-fong

    2013-01-01

    Chinese and American mothers&apos; beliefs about children&apos;s learning and parents&apos; role in it were examined using notions salient in Chinese culture. Mothers from Hong Kong ("n" = 66) and the United States ("n" = 69) indicated their endorsement of the ideas that children&apos;s learning reflects children&apos;s…

  20. Human ApoE Isoforms Differentially Modulate Glucose and Amyloid Metabolic Pathways in Female Brain: Evidence of the Mechanism of Neuroprotection by ApoE2 and Implications for Alzheimer's Disease Prevention and Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Jeriel Thomas-Richard; Ibrahimi, Shaher; Zhao, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Three major genetic isoforms of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, exist in humans and lead to differences in susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the impact of human ApoE isoforms on brain metabolic pathways involved in glucose utilization and amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation, two major areas that are significantly perturbed in preclinical AD. Hippocampal RNA samples from middle-aged female mice with targeted human ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 gene replacement were comparatively analyzed with a qRT-PCR custom array for the expression of 85 genes involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (Igf) signaling. Consistent with its protective role against AD, ApoE2 brain exhibited the most metabolically robust profile among the three ApoE genotypes. When compared to ApoE2 brain, both ApoE3 and ApoE4 brains exhibited markedly reduced levels of Igf1, insulin receptor substrates (Irs), and facilitated glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), indicating reduced glucose uptake. Additionally, ApoE4 brain exhibited significantly decreased Pparg and insulin-degrading enzyme (Ide), indicating further compromised glucose metabolism and Aβ dysregulation associated with ApoE4. Protein analysis showed significantly decreased Igf1, Irs, and Glut4 in ApoE3 brain, and Igf1, Irs, Glut4, Pparg, and Ide in ApoE4 brain compared to ApoE2 brain. These data provide the first documented evidence that human ApoE isoforms differentially affect brain insulin/Igf signaling and downstream glucose and amyloid metabolic pathways, illustrating a potential mechanism for their differential risk in AD. A therapeutic strategy that enhances brain insulin/Igf1 signaling activity to a more robust ApoE2-like phenotype favoring both energy production and amyloid homeostasis holds promise for AD prevention and early intervention. PMID:26402005

  1. Typology of abdominal arteries, with special reference to inferior phrenic arteries and their esophageal branches.

    PubMed

    Piao, D X; Ohtsuka, A; Murakami, T

    1998-08-01

    Origins and distribution of the human inferior phrenic arteries were studied by dissecting 68 Japanese adult cadavers. The inferior phrenic arteries were usually observed as paired (left and right) vessels. Their origins were summarized as follows: a) the aorta itself (85/138 cases, 61.6%), b) the ventro-visceral arteries (celiaco-mesenteric system of the aorta) including the celiac trunk (39/138 cases, 28.2%) and the left gastric artery (4/138 cases, 2.9%), and c) the latero-visceral arteries (adreno-renal system of the aorta) including the middle adrenal artery (4/138 cases, 2.9%) and the renal artery (6/138 cases, 4.3%). The left and right arteries occasionally originated in common trunk from the aorta, celiaco-mesenteric system or adreno-renal system (22/138 cases, 15.9%). A typological diagram explaining these variations is given. The inferior phrenic arteries, especially the left ones, sometimes issued visceral or esophageal branches. This fact indicates that the inferior phrenic arteries are homologous with the celiac trunk and mesenteric arteries. It is further discussed that the celiac trunk and mesenteric arteries are originally paired vessels, through introduction of our previous typological diagram of the abdominal arteries. PMID:9781269

  2. Genetic variation in lipoprotein (a) levels in families enriched for coronary artery disease is determined almost entirely by the apolipoprotein (a) gene locus

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeester, C.A.; Lusis, A.J.; Bu, X.; Gray, R.J.; Rotter, J.I.

    1995-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) is a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein resembling LDL but also containing a large polypeptide designated apolipoprotein (a) (apo[a]). Its levels are highly variable among individuals and, in a number of studies, are strongly correlated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). In an effort to determine which genes control Lp(a) levels, we have studied 25 multiplex families (comprising 298 members) enriched for CAD. The apo(a) gene was genotyped among the families, using a highly informative pulse-field gel electrophoresis procedure. In addition, polymorphisms of the gene for the other major protein of Lp(a), apolipoprotein B (apoB), were examined. Quantitative sib-pair linkage analysis indicates that apo(a) is the major gene controlling Lp(a) levels in this CAD population (P = .001; 99 sib pairs), whereas the apoB gene demonstrated no significant quantitative linkage effect. We estimate that the apo(a) locus accounts for {le}98% of variance of Lp(a) serum levels. Approximately 43% of this variation is explained by size polymorphisms within the apo(a) gene. These results indicate that the apo(a) gene is the major determinant of Lp(a) serum levels not only in the general population but also in a high-risk CAD population. 59 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The association-dissociation behavior of the ApoE proteins: kinetic and equilibrium studies

    PubMed Central

    Garai, Kanchan; Frieden, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E family consists of three major protein isoforms: apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), ApoE3 and ApoE2. The isoforms, which contain 299 residues, differ only by single amino acid changes but of the three only ApoE4 is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s Disease. At μM concentrations lipid-free ApoE exists predominantly as tetramers. In more dilute solutions, lower molecular weight species predominate. Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), intermolecular Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and sedimentation methods we find that the association-dissociation reaction of ApoE can be modeled with a monomer-dimer-tetramer process. Equilibrium constants have been determined from the sedimentation data while the individual rate constants for association and dissociation are determined by measuring the kinetics of dissociation of ApoE and are in agreement with the equilibrium constants. Dissociation kinetics as measured by intermolecular FRET show two phases reflecting the dissociation of tetramer to dimer and of dimer to monomer with dissociation from tetramer to dimer being more rapid than the dimer to monomer dissociation. The rate constants differ for the different ApoE isoforms showing that the association-dissociation process is isoforms specific. Strikingly, the association rate constants are almost two orders of magnitude slower than expected for a diffusion controlled process. Dissociation kinetics were also monitored by tryptophan fluorescence in presence of acrylamide and the data found to be consistent with the monomer-dimer-tetramer model. The approach combining multiple methods establishes the reaction scheme of ApoE self-association. PMID:20923231

  4. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  5. Coronary Artery Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d’Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic “string of beads” that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:25190240

  6. Thrombosis following percutaneous radial artery cannulation.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, I; Sørensen, J; Carlsson, C

    1986-04-01

    A prospective study of the arterial supply of the hand was carried out in 100 ICU patients after cannulation of the radial artery. Patency of the radial artery was checked using a reversed Allen's test and Doppler ultrasonic technique. Furthermore, radial artery angiography was carried out in 15 patients with suspect thrombosis, and the artery was examined by microscopy in four patients at autopsy. Signs of thrombosis, Allen's test and Doppler technique, were found in 33/100 patients. In 10/15 angiograms a thrombosis was visualized, and in 3/4 patients at autopsy a thrombosis was found. The incidence of thrombosis was not correlated to sex, age, size of artery (judged by wrist circumference), cannulation technique or the presence of hypotension. It did, however, correlate to the presence of haematoma at the puncture site. After removal of the cannula recanalisation occurred soon in the majority of cases. PMID:3739580

  7. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kokkalis, Zinon T.; Tolis, Konstantinos E.; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D.; Panagopoulos, Georgios N.; Igoumenou, Vasilios G.; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  8. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Tolis, Konstantinos E; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F

    2016-06-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  9. The symptomatology of megadolicho basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Herpers, M; Lodder, J; Janevski, B; van der Lugt, P J

    1983-01-01

    Cranial nerve dysfunction, obstruction hydrocephalus, signs of brain stem dysfunction, and signs of a space-occupying lesion in the posterior fossa are presumed to be related to a megadolicho basilar artery, if present. Since there are no large series of patients with such vascular anomaly, a bias in relating symptoms with the presence of a megadolicho basilar artery is not excluded. We therefore studied retrospectively the incidence of megadolicho and dolicho basilar artery on cranial CT-scan of 3332 patients of 50 years and older. Patient records were reviewed for the above mentioned symptoms. 12 out of 22 patients with a megadolicho basilar artery and 2 patients out of 40 with a dolicho basilar artery had one or two of these symptoms. It is concluded that a megadolicho basilar artery can cause cranial nerve dysfunction, obstruction hydrocephalus, signs of brain stem dysfunction, and signs of a space-occupying lesion in the posterior fossa. PMID:6317247

  10. Modeling of blood flow in arterial trees.

    PubMed

    Anor, Tomer; Grinberg, Leopold; Baek, Hyoungsu; Madsen, Joseph R; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Karniadakis, George E

    2010-01-01

    Advances in computational methods and medical imaging techniques have enabled accurate simulations of subject-specific blood flows at the level of individual blood cell and in complex arterial networks. While in the past, we were limited to simulations with one arterial bifurcation, the current state-of-the-art is simulations of arterial networks consisting of hundreds of arteries. In this paper, we review the advances in methods for vascular flow simulations in large arterial trees. We discuss alternative approaches and validity of various assumptions often made to simplify the modeling. To highlight the similarities and discrepancies of data computed with different models, computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) and inexpensive one-dimensional (1D) flow simulations in very large arterial networks are employed. Finally, we discuss the possibilities, challenges, and limitations of the computational methods for predicting outcomes of therapeutic interventions for individual patients. PMID:20836052

  11. Chronic Total Artery Occlusions in Noninfarct-Related Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ozeke, Ozcan; Gungor, Mutlu; Topaloglu, Serkan; Aras, Dursun; Ozer, Can

    2014-01-01

    It has been rarely encountered some patients in clinical practice with coronary artery chronic total occlusion (CTO) on angiography but no any clinical history or electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, or left ventriculographic evidence of previous myocardial infarction. These noninfarct-related artery CTO (non-IRA CTO) lesions may be used as a clinical role model of endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms in addition to continuing the process of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical characteristics of patients with non-IRA CTO patients and compared them to those with infarct-related CTO (IRA-CTO). We reviewed our invasive cardiology database searching for the CTO of any major coronary arteries, and assessed whether or not they have the clinical history or electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and left ventriculographic evidence of previous myocardial infarction. Interestingly, we detected that all these patients with non-IRA CTO had diabetes mellitus, and the clinical and demographic features of these non-IRA CTO patients were compared with age- and sex-matched diabetic IRA-CTO patients with regard to conventional coronary risk factors and the angiographic collateral grading system. There were total 99 CTO patients (49 patients with non-IRA CTO and 50 patients with IRA-CTO).All patients with non-IRA CTO had better collateral circulation (96 vs. 40% p < 0.001) compared with those having IRA-CTO. The only significant difference between the groups was the status of current smoking (4 vs. 88%; p < 0.001). The present study showed that the non-IRA CTOs were associated with diabetes mellitus and better collateral development compared with IRA-CTO. In diabetic patients, the concomitant smoking use may be harmful by preventing endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms. PMID:24627613

  12. Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Verlohren, Stefan; Dubrovska, Galyna; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Essin, Kirill; Luft, Friedrich C; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik

    2004-09-01

    Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15302842

  13. Conventional and Advanced Lipid Parameters in Premature Coronary Artery Disease Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sarita; Daga, Mridul Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and has assumed alarming proportions in India with gradual increase in its incidence and prevalence over the last decade. India is in the middle of epidemic of coronary artery disease which is leading cause of hospital admissions, morbidity and mortality. In the Indian population, there is higher tendency to develop CAD at a younger age, which cannot be explained on the basis of conventional lipid parameters. Aim The purpose of this study is to find advanced lipid parameters which correlate better with premature CAD, as compared to the conventional lipid parameters. Materials and Methods Thirty middle aged individuals suffering from premature CAD and 30 age and gender matched healthy individuals without any history of clinical evidence suggestive of CAD were studied. Fasting venous blood samples of all the subjects under study were collected after an overnight fasting and conventional lipid parameters and advanced lipid parameters (i.e. oxidized LDL, Lp (a), ApoA-1, small dense LDL, ApoB) were estimated. Correlation of conventional and advanced lipid parameters with premature CAD and among each other was calculated using Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In our study the values of ox-LDL, sdLDL, Lp (a) and ApoB, total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C were significantly higher while HDL-C and Apo A1 and were significantly lower in cases than in controls. Advanced lipid parameters have higher correlation with premature CAD as compared to conventional lipid parameters. Ox-LDL show the highest correlation coefficient (r=+0.89) among these parameters followed by Lp (a) (r=+0.86) and ApoB (r=+0.79). Conclusion Advanced lipid parameters (i.e. oxidized LDL, Lp (a), ApoA-1, small dense LDL, ApoB) are better discriminator of premature CAD as compared to conventional lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein). Oxidised LDL, small dense

  14. Anatomically corrected malposed great arteries misdiagnosed as transposition of great arteries: Diagnosis on fetal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagnosis of isolated anatomically corrected malposed great arteries on fetal echocardiography at 31 weeks of gestation period. The patient was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of suspected transposition of great arteries.

  15. Anatomically corrected malposed great arteries misdiagnosed as transposition of great arteries: Diagnosis on fetal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagnosis of isolated anatomically corrected malposed great arteries on fetal echocardiography at 31 weeks of gestation period. The patient was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of suspected transposition of great arteries. PMID:27625528

  16. Hepatopancreatic arterial ring: bilateral symmetric typology in human celiaco-mesenteric arterial system.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Motohiro; Horiuchi, Kanji; Nishida, Keiichiro; Taguchi, Takehito; Murakami, Takuro; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2002-10-01

    The celiac and mesenteric arterial system including the left gastric, splenic, common hepatic, and superior mesenteric arteries shows various types of origins, courses, ramifications and anastomoses. In order to explain the various expressions of this system, we have proposed a typological model, in which celiacomesenteric arteries develop as paired or bilaterally symmetrical primordial vessels originated from the anterior aspect of the aorta, and these vessels anastomose each other with longitudinal and horizontal pathways. Here, we report 3 unusual cases characterized by arterial rings, formed by the left gastric, left accessory hepatic, proper hepatic, anterior pancreaticoduodenal, and dorsal pancreatic arteries. The dorsal pancreatic and anterior pancreaticoduodenal arteries are located to the right and left of the embryonic pancreas developing in the dorsal mesentery, respectively. Such hepatopancreatic arterial rings simultaneously containing right and left elements can only be explained using our typological model, in which the concept of paired arteries or bilateral symmetry is introduced. PMID:12530508

  17. Arteries of the hand in patients with scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Janevski, B

    1986-01-01

    The arteriographic features of the arteries of the hand in 12 patients with biopsy proven scleroderma are discussed. The lesions were primarily observed in the proper digital arteries and less frequently in the ulnar artery, the superficial arch and the common digital arteries. In this series the radial artery and the deep palmar arch were never affected. PMID:3639805

  18. Vertebral artery occlusion and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    Ask-Upmark, E; Bickerstaff, E R

    1976-01-01

    If vertebral artery occlusion occurs in degenerative arterial disease it is almost invariably left-sided, but in vertebral artery deficiency syndromes associated with oral contraceptives a striking preponderance of right-sided involvement has been shown. This observation adds support to the view that causes other than changes in the wall of the vessel at the site of occlusion must be sought as an explanation of the occlusion. PMID:1252812

  19. Measuring Beliefs in Centimeters: Private Knowledge Biases Preschoolers&apos; and Adults&apos; Representation of Others&apos; Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    A novel task, using a continuous spatial layout, was created to investigate the degree to which (in centimeters) 3-year-old children&apos;s ("N" = 63), 5-year-old children&apos;s ("N" = 60), and adults&apos; ("N" = 60) own privileged knowledge of the location of an object biased their representation of a…

  20. Prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Noel S; Blanchard, Daniel G; Knowlton, Kirk U; McDivit, Anna M; Pretorius, Victor; Madani, Michael M; Fedullo, Peter F; Kerr, Kim M; Kim, Nick H; Poch, David S; Auger, William R; Daniels, Lori B

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and to correlate their presence with the degree of clot burden. CTEPH is a treatable cause of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Bronchopulmonary collateral vessels have been used as a supplementary diagnostic and prognostic tool for this disease. Coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in this population have not been described. The coronary angiograms of 300 consecutive patients with CTEPH evaluated for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) between January 1, 2007, and May 1, 2014, were examined. Of these patients, 259 (50% male; mean age, 58.3 ± 10.6 years) had cineangiographic images deemed adequate to definitively assess for the presence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals and were included in the final analyses. Pulmonary angiogram reports were reviewed for extent of pulmonary artery obstruction. The coronary angiograms of 259 age- and sex-matched control patients were also examined. Among 259 CTEPH patients with definitive imaging, 34 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals were found in 28 patients (10.8%), versus 1 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collateral among control subjects (0.4%; P < 0.001). Compared with CTEPH patients without collaterals, patients with collaterals had a significantly higher prevalence of total occlusion of their right or left main pulmonary artery (P < 0.001) or lobar arteries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in CTEPH patients undergoing coronary angiography for possible PTE is approximately 11%. These vessels are associated with more severe pulmonary artery occlusion. PMID:26064456

  1. Unusual Systemic Artery to Pulmonary Artery Malformation Without Evidence of Systemic Disease, Trauma or Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim; Keller, Frederick S.

    2006-10-15

    Connections between the systemic and pulmonary arterial systems are rare conditions that can be due to either congenital or acquired diseases such as anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal lung, pulmonary sequestration, and systemic supply to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Herein, a unique case of systemic artery to pulmonary arterial malformation and its endovascular treatment in a patient with no history of the usual etiologies is reported.

  2. Continuous blood gas monitoring in femoral arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlain, Les A.; Spar, Steven M.; Dellinger, Bart

    1995-05-01

    Continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring is a potentially valuable tool in the surgical and intensive care arenas. Patient oxygenation and acid base status can change rapidly and without warning. The ability to monitor pHa, PaCO2 and PaO2 in arterial blood will be a major medical advance for the anesthesiologist and intensivist. Intra-arterial blood gas sensors are typically placed in radial arteries. In certain patient populations accurate monitoring is not possible in radial arteries due to arterial environmental factors such as hypotension, vasoconstriction and atherosclerotic disease. These same factors can make radial cannulation difficult resulting in traumatic catheter insertion, thereby further compromising flow conditions. In situations where radial artery flow is expected to be compromised, selecting a large vessel for sensor placement is desirable. We report an initial feasibility study of our blood gas monitoring system using the femoral artery as the sensing site. Clinical results are presented as well as potential advantages and disadvantages associated with monitoring in the femoral artery.

