Science.gov

Sample records for extreme site quality

  1. Impacts of Extreme Flood Inundation on Bank Filtration Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascott, Matthew; Lapworth, Daniel; Gooddy, Daren; Sage, Robert; Karapanos, Ilias; Ward, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Bank filtration systems are a significant component of global water supply and considered to be vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources planning and management under potential future climate change. We provide the first systematic assessment of the recovery in water quality following extreme inundation at a bank filtration site following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration > 70 days) flood event. During the inundation event, bank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (fraction of surface water, fSW ˜ 1, high DOC > 140% steady state values (SS), > 1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low SEC < 90% SS, low nitrate, high DO > 500% SS). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2 - 3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (fSW ˜ 0.2 - 0.5, higher nitrate and SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological setting of the site, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Water resources planners and managers should consider flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site if riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events under climate change. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective bank filtration

  2. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    PubMed

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) <90% baseline, high dissolved oxygen (DO) >400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the

  3. Hanford Site Ecological Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tzemos, Spyridon

    2002-02-17

    This report reviews the ecological quality profile methodology and results for the Hanford Site. It covers critical ecological assets and terrestrial resources, those in Columbia River corridor and those threatened and engdangered, as well as hazards and risks to terrestrial resources. The features of a base habitat value profile are explained, as are hazard and ecological quality profiles.

  4. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization III: Ground Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Antonia M.; Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, Mohamed; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Both meteorology and optical conditions are crucial for selecting the best site to host extremely large telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the European project (E-ELT). For the E-ELT, a year-long meteorological campaign was performed at our two reference sites, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) and Cerro Ventarrones (very close to the VLT site at Paranal), and at other sites also considered as alternatives to the reference sites: Aklim, Macón, and Izaña (Observatorio del Teide; OT). In this article, we present a statistical analysis of the ground meteorological properties recorded at these sites, making use of automatic weather stations (AWSs) equipped with standard meteorological sensors providing the air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction, using standard procedures across all sites. Meteorology offers but one discriminant in the complicated question of where to site such a major facility as the E-ELT (other factors being seeing, local geology, the economics of the logistics, etc.), both for determining the feasibility of telescope and instrumentation design and construction and for determining the useful observing time. However, the final decision of where to locate a major telescope depends in part on all these—and other—considerations and not on any one criterion alone. In summary, for 90% of the nighttime, the wind speed is lower than 18 m s-1, the telescope operational limit at all the sites except Macón. For this reason, Macón was discarded in the final site selection as, for 25% of the time, the wind speed is greater than 17 m s-1. The smallest nighttime temperature gradient is at ORM, whereas the lowest mean relative humidity value is reached at the Ventarrones site. Izaña was discarded in the site selection study from the very beginning due to lack of funding to install further site-testing equipement (e.g., Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor-Differential Image

  5. QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has implemented a rigorous quality assurance (QA) program to ensure that the performance data generated during their Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration projects are of known and adequate quality to support deci...

  6. Inorganic Nitrogen Cycling in an Extreme Acid Mine Drainage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnejais, L. H.; Smith, R. L.; Nordstrom, D. K.; Banfield, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of the massive sulfide ore body at Iron Mountain, northern California has generated sulfuric acid solutions with pH values ranging from 0.5 to 1, temperatures up to 50°C and high concentrations of toxic metals. Communities of microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of iron and sulfur that generates this extreme environment. The nitrogen requirements of these organisms and the nitrogen cycling within these waters are not understood. By adapting the chemiluminescence detection method of Baeseman (2004) we have constrained the stability of nitrate and nitrite species in acidic, high ferrous iron solutions and have measured a time series of the nitrate concentrations at sites within Iron Mountain. The half-life of nitrite is less than an hour due to reactions with ferrous ions, while nitrate is found at concentrations of up to 10 μM within the mine. By coupling this information with geochemical and microbial community information at each site together with culture enrichment studies using various nitrogen sources we hope to gain insight into the pathways of nitrogen utilization in this extreme environment. References Baeseman, J.L. (2004) Denitrification in acid-impacted mountain stream sediments. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering.