  3. A Biomechanical Model of Artery Buckling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-01-01

    The stability of arteries under blood pressure load is essential to the maintenance of normal arterial function and the loss of stability can lead to tortuosity and kinking that are associated with significant clinical complications. However, mechanical analysis of arterial bent buckling is lacking. To address this issue, this paper presents a biomechanical model of arterial buckling. Using a linear elastic cylindrical arterial model, the mechanical equations for arterial buckling were developed and the critical buckling pressure was found to be a function of the wall stiffness (Young’s modulus), arterial radius, length, wall thickness, and the axial strain. Both the model equations and experimental results demonstrated that the critical pressure is related to the axial strain. Arteries may buckle and become tortuous due to reduced (sub-physiological) axial strain, hypertensive pressure, and a weakened wall. These results are in accordance with, and provide a possible explanation to the clinical observations that these changes are the risk factors for arterial tortuosity and kinking. The current model is also applicable to veins and ureters. PMID:17689541

  4. Noninvasive imaging in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Heo, Ran; Nakazato, Ryo; Kalra, Dan; Min, James K

    2014-09-01

    Noninvasive cardiac imaging is widely used to evaluate the presence of coronary artery disease. Recently, with improvements in imaging technology, noninvasive imaging has also been used for evaluation of the presence, severity, and prognosis of coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography and MRI of coronary arteries provide an anatomical assessment of coronary stenosis, whereas the hemodynamic significance of a coronary artery stenosis can be assessed by stress myocardial perfusion imaging, such as SPECT/PET and stress MRI. For appropriate use of multiple imaging modalities, the strengths and limitations of each modality are discussed in this review. PMID:25234083

  5. Supravalvular aortic stenosis after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuya; Koide, Masaaki; Kunii, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazumasa; Kanzaki, Tomohito; Ohashi, Yuko

    2016-07-01

    Supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of transposition of the great arteries is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. The narrowed ascending aorta was replaced with a graft. The right pulmonary artery was transected to approach the ascending aorta which adhered severely to the main pulmonary trunk, and we obtained a good operative field. PMID:25957091

  6. Anomalous course of the external carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Katsushi

    2016-09-01

    The course and the branching patterns of the external carotid artery were investigated macroscopically in a total of 550 bodies or 1100 head sides of Japanese subjects, donated for student dissection at Kumamoto University from 1994 to 2014. With the exception of 14 head sides, the external carotid arteries running between the posterior belly of the digastric and stylohyoid muscles were found in 42 (3.87 %) out of 1086 head sides. Strictly speaking, they passed between the stylohyoid muscle and the stylohyoid branch of the facial nerve in 23 out of these 42 head sides. In the remaining 19 instances, the stylohyoid branch of the facial nerve was cut and its relationship to the external carotid artery was not clear. The external carotid artery running lateral to the intact stylohyoid branch of the facial nerve, medial to the digastric muscle was not found. The external carotid arteries running lateral to the digastric muscle were found in 4 (0.37 %) out of 1086 head sides. As a result, it is proposed that plural, potential courses of the external carotid artery originally exist and that some parts of such potential courses remain as branches of the external carotid artery in the usual instance, while the anomalous courses of the external carotid artery are induced mainly by anastomosis between the muscular branches supplying the wall of the head and neck in contrast to the usual external carotid artery induced mainly by the branches originally supplying the pharynx. PMID:26439732

  7. Noninvasive Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Ran; Nakazato, Ryo; Kalra, Dan; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive cardiac imaging is widely used to evaluate the presence of coronary artery disease. Recently, with improvements in imaging technology, noninvasive imaging has also been used for evaluation of the presence, severity, and prognosis of coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography and MRI of coronary arteries provide an anatomical assessment of coronary stenosis, whereas the hemodynamic significance of a coronary artery stenosis can be assessed by stress myocardial perfusion imaging, such as SPECT/PET and stress MRI. For appropriate use of multiple imaging modalities, the strengths and limitations of each modality are discussed in this review. PMID:25234083

  8. Arterial anatomy of the hallucal sesamoids.

    PubMed

    Rath, Bjoern; Notermans, Hans-Peter; Frank, Daniel; Walpert, Juergen; Deschner, James; Luering, Christian M; Koeck, Franz X; Koebke, Juergen

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones of the hallux. Twenty-two feet from adult cadavers were injected with epoxide resin or an acrylic polymer in methyl methacrylate (Acrifix) and subsequently processed by two slice plastination methods and the enzyme maceration technique. Afterwards, the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones was studied. The first plantar metatarsal artery provided a medial branch to the medial sesamoid bone. The main branch of the first plantar metatarsal artery continued its course distally along the lateral side of the lateral sesamoid and supplied it. The supplying arteries penetrated the sesamoid bones on the proximal, plantar, and distal sides. The analysis and cataloging of the microvascular anatomy of the sesamoids revealed the first plantar metatarsal artery as the main arterial source to the medial and lateral sesamoid bones. In addition, the first plantar metatarsal artery ran along the lateral plantar side of the lateral sesamoid bone, suggesting that this artery is at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as hallux valgus surgery. PMID:19644971

  9. Relevance of apolipoprotein E4 for the lipid profile of Brazilian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Souza, D R S; Nakachima, L; Biagioni, R B; Nakazone, M A; Pinhel, M A S; Trindade, D M; Mafra, V T; Tácito, L H B; Martin, J F V; Pinheiro Júnior, S; Brandão, A C

    2007-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE - e2, e3, e4 alleles) plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, with the e4 considered to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the apoE polymorphisms in Brazilians with CAD and their influence on the lipid profile and other risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking). Two hundred individuals were examined: 100 patients with atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography and 100 controls. Blood samples were drawn to determine apoE polymorphisms and lipid profile. As expected, the e3 allele was prevalent in the CAD (0.87) and non-CAD groups (0.81; P = 0.099), followed by the e4 allele (0.09 and 0.14, respectively; P = 0.158). The e3/3 (76 and 78%) and e3/4 (16 and 23%) were the most common genotypes for patients and controls, respectively. The lipid profile was altered in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), independently of the e4 allele. However, in the controls this allele was prevalent in individuals with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels only (odds ratio = 2.531; 95% CI = 1.028-6.232). The frequency of risk factors was higher in the CAD group (P < 0.05), but their association with the lipid profile was not demonstrable in e4 carriers. In conclusion, the e4 allele is not associated with CAD or lipid profile in patients with atherosclerosis. However, its frequency in the non-CAD group is associated with increased levels of LDL-cholesterol, suggesting an independent effect of the e4 allele on lipid profile when the low frequency of other risk factors in this group is taken into account. PMID:17273655

  10. Citreoviridin Enhances Atherogenesis in Hypercholesterolemic ApoE-Deficient Mice via Upregulating Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; Sun, Tao; Li, Cheng; Liu, Jian-Bao; Li, Qun-Wei; Jiang, Bao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory response are early events during initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In vitro studies have described that CIT markedly upregulates expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 of endothelial cells, which result from NF-κB activation induced by CIT. In order to determine whether it plays a role in atherogenesis in vivo, we conducted the study to investigate the effects of CIT on atherosclerotic plaque development and inflammatory response in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Five-week-old apoE-/- mice were fed high-fat diets and treated with CIT for 15 weeks, followed by assay of atherosclerotic lesions. Nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected in serum. Levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), VEGF, and ET-1 in plaque areas of artery walls were examined. NF-κB p65 expression and NF-κB activation in aorta also were assessed. CIT treatment significantly augmented atherosclerotic plaques and increased expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, VEGF and ET-1 in aorta. Mechanistic studies showed that activation of NF-κB was significantly elevated by CIT treatment, indicating the effect of CIT on atherosclerosis may be regulated by activation of NF-κB. PMID:25933220

  11. Carotid Artery Stenting versus Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gahremanpour, Amir; Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    For about 2 decades, investigators have been comparing carotid endarterectomy with carotid artery stenting in regard to their effectiveness and safety in treating carotid artery stenosis. We conducted a systematic review to summarize and appraise the available evidence provided by randomized trials, meta-analyses, and registries comparing the clinical outcomes of the 2 procedures. We searched the MEDLINE, SciVerse Scopus, and Cochrane databases and the bibliographies of pertinent textbooks and articles to identify these studies. The results of clinical trials and, consequently, the meta-analyses of those trials produced conflicting results regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety of carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. These conflicting results arose because of differences in patient population, trial design, outcome measures, and variability among centers in the endovascular devices used and in operator skills. Careful appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses, particularly the most recent and largest National Institutes of Healthsponsored trial (the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs Stenting Trial [CREST]), showed that carotid stenting and endarterectomy were associated with similar rates of death and disabling stroke. Within the 30-day periprocedural period, carotid stenting was associated with higher risks of stroke, especially for patients aged >70 years, whereas carotid endarterectomy was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction. The slightly higher cost of stenting compared with endarterectomy was within an acceptable range by cost-effectiveness standards. We conclude that carotid artery stenting is an equivalent alternative to carotid endarterectomy when patient age and anatomy, surgical risk, and operator experience are considered in the choice of treatment approach. PMID:22949763

  12. Arrhythmias in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rajdev, Archana; Garan, Hasan; Biviano, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are important contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Such patients manifest a substrate resulting from altered autonomics, repolarization abnormalities, and ischemia. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and flutter are associated with worsened outcomes, and maintenance of sinus rhythm is a goal. Sudden death is a relatively common issue, though the contribution of malignant ventricular arrhythmias versus bradyarrhythmias differs from non-PAH patients. Congenital heart disease patients with PAH benefit from catheter ablation of medically refractory arrhythmias. Clinical studies of defibrillator/pacemaker therapy for primary prevention against sudden death in PAH patients are lacking. PMID:23009914

  13. Arrhythmias in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rajdev, Archana; Garan, Hasan; Biviano, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are important contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Such patients manifest a substrate resulting from altered autonomics, repolarization abnormalities, and ischemia. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and flutter are associated with worsened outcomes, and maintenance of sinus rhythm is a goal. Sudden death is a relatively common issue, though the contribution of malignant ventricular arrhythmias versus bradyarrhythmias differs from non-PAH patients. Congenital heart disease patients with PAH benefit from catheter ablation of medically refractory arrhythmias. Clinical studies of defibrillator/pacemaker therapy for primary prevention against sudden death in PAH patients are lacking. PMID:23009914

  14. Functional arteries grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niklason, L E; Gao, J; Abbott, W M; Hirschi, K K; Houser, S; Marini, R; Langer, R

    1999-04-16

    A tissue engineering approach was developed to produce arbitrary lengths of vascular graft material from smooth muscle and endothelial cells that were derived from a biopsy of vascular tissue. Bovine vessels cultured under pulsatile conditions had rupture strengths greater than 2000 millimeters of mercury, suture retention strengths of up to 90 grams, and collagen contents of up to 50 percent. Cultured vessels also showed contractile responses to pharmacological agents and contained smooth muscle cells that displayed markers of differentiation such as calponin and myosin heavy chains. Tissue-engineered arteries were implanted in miniature swine, with patency documented up to 24 days by digital angiography. PMID:10205057

  15. ARTERIAL EPONYMS IN GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

    PubMed

    Kutia, S A; Kiselev, V V; Lyashchenko, O I

    2015-01-01

    Eponym--name of the disease, certain structure or method after the person who usually first discovered and described them. Eponyms are widely spread in medicine which appeared to be in the area of a great interest for a lot of scientists. They can serve as a reflection of the evolution of the medical knowledge and making up the majority of anatomical terms. The article describes 12 arterial eponyms of the gastrointestinal tract giving a full anatomical description. It also gives an explanation of why and how those structures were named after certain scientists and what contribution they've made into the development of medicine. PMID:26817114

  16. Molecular controls of arterial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Formation of arterial vasculature, here termed arteriogenesis, is a central process in embryonic vascular development as well as in adult tissues. While the process of capillary formation, angiogenesis, is relatively well understood, much remains to be learned about arteriogenesis. Recent discoveries point to the key role played by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in control of this process and to newly identified control circuits that dramatically influence its activity. The latter can present particularly attractive targets for a new class of therapeutic agents capable of activation of this signaling cascade in a ligand-independent manner, thereby promoting arteriogenesis in diseased tissues. PMID:25953926

  17. Healthier Arteries May Lower Dementia Risk in Old Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... calcium. Calcium-clogged arteries -- also called atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries -- are linked to increased risk ... that these findings show only an association between hardening of the arteries and dementia, they don't ...

  18. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease may not cause signs or symptoms until it severely narrows or blocks a carotid artery. Signs and symptoms may include a bruit, a ...

  19. Diagnosis and therapy of coronary artery disease: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Nuclear cardiology; Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Therapy of angina pectoris; Psychosocial aspects of coronary artery disease; Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease; and The epidemiology of coronary artery disease.

  20. Broadening the Scope of PDS Liaisons&apos; Roles in Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, JoAnne; Gomez, Diane W.

    2014-01-01

    Professional Development School liaisons are accustomed to developing relationships between their respective universities and partner schools. When the partner school is also a &apos;&apos;full service&apos;&apos; or &apos;'community'&apos; school, the partnership&apos;s dynamics change. This article describes the expanded roles of two…

  1. Why Was Kelvin&apos;s Estimate of the Earth&apos;s Age Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This is a companion to our previous paper in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry&apos;s work, of a graph of ln "y" versus "t" when "y" is an exponential function of "t". This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin&apos;s (William Thomson&apos;s) estimate of the Earth&apos;s age was…

  2. A case with tracheo-innominate artery fistula. Successful management of endovascular embolization of innominate artery.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kenji; Enatsu, Kaori; Nakayama, Masahiko; Uchida, Takatoshi; Takahashi, Haruo

    2005-06-01

    Tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIF) is known as a fatal complication after tracheostomy. We report a 9-year-old girl with early hypoxic encephalopathy who had a tracheo-innominate artery fistula with exsanguinating hemorrhage from her tracheostoma 10 months after tracheostomy. After temporary control of bleeding, embolization of the innominate artery was performed. The patient has remained well 1 year after the procedure. We reviewed the aetiology, diagnosis and management of the tracheo-innominate fistula, and findings suggest that endovascular embolization of the innominate artery may be an appropriate treatment for patients with tracheo-innominate artery fistula. PMID:15917179

  3. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery associated with monocular blindness and external carotid-vertebral artery anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Suo; Zhang, Hong T.; Zhang, Dao P.; Zhang, Shu L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present 2 rare cases of persistent embryonic anastomoses. In one case, the patient presented with persistent trigeminal artery along with multiple foci of cerebral infarction as well as central retinal artery thrombosis. In the other case, the patient had direct anastomosis of the vertebral artery with ipsilateral external carotid artery as well as pontine infarction, aneurysm, and unilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral artery. The findings in these cases may shed light on the clinical presentation of such persistent anastomoses and aid their detection in clinical settings. PMID:25935186

  4. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery associated with monocular blindness and external carotid-vertebral artery anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Suo; Zhang, Hong T; Zhang, Dao P; Zhang, Shu L

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present 2 rare cases of persistent embryonic anastomoses. In one case, the patient presented with persistent trigeminal artery along with multiple foci of cerebral infarction as well as central retinal artery thrombosis. In the other case, the patient had direct anastomosis of the vertebral artery with ipsilateral external carotid artery as well as pontine infarction, aneurysm, and unilateral hypoplasia of the vertebral artery. The findings in these cases may shed light on the clinical presentation of such persistent anastomoses and aid their detection in clinical settings. PMID:25935186

  5. Can the Anesthesiologist Use the Radial Artery for Monitoring After Transradial Artery Catheterization?

    PubMed

    Awad, Hamdy; Quevedo, Eduardo; Abas, Motaz; Brown, Michelle; Satiani, Bhagwan; Capers, Quinn; Starr, Jean E

    2015-06-15

    The use of transradial coronary angiography and intervention is growing because of its advantages over the femoral approach. However, the small size of the radial artery can contribute to complications. We present a case of an in situ access complication of transradial coronary artery catheterization. It is important for the anesthesiologist to know about the short-term and long-term consequences of this intervention, which could lead to narrowing of the artery even beyond the site of puncture. Understanding these changes could help anesthesiologists make better decisions about using the radial artery for monitoring after transradial coronary artery catheterization procedures. PMID:26050247

  6. Drugs induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Seferian, Andrei; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Savale, Laurent; Günther, Sven; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification, PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly appetite suppressant drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used but are also considered as possible risk factors for PAH. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, in part reversible after its withdrawal. Recently several studies raised the potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. Other possible risk factors for PAH include: nasal decongestants, like phenylpropanolamine, dietary supplement - L-Tryptophan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, pergolide and other drugs that could act on 5HT2B receptors. Interestingly, PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drugs induced PAH. PMID:23972547

  7. Iranian Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Fanak; Sharif-Kashani, Babak; Malek Mohammad, Majid; Saliminejad, Leila; Monjazebi, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a fatal disorder with a prevalence of 8.6 per million. We introduce a registry website for IPAH and PAH patients ( www.IPAH.ir) for access and efficient delivery of government-aided and subsidized antihypertensive medications. Materials and Methods: The IPAH registry was opened in November 2009. Information of IPAH and PAH patients with a username and password were uploaded in the site. Data entry was possible only via the physicians and healthcare organizations via internet that were given a personalized username and password for entry. Following the patients’ profile submission, a scientific committee composed of a cardiologist and a pulmonologist who were selected by the Ministry of Health of Iran (MOH), evaluated the data. The eligibility of the patient to receive the medications was confirmed after evaluation. If the patient was eligible, 82% of the Bosentan cost was paid by MOH. Results: To date, one hundred and sixteen patients (82 females, 34 males) have been registered. The mean pulmonary artery pressure by right heart catheterization was 69.24±17 mmHg (ranging from 35 to 110 mmHg). Conclusion: The first online Iranian registry program for IPAH and PAH patients is believed to supply essential information for health care providers in the field. PMID:26528365

  8. On the Relations between Parents&apos; Ideals and Children&apos;s Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents&apos; ideals can enhance children&apos;s autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children&apos;s autonomy. After describing the concept of "ideals" and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of autonomy, de Ruyter and…

  9. Master&apos;s Degree Learners&apos; Use of Theory in Designing Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtecki, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Educational institutions offering a master&apos;s degree program in instructional design incorporate instructional design theory into the master&apos;s degree course offerings. The responsibility for the student is to develop coursework. Master&apos;s degree learners will use instructional design theory to develop course materials. This study…

  10. James Baldwin&apos;s "Everybody&apos;s Protest Novel": Educating Our Responses to Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to establish--and explore--James Baldwin&apos;s significance for educational theory. Through a close reading of "Everybody&apos;s Protest Novel", I show that Baldwin&apos;s thinking is an important (if unrecognized) precursor to the work of Stanley Cavell and Cora Diamond, and is relevant to a number of…

  11. The Impact of Adolescents&apos; Dyslexia on Parents&apos; and Their Own Educational Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimkute, Laura; Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the role that adolescents&apos; dyslexia plays in their educational expectations, as well as their parents&apos; expectations concerning their offspring&apos;s future education. To investigate this, 170 adolescents were asked to report their educational expectations on two occasions while they were still attending…

  12. Japanese Children&apos;s Reactions to Family Photographs: Associations with Mothers&apos; Attachment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Umemura, Tomo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in children&apos;s responses to their family photographs within a sample of Japanese 6-year-olds ("N"?=?44), exploring associations with their mothers&apos; attachment status. The differences in children&apos;s photo reactions were captured by a 5-point continuous scale to rate how engaged children were…

  13. Primary Health Care Providers&apos; Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson&apos;s Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers&apos; (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson&apos;s disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson&apos;s disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure…

  14. Teaching Laura Kipnis&apos;s "Love&apos;s Labors" in "Ways of Reading"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fike, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay describes a method of teaching a very challenging anthology piece: Laura Kipnis&apos;s "Love&apos;s Labors" (chapter 1 of her 2003 "Against Love: A Polemic"). The method, although designed for a critical thinking course, should also provide resources for those who teach Kipnis&apos;s work in writing courses. Using…

  15. Calculus Students&apos; and Instructors&apos; Conceptualizations of Slope: A Comparison across Academic Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Viglietti, Janine; Martin, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    This study considers tertiary calculus students&apos; and instructors&apos; conceptualizations of slope. Qualitative techniques were employed to classify responses to 5 items using conceptualizations of slope identified across various research settings. Students&apos; responses suggest that they rely on procedurally based conceptualizations of…

  16. Head Teachers&apos; Experiences of School Inspection under Ofsted&apos;s January 2012 Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on head teachers&apos; experiences of inspection under Ofsted&apos;s revised school inspection framework, their views of its principles and its implications for school leaders and leadership. The article draws on findings from a mixed-methods study to show that inspections are more focused on pupils&apos; attainment and…

  17. White Teachers&apos; Racial Identities, Perceptions of Students&apos; Behaviors, and Symptoms of Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cynthia E.