  7. Air quality in Moscow megacity: basic level and extreme cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratova, N.; Skorokhod, A.; Moiseenko, K.

    2012-04-01

    Moscow is one of the largest megacities in the world. Total annual emissions of polluting substances into the atmosphere in Moscow is likely to be about 2,0 mln. t. More than 90% of pollutants are emitted by traffic. Problem of air quality assessment is very urgent for Moscow both to alarm population and to compare with other world megacities. To study contemporary structure of atmospheric pollution over Moscow megacity data on air composition (including CO, NO, NO2, O3, CH4, CO2, SO2, NMHC, aerosol) obtained since 2002 has been analyzed. The monitoring site is located at Moscow State University meteorological observatory on South-West of Moscow. All observations are provided by A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. Due to these continuous measurements typical (basic) level of pollution as well as extreme cases have been studied. The relationship between O3, NOx and VOCs were analyzed as well. Due to weather conditions (cyclonic regime is dominated) concentrations of pollutants usually do not reach dangerous levels but sometimes they are high. The case of abnormal hot and dry weather in the summer of 2010 was investigated. Many Russians were suffering from the record-breaking heat and the worst drought in 40 years. The heat was caused by very intensive and stable blocking anticyclone that established in Moscow since June, 18 till August, 18. Anticyclone of such strength has been never observed before. During 33 days in succession surface air temperature exceeded 30°C. During these 2 months troposphere over ETR was almost closed for western winds. Hot weather led to numerous forest and peat fires (about 29,000 cases) with total covered area about 12,000 km2. One of aftermaths was significant change of atmospheric composition. Many cities and settlements were covered by dense haze from fires. Evident presence of high amount of aerosol in the ambient air caused anxiety and application of safeguards. Meanwhile, less obvious increase of concentrations of

  8. 78 FR 12067 - Extreme Weather Effects on Medical Device Safety and Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Extreme Weather Effects on Medical Device Safety and Quality... medical device safety and quality. FDA is announcing at this time its request for comments on the topic of extreme weather effects on medical device safety and quality. DATES: Submit either electronic or...

  9. Examining Projected Changes in Weather & Air Quality Extremes Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change may alter regional weather extremes resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in air quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...

  10. Correlation of crystal quality and extreme magnetoresistance of WTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mazhar N.; Schoop, Leslie; Xiong, Jun; Flynn, Steven; Gibson, Quinn; Hirschberger, Max; Ong, N. P.; Cava, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    High-quality single crystals of WTe2 were grown using a Te flux followed by a cleaning step involving self-vapor transport. The method is reproducible and yields consistently higher-quality single crystals than are typically obtained via halide-assisted vapor transport methods. Magnetoresistance (MR) values at 9 tesla and 2 kelvin as high as 1.75 million %, nearly an order of magnitude higher than previously reported for this material, were obtained on crystals with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of approximately 1250. The MR follows a near B 2 law (B = 1.95(1)) and, assuming a semiclassical model, the average carrier mobility for the highest-quality crystal was found to be 167,000 \\text{cm}^2/\\text{Vs} at 2 K. A correlation of RRR, MR ratio and average carrier mobility (μ\\textit{avg}) is found with the cooling rate during the flux growth.

  11. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    PubMed

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. PMID:26311274

  12. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  13. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  14. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  15. The Application of Extreme Value Theory to Determine Flood Risk at a Nuclear Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, D. W.; Weber, A.; Shine, E.; Buckley, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has updated the Probabilistic Hazard Assessment (PHA) for severe weather phenomena at the Savannah River Site, in accordance with Department of Energy regulations. Among other requirements, the PHA is to estimate future risk from excessive precipitation. Extreme precipitation values can lead to flooding of nuclear facilities, and we need reliable estimates of the probability that rainfall totals will exceed preselected thresholds. The general theory is standard - the probabilities for the future are to be calculated from the statistics of the past. To accomplish this, SRNL collected existing regional precipitation datasets to quantify the probabilities of extreme events, which are uncommon and therefore difficult to quantify based on their observed frequencies of occurrence. The basis for the precipitation PHA involved the use of extreme value theory - fitting the existing data to a cumulative distribution function, then ';reading' the probability of any desired extreme value (e.g., the value we may expect to occur once every 1000 years) from that function. Extreme precipitation probability thresholds were calculated by applying Fisher-Tippett distributions to the data, and reading the desired extreme values from the tails of the best distribution. We first select a period of accumulation (e.g., 6 hours), then create a time series of the maximum precipitation total within that period for each year. Using this data, we calculate how likely any total is from that distribution. We compare these values to those calculated in a previous version of the report, produced in 1998, and explain the differences. The updated predicted precipitation totals are then used as input to a surface hydrology model to calculate the potential flood hazard they represent at the Savannah River Site.