    2013-01-01

    Educational research has examined factors contributing to teachers&apos; burnout symptoms, including their perceptions of student behaviors (Ingersoll, 2003). Interestingly, teacher and students&apos; races have been differentially related to teachers&apos; perceptions of student behavior (Downey & Pribesh, 2004); this disparity in perceptions…

  18. Individual Differences in Children&apos;s and Parents&apos; Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("&apos;Dogs&apos; bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children&apos;s learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  19. SIRT1 reduces endothelial activation without affecting vascular function in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Sokrates; Schäfer, Nicola; Breitenstein, Alexander; Besler, Christian; Winnik, Stephan; Lohmann, Christine; Heinrich, Kathrin; Brokopp, Chad E.; Handschin, Christoph; Landmesser, Ulf; Tanner, Felix C.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Matter, Christian M.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to progression of atherosclerosis, at least in part by causing endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory activation. The class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated in extension of lifespan. In the vasculature,SIRT1 gain-of-function using SIRT1 overexpression or activation has been shown to improve endothelial function in mice and rats via stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS). However, the effects of SIRT1 loss-of-function on the endothelium in atherosclerosis remain to be characterized. Thus, we have investigated the endothelial effects of decreased endogenous SIRT1 in hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- mice. We observed no difference in endothelial relaxation and eNOS (Ser1177) phosphorylation between 20-week old male atherosclerotic ApoE-/- SIRT1+/- and ApoE-/- SIRT1+/+ mice. However, SIRT1 prevented endothelial superoxide production, inhibited NF-κB signaling, and diminished expression of adhesion molecules. Treatment of young hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- SIRT1+/- mice with lipopolysaccharide to boost NF-κB signaling led to a more pronounced endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 as compared to ApoE-/- SIRT1+/+ mice. In conclusion, endogenous SIRT1 diminishes endothelial activation in ApoE-/- mice, but does not affect endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. PMID:20606253

  20. Gene-Environment Interaction of ApoE Genotype and Combat Exposure on PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Michael J.; Genderson, Margo; Grant, Michael D.; Logue, Mark; Zink, Tyler; McKenzie, Ruth; Franz, Carol E.; Panizzon, Matthew; Lohr, James B.; Jerskey, Beth; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Factors determining who develops PTSD following trauma are not well understood. The €4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is associated with dementia and unfavorable outcome following brain insult. PTSD is also associated with dementia. Given evidence that psychological trauma adversely affects the brain, we hypothesized that the apoE genotype moderates effects of psychological trauma on PTSD pathogenesis. To investigate the moderation of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and combat exposure, we used 172 participants with combat trauma sustained during the Vietnam War. PTSD symptoms were the dependent variable and number of combat experiences, apoE genotype, and the combat experiences × apoE genotype interaction were predictors. We also examined the outcome of a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 39) versus no PTSD diagnosis (n = 131). The combat × apoE genotype interaction was significant for both PTSD symptoms (P = .014) and PTSD diagnosis (P = .009). ApoE genotype moderates the relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of PTSD is not well understood, the €4 allele is related to reduced resilience of the brain to insult. Our results are consistent with the €4 allele influencing the effects of psychological trauma on the brain, thereby affecting the risk of PTSD. PMID:24132908

  1. Does Play Matter to Parents? Taiwanese Parents&apos; Perceptions of Child&apos;s Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of Taiwanese parents&apos; perceptions of child&apos;s play. Data were collected via parent questionnaires. To ensure greater variability in parents&apos; backgrounds, kindergartens with families from different social backgrounds were recruited. A total sample of 142 parents with…

  2. Influence of Mothers&apos; Education on Children&apos;s Maths Achievement in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Ngware, Moses; Ciera, James

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that fathers&apos; level of education predicts achievement of both boys and girls, with significantly greater effect for boys. Similarly, mothers&apos; level of education predicts the achievement of girls but not boys. This study tests the mother-child education achievement hypothesis, by examining the effect of mothers&apos;…

  3. Central retinal artery pressure and carotid artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, RAN; PENG, XIAO-YAN; YOU, QI-SHENG; JIAO, LI-QUN; JONAS, JOST B.

    2016-01-01

    The central retinal artery (CRA), which can be non-invasively examined with ophthalmoscopy, may be regarded as an extracranial part of the cerebrovascular system. Assessment of CRA pressure may be of help in assessing the impediment of the intracranial blood circulation in patients with a carotid artery stenosis (CAS). The aim of this study was to explore the potential associations between diastolic central retinal artery pressure (diastCRAP) and CAS. The prospective longitudinal clinical observational study included patients with CAS and a control group without CAS. diastCRAP was assessed using ophthalmodynamometry. The study group consisted of 95 patients with CAS (50 of whom had >75%CAS and underwent surgery; the surgical study group) and a control group of 64 individuals without CAS. In all study participants, a lower diastCRAP was significantly associated with a higher degree of CAS (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that a higher CAS degree was significantly (correlation coefficient: r=0.75) associated with a higher brachial diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001) and lower diastCRAP (P<0.001). Within the surgical study group at the baseline of the study, diastCRAP was significantly lower at the surgical side than at the contralateral side (P=0.02). The diastCRAP on the surgical side increased significantly (P<0.001) after surgery. In the surgical study group at baseline, diastCRAP on the surgical side was not significantly associated with brachial diastolic blood pressure (P=0.22), whereas after surgery, diastCRAP was significantly associated with brachial diastolic blood pressure (P=0.001). DiastCRAP was found to be significantly and linearly correlated with the degree of CAS in intra-individual inter-eye, inter-individual and intra-individual follow-up comparisons. The strong and linear association between diastCRAP and the degree of CAS suggest that diastCRAP should be explored further for use as an indicator of cerebrovascular status. PMID:26998005

  4. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis. No Drawings

  5. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis.

  6. Selective Arterial Embolization of Idiopathic Priapism

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Gary S.; Braunstein, Larry; Ball, David S.; Roberto, Paul J.; Reich, Jeffrey; Hanno, Phillip

    1996-11-15

    We report a case of idiopathic priapism that was only identified as high-flow or arterial priapism after drainage of the corpora cavernosa. Following failure of conservative and surgical treatment attempts, two consecutive embolizations of a unilateral penile artery were performed with gelgoam particles.

  7. Experiments On Flow In A Coronary Artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug-Yon; Liem, Timothy K.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on simulated flow of blood in atherosclerotic human coronary artery. Experiments performed on polyurethane cast made from S-shaped coronary artery of cadaver. Sucrose solution with viscosity of blood pumped through cast at physiologically realistic rates, and flow made pulsatile by mechanism alternately compressing and releasing elastic tube just upstream of cast.

  8. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M. Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  9. PULMONARY ARTERY ACCELERATED FLOW REVEALING HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Tony; Chehab, Ghassan; Saliba, Zakhia; Smayra, Tarek; Baz, Maria; Abdo, Lynn; Haddad, Fady; Abdel-Massih, Tony

    2016-01-01

    We present a case in which transthoracic echocardiography was the first diagnostic tool to suspect mediastinal Hodgkin's lymphoma by revealing a change in the hemodynamic of left pulmonary artery flow, and it was used as a follow-up method for monitoring treatment efficacy by demonstrating a normalization of pulmonary artery hemodynamics. PMID:27169170

  10. Megadolicho vascular malformation of the intracranial arteries.

    PubMed

    Lodder, J; Janevski, B; van der Lugt, P J

    1981-01-01

    A patient is presented suffering a hemiparesis. Megadolicho-vascular malformation of the intracranial part of the internal carotid arteries and some of its branches and of the basilar artery was suggested by CT and confirmed by angiography. The value of CT compared with angiography in relation to intracranial megadolicho vascular malformations is discussed. PMID:6273040

  11. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Extensive Arterial Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Renee Frances; Barbeau, L. Daphna Yasova; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Beegle, Richard D.; Williams, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Goldenhar Syndrome is characterized by craniofacial, ocular and vertebral defects secondary to abnormal development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vertebrae. Other findings include cardiac and vascular abnormalities. Though these associations are known, the specific anomalies are not well defined. We present a 7-month-old infant with intermittent respiratory distress that did not improve with respiratory interventions. Echocardiogram suggested a double aortic arch. Cardiac CT angiogram confirmed a right arch and aberrant, stenotic left subclavian artery, dilation of the main pulmonary artery, and agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. Repeat echocardiograms were concerning for severely dilated coronary arteries. Given dilation, a rheumatologic workup ensued, only identifying few weakly positive autoantibodies. Further imaging demonstrated narrowing of the aorta below the renal arteries and extending into the common iliac arteries and proximal femoral arteries. Given a physical exam devoid of rheumatologic findings, only weakly positive autoantibodies, normal inflammatory markers, and presence of the coronary artery dilation, the peripheral artery narrowings were not thought to be vasculitic. This case illustrates the need to identify definitive anomalies related to Goldenhar Syndrome. Although this infant's presentation is rare, recognition of specific vascular findings will help differentiate Goldenhar Syndrome from other disease processes. PMID:26688769

  12. Teachers&apos; Prestige in Spain: Probing the Public&apos;s and the Teachers&apos; Contrary Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Díaz, Víctor; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We use the results of a public opinion survey we carried out in 2012 on a sample of the Spanish adult population to offer a plausible explanation of one of the main conundrums of primary and secondary school teachers&apos; prestige, not only in Spain, i.e. that, contrary to public discourse and to teachers&apos; perceptions, this prestige has not…

  13. Fusiform aneurysm of a persistent trigeminal artery associated with rare intracranial arterial variations and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kimball, David; Ples, Horia; Kimball, Heather; Miclaus, Gratian D; Matusz, Petru; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal artery is one of four primitive anastomoses between the internal carotid artery and vertebrobasilar system that regresses in the sixth week of fetal development. A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is generally an incidental finding but may also be associated with intracranial vascular pathologies such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and cranial nerve compression syndromes. We present an extremely rare case of a right PTA with an associated bleeding fusiform aneurysm located in the carotidian (lateral) part of the PTA. In addition, this rare anatomic variation was associated with bilateral absence of the posterior communicating arteries, a left posterior cerebral artery originating from the left internal carotid artery, and agenesis of the A1 segment of the left anterior cerebral artery. PMID:25053265

  14. Basilar artery aneurysm at a persistent trigeminal artery junction. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, G B; Conti, M L M; Veiga, J C E; Jory, M; Souza, R B

    2011-09-01

    The trigeminal artery is an anastomosis between the embryonic precursors of the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems, and may persist into adult life. The association of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) with cerebral aneurysm is well documented in the literature and, in general, aneurysms are located in the anterior circulation. We describe a patient who presented with a panencephalic Fisher III subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Digital arteriography showed a saccular aneurysm in the middle third of the basilar artery, adjacent to the junction with a persistent trigeminal artery. She was submitted to endovascular treatment with embolization of the basilar artery aneurysm with coils. Aneurysms at the PTA junction with the basilar artery are rare. This paper describes a case of PTA associated with an aneurysm in the basilar artery at PTA junction and briefly reviews the literature. PMID:22005697

  15. Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with coeliac artery occlusion from an aortic intramural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Sakatani, Akihiko; Doi, Yoshinori; Kitayama, Toshiaki; Matsuda, Takaaki; Sasai, Yasutaka; Nishida, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Megumi; Uenoyama, Naoto; Kinoshita, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms are a rare type of visceral artery aneurysm, whose rupture is associated with high mortality. These aneurysms are of particular interest because local haemodynamic change caused by coeliac artery obstruction plays an important role in their development. However, the pathophysiological mechanism of coeliac artery obstruction is not completely understood. Pressure from the median arcuate ligament is most frequently reported cause. Although it is well-known that stenosis or occlusion of the visceral vessels may be caused by aortic syndrome, reports of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with coeliac artery occlusion due to aortic syndrome are extremely rare. Our case indicates a new aetiology for a pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm and demonstrates the rapid deterioration of the patient affected. PMID:27122676

  16. Bifurcating stents in the pulmonary arteries: A novel technique to relieve bilateral branch pulmonary artery obstruction.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Hari K; Glatz, Andrew C; Rome, Jonathan J

    2015-10-01

    Balloon angioplasty and stent placement in close proximity to the bifurcation of the branch pulmonary arteries can be challenging. Multiple approaches have been previously described, though none of these approaches both treats bilateral proximal branch pulmonary artery stenosis and provides an anchor for a transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement. We report a novel approach that involves serial stent placement and balloon dilation through the struts of the stent in each pulmonary artery, along with balloon expansion of the proximal portion of the stents to the diameter of the main pulmonary artery. In the two cases we describe, this strategy resulted in significant relief of branch pulmonary artery obstruction without compromising the anatomy of the main pulmonary artery segment. This technique can be an effective way to alleviate stenoses of the bilateral proximal branch pulmonary arteries and provides a landing zone for a future transcatheter pulmonary valve. PMID:26256829

  17. Jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.; Ducao, A. S.; Trimmer, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of an arterial heat pipe with a capillary driven jet pump. The jet pump generates a suction which pumps vapor and noncondensible gas from the artery. The suction also forces liquid into the artery and maintains it in a primed condition. A theoretical model was developed which predicts the existence of two stable ranges. Up to a certain tilt the artery will prime by itself once a heat load is applied to the heat pipe. At higher tilts, the jet pump can maintain the artery in a primed condition but self-priming is not possible. A prototype heat pipe was tested which self-primed up to a tilt of 1.9 cm, with a heat load of 500 watts. The heat pipe continued to prime reliably when operated as a VCHP, i.e., after a large amount of noncondensible gas was introduced.

  18. Pulse Wave Propagation in the Arterial Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Vosse, Frans N.; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    The beating heart creates blood pressure and flow pulsations that propagate as waves through the arterial tree that are reflected at transitions in arterial geometry and elasticity. Waves carry information about the matter in which they propagate. Therefore, modeling of arterial wave propagation extends our knowledge about the functioning of the cardiovascular system and provides a means to diagnose disorders and predict the outcome of medical interventions. In this review we focus on the physical and mathematical modeling of pulse wave propagation, based on general fluid dynamical principles. In addition we present potential applications in cardiovascular research and clinical practice. Models of short- and long-term adaptation of the arterial system and methods that deal with uncertainties in personalized model parameters and boundary conditions are briefly discussed, as they are believed to be major topics for further study and will boost the significance of arterial pulse wave modeling even more.

  19. Numerical modelling of fracture in human arteries.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, A; Pandolfi, A

    2008-10-01

    We present 3D finite element models of atherosclerotic arteries, used to investigate the influence of the geometry and tissue properties on the plaque rupture caused by overexpansion. We adopted a geometry reconstructed from a contiguous set of in vitro magnetic resonance images of a damaged artery. The artery wall is divided in three layers (adventitia, media and intima) and is discretized into tetrahedral finite elements. The artery material is described with a hyperelastic two-fiber anisotropic model proposed by Holzapfel et al. 2000. A new constitutive framework for arterial wall mechanics and a comparative study of material models. J Elasticity 61(1):1-48, while the plaque is assumed to be transversely isotropic. Cracks induced by mechanical actions are represented through cohesive surfaces, and are allowed to develop along solid elements boundaries only. Fractures are explicitly introduced in the discretized model at the locations where the tensile strength of the material is reached. PMID:19230149

  20. Unique origin of the cystic artery.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, K P P; Thwin, S S; Shwe, N

    2011-12-01

    The cystic artery (CA) is known to exhibit variations in its origin and branching pattern. This is attributed to the developmental changes occurring in the primitive ventral splanchnic arteries. During routine dissection of a male cadaver, we observed that the CA originated from the middle hepatic artery (MHA) at a distance of about 1 cm from its origin, and the MHA originated from the right hepatic artery at a distance of 2.1 cm from its origin. The CA traversed for a distance of 1.5 cm, giving off a branch to the cystic duct. It then passed anterior to the cystic duct. The origin of the CA was located to the left of the common hepatic duct, outside the Calot's triangle. The topographical anatomy of the arterial system of the hepatobiliary region and their anomalous origin should be considered during hepatobiliary surgeries. This knowledge is also important for interventional radiologists in routine clinical practice. PMID:22159949

  1. [Popliteal artery entrampment: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Parra, Juan; Corvalán, Felipe; Ibáñez, Fernando; Bianchi, Víctor; Bastías, Waldo; Salas, Cristian; Cam, Alfredo; Lamarca, Andrés

    2006-02-01

    Popliteal artery entrampment is a rare condition, occurring in young subjects, that causes ischemia of the extremity. The anatomical background is the compression or occlussion of the popliteal artery caused by forced plantar or dorsal flexion. We report a 32 year-old sportsman who presented with gangrene of the right first toe and a history of three months of progressive claudication. The Ankle-Brachial index and pulse volume curve registries showed a severe ischemia below the knee. Angiography showed a medial deviation of the popliteal artery associated to stenosis and aneurysm formation. A CT scan of the contralateral artery was normal. The patient was operated using a posterior approach, performing a reverse saphenous vein bypass graft and excising the popliteal artery. The postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:16554929

  2. Single Coronary Artery with Aortic Regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsetos, Manny C. Toce, Dale T.

    2003-11-15

    An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively.

  3. Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

  4. Occipital artery anastomosis to vertebral artery causing pulsatile tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew David; English, Joey; Hetts, Steven W

    2014-03-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus can result from various vascular etiologies that cause transmission of pulsatile turbulent flow into the inner ear. Less commonly, non-vascular sources cause increased blood flow and transmission of sound perceived as tinnitus. Thorough clinical examination leads to appropriate imaging evaluation and therapeutic planning. Most pulsatile tinnitus results from expected mechanisms, such as dural arteriovenous fistula, jugular bulb dehiscence, or paraganglioma; however, the literature contains reports of numerous rare causes, particularly variant anatomic morphologies. We present the case of a novel cause of pulsatile tinnitus in which collateral vascular flow compensated for decreased normal intracranial cerebral arterial supply and might have caused catastrophic consequences if intervened upon after assumptions based on an incomplete evaluation. PMID:23493341

  5. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Nuzhat, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. PMID:27313956

  6. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Nuzhat, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. PMID:27313956

  7. Blood flow distribution in cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinkoob, Laleh; Ambarki, Khalid; Wåhlin, Anders; Birgander, Richard; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution phase–contrast magnetic resonance imaging can now assess flow in proximal and distal cerebral arteries. The aim of this study was to describe how total cerebral blood flow (tCBF) is distributed into the vascular tree with regard to age, sex and anatomic variations. Forty-nine healthy young (mean 25 years) and 45 elderly (mean 71 years) individuals were included. Blood flow rate (BFR) in 21 intra- and extracerebral arteries was measured. Total cerebral blood flow was defined as BFR in the internal carotid plus vertebral arteries and mean cerebral perfusion as tCBF/brain volume. Carotid/vertebral distribution was 72%/28% and was not related to age, sex, or brain volume. Total cerebral blood flow (717±123 mL/min) was distributed to each side as follows: middle cerebral artery (MCA), 21% distal MCA, 6% anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 12%, distal ACA, 4% ophthalmic artery, 2% posterior cerebral artery (PCA), 8% and 20% to basilar artery. Deviating distributions were observed in subjects with ‘fetal' PCA. Blood flow rate in cerebral arteries decreased with increasing age (P<0.05) but not in extracerebral arteries. Mean cerebral perfusion was higher in women (women: 61±8; men: 55±6 mL/min/100 mL, P<0.001). The study describes a new method to outline the flow profile of the cerebral vascular tree, including reference values, and should be used for grading the collateral flow system. PMID:25564234

  8. Effects of pressure on arterial failure.

    PubMed

    Khamdaengyodtai, Pannathai; Vafai, Kambiz; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut; Terdtoon, Pradit

    2012-10-11

    A three-dimensional multilayer model of mechanical response for analyzing the effect of pressure on arterial failure is presented in this work. The multilayer arterial wall is considered to be composed of five different layers. The three-dimensional effects are incorporated within the five-concentric axisymmetric layers while incorporating the nonlinear elastic characteristics under combined extension and inflation. Constitutive equations for fiber-reinforced material are employed for three of the major layers, i.e., intima, media and adventitia and an isotropic material model is employed for the other two layers, i.e., endothelium and internal elastic lamina. Our own developed three-dimensional five-layer model has been utilized to model propagated rupture area of the arterial wall. Required parameters for each layer are obtained by using a nonlinear least square method fitted to in vivo non-invasive experimental data of human artery and the effects of pressure on arterial failure are examined. The solutions from our computational model are compared with previous studies and good agreements are observed. Local stresses and strain distributions across the deformed arterial wall are illustrated and consequently the rupture area is predicted by varying luminal pressure in the physiological range and beyond. The effects of pressure on the arterial failure have been interpreted based on this comprehensive three-dimensional five-layer arterial wall model. This is the first study which employs two constitutive equations and incorporates a five-layer arterial wall model in three-dimensions based on in vivo non-invasive experimental data for a human artery. PMID:22980577

  9. India&apos;s Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world&apos;s second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India&apos;s higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  10. Workers&apos; Education in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers&apos; education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers&apos; education only became a stand-alone field after the…

  11. Science Teachers&apos; Analogical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-01-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students&apos; learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students&apos; prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to…

  12. Exploring Students&apos; Patterns of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matloob Haghanikar, Mojgan

    2012-01-01

    As part of a collaborative study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students&apos; reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses were considered inquiry oriented. To probe students&apos; reasoning, we developed open-ended written…

  13. Measuring Master&apos;s Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dair, Katherine G.

    2012-01-01

    Master&apos;s education is the largest segment of graduate education in the United States yet there is a paucity of research about how master&apos;s students experience their programs. Empirical research on student engagement--defined as the time and effort students devote to activities that are linked to educational outcomes and what institutions…

  14. Omani Students&apos; Definitions of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students&apos; definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students&apos; definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught…

  15. Testing Bernoulli&apos;s Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan; Petrova, Hristina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present three different methods for testing Bernoulli&apos;s law that are different from the standard "tube with varying cross-section." They are all applicable to high-school level physics education, with varying levels of theoretical and experimental complexity, depending on students&apos; skills, and may even be…

  16. Teaching the Writer&apos;s Craft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny

    2014-01-01

    "Writing is a core skill for living, not just for school," writes high school English teacher Penny Kittle. Although it&apos;s important to teach students the conventions of grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure, teachers don&apos;t need to approach this task "like scolds, red pens in hand, stamping out sin, and punishing…

  17. The Influence of Teachers&apos; Conceptions on Their Students&apos; Learning: Children&apos;s Understanding of Sheet Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing interest in teachers&apos; and students&apos; conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers&apos; conceptions on their students&apos; learning. Aims: This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between…

  18. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Link of Friends&apos; and Nonfriends&apos; Behaviors with Children&apos;s Social Reticence in a Competitive Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends&apos; and nonfriends&apos; reticent and dominant behaviors on children&apos;s observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends&apos; and…

  19. Arterial ischemic stroke in HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bryer, Alan; Lucas, Sebastian; Stanley, Alan; Allain, Theresa J.; Joekes, Elizabeth; Emsley, Hedley; Turnbull, Ian; Downey, Colin; Toh, Cheng-Hock; Brown, Kevin; Brown, David; Ison, Catherine; Smith, Colin; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Nath, Avindra; Heyderman, Robert S.; Connor, Myles D.; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection, and potentially its treatment, increases the risk of an arterial ischemic stroke. Multiple etiologies and lack of clear case definitions inhibit progress in this field. Several etiologies, many treatable, are relevant to HIV-related stroke. To fully understand the mechanisms and the terminology used, a robust classification algorithm to help ascribe the various etiologies is needed. This consensus paper considers the strengths and limitations of current case definitions in the context of HIV infection. The case definitions for the major etiologies in HIV-related strokes were refined (e.g., varicella zoster vasculopathy and antiphospholipid syndrome) and in some instances new case definitions were described (e.g., HIV-associated vasculopathy). These case definitions provided a framework for an algorithm to help assign a final diagnosis, and help classify the subtypes of HIV etiology in ischemic stroke. PMID:27386505

  20. Anticoagulation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jeffrey C; Pugliese, Steven C; Fox, Daniel L; Badesch, David B

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by molecular and pathologic alteration to the pulmonary circulation, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular failure, and eventual death. Pharmacologic treatment of PAH consists of use of a multitude of pulmonary vasodilators, sometimes in combination. PAH has been associated with increased thrombosis and disrupted coagulation and fibrinolysis, making anticoagulation an attractive and frequently employed therapeutic modality. Observational studies have provided some insight into the therapeutic potential of anticoagulation in idiopathic PAH, but there is a distinct lack of well-controlled prospective trials. Due to the conflicting evidence, there is a large amount of heterogeneity in the application of therapeutic anticoagulation in PAH and further well-controlled prospective trials are needed to clarify its role in treating PAH. PMID:27137522

  1. [Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Roman, Antonio; López-Meseguer, Manuel; Domingo, Enric

    2015-06-22

    Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension has achieved significant progress over the past 20 years. Currently, 3 groups of drugs have proven useful for the treatment of this disease: endothelin receptor antagonist, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and prostacyclin and its analogues. It is recommended to initiate treatment with one of these drugs, the choice depending on the initial severity of patient disease and the preferences of the treating physician. When the patient does not have a satisfactory response, new drugs acting at a different pathway are most commonly added. At this time, considering referral for lung transplantation could be an alternative. Most experts recommend grouping maximum experience in what is known as expert centers. Treatment has led to better survival in these patients, but there is still a long way to cure this life-threatening disease. PMID:25070518

  2. The artery blood supply variant of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Variations of arterial patterns in the upper limb have represented the most common subject of vascular anatomy. Different types of artery branching pattern of the upper limb are very important for orthopedists in angiographic and microvascular surgical practice. The brachial artery (BA) is the most important vessel in the normal vascular anatomy of the upper limb. The classical pattern of the palmar hand region distribution shows the superficial palmar arch. Normally this arch is formed by the superficial branch of the ulnar artery and completed on the lateral side by one of these arteries: the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, the princeps pollicis artery, the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery or the median artery. After the routine dissection of the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver, we found a very rare variant of the superficial arch artery – a division in a higher level brachial artery. We found this division at 10.4 cm from the beginning of the brachial artery. This superficial brachial artery became a radial artery and was not involved in the formation of the palm arch. In the forearm region, the artery variant was present with the median artery and the ulnar artery, which form the superficial palm arch. PMID:26733754

  3. Adiposity, Obesity, and Arterial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, Martin J.; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G.; McEniery, Carmel M.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08–0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05–0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index–linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  4. New therapies for arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Beniamino; Santolamazza, Caterina; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Arterial hypertension is the most common chronic disease in developed countries and it is the leading risk factor for stroke, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure and peripheral artery disease. Its prevalence appears to be about 30-45% of the general population. Recent European guidelines estimate that up to 15-20% of the hypertensive patients are not controlled on a dual antihypertensive combination and they require three or more different antihypertensive drug classes to achieve adequate blood pressure control. The guidelines confirmed that diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are suitable for the initiation and maintenance of antihypertensive treatment, either as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Very few antihypertensive agents have reached the market over the last few years, but no new therapeutic class has really emerged. The long-term adherence to cardiovascular drugs is still low in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the issue of compliance is persistently high in hypertension, despite the fixed-dose combination therapy. As a consequence, a cohort of high-risk hypertensive population, represented by patients affected by refractory and resistant hypertension, can be identified. Therefore, the need of controlling BP in high-risk patients may be addressed, in part, by the development of new drugs, devices and procedures that are designed to treat hypertension and comorbidities. In this review we will comprehensively discuss the current literature on recent therapeutic advances in hypertension, including both medical therapy and interventional procedures. PMID:26730462

  5. Arterial structure and function in vascular ageing: are you as old as your arteries?

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Carter, Sophie E; Green, Daniel J

    2016-04-15

    Advancing age may be the most potent independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, a relationship that is not fully explained by time-related changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Since some arteries exhibit differential susceptibility to atherosclerosis, generalisations regarding the impact of ageing in humans may be overly simplistic, whereas in vivo assessment of arterial function and health provide direct insight. Coronary and peripheral (conduit, resistance and skin) arteries demonstrate a gradual, age-related impairment in vascular function that is likely to be related to a reduction in endothelium-derived nitric oxide bioavailability and/or increased production of vasoconstrictors (e.g. endothelin-1). Increased exposure and impaired ability for defence mechanisms to resist oxidative stress and inflammation, but also cellular senescence processes, may contribute to age-related changes in vascular function and health. Arteries also undergo structural changes as they age. Gradual thickening of the arterial wall, changes in wall content (i.e. less elastin, advanced glycation end-products) and increase in conduit artery diameter are observed with older age and occur similarly in central and peripheral arteries. These changes in structure have important interactive effects on artery function, with increases in small and large arterial stiffness representing a characteristic change with older age. Importantly, direct measures of arterial function and structure predict future cardiovascular events, independent of age or other cardiovascular risk factors. Taken together, and given the differential susceptibility of arteries to atherosclerosis in humans, direct measurement of arterial function and health may help to distinguish between biological and chronological age-related change in arterial health in humans. PMID:26140618

  6. Effect of chronic ethanol on hepatic apolipoprotein (Apo)E glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, P.; Okoh, C.; Chirtel, S.J.; Liu, Q.H.; Lakshman, M.R. George Washington Univ., Washington, DC )

    1991-03-15

    The authors have previously shown that chronic ethanol feeding significantly inhibits the secretion of ApoE in rats. Since many carbohydrate precursors are essential for the synthesis of mature ApoE before it is secreted, the authors have investigated the effects of chronic ethanol on the incorporation of these precursors into ApoE. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups and were pair-fed with Control and Ethanol liquid diets for a period of 8 weeks. At the end, hepatocytes were isolated from each group and {approximately}400 mg cells were incubated in 8 ml final volume of Krebs bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4 for 30 min. at 37C with the following labeled precursors individually: (2-{sup 3}H)mannose, (6-{sup 3}H)N-acetyl mannosamine, (4,5-{sup 3}H)galactose, (5,6-{sup 3}H)fucose, and (4,5-{sup 3}H)leucine. The incorporation of each precursor into immunoprecipitable ApoE was measured in cell homogenate, microsome and the Golgi fractions. The results showed that chronic ethanol treatment did not significantly inhibit the incorporation of leucine, fucose and galactose into ApoE at any of the subcellular levels. In contrast, chronic ethanol inhibited the incorporation of: (a) mannose into ApoE by 38% both at whole cell and at microsomal level and (b) N-acetyl mannosamine by 26% at the whole cell level and at the Golgi level. Based on these results, it is concluded that chronic ethanol feeding impairs the mannosylation and sialylation of ApoE in rat liver probably by altering the structure and functions of hepatic microsome and Golgi.

  7. Blood Tracer Kinetics in the Arterial Tree

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Elias; Gall, Peter; Günther, Matthias; Reisert, Marco; Mader, Irina; Fleysher, Roman; Kiselev, Valerij G.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of blood supply of different organs relies on labeling blood with a suitable tracer. The tracer kinetics is linear: Tracer concentration at an observation site is a linear response to an input somewhere upstream the arterial flow. The corresponding impulse response functions are currently treated empirically without incorporating the relation to the vascular morphology of an organ. In this work we address this relation for the first time. We demonstrate that the form of the response function in the entire arterial tree is reduced to that of individual vessel segments under approximation of good blood mixing at vessel bifurcations. The resulting expression simplifies significantly when the geometric scaling of the vascular tree is taken into account. This suggests a new way to access the vascular morphology in vivo using experimentally determined response functions. However, it is an ill-posed inverse problem as demonstrated by an example using measured arterial spin labeling in large brain arteries. We further analyze transport in individual vessel segments and demonstrate that experimentally accessible tracer concentration in vessel segments depends on the measurement principle. Explicit expressions for the response functions are obtained for the major middle part of the arterial tree in which the blood flow in individual vessel segments can be treated as laminar. When applied to the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow measurements for which the necessary arterial input is evaluated in the carotid arteries, present theory predicts about 20% underestimation, which is in agreement with recent experimental data. PMID:25299048

  8. Targeted In Situ Gene Correction of Dysfunctional APOE Alleles to Produce Atheroprotective Plasma ApoE3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Ioannis; Simons, J. Paul; Owen, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading worldwide cause of death. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a 34-kDa circulating glycoprotein, secreted by the liver and macrophages with pleiotropic antiatherogenic functions and hence a candidate to treat hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. Here, we describe atheroprotective properties of ApoE, though also potential proatherogenic actions, and the prevalence of dysfunctional isoforms, outline conventional gene transfer strategies, and then focus on gene correction therapeutics that can repair defective APOE alleles. In particular, we discuss the possibility and potential benefit of applying in combination two technical advances to repair aberrant APOE genes: (i) an engineered endonuclease to introduce a double-strand break (DSB) in exon 4, which contains the common, but dysfunctional, ε2 and ε4 alleles; (ii) an efficient and selectable template for homologous recombination (HR) repair, namely, an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, which harbours wild-type APOE sequence. This technology is applicable ex vivo, for example to target haematopoietic or induced pluripotent stem cells, and also for in vivo hepatic gene targeting. It is to be hoped that such emerging technology will eventually translate to patient therapy to reduce CVD risk. PMID:22645694

  9. A Case of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery Arising from the Superior Mesenteric Artery in a Korean Woman

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Jin; Ku, Min Jung; Cho, Sa Sun

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the inferior mesenteric artery are extremely uncommon, since the inferior mesenteric artery is regularly diverged at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. We found a rare case in which the inferior mesenteric artery arose from the superior mesenteric artery. The findings were made during a routine dissection of the cadaver of an 82-yr-old Korean woman. This is the tenth report on this anomaly, the second female and the first Korean. The superior mesenteric artery normally arising from abdominal aorta sent the inferior mesenteric artery as the second branch. The longitudinal anastomosis vessels between the superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery survived to form the common mesenteric artery. This anatomical variation concerning the common mesenteric artery is of clinical importance, performing procedures containing the superior mesenteric artery. PMID:22022194

  10. Vascular mechanics of the coronary artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veress, A. I.; Vince, D. G.; Anderson, P. M.; Cornhill, J. F.; Herderick, E. E.; Klingensmith, J. D.; Kuban, B. D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes our research into the vascular mechanics of the coronary artery and plaque. The three sections describe the determination of arterial mechanical properties using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), a constitutive relation for the arterial wall, and finite element method (FEM) models of the arterial wall and atheroma. METHODS: Inflation testing of porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries was conducted. The changes in the vessel geometry were monitored using IVUS, and intracoronary pressure was recorded using a pressure transducer. The creep and quasistatic stress/strain responses were determined. A Standard Linear Solid (SLS) was modified to reproduce the non-linear elastic behavior of the arterial wall. This Standard Non-linear Solid (SNS) was implemented into an axisymetric thick-walled cylinder numerical model. Finite element analysis models were created for five age groups and four levels of stenosis using the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis Youth (PDAY) database. RESULTS: The arteries exhibited non-linear elastic behavior. The total tissue creep strain was epsilon creep = 0.082 +/- 0.018 mm/mm. The numerical model could reproduce both the non-linearity of the porcine data and time dependent behavior of the arterial wall found in the literature with a correlation coefficient of 0.985. Increasing age had a strong positive correlation with the shoulder stress level, (r = 0.95). The 30% stenosis had the highest shoulder stress due to the combination of a fully formed lipid pool and a thin cap. CONCLUSIONS: Studying the solid mechanics of the arterial wall and the atheroma provide important insights into the mechanisms involved in plaque rupture.

  11. Serum estradiol and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R J; Gore, J M; Zive, M; Brady, P; Klaiber, E; Broverman, D; Ockene, I S; Dalen, J E

    1987-01-01

    Serum estradiol levels were measured in 300 men undergoing coronary angiography. Among these men, there were no significant differences in the serum estradiol levels between patients with (mean, 26.4 pg/ml) and those without (mean, 30.9 pg/ml) angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease. There were no significant differences in any of the established coronary risk factors when patients were subdivided according to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease or according to the extent of disease. In addition, no significant correlation was noted between mean serum estradiol levels and the extent of coronary artery disease as classified by the number of obstructed coronary vessels. A matched-pairs analysis was carried out in which patients who had normal coronary arteries were matched with those who had coronary artery disease on the basis of age, cigarette smoking, prior history of myocardial infarction, and body mass index. The mean serum estradiol level in the patients with coronary artery disease was 28.7 pg/ml, and the mean estradiol level was 31.4 pg/ml for the matched patients with normal coronary arteries. In addition, when serial (three) estradiol determinations were carried out in 100 patients, no association was observed between degree of estradiol variability and the occurrence and/or extent of coronary artery disease. The results of this observational study fail to support an association between serum estradiol levels and the presence or degree of coronary artery disease in men as documented by coronary angiography. PMID:3799667

  12. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  13. Vascular Leiomyoma of the Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Laura V; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Hatz, Rudolf A; Lindner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the pulmonary artery represents a curiosity in the literature. We describe a case of a 54-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent cough of a few weeks' duration. Computed tomography of the thorax located a smooth, limited tumor in the left thorax near the interlobar space. Thoracoscopic exploration showed a tumor mass, fused with the pulmonary artery. After anterolateral thoracotomy, a complete resection of the tumor was performed. The histopathologic examination showed the presence of a vascular leiomyoma of the tunica media of the pulmonary artery. PMID:26694272

  14. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in puerperium.

    PubMed

    Refaie, Medhat; Alshehri, Mohammed; Gallo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in puerperium is uncommon and most often occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy and in the early postpartum period. Two weeks after delivery, a 41-year-old woman presented with typical retrosternal chest pain and inverted T-waves in leads II, V5 and V6, and Q-waves in aVR. Her peak troponin I level was 16.39 µgċL(-1) Coronary angiography showed left main spiral dissection extending to the mid left anterior descending artery and involving the first diagonal branch. Urgent coronary artery bypass grafting was performed successfully. The mechanism and approach are discussed. PMID:25746424

  15. Measurement and interpretation of arterial blood gases.

    PubMed

    Syabbalo, N

    1997-01-01

    Arterial blood gases and pH are routinely being measured in clinical practice, both to provide diagnosis and to guide therapy in critically ill patients. Oximetry is clinically useful in establishing the presence of hypoxaemia in patients with respiratory diseases. Oximetry is also a simple and reliable method for monitoring patients undergoing anaesthesia, sleep studies and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The search continues for new innovative techniques for continuous transcutaneous and intra-arterial blood gas monitoring. This is essential in the management of critically ill patients because blood analysers provide only intermittent monitoring of arterial blood gases. PMID:9293061

  16. Simulation of the human intracranial arterial tree.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Cheever, Elizabeth; Madsen, Joseph R; Karniadakis, George Em

    2009-06-13

    High-resolution unsteady three-dimensional flow simulations in large intracranial arterial networks of a healthy subject and a patient with hydrocephalus have been performed. The large size of the computational domains requires the use of thousands of computer processors and solution of the flow equations with approximately one billion degrees of freedom. We have developed and implemented a two-level domain decomposition method, and a new type of outflow boundary condition to control flow rates at tens of terminal vessels of the arterial network. In this paper, we demonstrate the flow patterns in the normal and abnormal intracranial arterial networks using patient-specific data. PMID:19414460

  17. Effects of antihypertensive drugs on arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Glasser, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms and the role of arterial stiffness as a biomarker, a blood pressure-independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effects of different antihypertensive drug classes on noninvasively assessed markers of arterial stiffness are also discussed. Current evidence will be reviewed regarding the effect of drugs on arterial stiffness, including the peripheral and central effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, beta blockers (including vasodilating beta blockers), diuretics, and mineralocorticoid antagonists. PMID:22573107

  18. Plaque Size Is Decreased but M1 Macrophage Polarization and Rupture Related Metalloproteinase Expression Are Maintained after Deleting T-Bet in ApoE Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsaousi, Aikaterini; Hayes, Elaine M.; Di Gregoli, Karina; Bond, Andrew R.; Bevan, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Thelper1 (Th1) lymphocytes have been previously implicated in atherosclerotic plaque growth but their role in plaque vulnerability to rupture is less clear. We investigated whether T-bet knockout that prevents Th1 lymphocyte differentiation modulates classical (M1) macrophage activation or production of matrix degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors, TIMPs. Methods & Results We studied the effect of T-bet deletion in apolipoproteinE (ApoE) knockout mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) or normal chow diet (ND). Transcript levels of M1/M2 macrophage polarization markers, selected MMPs and TIMPs were measured by RT-qPCR in macrophages isolated from subcutaneous granulomas or in whole aortae. Immunohistochemistry of aortic sinus (AS) and brachiocephalic artery (BCA) plaques was conducted to quantify protein expression of the same factors. Deletion of T-bet decreased mRNA for the M1 marker NOS-2 in granuloma macrophages but levels of M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1 and Ym-1), MMPs-2, -9, -12, -13, -14 and -19 or TIMPs-1 to -3 were unchanged. No mRNA differences were observed in aortic extracts from mice fed a HFD for 12 weeks. Moreover, AS and BCA plaques were similarly sized between genotypes, and had similar areas stained for NOS-2, COX-2, MMP-12 and MMP-14 proteins. T-bet deletion increased MMP-13, MMP-14 and arginase-1 in AS plaques. After 35 weeks of ND, T-bet deletion reduced the size of AS and BCA plaques but there were no differences in the percentage areas stained for M1 or M2 markers, MMPs-12, -13, -14, or TIMP-3. Conclusions Absence of Th1 lymphocytes is associated with reduced plaque size in ApoE knockout mice fed a normal but not high fat diet. In either case, M1 macrophage polarization and expression of several MMPs related to plaque instability are either maintained or increased. PMID:26886778

  19. Comparative Effects of Diet-Induced Lipid Lowering Versus Lipid Lowering Along With Apo A-I Milano Gene Therapy on Regression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Tian, Fang; Arias, Ana; Yang, Mingjie; Sharifi, Behrooz G; Shah, Prediman K

    2016-05-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I) Milano, a naturally occurring Arg173to Cys mutant of Apo A-1, has been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models and in a small phase 2 human trial. We have shown the superior atheroprotective effects of Apo A-I Milano (Apo A-IM) gene compared to wild-type Apo A-I gene using transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. In this study, we compared the effect of dietary lipid lowering versus lipid lowering plus Apo A-IM gene transfer using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) 8 as vectors on atherosclerosis regression in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. All mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet from age of 6 weeks until week 20, and at 20 weeks, 10 mice were euthanized to determine the extent of atherosclerosis. After 20 weeks, an additional 20 mice were placed on either a low-cholesterol diet plus empty rAAV (n = 10) to serve as controls or low-cholesterol diet plus 1 single intravenous injection of 1.2 × 10(12)vector genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) 8 vectors expressing Apo A-IM (n = 10). At the 40 week time point, intravenous AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients showed a significant regression of atherosclerosis in the whole aorta (P< .01), aortic sinuses (P< .05), and brachiocephalic arteries (P< .05) compared to 20-week-old mice, whereas low-cholesterol diet plus empty vector control group showed no significant regression in lesion size. Immunostaining showed that compared to the 20-week-old mice, there was a significantly reduced macrophage content in the brachiocephalic (P< .05) and aortic sinus plaques (P< .05) of AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients. These data show that although dietary-mediated cholesterol lowering halts progression of atherosclerosis, it does not induce regression, whereas combination of low-cholesterol diet and AAV8 mediated Apo A-I Milano gene therapy induces rapid and significant regression of atherosclerosis in mice. These data provide support for the potential feasibility of this

  20. The effect of ApoE e4 on blood pressure in patients with and without depression

    PubMed Central

    Hestad, Knut A; Engedal, Knut; Whist, Jon Elling; Farup, Per G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Depression is considered an independent risk factor for hypertension, particularly for people with recurrent episodes or a long history of depression. Another risk factor for cardiovascular disease is the Apolipoprotein E e4 allele (ApoE e4). The aim of this study was to examine how ApoE e4 was related to blood pressure (BP) in patients with depression and a control group. Methods A total of 78 patients, 49 with depression and 29 without, all recruited from the same hospital, underwent ApoE e genotyping (24 had at least one ApoE e4 allele) and examination of BP. Results In the depression group, but not in the control group, both systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in patients with ApoE e4 than in those without. The effect of ApoE e4 on BP differed significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Our findings showed that the effect of ApoE e4 on BP differed between the patients with depression and the control group. In patients with depression, ApoE e4 was associated with an increase in BP. We suggest that patients with depression and ApoE e4-positive status are particularly prone to develop BP elevation. PMID:27366067

  1. Evaluation of Previously Cannulated Radial Arteries as Patent Coronary Artery Bypass Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Adele; van Pelt, Niels; Ruygrok, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting, good-quality conduits are needed to maximize the potential for long-term patency. Revascularization has traditionally been achieved with use of the saphenous vein and the internal thoracic arteries. In recent years, total arterial revascularization with use of the radial arteries has been promoted. Meanwhile, use of the transradial approach for coronary angiography has also increased. The long-term effects of previous cannulation in radial artery bypass grafts are not known. Therefore, we used multidetector computed tomographic angiography to investigate radial-artery graft patency in a small series of patients who had undergone transradial angiography. We found a high patency rate, and we discuss those findings here. PMID:26504438

  2. Hoarseness after pulmonary arterial stenting and occlusion of the arterial duct.

    PubMed

    Assaqqat, Mervat; Siblini, Ghassan; Fadley, Fadel Al

    2003-06-01

    We report a 12-year-old girl who had multiple congenital cardiac lesions, specifically an arterial duct, left pulmonary arterial stenosis, an atrial septal defect in the oval fossa, and mild Ebstein's malformation of the tricuspid valve. Therapeutic transcatheter intervention was performed to stent the left pulmonary artery, occlude the arterial duct with a coil, and place a device to close the atrial septal defect. Subsequent to the catheterization, she complained of hoarseness, which was shown to be due to entrapment of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve between the coil used to close the arterial duct and the stent placed in the left pulmonary artery. Laryngoscopy confirmed paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. PMID:12903881

  3. Right hepatic artery from splenic artery: the four-leaf clover of hepatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Dondossola, Daniele; Fornoni, Gianluca; Caccamo, Lucio; Rossi, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    The anatomy of hepatic arteries is one of the most variable. Accurate awareness of all the possible anatomic variations is crucial in the upper GI surgery and especially in liver and pancreas transplantation. The most frequent anatomical variants are: a replaced or accessory right hepatic artery (RHA) from the superior mesenteric artery (6.3-21 %), a replaced or accessory left hepatic artery (LHA) from the left gastric artery (LGA) (3-18 %) or a combination of these two variants (up to 7.4 %). Herein, we describe the case of a 67-year-old cadaveric organ donor who presented a RHA originating from the splenic artery (SA) associated with both a CHA originating from the celiac trunk (CT) and a LHA originating from the LGA. PMID:26769020

  4. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  9. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Reona; Tanimoto, Yoshimasa; Kishimoto, Miori; Shibata, Hideshi

    2016-05-01

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1-3 parietal and 1-3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1-4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2-7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits. PMID:26615866

  10. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach

    PubMed Central

    IKEGAMI, Reona; TANIMOTO, Yoshimasa; KISHIMOTO, Miori; SHIBATA, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1–3 parietal and 1–3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1–4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2–7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits. PMID:26615866

  11. Long-term fate of the coronary arteries after the arterial switch operation in newborns with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, D.; Bonhoeffer, P.; Piéchaud, J. F.; Aggoun, Y.; Sidi, D.; Planché, C.; Kachaner, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Concern continues to be expressed about the long-term impact of coronary artery translocation after the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of obstructions of the translocated coronary arteries by the use of selective coronary artery angiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: 64 children (mean age 7.6 (SD) 1.5 years) who had survived an arterial switch operation underwent evaluation. They had been operated on by one surgeon and they were followed up by a single hospital. Selective coronary artery angiography was possible in 58 patients. Five patients showed occlusion or stenosis of a coronary artery: one occlusion and two stenoses of the left coronary trunk, two occlusions of the circumflex artery. The prevalence of late coronary artery complications was 7.8 (SD) 6.6% (95% CI 1.2 to -14.4%). The three patients with occlusion of one coronary artery had perioperative ischaemic complications, with associated electrocardiogram evidence of ischaemia and left ventricular dysfunction with mitral valve insufficiency. Both patients with stenosis of the left main coronary artery trunk did not have any evidence of an anomaly before catheterisation. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of the late coronary artery complications after an arterial switch operation was low in this series. This accords with the view that the arterial switch operation remains the preferred treatment for such patients. Screening for late coronary artery patency should be done by using selective coronary artery angiography, because even patients who remain symptom free can have coronary artery anomalies. Images PMID:8868989

  12. Homocysteine and cognitive performance: modification by the ApoE genotype.

    PubMed

    Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A; Budge, Marc M; Elias, Penelope K; Dore, Gregory A; Brennan, Suzanne L; Johnston, Carole; Nagy, Zsuzsanna

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that the magnitude of the association between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive performance is larger for ApoE-epsilon4 carriers than for non-carriers. Nine hundred eleven dementia-free and stroke-free subjects (59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse study (26-98 years old) were stratified into no-ApoE-epsilon4 (n=667) and ApoE-epsilon4 carrier (n=244) cohorts. Employing a cross-sectional design and multiple regression analyses, plasma homocysteine was related to multiple domains of cognitive performance within these cohorts. When unadjusted, and with adjustment for age, education, gender, ethnicity, and previous cognitive examinations, homocysteine concentrations were inversely related to cognitive performance within both ApoE cohorts, with higher magnitude of associations within the ApoE-epsilon4 cohort. With adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and B-vitamin concentrations, the higher magnitude of associations between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance within the ApoE-epsilon4 cohort relative to the no-ApoE-epsilon4 cohort persisted; but associations of plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance were attenuated and no longer significant within the no-ApoE-epsilon4 cohort. Presence of the ApoE-epsilon4 allele modifies the relation between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance. PMID:18023533

  13. [Ruptured Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coiling in a Patient with Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion via the Posterior Communicating Artery].

    PubMed

    Ashida, Noriaki; Saitoh, Minoru; Fujita, Atsushi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Background:De novo aneurysms after internal carotid artery(ICA)occlusion occur in the contralateral ICA or anterior communicating artery. Hemodynamic changes with increased blood flow to the contralateral carotid circulation were considered the main factor for the formation of these aneurysms. We report a rare case of ruptured ICA aneurysm associated with ipsilateral ICA occlusion treated with coil embolization via the vertebrobasilar and posterior communicating arteries. Case Presentation:An 82-year-old woman presented with sudden-onset disturbance of consciousness at our outpatient clinic and went into cardiopulmonary arrest. Computed tomography(CT)performed after cardiopulmonary resuscitation revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Three-dimensional CT angiography revealed a right ICA aneurysm associated with the ipsilateral ICA occlusion. Considering that the patient showed clinical improvement with the critical care for neurogenic pulmonary edema, the aneurysm was treated with endovascular coil embolization via the posterior communicating artery. With this technique, complete obliteration was attained without perioperative complication. Conclusion:Endovascular coil embolization via the posterior communicating artery was proven effective as a treatment method for ruptured ICA aneurysms with ipsilateral ICA occlusion. Hemodynamic stress due to increased blood flow in the posterior communicating artery may play an important role in the growth and rupture of ICA aneurysms. PMID:27605482

  14. Coarctation of the aorta associated with agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Ding, Shiao; Xu, Gaojun; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with coarctation of the aorta complicated by innominate artery stenosis and agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The patient was treated with an interposition graft between the ascending and descending aorta. The right subclavian was revascularized with another graft from the interposition graft to the distal right subclavian. This is a rare case of the combination of coarctation of the aorta and other vascular malformations. PMID:27162694

  15. Coarctation of the aorta associated with agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ding, Shiao; Xu, Gaojun; Liu, Hao; Ding, Fangbao

    2016-05-01

    We describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with coarctation of the aorta complicated by innominate artery stenosis and agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The patient was treated with an interposition graft between the ascending and descending aorta. The right subclavian was revascularized with another graft from the interposition graft to the distal right subclavian. This is a rare case of the combination of coarctation of the aorta and other vascular malformations. PMID:27162694

  16. Intra-arterial thrombolysis of embolic proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion from presumed atrial myxoma.

    PubMed

    Bekavac, I; Hanna, J P; Wallace, R C; Powers, J; Ratliff, N B; Furlan, A J

    1997-08-01

    The role of thrombolysis in brain ischemia in patients with atrial myxoma is unknown. A patient with acute brain ischemia and previously undiagnosed atrial myxoma recanalized an occluded middle cerebral artery with intra-arterial thrombolysis. Arterial occlusion from presumed myxoma may be amenable to fibrinolysis. Angiography before treatment in patients with atrial myxoma excludes a myxomatous pseudoaneurysm and permits site-specific thrombolytic instillment. PMID:9270611

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Large Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm with Mechanically Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Toshiya Fujimoto, Yukinori; Jin, Myeong Jun; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2004-03-15

    Large aneurysms (5.5 and 3.6 cm in diameter) arising from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery located just near the main superior mesenteric artery were incidentally diagnosed in two patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization, packing mechanically detachable coils and microcoils into the aneurysms, was performed while the inflated balloon catheter was placed near the neck of the aneurysms. The procedures were successfully performed and no aneurysmal rupture or bowel ischemia was noted during follow-up. Balloon-assisted transcatheter arterial embolization with mechanically detachable coils seems to be an effective and safe treatment for large inferior pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms.

  18. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. PMID:24880061

  19. Systemic Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula Associated with Mitral Regurgitation: Successful Treatment with Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Iwazawa, Jin; Nakamura, Kenji; Hamuro, Masao; Nango, Mineyoshi; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nishida, Norifumi

    2008-07-15

    We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with symptomatic mitral regurgitation caused by a left-to-right shunt via anastomoses consisting of microfistulae, most likely of inflammatory origin, between the right subclavian artery and the right pulmonary artery. The three arteries responsible for fistulous formation, including the internal mammary, thyrocervical, and lateral thoracic arteries, were successfully occluded by transcatheter embolization using superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) particles combined with metallic coils. No complications have been identified following treatment with SAP-MS particles. This approach significantly reduced the patient's mitral regurgitation and she has remained asymptomatic for more than 4 years.

  20. Visualization of the Spinal Artery by CT During Embolization for Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Hiroyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Hashizume, Takuya; Kawai, Tatsuya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Keita; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Spinal artery ischemia is a rare but serious complication of embolization for treatment of hemoptysis. When the spinal artery is visualized at angiography, embolization should not be performed. However, it has been reported that spinal artery feeders are not visible on angiography in patients with developing spinal infarction. Case Report A 70-year-old man with a history of pulmonary aspergillosis had hemoptysis and underwent contrast-enhanced CT, revealing a pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm (PAP) in the left upper lobe. Systemic angiography from the fifth left intercostal artery showed the PAP at the distal site, but the access route to the PAP was very tortuous and long. Although the spinal branch could not be observed with that angiography, CT during angiography was performed, and it visualized the posterior spinal artery obviously. Thus, the artery distal and proximal to the PAP was then successfully coil-embolized from the pulmonary artery. Conclusions CT during angiography may be useful to confirm the presence of the spinal artery for treatment of hemoptysis by embolization.

  1. Endovascular Treatment of a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft to Pulmonary Artery Fistula with Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Jeffery L. Kang, Preet S.

    2006-04-15

    Fistula formation between a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)and the pulmonary arterial circulation represents a rare cause of recurrent angina in patients following bypass grafting. Therapy has traditionally involved surgical ligation by open thoracotomy. We describe a case of left internal mammary artery-left upper lobe pulmonary artery fistula presenting as early recurrent angina following CABG. The fistula was embolized using platinum coils, resulting in symptomatic relief and improvement in myocardial perfusion on cardiac perfusion scintigraphy. Coil embolization should be considered a therapeutic option in patients with coronary-pulmonary steal syndrome.

  2. Analysis of the apo E/apo C-I, angiotensin converting enzyme and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes as candidates affecting human longevity.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, D; Tysoe, C; Brayne, C E; Easton, D F; Huppert, F A; Dening, T R; Paykel, E S; Rubinsztein, D C

    1997-03-21

    Genetic factors are likely to affect human survival, since twin studies have shown greater concordance for age of death in monozygotic compared to dizygotic twins. Coronary artery disease is an important contributor to premature mortality in the UK. Accordingly, we have chosen genes associated with cardiovascular risk, apo E/apo C-I, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), as candidates which may affect longevity/survival into old age. An association study was performed by comparing allele and genotype frequencies at polymorphic loci associated with these genes in 182 women and 100 men aged 84 years and older with 100 boys and 100 girls younger than 17 years. MTHFR allele and genotype frequencies were similar in the elderly and young populations. Apo C-I allele and genotype frequencies were significantly different in the elderly women compared to the younger sample (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the elderly men. At the neighbouring apo E gene, we only observed a difference between genotypes in the elderly women and the young sample; however, this did not retain significance when the genotype frequencies of the young sample were adjusted to values expected from the allele frequencies on the basis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and compared to observed genotypes in elderly men and women. In contrast to previous studies, apo E2 was not overrepresented in the elderly men or women. Thus, the proposition that apo E2, E3 and E4 protein isoforms are themselves functionally associated with increasing risks for early death, may be too simplistic. The I/I ACE was depleted in the elderly males but not the elderly females. Furthermore, significant differences were observed between ACE genotypes in elderly men and elderly women. These data suggest that the penetrance of loci which influence survival may vary according to sex. The depletion of the ACE I/I genotype in elderly men is generally consistent with a previous study

  3. Transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Martins, Paula; Castela, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA), also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA) discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500-5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs) have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases.The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually required soon after birth

  4. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C; Højlund, K; Hatunic, M; Balkau, B; Nilsson, P M; Ferrannini, E

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions characterized by body size-dependent increase in stroke volume (SV) and blood pressure (BP). Subjects/Methods: Common carotid artery (CCA) luminal diameter (LD), IMT and CWS were measured in three different populations in order to study: (A) cross-sectional associations between SV, BP, anthropometric parameters and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24–159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). Results: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile was significantly higher (28±3 μm) as compared with those in the lower quartiles (8±3, 16±4 and 16±3 μm, P=0.001, P<0.05 and P=0.01, respectively). In addition, CCA CWS decreased during the observational period in the highest LD quartile (from 54.2±8.6 to 51.6±7.4 kPa, P<0.0001). As compared with gender- and age-matched lean individuals, obese subjects had highly increased CCA LD and BP (P<0.0001 for both), but only slightly higher CWS (P=0.05) due to a significant increase in IMT (P=0.005 after adjustment for confounders). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in obese subjects, the CCA wall thickens to compensate the luminal enlargement caused by body size-induced increase in SV, and therefore, to normalize the wall stress. CCA diameter in obesity could

  5. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection with Cardiac Tamponade.

    PubMed

    Goh, Anne C H; Lundstrom, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Clinical presentation ranges from chest pain alone to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death. The treatment of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection is challenging because the disease pathophysiology is unclear, optimal treatment is unknown, and short- and long-term prognostic data are minimal. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery. She was treated conservatively. Cardiac tamponade developed 16 hours after presentation. Repeat coronary angiography revealed extension of the dissection. Medical therapy was continued after the hemopericardium was aspirated. The patient remained asymptomatic 3 years after hospital discharge. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in association with cardiac tamponade that was treated conservatively and had a successful outcome. PMID:26504447

  6. Pressure Change in an Arterial Constriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    Consider the following ConcepTest. A platelet is drifting with the blood flowing through a horizontal artery. As the platelet enters a constriction, does the blood pressure increase, decrease, or stay the same?

  7. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Vilela, P; Goulão, A

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. PMID:15657789

  8. Echocardiographic evaluation of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Solomon, Scott D

    2013-11-01

    Although the availability and utilization of other noninvasive imaging modalities for the evaluation of coronary artery disease have expanded over the last decade, echocardiography remains the most accessible, cost-effective, and lowest risk imaging choice for many indications. The clinical utility of mature echocardiographic methods (i.e. two-dimensional echocardiography, stress echocardiography, contrast echocardiography) across the spectrum of coronary artery disease has been well established by numerous clinical studies. With continuing advancements in ultrasound technology, emerging ultrasound technologies such as three-dimensional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging, and speckle tracking methods hold significant promise to further widen the scope of clinical applications and improve diagnostic accuracy. In this review, we provide an update on the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of coronary artery disease and introduce emerging technologies that are anticipated to further increase the clinical utility of echocardiography in the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:24077229

  9. Coronary artery disease in the military patient.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Iain; White, S; Gill, R; Gray, H H; Rees, P

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is the most common cause of sudden death in the UK, and the most common cardiac cause of medical discharge from the Armed Forces. This paper reviews current evidence pertaining to the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease from a military perspective, encompassing stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. Emphasis is placed on the limitations inherent in the management of acute coronary syndromes in the deployed environment. Occupational issues affecting patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. Consideration is also given to the potential for coronary artery disease screening in the military, and the management of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, to help decrease the prevalence of coronary artery disease in the military population. PMID:26246347

  10. Genetics Home Reference: arterial tortuosity syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... result in massive loss of blood from the circulatory system. Blockage of blood flow to vital organs such ... adulthood. Features of arterial tortuosity syndrome outside the circulatory system are caused by abnormal connective tissue in other ...

  11. Atherosclerosis and the internal mammary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.N.

    1983-06-01

    One hundred and fifty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 14 (9.3%) of whom had coexisting peripheral vascular disease, underwent bilateral internal mammary arteriography to study the incidence and extent of atherosclerosis in these vessels. Significant atherosclerosis of the internal mammary arteries (IMAs) was present in three patients (2%), of whom one had coexisting peripheral vascular disease. Lesions in the IMAs were found either proximally, close to the origin or distally, around the terminal bifurcation. Six of the 14 patients with peripheral vascular disease (4% of total subjects) had significant atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries. Atherosclerotic involvement of the IMA is very unusual and rarely interferes with the use of these vessels for coronary bypass. More common, however, is atherosclerosis of the subclavian arteries, a contraindication for IMA grafting if the lesion is proximal to the IMA origin.

  12. Pressure Change in an Arterial Constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2015-12-01

    Consider the following ConcepTest. A platelet is drifting with the blood flowing through a horizontal artery. As the platelet enters a constriction, does the blood pressure increase, decrease, or stay the same?

  13. Late Endovascular Pulmonary Artery Band Migration.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Lucchese, Gianluca; Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Treviso, Oscar; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here reported is an unusual case of pulmonary artery band migration with serendipitous clinical presentation late after neonatal palliation of single ventricle with aortic arch hypoplasia. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:26694278

  14. Photoacoustic imaging of carotid artery atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruizinga, Pieter; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; de Jong, Nico; Springeling, Geert; Robertus, Jan Lukas; van der Lugt, Aad; van Soest, Gijs

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a method for photoacoustic imaging of the carotid artery, tailored toward detection of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions. A common human carotid artery was obtained at autopsy, embedded in a neck mimicking phantom and imaged with a multimodality imaging system using interstitial illumination. Light was delivered through a 1.25-mm-diameter optical probe that can be placed in the pharynx, allowing the carotid artery to be illuminated from within the body. Ultrasound imaging and photoacoustic signal detection is achieved by an external 8-MHz linear array coupled to an ultrasound imaging system. Spectroscopic analysis of photoacoustic images obtained in the wavelength range from 1130 to 1250 nm revealed plaque-specific lipid accumulation in the collagen structure of the artery wall. These spectroscopic findings were confirmed by histology.

  15. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease.In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  16. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Carotid Endarterectomy Carotid Ultrasound Stents Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone ... outward against the wall of the artery. A stent (a small mesh tube) is then put in ...

  17. How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow to the affected limb. Angioplasty and Stent Placement Your doctor may recommend angioplasty to restore ... widens the artery and restores blood flow. A stent (a small mesh tube) may be placed in ...

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Houtchens, Jeanne; Martin, Douglas; Klinger, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease, which requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose when patients initially present. Initial symptoms can be nonspecific and include complaints such as fatigue and mild dyspnea. Once the disease is suspected, echocardiography is used to estimate the pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure and to exclude secondary causes of elevated PA pressures such as left heart disease. Right heart catheterization with vasodilator challenge is critical to the proper assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics and to determine whether patients are likely to benefit from vasodilator therapy. Pathologically, the disease is characterized by deleterious remodeling of the distal pulmonary arterial and arteriolar circulation, which results in increased pulmonary vascular resistance. In the last fifteen years, medications from three different classes have been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These include the prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. PMID:21941650

  19. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rehabilitation Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Heart Surgery Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... coronary arteries that can't be treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as coronary angioplasty. Your doctor ...

  20. Acute Arterial Thrombosis of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, Nicholas P; Higgins, James P

    2015-10-01

    Arterial thrombosis of the hand occurs infrequently but may result in considerable morbidity and compromise of hand function. The hand surgeon may be called upon to direct management in cases of acute arterial thrombosis of the hand and should have an understanding of the available diagnostic tools and treatment modalities. This article discusses the vascular anatomy of the hand and clinical manifestations of arterial thrombosis. Differences between isolated thrombosis and diffuse intravascular injury are detailed, and treatment options for these conditions are described. Appropriate care often requires coordination with interventional radiologists or vascular surgeons. Outcomes after treatment of arterial thrombosis of the hand are variable, and prognosis may be related to whether isolated thrombosis or diffuse intravascular injury is present. PMID:26408378

  1. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection with Cardiac Tamponade

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Clinical presentation ranges from chest pain alone to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death. The treatment of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection is challenging because the disease pathophysiology is unclear, optimal treatment is unknown, and short- and long-term prognostic data are minimal. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery. She was treated conservatively. Cardiac tamponade developed 16 hours after presentation. Repeat coronary angiography revealed extension of the dissection. Medical therapy was continued after the hemopericardium was aspirated. The patient remained asymptomatic 3 years after hospital discharge. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in association with cardiac tamponade that was treated conservatively and had a successful outcome. PMID:26504447

  2. Exercise, but not antioxidants, reversed ApoE4-associated motor impairments in adult GFAP-ApoE mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Kiran; Wong, Jessica M; Vann, Philip H; Sumien, Nathalie

    2016-05-15

    Motor dysfunction has been found to be predictive of cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and to occur earlier than cognitive impairments. While apolipoprotein (Apo) E4 has been associated with cognitive impairments, it remains unclear whether it also increases risk for motor dysfunction. Exercise and antioxidants are often recommended to reduce cognitive declines, however it is unclear whether they can successfully improve motor impairments. This study was designed to determine the extent of the impact of apolipoprotein genotype on motor function, and whether interventions such as exercise and antioxidant intake can improve motor function. This study is the first to identify the nature of the interaction between antioxidant intake and exercise using a mouse model expressing either the human ApoE3 or ApoE4 isoforms under glial fibrillary acid protein promoter (GFAP-ApoE3 and GFAP-ApoE4 mice). The mice were fed either a control diet or the control diet supplemented with vitamins E and C (1.12 IU/g diet α-tocopheryl acetate and 1.65mg/g ascorbic acid). Each genotype/diet group was further divided into a sedentary group or a group that followed a 6 days a week exercise regimen. After 8 weeks on their respective treatment, the mice were administered a battery of motor tests to measure reflexes, strength, coordination and balance. GFAP-ApoE4 mice exhibited impaired motor learning and diminished strength compared to the GFAP-ApoE3 mice. Exercise alone was more efficient at improving motor function and reversing ApoE4-associated impairments than antioxidants alone, even though improvements were rather subtle. Contrarily to expected outcomes, combination of antioxidants and exercise did not yield further improvements of motor function. Interestingly, antioxidants antagonized the beneficial effects of exercise on strength. These data suggest that environmental and genetic factors influence the outcome of interventions on motor function and should be investigated

  3. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously. PMID:25304052

  4. Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2008-07-15

    Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

  5. Endovascular Exclusion of Renal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Poul Erik Rohr, Nils

    2005-06-15

    A patient who was operated for an abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years earlier presented with recently discovered iliac and renal artery aneurysms. The renal artery had an angulation of 90{sup o}, but the aneurysm was successfully excluded using a covered vascular stent graft placed over an extrastiff guidewire. Even in cases of complex anatomy of a renal aneurysm, endovascular treatment should be considered. With development of more flexible and low-profile endoprosthesis with accurate deployment, these have become more usable.

  6. Nebivolol increases arterial distensibility in vivo.

    PubMed

    McEniery, Carmel M; Schmitt, Matthias; Qasem, Ahmad; Webb, David J; Avolio, Alberto P; Wilkinson, Ian B; Cockcroft, John R

    2004-09-01

    Arterial stiffness is a key determinant of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. beta-Blockers appear to be less effective than other drugs in improving outcome in hypertensive patients, and a potential explanation may be that beta-blockers are less effective in reducing arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to assess the direct effect of beta-blockade on pulse wave velocity (PWV), a robust measure of arterial distensibility, using a local, ovine, hind-limb model. In addition, we hypothesized that the vasodilating beta-blocker nebivolol, but not atenolol, would increase arterial distensibility in vivo. All studies were conducted in anesthetized sheep. PWV was recorded in vivo using a dual pressure-sensing catheter placed in the common iliac artery. Intraarterial infusion of nebivolol reduced PWV by 6+/-3% at the higher dose (P<0.001), but did not alter mean arterial pressure (change of -1+/-3 mm Hg, P=0.1). In contrast, atenolol had no effect on PWV (P=0.11) despite a small drop in mean pressure (change of -5+/-3 mm Hg, P<0.01). Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate led to a dose-dependent fall in PWV, and 2 nmol/min produced a similar reduction in PWV to the higher dose of nebivolol (500 nmol/min). The effect of nebivolol on PWV was significantly attenuated during coinfusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (P=0.003) and also during coinfusion of butoxamine (P=0.02). These results demonstrate that nebivolol, but not atenolol, increases arterial distensibility. This effect of nebivolol is mediated through the release of NO via a beta2 adrenoceptor-dependent mechanism. Thus, nebivolol may be of benefit in conditions of increased large artery stiffness, such as isolated systolic hypertension. PMID:15262912

  7. Elastomeric PGS scaffolds in arterial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation. The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro

  8. Role of Transcatheter Intra-arterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Shashi B.; Sharma, Hanish

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter intra-arterial therapies play a vital role in treatment of HCC due to the unique tumor vasculature. Evolution of techniques and newer efficacious modalities of tumor destruction have made these techniques popular. Various types of intra-arterial therapeutic options are currently available. These constitute: bland embolization, trans-arterial chemotherapy, trans-arterial chemo embolization with or without drug-eluting beads and trans-arterial radio embolization, which are elaborated in this review. PMID:25755602

  9. ApoE type 4 allele affects cognitive function of aged population in Tianjin City, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shoudan; Fu, Jingming; Chen, Jun; Pang, Wei; Hu, Ruomei; Li, Haiqiang; Tan, Long; Jiang, Yugang

    2015-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (ApoE∊4) is known as a risk gene for the late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and the relationship between ApoE∊4 and cognitive function of the elderly people has drawn the attention of the scientists. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ApoE∊4 and the cognitive function of the old people. A total of 156 old people were investigated, of whom 31 were ApoE∊4 carriers. The ApoE∊4 primarily influenced the global cognitive function, perceptual speed, and work memory. The results indicate that ApoE∊4 has significant negative effect on the cognitive function of the elderly people who are 60 years and older. PMID:25585996

  10. Abeta, tau and ApoE4 in Alzheimer's disease: the axonal connection.

    PubMed

    Adalbert, Robert; Gilley, Jonathan; Coleman, Michael P

    2007-04-01

    Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau and apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD) or related pathologies. Pathogenesis and interactions between these pathways have been studied in mouse models. Here, we highlight the fact that axons are important sites of cellular pathology in each pathway and propose that pathway convergence at the molecular level might occur in axons. Recent developments suggest that axonal transport of APP influences beta-amyloid deposition and that tau regulates axonal transport. ApoE4 influences both axonal tau phosphorylation and amyloid-induced neurite pathology. Thus, a better understanding of axonal events in AD might help connect the pathogenic mechanisms of beta-amyloid, ApoE4 and tau, indicating the most important steps for therapeutic targeting. PMID:17344096

  11. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. She was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, where she was ventilated and proper treatment was provided. Molecular genetic testing was positive for mutations of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 gene which is reported in 80% of cases of Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. The baby died at about 5 month of age because of myocardial ischemia and cardiorespiratory arrest. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy should be considered in any newborn who presented with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, severe systemic hypertension and echogenic vessels on any radiological study. Calcifications of large and medium-sized arteries are important diagnostic finding. PMID:27252793

  12. The Role of Epigenetics in Arterial Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shan-Shan; Lin, Xiao; Yuan, Ling-Qing; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Arterial calcification is highly prevalent and correlated with cardiovascular mortality, especially in patients with ESRD or diabetes. The pathogenesis of arterial calcification is multifactorial, with both genetic and environmental factors being implicated. In recent years, several mechanisms contributing to arterial calcification have been proposed. However, these can only explain a small proportion of the variability in arterial calcification, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and management. Epigenetics has emerged as one of the most promising areas that may fill in some of the gaps in our current knowledge of the interaction between the environmental insults with gene regulation in the development of diseases. Epigenetics refers to heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Well-known components of epigenetic regulation include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. Epigenetics research in the regulation of arterial calcification has only recently been elucidated. In this review, we will summarise recent progress in epigenetic pathways involved in arterial calcification and discuss potential therapeutic interventions based on epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:26221588

  13. How to manage an arterial catheter.

    PubMed

    Parry, Andrew; Higginson, Ray

    2016-03-16

    Rationale and key points This article provides nurses with information on the safe and effective use and management of arterial catheters, the gold standard for accurate blood pressure measurement and routine serial blood gas sampling in critical care. Arterial catheters are used when real-time blood pressure monitoring is required, such as when there is a risk of significant blood loss. ▶ Arterial catheters provide real-time blood pressure monitoring, enabling rapid identification of changes in blood pressure and guiding fluid resuscitation. ▶ Arterial catheters can be used to take blood samples without having to perform multiple arterial or venous punctures. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice when managing a patient with an arterial catheter. 2. Any further learning needs you have identified. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26982866

  14. Investigation of bubbles in arterial heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of gas occlusions in arterial heat pipes has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Specifically, the gas-liquid system properties, solubility and diffusivity, have been measured from -50 to 100 C for helium and argon in ammonia, Freon-21 (CHC12F), and methanol. Properties values obtained were then used to experimentally test models for gas venting from a heat pipe artery under isothermal conditions (i.e., no-heat flow), although the models, as developed, are also applicable to heat pipes operated at power, with some minor modifications. Preliminary calculations indicated arterial bubbles in a stagnant pipe require from minutes to days to collapse and vent. It has been found experimentally that a gas bubble entrapped within an artery structure has a very long lifetime in many credible situations. This lifetime has an approximately inverse exponential dependence on temperature, and is generally considerably longer for helium than for argon. The models postulated for venting under static conditions were in general quantitative agreement with experimental data. Factors of primary importance in governing bubble stability are artery diameter, artery wall thickness, noncondensible gas partial pressure, and the property group (the Ostwald solubility coefficient multiplied by the gas/liquid diffusivity).

  15. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-11-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. She was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, where she was ventilated and proper treatment was provided. Molecular genetic testing was positive for mutations of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 gene which is reported in 80% of cases of Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. The baby died at about 5 month of age because of myocardial ischemia and cardiorespiratory arrest. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy should be considered in any newborn who presented with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, severe systemic hypertension and echogenic vessels on any radiological study. Calcifications of large and medium-sized arteries are important diagnostic finding. PMID:27252793

  16. Arterialized Venous Bone Flaps: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Borumandi, Farzad; Higgins, James P.; Buerger, Heinz; Vasilyeva, Anna; Benlidayi, Memmet Emre; Sencar, Leman; Gaggl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In arterialized venous flaps (AVFs) the venous network is used to revascularize the flap. While the feasibility of AVFs in soft tissues has been reported there is no study on osseous AVFs. In this study we aim to assess the flap survival of osseous AVFs in a pig model. Medial femoral condyle flaps were elevated in 18 pigs. Three groups were created: AVF (n = 6), conventional arterial flap (cAF, n = 6) and bone graft (BG, n = 6). The AVFs were created by anastomosis of genicular artery with one vena comitans while leaving one efferent vein for drainage. After 6 months the specimens were harvested. The histology and histomorphometry of of the bone in cAF and AVF was significantly superior to bone grafts with a higher bone volume in AVFs (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that osseous free flaps may be supported and survive using the technique of arterialization of the venous network. The concept of AVFs in osseous flaps may be feasible for revascularization of free flaps with an inadequate artery but well developed veins. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to assess the feasibility of clinical use of arterialized venous bone flaps. PMID:27558705

  17. Arterialized Venous Bone Flaps: An Experimental Investigation.

    PubMed

    Borumandi, Farzad; Higgins, James P; Buerger, Heinz; Vasilyeva, Anna; Benlidayi, Memmet Emre; Sencar, Leman; Gaggl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In arterialized venous flaps (AVFs) the venous network is used to revascularize the flap. While the feasibility of AVFs in soft tissues has been reported there is no study on osseous AVFs. In this study we aim to assess the flap survival of osseous AVFs in a pig model. Medial femoral condyle flaps were elevated in 18 pigs. Three groups were created: AVF (n = 6), conventional arterial flap (cAF, n = 6) and bone graft (BG, n = 6). The AVFs were created by anastomosis of genicular artery with one vena comitans while leaving one efferent vein for drainage. After 6 months the specimens were harvested. The histology and histomorphometry of of the bone in cAF and AVF was significantly superior to bone grafts with a higher bone volume in AVFs (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that osseous free flaps may be supported and survive using the technique of arterialization of the venous network. The concept of AVFs in osseous flaps may be feasible for revascularization of free flaps with an inadequate artery but well developed veins. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to assess the feasibility of clinical use of arterialized venous bone flaps. PMID:27558705

  18. [Arterial complications of hydatic disease].

    PubMed

    Mayoussi, C; El Mesnaoui, A; Lekehal, B; Sefiani, Y; Benosman, A; Bensaid, Y

    2002-04-01

    We report two cases of hydatic cyst with rupture into the aorta in two young patients cared for at the Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat, Morocco. In the first patient, a false hydatic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta was discovered at surgery performed for suspected hydatic cyst of the lower lobe of the left lung. Despite reconstruction with a prosthetic graft, the patient died peroperatively due to exsanguination via uncontrollable bleeding through the aneurysmal sac. The second case was a 20-year-old woman whose false hydatic aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta was disclosed by embolic ischemia of the lower limbs. Aorto-aortic reconstruction was followed by medical treatment with albendazol. During follow-up, the patient developed a hydatic cyst of the kidney and a parietal cyst. Both were treated surgically. An analysis of these two cases and 9 others reported in the literature concerning arterial involvement in hydatic disease revealed the characteristic clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of this rare but serious complication. PMID:12015489

  19. ApoE2 Exaggerates PTSD-Related Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neuroendocrine Alterations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lance A; Zuloaga, Damian G; Bidiman, Erin; Marzulla, Tessa; Weber, Sydney; Wahbeh, Helane; Raber, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an essential component of lipoprotein particles in both the brain and periphery, and exists in three isoforms in the human population: E2, E3, and E4. ApoE has numerous, well-established roles in neurobiology. Most notably, E4 is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although possession of E2 is protective in the context of AD, E2 appears to confer an increased incidence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the biological processes underlying this link remain unclear. In this study, we began to elucidate these associations by examining the effects of apoE on PTSD severity in combat veterans, and on PTSD-like behavior in mice with human apoE. In a group of 92 veterans with PTSD, we observed significantly higher Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and PTSD Checklist scores in E2+ individuals, as well as alterations in salivary cortisol levels. Furthermore, we measured behavioral and biological outcomes in mice expressing human apoE after a single stressful event as well as following a period of chronic variable stress, a model of combat-related trauma. Mice with E2 showed impairments in fear extinction, and behavioral, cognitive, and neuroendocrine alterations following trauma. To the best of our knowledge, these data constitute the first translational demonstration of PTSD severity in men and PTSD-like symptoms in mice with E2, and point to apoE as a novel biomarker of susceptibility, and potential therapeutic target, for PTSD. PMID:25857685

  20. Fundamentalism or Pluralism: Iranian Youth&apos;s Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasha, Nourollah; Ahmad, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    Islamic fundamentalism is an extreme perception of Islam that views "the &apos;Other&apos; as the enemy demonized" against the "West", which also views the Muslim "enemy within". In contrast, pluralism perceives &apos;others&apos; as different people, with different values from us. While the fundamentalist seeks to…

  1. Infants&apos; Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There&apos;s extensive research on infant&apos;s discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant&apos;s discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants&apos; perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  2. Development of the coronary arteries in a murine model of transposition of great arteries.

    PubMed

    González-Iriarte, M; Carmona, R; Pérez-Pomares, J M; Macías, D; Costell, M; Muñoz-Chápuli, R

    2003-07-01

    Transposition of great arteries in humans is associated with a wide spectrum of coronary artery patterns. However, no information is available about how this pattern diversity develops. We have studied the development of the coronary arteries in mouse embryos with a targeted mutation of perlecan, a mutation that leads to ventriculo-arterial discordance and complete transposition in about 70% of the embryos. The perlecan-deficient embryos bearing complete transposition showed a coronary artery pattern consisting of right and left coronary arteries arising from the morphologically dorsal and ventral sinuses of Valsalva, respectively. The left coronary artery gives rise to a large septal artery and runs along the ventral margin of the pulmonary root. In the earliest embryos where transposition could be confirmed (12.5 d post coitum), a dense subepicardial vascular plexus is located in this ventral margin. In wild-type mice, however, capillaries are very scarce on the ventral surface of the pulmonary root and the left coronary artery runs dorsally to this root. We suggest that the establishment of the diverse coronary artery patterns is determined by the anatomical arrangement and the capillary density of the peritruncal vascular plexus, a plexus that spreads from the atrio-ventricular groove and grows around the aortic or pulmonary roots depending on the degree of the short-axis aortopulmonary rotation. This simple model, based on very few assumptions, might explain all the observed variation of the coronary artery patterns in humans with transposition, as well as our observations on the perlecan-deficient and the normal mice. PMID:12818570

  3. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Kim, Juho; Ra, Gicheol; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with the spectral

  4. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Kim, Juho; Ra, Gicheol; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with the spectral

  5. Arterial load and ventricular-arterial coupling: physiologic relations with body size and effect of obesity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Julio A; Rietzschel, Ernst R; De Buyzere, Marc L; De Bacquer, Dirk; Gillebert, Thierry C; Gupta, Amit K; Segers, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Accurate quantification of arterial function is crucial to distinguishing disease states from normal variants. However, there are little data regarding methods to scale arterial load to body size in humans. We studied 2365 adults aged 35 to 55 years free of overt cardiovascular disease. We assessed arterial hemodynamics and ventricular-vascular coupling with carotid tonometry and Doppler echocardiography. To define normal (physiological) relationships between hemodynamic indices and body size, we used nonlinear regression to analyze a selected reference subsample (n=612) with normal weight (body mass index 18 to 25 kg/m(2)), waist circumference, and metabolic parameters. Most arterial hemodynamic indices demonstrated important relationships with body size, which were frequently allometric (nonlinear). Allometric indexation using appropriate powers (but not ratiometric indexation) effectively eliminated the relationships between indices of arterial load and body size in normal subjects. In the entire sample (n=2365), the adverse effects of obesity on arterial load and end-systolic ventricular stiffening were clearly demonstrated only after appropriate indexation to account for the expected normal relationship to body size. After adjustment for age and sex, a progressive increase in indexed systemic vascular resistance, effective arterial and ventricular end-systolic elastance, and a decrease in total arterial compliance were seen from normal weight to obesity (P<0.0001). Arterial load relates to body size in an allometric fashion, calling for scaling with the use of appropriate powers. Obesity exerts adverse effects on arterial load and ventricular stiffening that go beyond the normal relationship with body size. Allometric normalization should allow more accurate quantification of arterial load in future studies. PMID:19581507

  6. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  7. Loss of ADAMTS4 reduces high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis and enhances plaque stability in ApoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saran; Chen, Mo; Li, Yan; Wong, Fiona H. S.; Thiam, Chung Wee; Hossain, Md Zakir; Poh, Kian Keong; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hiroko; Angeli, Véronique; Ge, Ruowen

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by formation of lipid-rich plaques on the inner walls of arteries. ADAMTS4 (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4) is a secreted proteinase that regulates versican turnover in the arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques. Recent reports indicated elevated ADAMTS4 level in human atherosclerotic plaques and in the plasma of acute coronary syndrome patients. Nevertheless, whether increased ADAMTS4 is a consequence of atherosclerosis or ADAMTS4 has a causal role in atherogenesis remains unknown. In this work, we investigated the role of ADAMTS4 in diet induced atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE−/−) and Adamts4 knockout mice. We show that ADAMTS4 expression increases in plaques as atherosclerosis progresses in ApoE−/− mice. ApoE−/−Adamts4−/− double knockout mice presented a significant reduction in plaque burden at 18 weeks of age. Loss of ADAMTS4 lead to a more stable plaque phenotype with a significantly reduced plaque vulnerability index characterized by reduced lipid content and macrophages accompanied with a significant increase in smooth muscle cells, collagen deposition and fibrotic cap thickness. The reduced atherosclerosis is accompanied by an altered plasma inflammatory cytokine profile. These results demonstrate for the first time that ADAMTS4 contributes to diet induced atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27491335

  8. The Role of Student-Teacher Ratio in Parents&apos; Perceptions of Schools&apos; Engagement Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Elbaum, Batya

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests a positive relationship between schools&apos; efforts to engage parents and parents&apos; involvement in their child&apos;s education. The authors investigated school socioeconomic status, school size, grade level, and student-teacher ratio as predictors of schools&apos; efforts to engage parents of students receiving special…

  9. How Do Teachers&apos; Beliefs Predict Children&apos;s Interest in Math from Kindergarten to Sixth Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent teachers&apos; beliefs about children&apos;s achievement contribute to the development of children&apos;s math interest. In addition, the extent to which other possible predictors, such as performance in math, gender, and race/ethnicity would contribute to the development of children&apos;s math…

  10. Parents&apos; Views of the National Autistic Society&apos;s EarlyBird Plus Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutress, Anna L.; Muncer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent training interventions are recommended for parents soon after their child&apos;s autism spectrum condition diagnosis with the aim of improving parents&apos; psychological well-being and coping, as well as the child&apos;s behaviour. This report explores parents&apos; views of the EarlyBird Plus Programme through data collected routinely in…

  11. A Quest for Legitimacy: On the Professionalization Policies of Sweden&apos;s Teachers&apos; Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilja, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on teacher professionalism by analyzing the professional strategies of Sweden&apos;s two teachers&apos; unions from an organizational perspective. Drawing on institutional theory, the article argues that the teachers&apos; unions&apos; focus on strategies of professionalization has…

  12. The Problem of Character Education and Kohlberg&apos;s Moral Education: Critique from Dewey&apos;s Moral Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Dewey&apos;s moral deliberation. Liu argues that Dewey&apos;s work will enrich both character education and Kohlberg&apos;s moral education. Liu focuses on character education and on Kohlberg&apos;s moral education because these are the two dominant approaches. Character education seeks to cultivate good…

  13. Coronary artery fenestration prior to stenting in spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Alkhouli, Mohamad; Cole, Melissa; Ling, Frederick S

    2016-07-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection is associated with high rates of complications and suboptimal long-term outcomes. Coronary artery fenestration with cutting balloon angioplasty prior to stenting can prevent the expansion of intramural hematoma and optimize PCI outcomes in this patient population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26333193

  14. Catheterization of the Hepatic Artery Via the Left Common Carotid Artery in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiao; Wang Yixiang, J.; Zhou Xiangping Guan Yongsong; Tang Chengwei

    2006-12-15

    The commonly used approach for rat hepatic artery catheterization is via the gastroduodenal artery, which is ligated after the procedure. A new method of rat hepatic artery catheterization via the left common carotid artery (LCCA) is described. The LCCA is repaired after catheterization. The catheterization procedures included the following: (1) opening the rat's abdominal cavity and exposing the portion of abdominal aorta at the level of the celiac trunk; (2) separating and exposing the LCCA; inserting a microguidewire and microcatheter set into the LCCA via an incision; after placement into the descending aorta, the microguidewire and microcatheter are maneuvered into the hepatic artery under direct vision; (3) after transcatheter therapy, the catheter is withdrawn and the incision at the LCCA is repaired. This technique was employed on 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats with diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer, using a 3F microguidewire and microcatheter set. Selective hepatic artery catheterization was successfully performed in 57 rats. One rat died during the operation and five rats died within 7 days after the procedure. It is envisaged that as experience increases, the catheterization success rate will increase and the death rate will decrease. A new approach for selective hepatic artery catheterization via the LCCA in rats is introduced, which makes repeat catheterization of this artery possible and allows large embolization particles to be delivered by using a 3F catheter.

  15. Giant Cavernous Aneurysm Associated with a Persistent Trigeminal Artery and Persistent Otic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang-wei; Yang, Zhi-gang; Wang, Chao-hua; You, Chao; Mao, Bo-yong; He, Min; Sun, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) and primitive otic artery (POA) is a very rare entity in adult life. We present a case of PTA and POA associated with a giant unruptured cavernous aneurysm in a 54-year-old woman. The PTA and the POA arose from the sac of the aneurysm directly, which greatly complicated endovascular therapy management. PMID:19721839

  16. Transcatheter Splenic Artery Occlusion for Treatment of Splenic Artery Steal Syndrome After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uflacker, Renan; Selby, J. Bayne; Chavin, Kenneth; Rogers, Jeffrey; Baliga, Prabhakar

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To review some aspects of the problem of splenic artery steal syndrome as cause of ischemia in transplanted livers and treatment by selective splenic artery occlusion. Materials and Methods: Eleven liver transplant patients from a group of 350 patients, nine men and two women,ranging in age from 40 years to 61 years (mean 52 years), presented with biochemical evidences of liver ischemia and failure, ranging from one to 60 days following orthotopic liver transplantation. Diagnosis of splenic artery steal syndrome was suspected by elevated enzymes, Doppler ultrasound and confirmed by celiac angiogram. Patients with confirmed hepatic artery thrombosis before angiography were excluded from the study. Embolization with Gianturco coils was performed. Results: All patients were treated by splenic artery embolization with Gianturco coils. The 11 patients improved clinically within 24 hours of the procedure with significant change in the biochemical and clinical parameters. Followup ranged from one month to two years. One of the 11 patient initially improved, but developed hepatic artery thrombosis within 24 hours of the embolic treatment,requiring surgical repair. Conclusion: Splenicartery steal syndrome following liver transplantation surgery can be diagnosed by celiac angiography, and effectively treated by splenic artery embolization with coils. Embolization is one of the treatments available, it is minimally invasive, and leads to immediate clinical improvement. Hepatic artery thrombosis is a possible complication of the procedure.

  17. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines on Arterial Conduits for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Aldea, Gabriel S; Bakaeen, Faisal G; Pal, Jay; Fremes, Stephen; Head, Stuart J; Sabik, Joseph; Rosengart, Todd; Kappetein, A Pieter; Thourani, Vinod H; Firestone, Scott; Mitchell, John D

    2016-02-01

    Internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) should be used to bypass the left anterior descending (LAD) artery when bypass of the LAD is indicated (class of recommendation [COR] I, level of evidence [LOE] B). As an adjunct to left internal thoracic artery (LITA), a second arterial graft (right ITA or radial artery [RA]) should be considered in appropriate patients (COR IIa, LOE B). Use of bilateral ITAs (BITAs) should be considered in patients who do not have an excessive risk of sternal complications (COR IIa, LOE B). To reduce the risk of sternal infection with BITA, skeletonized grafts should be considered (COR IIa, LOE B), smoking cessation is recommended (COR I, LOE C), glycemic control should be considered (COR IIa, LOE B), and enhanced sternal stabilization may be considered (COR IIb, LOE C). As an adjunct to LITA to LAD (or in patients with inadequate LITA grafts), use of a RA graft is reasonable when grafting coronary targets with severe stenoses (COR IIa, LOE: B). When RA grafts are used, it is reasonable to use pharmacologic agents to reduce acute intraoperative and perioperative spasm (COR IIa, LOE C). The right gastroepiploic artery may be considered in patients with poor conduit options or as an adjunct to more complete arterial revascularization (COR IIb, LOE B). Use of arterial grafts (specific targets, number, and type) should be a part of the discussion of the heart team in determining the optimal approach for each patient (COR I, LOE C). PMID:26680310

  18. Acute ileofemoral artery thromboembolism due to left ventricle thrombi with spontaneous coronary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heungman; Jung, Cheol-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a very rare cause of peripheral artery thromboembolism. It is especially rare to show symptoms of acute limb ischemia without chest symptoms during a hospital visit. In this case, a rare case of SCAD led to left heart failure and caused left ventricle thrombi, which in turn caused peripheral thromboembolism. PMID:25553326

  19. Determinants of ApoB, ApoA1, and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio in healthy schoolgirls, prospectively studied from mean ages 10 to 19 years: the Cincinnati National Growth and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Horn, Paul S; Wang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    The objectives were to prospectively assess determinants of apolipoproteins B (ApoB), A1 (ApoA1), and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio in 797 healthy black and white schoolgirls from mean ages 10 to 19. There was prospective 9-year follow-up, with measures of ApoB at mean ages 10, 12, 14, 16 and 19, ApoA1 at mean ages 12, 14, 16, and 19, and assessment of annual reports of delayed menstrual cyclicity (≥42 days) from ages 14 to 19. Studies of 402 black and 395 white healthy schoolgirls were done in public and private schools, in urban and suburban Cincinnati. Black girls had lower ApoB, higher ApoA1, and lower ApoB/ApoA1. SHBG at age 14 in white and black girls was inversely correlated with the ApoB/ApoA1. At age 19, ≥3 annual reports of menstrual delay ≥42 days and metabolic syndrome were associated with higher ApoB and a higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. From ages 14 to 19, BMI and TG were independently positively associated with ApoB. Menstrual cyclicity ≥42 days, metabolic syndrome, BMI, and TG were independently positively associated with ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while black race was negatively associated. The atherogenic ApoB/ApoA1 ratio from ages 14 to 19 is lower in black girls, and positively associated with hyperandrogenism, menstrual cyclicity ≥42 days, BMI, TG, and the metabolic syndrome, facilitating an adolescent approach to primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22512822

  20. Infectious and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Tohidi, Mohammad; Sabouri, Amin; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Sadeghi-Ghahrodi, Mohsen; Einollahi, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic event is one of the most causes of death in the world. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one manifestation of atherosclerosis. It is well-known that several risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension (HTN), have effects on it. It is proposed that infection can lead to atherosclerosis or even make its process faster. Here, we discuss about the effect of some of infectious agents on the atherosclerosis and CAD. METHODS In this study, first we did a comprehensive search in PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct using some related keywords such as atherosclerosis, CAD, myocardial infarction (MI), infection, and name of viruses and bacteria. After finding the related papers, we reviewed the correlation between some microbial agents and risk of CAD. RESULTS Literature has reported several infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) that can be associated with risk of CAD. This association for some of them like Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Chlamydia pneumonia (C. pneumoniae), and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a very strong. On the other hand, there are some other agents like influenza that still need to be more investigated through original studies. Furthermore, different mechanisms (general and special) have been reported for the association of each agent with CAD. CONCLUSION Based on the studies in databases and our literature review, it is so clear that some microbes and infectious agents can be involved in the process of atherosclerosis. Therefore, controlling each type of infections especially among people with a traditional risk factor for atherosclerosis should be taken into account for reducing the risk of CAD and atherosclerosis. PMID:27114736

  1. Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Ruth; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-02-19

    Genetic factors contribute importantly to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), and in the past decade, there has been major progress in this area. The tools applied include genome-wide association studies encompassing >200,000 individuals complemented by bioinformatic approaches, including 1000 Genomes imputation, expression quantitative trait locus analyses, and interrogation of Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, Roadmap, and other data sets. close to 60 common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.05) associated with CAD risk and reaching genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)) have been identified. Furthermore, a total of 202 independent signals in 109 loci have achieved a false discovery rate (q<0.05) and together explain 28% of the estimated heritability of CAD. These data have been used successfully to create genetic risk scores that can improve risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors and identify those individuals who will benefit most from statin therapy. Such information also has important applications in clinical medicine and drug discovery by using a Mendelian randomization approach to interrogate the causal nature of many factors found to associate with CAD risk in epidemiological studies. In contrast to genome-wide association studies, whole-exome sequencing has provided valuable information directly relevant to genes with known roles in plasma lipoprotein metabolism but has, thus far, failed to identify other rare coding variants linked to CAD. Overall, recent studies have led to a broader understanding of the genetic architecture of CAD and demonstrate that it largely derives from the cumulative effect of multiple common risk alleles individually of small effect size rather than rare variants with large effects on CAD risk. Despite this success, there has been limited progress in understanding the function of the novel loci; the majority of which are in noncoding regions of the genome. PMID:26892958

  2. Neurological Complications Comparing Endoscopically vs. Open Harvest of the Radial Artery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Complications Due to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  3. Energetic and spatial constraints of arterial networks.

    PubMed

    Rossitti, S

    1995-06-01

    The principle of minimum work (PMW) is a parametric optimization model for the growth and adaptation of arterial trees. A balance between energy dissipation due to frictional resistance of laminar flow (shear stress) and the minimum volume of the blood and vessel wall tissue is achieved when the vessel radii are adjusted to the cube root of the volumetric flow. The PMW is known to apply over several magnitudes of vessel calibers, and in many different organs, including the brain, in humans and in animals. Animal studies suggest that blood flow in arteries is approximately proportional to the cube of the vessel radius, and that arteries alter their caliber in response to sustained changes of blood flow according to PMW. Remodelling of the retinal arteriolar network to long-term changes in blood flow was observed in humans. Remodelling of whole arterial networks occurs in the form of increase or diminishing of vessel calibers. Shear stress induced endothelial mediation seems to be the regulating mechanism for the maintenance of this optimum blood flow/vessel diameter relation. Arterial trees are also expected to be nearly space filing. The vascular system is constructed in such a way that, while blood vessels occupy only a small percentage of the body volume leaving the bulk to tissue, they also crisscross organs so tightly that every point in the tissue lies on the boundary between an artery and a vein. This review describes how the energetic optimum principle for least energy cost for blood flow is also compatible with the spatial constraints of arterial networks according to concepts derived from fractal geometry. PMID:7487549

  4. Arterial tree asymmetry reduces cerebral pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Vrselja, Zvonimir; Brkic, Hrvoje; Curic, Goran

    2015-11-01

    With each heartbeat, pressure wave (PW) propagates from aorta toward periphery. In cerebral circulation, at the level of circle of Willis (CW), four arteries and four PWs converge. Since the interference is an elemental property of the wave, PWs interfere at the level of CW. We hypothesize that the asymmetry of brain-supplying arteries (that join to form CW) creates phase difference between the four PWs that interfere at the level of CW and reduce downstream cerebral pulsatility. To best of our knowledge, the data about the sequence of PWs' arrival into the cerebral circulation is lacking. Evident imperfect bilateral symmetry of the vessels results with different path length of brain-supplying arteries, hence, PWs should arrive into the head at different times. The probabilistic calculation shows that asynchronous arrival is more probable than synchronous. The importance of PWs for the cerebral circulation is highlighted by the observation that barotrauma protection mechanisms are more influenced by the crest of PW (pulse pressure) than by the mean arterial pressure. In addition, an increased arterial pulsatility is associated with several brain pathologies. We created simple computational models of four converging arteries and found that asynchronous arrival of the PWs results with lower maximum pressure, slower rate of pressure amplification and lower downstream pulsatility. In analogy, the asynchronous arrival of the pressure waves into the cerebral circulation should decrease blood flow pulsatility and lower transmission of kinetic energy on arterial wall. We conclude that asynchronous arrival of PWs into the cerebral circulation influences cerebral hemodynamics and represents a physiological necessity. PMID:26277658

  5. A Novel Channelopathy in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Eric D.; Eyries, Mélanie; Sampson, Kevin S.; Soubrier, Florent; Germain, Marine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Borczuk, Alain; Rosenzweig, Erika Berman; Girerd, Barbara; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc; Loyd, James E.; Kass, Robert S.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high mortality. Familial cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension are usually characterized by autosomal dominant transmission with reduced penetrance, and some familial cases have unknown genetic causes. METHODS We studied a family in which multiple members had pulmonary arterial hypertension without identifiable mutations in any of the genes known to be associated with the disease, including BMPR2, ALK1, ENG, SMAD9, and CAV1. Three family members were studied with whole-exome sequencing. Additional patients with familial or idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension were screened for the mutations in the gene that was identified on whole-exome sequencing. All variants were expressed in COS-7 cells, and channel function was studied by means of patch-clamp analysis. RESULTS We identified a novel heterozygous missense variant c.608 G→A (G203D) in KCNK3 (the gene encoding potassium channel subfamily K, member 3) as a disease-causing candidate gene in the family. Five additional heterozygous missense variants in KCNK3 were independently identified in 92 unrelated patients with familial pulmonary arterial hypertension and 230 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We used in silico bioinformatic tools to predict that all six novel variants would be damaging. Electrophysiological studies of the channel indicated that all these missense mutations resulted in loss of function, and the reduction in the potassium-channel current was remedied by the application of the phospholipase inhibitor ONO-RS-082. CONCLUSIONS Our study identified the association of a novel gene, KCNK3, with familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Mutations in this gene produced reduced potassium-channel current, which was successfully remedied by pharmacologic manipulation. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:23883380

  6. Lessons learnt from carotid artery trials.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, H; Limet, R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the authors is to assess the natural history of carotid artery disease and the role of carotid intervention in preventing ipsilateral stroke. The development of endovascular techniques for correction of carotid artery stenoses made this less invasive technique very popular, with an inherent risk of unregulated overuse by a variety of medical specialists, who are not always well informed on the natural history of carotid artery disease. It re-opened the discussion on the value of carotid endarterectomy for stroke prophylaxis. This ongoing debate offers the opportunity to distil evidence-based guidelines for the management of extracranial carotid artery stenoses. In recent papers, some authors expressed doubts on the validity and general applicability of the results of the pivotal randomised trials of carotid endarterectomy. The excellent results in terms of operative outcome and long term stroke prevention would, according to certain comments, not be attainable in routine practice. Another criticism of carotid endarterectomy is its higher operative morbidity in terms of cranial nerve lesions and myocardial infarctions, compared to endovascular procedures. This consideration is, for some authors, the main reason to espouse carotid artery stenting as a better alternative to carotid endarterectomy. Any evidence supporting this point of view is missing. The supposed equivalence or non-inferiority of carotid artery stenting is purely speculative. The aim of this review paper is to summarize the crude data of carotid surgery trials. The authors aim to answer four questions. For which lesions is carotid endarterectomy most beneficial ? Are the results of randomised carotid surgery trials biased by the selection of patients ? Is operative morbidity, other than stroke, under-estimated ? Is carotid artery stenting safe and efficacious ? An in-depth review with a critical analysis is made of recently published and on-going trials, comparing carotid surgery

  7. Greater medial temporal hypometabolism and lower cortical amyloid burden in ApoE4-positive AD patients

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Manja; Ghosh, Pia M.; Madison, Cindee; Karydas, Anna; Coppola, Giovanni; O’Neil, James P.; Huang, Yadong; Miller, Bruce L.; Jagust, William J.; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2013-01-01

    Background ApoE4 has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid deposition and hypometabolism. ApoE4 is less prevalent in non-amnestic AD variants suggesting a direct effect on the clinical phenotype. However, the impact of ApoE4 on amyloid burden and glucose metabolism across different clinical AD syndromes is not well understood. We aimed to assess the relationship between amyloid deposition, glucose metabolism and ApoE4 genotype in a clinically heterogeneous population of AD patients. Methods Fifty-two patients with probable AD (NIA-AA) underwent [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans. All patients had positive PIB-PET scans. 23 were ApoE4+ (14 heterozygous, 9 homozygous) and 29 were ApoE4−. Groups consisted of language-variant AD, visual-variant AD, and AD patients with amnestic and dysexecutive deficits. 52 healthy controls were included for comparison. FDG and PIB uptake was compared between groups on a voxel-wise basis and in regions-of-interest. Results Whilst PIB patterns were diffuse in both patient groups, ApoE4− patients showed higher PIB uptake than ApoE4+ patients across the cortex. Higher PIB uptake in ApoE4− patients was particularly significant in right lateral frontotemporal regions. In contrast, similar patterns of hypometabolism relative to controls were found in both patient groups, mainly involving lateral temporoparietal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and middle frontal gyrus. Comparing patient groups, ApoE4+ subjects showed greater hypometabolism in bilateral medial temporal and right lateral temporal regions, and ApoE4− patients showed greater hypometabolism in cortical areas including supplementary motor cortex and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions ApoE4+ AD patients showed lower global amyloid burden and greater medial temporal hypometabolism compared to matched ApoE4− patients. These findings suggest that ApoE4 may increase susceptibility

  8. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for an Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery in a 73-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Narihiro; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Ogura, Hiroki; Takemura, Hirofumi; Doi, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) in adults is a rare congenital coronary abnormality. We report a case of ALCAPA in a 73-year-old female managed by total arterial revascularization. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12755 (J Card Surg 2016;31:380-382). PMID:27102973

  9. Family history and apoE genotype interaction in Alzheimer`s disease (AD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvik, G.P.; Kukull, W.A.; Goddards, K.

    1994-09-01

    The apoE {epsilon}4 allele is associated with increased risk and decreased age of onset of AD. The {epsilon}4 allele may have opposing effects. We determined that family history of a parent or sib with memory problems (famhx+) modified the effect of apoE genotype in a population-based, case (n=165, 72 famhx+)-control (n=233, 73 famhx+) sample. Logistic regression analyses detected a significant apoE genotype (E) by family history (F) by age (A) interaction (ExFxA, p=0.003) and ExF interaction (p=0.0001) in the prediction of AD. ExFxA remained significant when only {epsilon}4+ genotypes were included (p<0.01). ExFxSex (p=0.04) and ExF (p<0.0001) were significant when only {epsilon}4- genotypes were included. Similary, multiple regression detected significant ExF interaction in the prediction of age of AD onset for {epsilon}4+ genotypes (p=0.04) or {epsilon}4- genotypes (p=0.04). Sex did not interact in the prediction of age of onset. Famhx+ increased risk of AD differentially and reduced age of onset except in {epsilon}2+ genotypes. Family history modifies the apoE genotype influence on risk and onset age of AD, suggesting that non-apoE genetic effects interact with apoE in AD. It is most predictive of risk in those with the {epsilon}2{epsilon}3 genotype. Variation in risk and onset among both {epsilon}4+ and {epsilon}4- genotypes demonstrate that {epsilon}2 and {epsilon}3 mediate {epsilon}4 allele effects in AD.

  10. Infective endocarditis related to a coronary artery fistula with an unusual localization and ectatic coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Gerede, Demet Menekse; Acibuca, Aynur; Uzun, Caglar; Goksuluk, Huseyin; Ongun, Aydan; Kilickap, Mustafa; Erol, Cetin

    2015-04-01

    Coronary artery fistulas (CAF) are a rare cardiac anomaly that can be either congenital or acquired. CAFs have clinical significance because of complications such as dyspnea on exertion, congestive heart failure, and cardiac tamponade. The literature also contains case reports of CAF presenting as bacterial endocarditis. We describe a 31-year-old man who presented with native valve infective endocarditis related to an unusual form of a CAF between the circumflex coronary artery and left ventricle. He also had giant coronary arteries, which were imaged with computed tomography angiography and transesophageal echocardiography. The diameter of the circumflex coronary artery and left main coronary artery was measured as 19 mm. Surgical intervention for heart valves was performed because of vegetations resistant to continued antibiotic treatment. At the same time, the CAF was treated with surgery. PMID:25362867

  11. Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Kasmir; Sugamura, Koichi; Craige, Siobhan; Keaney, John F; Davis, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18414.001 PMID:27504807

  12. Genome-wide screen for modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) secretion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rebecca R; Perry, William; Haas, Joseph V; Mosior, Marian K; N'Cho, Mathias; Wang, Jian W J; Yu, Peng; Calley, John; Yue, Yong; Carter, Quincy; Han, Bomie; Foxworthy, Patricia; Kowala, Mark C; Ryan, Timothy P; Solenberg, Patricia J; Michael, Laura F

    2013-03-01

    Control of plasma cholesterol levels is a major therapeutic strategy for management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreases morbidity and mortality, this therapeutic intervention only translates into a 25-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high LDL-c level is not the only risk factor for CAD; low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) is an independent risk factor for CAD. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein component of HDL-c that mediates reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver for excretion. Therefore, increasing ApoA-I levels is an attractive strategy for HDL-c elevation. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, targets that regulate hepatocyte ApoA-I secretion were identified through transfection of 21,789 siRNAs into hepatocytes whereby cell supernatants were assayed for ApoA-I. Approximately 800 genes were identified and triaged using a convergence of information, including genetic associations with HDL-c levels, tissue-specific gene expression, druggability assessments, and pathway analysis. Fifty-nine genes were selected for reconfirmation; 40 genes were confirmed. Here we describe the siRNA screening strategy, assay implementation and validation, data triaging, and example genes of interest. The genes of interest include known and novel genes encoding secreted enzymes, proteases, G-protein-coupled receptors, metabolic enzymes, ion transporters, and proteins of unknown function. Repression of farnesyltransferase (FNTA) by siRNA and the enzyme inhibitor manumycin A caused elevation of ApoA-I secretion from hepatocytes and from transgenic mice expressing hApoA-I and cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenes. In total, this work underscores the power of functional genetic assessment to identify new therapeutic targets. PMID:23322769

  13. Higher Plasma ApoE Levels are Associated with Low-Normal Thyroid Function: Studies in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L J N; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Dullaart, R P F

    2016-07-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may confer higher plasma triglycerides, but relationships with plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E, which plays an important role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma apoE with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) in euthyroid subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, lipids, and apoE were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM subjects and 82 nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype was also determined. Free T4 was slightly higher in T2DM (p=0.030), but TSH levels were not different vs. nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype distribution was not different between the groups. None of the participants had the ε2/ε2 genotype. Plasma triglycerides were higher in T2DM (p=0.037). ApoB and apoE levels were not different between the groups. In all subjects combined, multivariable analysis showed that plasma triglycerides (p=0.039), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (p=0.030), and apoE levels (p=0.002) were each independently and positively associated with TSH after adjustment for age, sex, T2DM and the presence of the APOE ε3 allele. Furthermore, the associations of TSH with apoE remained present after adjustment for either triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, or apoB (p=0.005 to 0.023). The presence of T2DM did not modify the relationships of TSH with these (apo) lipoprotein variables (p=0.11 to 0.36). In conclusion, low-normal thyroid function, as indicated by higher TSH levels within the euthyroid range, may influence the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by affecting apoE regulation. PMID:26916531

  14. Pulse Pressure Is Associated With Early Brain Atrophy and Cognitive Decline: Modifying Effects of APOE-ε4.

    PubMed

    Nation, Daniel A; Preis, Sarah R; Beiser, Alexa; Bangen, Katherine J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Lamar, Melissa; Libon, David J; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether midlife pulse pressure is associated with brain atrophy and cognitive decline, and whether the association was modified by apolipoprotein-E ε4 (APOE-ε4) and hypertension. Participants (549 stroke-free and dementia-free Framingham Offspring Cohort Study participants, age range=55.0 to 64.9 y) underwent baseline neuropsychological and magnetic resonance imaging (subset, n=454) evaluations with 5- to 7-year follow-up. Regression analyses investigated associations between baseline pulse pressure (systolic-diastolic pressure) and cognition, total cerebral volume and temporal horn ventricular volume (as an index of smaller hippocampal volume) at follow-up, and longitudinal change in these measures. Interactions with APOE-ε4 and hypertension were assessed. Covariates included age, sex, education, assessment interval, and interim stroke. In the total sample, baseline pulse pressure was associated with worse executive ability, lower total cerebral volume, and greater temporal horn ventricular volume 5 to 7 years later, and longitudinal decline in executive ability and increase in temporal horn ventricular volume. Among APOE-ε4 carriers only, baseline pulse pressure was associated with longitudinal decline in visuospatial organization. Findings indicate arterial stiffening, indexed by pulse pressure, may play a role in early cognitive decline and brain atrophy in mid to late life, particularly among APOE-ε4 carriers. PMID:27556935

  15. Pulse propagation in the pulmonary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas; Vaughan, Gareth; Olufsen, Mette; Johnson, Martin; Sainsbury, Christopher

    2007-11-01

    The model of Olufsen [1,2] has been extended to study pulse propagation in the pulmonary circulation. The pulmonary arteries are treated as a bifurcating tree of compliant and tapering vessels. The model is divided into two coupled parts: the larger and smaller arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries are predicted from a nonlinear 1D cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. The initial cardiac output is obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. The smaller blood vessels are modelled as an asymmetric structured tree with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. Womersley's theory gives the wave equation in the frequency domain for the 1D flow in these smaller vessels, resulting in a linear system. The impedances of the smallest vessels are set to a constant and then back-calculation gives the required outflow boundary condition for the Navier-Stokes equations in the larger vessels. The number of generations of blood vessels, and the compliance of the arterial wall are shown to affect both the systolic and diastolic pressures. [1] Olufsen MS et al. Ann Biomed Eng. 2000;28:1281-99. [2] Olufsen MS. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:H257-68.

  16. Apelin Levels In Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, İbrahim; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Akıl, Mehmet Ata; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; Polat, Nihat; Aydın, Mesut; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Ertaș, Faruk; Kaya, Hasan; Alan, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is not known completely. In most of the cases, CAE is associated with atherosclerosis; however, isolated CAE has a nonatherosclerotic mechanism. The association between atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and apelin has been examined in previous studies. However, the role of plasma apelin in isolated coronary artery ectasia has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma apelin levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia. Subjects and Methods The study population included a total of 54 patients. Twenty-six patients had isolated CAE (53.6±8.1 years); 28 patients with normal coronary arteries (51.6±8.8 years) and with similar risk factors and demographic characteristics served as the control group. Apelin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Results Apelin level in the CAE group was significantly lower (apelin=0.181±0.159 ng/mL) than that in the control group (apelin=0.646±0.578 ng/mL) (p=0.033). Glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we showed that patients with isolated CAE have decreased plasma apelin levels compared with the control group. Based on the data, a relationship between plasma apelin and isolated CAE was determined. PMID:26413106

  17. Mechanical properties of porcine intralobar pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, H; Hogg, J C; Moreno, R H; Paré, P D; Schellenberg, R R

    1988-04-01

    The isobaric and isovolumetric properties of intrapulmonary arteries were evaluated by placing a highly compliant balloon inside arterial segments. The passive pressure-volume (P-V) curve was obtained by changing volume (0.004 ml/s) and measuring pressure. The isobaric active volume change (delta V) or isovolumetric active pressure change (delta P) generated by submaximal histamine was measured at four different transmural pressures (Ptm's) reached by balloon inflation. The maximal delta P = 11.2 +/- 0.6 cmH2O (mean +/- SE) was achieved at 30.8 +/- 1.2 cmH2O Ptm and maximal delta V = 0.20 +/- 0.02 ml at 16.7 +/- 1.7 cmH2O Ptm. The P-V relationships were similar when volume was increased after either isobaric or isovolumetric contraction. The calculated length-tension (L-T) relationship showed that the active tension curve was relatively flat and that the passive tension at the optimal length was 149 +/- 11% of maximal active tension. These data show that 1) a large elastic component operates in parallel with the smooth muscle in intralobar pulmonary arteries, and 2) the change in resistance associated with vascular expansion of the proximal arteries is independent of the type of contraction that occurs in the more distal arterial segments. PMID:3378988

  18. Variant PTA Terminating in Cerebellar Artery, Associated with Multiple Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yeong Uk

    2016-01-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is one of the remnant fetal anastomoses between the carotid artery and basilar artery. PTAs are classified according to angiographic appearance and various connection. Among them, those directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries are rare subtype. In addition, aneurysms of the PTA are unusual in the literature and have not previously accompanied this subtype of PTA connecting cerebellar artery. We present the first case of an aneurysm of the PTA which is directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries and combined with multiple aneurysms. PMID:27446623

  19. Variant PTA Terminating in Cerebellar Artery, Associated with Multiple Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yeong Uk; Kim, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is one of the remnant fetal anastomoses between the carotid artery and basilar artery. PTAs are classified according to angiographic appearance and various connection. Among them, those directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries are rare subtype. In addition, aneurysms of the PTA are unusual in the literature and have not previously accompanied this subtype of PTA connecting cerebellar artery. We present the first case of an aneurysm of the PTA which is directly terminating in the cerebellar arteries and combined with multiple aneurysms. PMID:27446623

  20. An Exploration of Mothers&apos; Attitudes towards Their Daughters&apos; Menarche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Clare; Harden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Menarche is a significant milestone for young women, representing an important juncture between girlhood and maturation. The limited literature that exists suggests that a mother&apos;s reaction to her daughter&apos;s first periods can shape her experiences and perceptions of menstruation which, in turn, may impact on her self-image and,…

  1. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents&apos; Strategies for Involvement in Children&apos;s Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents&apos; indifference or lack of involvement in children&apos;s schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of…

  2. Chilean Adolescents&apos; and Parents&apos; Views on Autonomy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents&apos; and adolescents&apos; conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic…

  3. Effects of Teachers&apos; Instructional Development on Students&apos; Study Approaches in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; De Maeyer, Sven; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Evidence regarding the impact of teachers&apos; instructional development on student learning in higher education is scarce. In this study the authors investigate the impact of an instructional development programme for beginning university teachers on students&apos; approach to studying. They also explore whether this impact is dependent on class…

  4. Students&apos; Perceptions of Their Science Teachers&apos; Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, Lilia; Abdullah, Sharifah Intan Sharina Syed; Meerah, T. Subahan Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a type of teacher knowledge to be developed by a teacher. PCK is said to contribute to effective teaching. Most studies investigated the development of PCK and its influence on students&apos; learning from the teachers&apos; perspectives. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the components of…

  5. Teachers&apos; Perceptions Based on Tenure Status and Gender about Principals&apos; Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret G.; Finch, Kim; Young, Suzanne; Hvidston, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study assessed teachers&apos; attitudes about their formative supervision and the observational ability of principals through the constructs of teacher tenure status and gender. In sum, 255 teachers responded to an online survey indicating teachers&apos; desired feedback focused on classroom climate, student engagement, and…

  6. Let&apos;s Burn Them All: A Librarian&apos;s View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Roye

    2014-01-01

    In this rejoinder to "Let&apos;s Burn Them All," a librarian supports the author&apos;s case for eliminating textbooks in the teaching of management and organizational behavior. A move away from textbooks would free libraries from worrying about whether and to what extent to provide expensive textbook access to students, a long-standing…

  7. Who&apos;s Really Struggling?: Middle School Teachers&apos; Perceptions of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Leah K.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored middle school teachers&apos; perceptions of struggling readers, including influences such as: understandings of components and factors relating to reading difficulties; views of struggling readers&apos; behaviours and affect; classroom implications of their difficulties; and feelings of both competency and responsibility in the…

  8. Teachers&apos; Perceptions Regarding School Principals&apos; Coaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Özdemir, Tuncay Yavuz; Kartal, Seçil Eda; Kocabas, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers&apos; perceptions about school principals&apos; coaching skills. The study was carried out within qualitative research methods. The study group included 76 teachers in Elazig and 73 teachers in Kahramanmaras provinces of Turkey. All the data were processed using Nvivo 9 software. The results…

  9. Examining the Relationship between Teachers&apos; Instructional Practices and Students&apos; Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmender, Janine M.; Gavin, M. Katherine; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether relationships existed between teachers&apos; implementation of two specific discourse-related instructional practices and students&apos; mathematics achievement in geometry and measurement as part of a research study on the effectiveness of an advanced mathematics curriculum for kindergarten and…

  10. Initiating Teachers&apos; Action Research: Empowering Teachers&apos; Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The role of a teacher as an action researcher in Croatia is still insufficiently appreciated and promoted in initial teachers&apos; training, school students learning and in the employed teachers&apos; professional post-qualification development. In this country, teachers are most frequently perceived as mediators or technicians whose task is to…

  11. Mapping of ApoE4 related white matter damage using diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Hwang, Darryl H.; Kriger, Stephen; Law, Meng; Chui, Helena; Weiner, Michael; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    ApoliopoproteinE Ɛ4 (ApoE-Ɛ4) polymorphism is the most well known genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimers Disease. The exact mechanism through which ApoE 4 increases AD risk is not fully known, but may be related to decreased clearance and increased oligomerization of Aβ. By making measurements of white matter integrity via diffusion MR and correlating the metrics in a voxel-based statistical analysis with ApoE-Ɛ4 genotype (whilst controlling for vascular risk factor, gender, cognitive status and age) we are able to identify changes in white matter associated with carrying an ApoE Ɛ4 allele. We found potentially significant regions (Puncorrected < 0:05) near the hippocampus and the posterior cingulum that were independent of voxels that correlated with age or clinical dementia rating (CDR) status suggesting that ApoE may affect cognitive decline via a pathway in dependent of normal aging and acute insults that can be measured by CDR and Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS).

  12. ApoE Genotype and Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Down Syndrome: Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashner, V. P.; Chowdhury, T. A.; Rowe, B. R.; Bain, S. C.

    1997-01-01

    ApoE gene polymorphism was examined in 100 adults with Down syndrome with and without dementia (Alzheimer's disease) and 346 control subjects. Additionally, a meta analysis of studies (total N=480 subjects) was performed. Results indicated a similar incidence of the gene across groups but subjects with the allele tended to an earlier onset of…

  13. Relations among Teachers&apos; Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers&apos; Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers&apos; self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers&apos; emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

  14. Extension&apos;s Role in Developing a Farmers&apos; Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civittolo, David

    2012-01-01

    Interest in access to local food is increasing. Communities of all types and sizes have volunteers interested in creating farmers&apos; markets. Extension can play an important role in the development of farmers&apos; markets because it is ideally suited to organize and coordinate these volunteer energies. By helping community volunteers focus…

  15. Parallels in Preschoolers&apos; and Adults&apos; Judgments about Ownership Rights and Bodily Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ownership rights is necessary for socially appropriate behavior. We provide evidence that preschoolers&apos; and adults&apos; judgments of ownership rights are related to their judgments of bodily rights. Four-year-olds (n = 70) and adults (n = 89) evaluated the acceptability of harmless actions targeting owned property and body…

  16. A Class Act? Lecturers&apos; Views on Undergraduates&apos; Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This article details the findings of a study into lecturers&apos; perceptions of undergraduate employability. The investigation employed interviews with the staff on a BA (Hons) in Education Studies course at a post-1992 university. The aim was to examine staff beliefs regarding their students&apos; potential employability in the business and…

  17. Parents&apos; and Teachers&apos; Perceptions of Standards-Based and Traditional Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Gerry M.; Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine parents&apos; and teachers&apos; perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Participants included 115 parents/guardians of students from a single, midsize school district that had implemented a standards-based report card. During the first two marking periods, all parents/guardians…

  18. Addressing K-5 Students&apos; and Preservice Elementary Teachers&apos; Conceptions of Seasonal Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starakis, Ioannis; Halkia, Krystallia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, primary school students&apos; and pre-service teachers&apos; ideas of seasonal change are investigated. The research was carried out in nine primary schools in Athens and in the Primary Education Department of the University of Athens. Written reports were used for gathering data while students also had the opportunity to support…

  19. The Relationship between Teacher&apos;s Autonomy Support and Students&apos; Autonomy and Vitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez, Juan L.; Fernández, Celia; León, Jaime; Grijalvo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    What makes a student feel vital and energetic? Using the self-determination framework, we analyzed how the behavior and feelings of students depend on social factors such as the teachers&apos; attitudes. The goal of the study was to test an integrated sequence over a semester in which teacher&apos;s autonomy support acts as a predictor of…

  20. Teacher Educators&apos; Professional Development: Towards a Typology of Teacher Educators&apos; Researcherly Disposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tack, Hanne; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the need for teacher educators&apos;--or those who teach the teachers--professional development became increasingly recognised in both policy and research literature. In this respect, a growing body of publications highly stress the teacher educators&apos; task of engaging in research and becoming a…