  16. PERFORMING QUALITY FLOW MEASUREMENTS AT MINE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate flow measurement data is vital to research, monitoring, and remediation efforts at mining sites. This guidebook has been prepared to provide a summary of information relating to the performance of low measurements, and how this information can be applied at mining sites....

  17. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE-INDUCED CHANGES IN EXTREME EVENTS ON OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical data records of air pollution meteorology from multiple datasets will be compiled and analyzed to identify possible trends in extreme events. Changes in climate and air quality between 2010 and 2050 will be simulated with a suite of models. The consequential effe...

  18. Construct Validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 170 QUEST assessments from a convenience sample of 94 children with CP involved in clinical and research treatment programmes (54 males, 40 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD…

  19. Influence of quality control variables on failure of graphite/epoxy under extreme moisture conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, L. L.; Lee, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Tension tests on graphite/epoxy composites were performed to determine the influence of various quality control variables on failure strength as a function of moisture and moderate temperatures. The extremely high and low moisture contents investigated were found to have less effect upon properties than did temperature or the quality control variables of specimen flaws and prepreg batch to batch variations. In particular, specimen flaws were found to drastically reduce the predicted strength of the composite, whereas specimens from different batches of prepreg displayed differences in strength as a function of temperature and extreme moisture exposure. The findings illustrate the need for careful specimen preparation, studies of flaw sensitvity, and careful quality control in any study of composite materials. Previously announced in STAR as N80-33493

  20. Influence of quality control variables on failure of graphite/epoxy under extreme moisture conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, L. L.; Lee, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    Tension tests on graphite/epoxy composites were performed to determine the influence of various quality control variables on failure strength as a function of moisture and moderate temperatures. The extremely high and low moisture contents investigated were found to have less effect upon properties than did temperature or the quality control variables of specimen flaws and prepreg batch to batch variations. In particular, specimen flaws were found to drastically reduce the predicted strength of the composite, whereas specimens from different batches of prepreg displayed differences in strength as a function of temperature and extreme moisture exposure. The findings illustrate the need for careful specimen preparation, studies of flaw sensitivity, and careful quality control in any study of composite materials.

  1. Restoring soil quality on construction sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil at construction sites gets compacted reducing root growth and infiltration, which leads to runoff, erosion, and loss of nutrients. Adding compost and prairie grasses decreased the soil density, increased soil water storage, increased root penetration, and reduced runoff and erosion....

  2. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, P. J.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site.

  3. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P J; Johnston, P M; Gill, L W

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site. PMID:26331764

  4. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Stephen D.; Bagchi, Sayan; Boxer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes use protein architecture to impose specific electrostatic fields onto their bound substrates, but the magnitude and catalytic effect of these electric fields have proven difficult to quantify with standard experimental approaches. Using vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy, we found that the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) exerts an extremely large electric field onto the C=O chemical bond that undergoes a charge rearrangement in KSI’s rate-determining step. Moreover, we found that the magnitude of the electric field exerted by the active site strongly correlates with the enzyme’s catalytic rate enhancement, enabling us to quantify the fraction of the catalytic effect that is electrostatic in origin. The measurements described here may help explain the role of electrostatics in many other enzymes and biomolecular systems. PMID:25525245

  5. Dynamical downscaling of present climate extremal episodes for the BINGO research site of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zittis, George; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Besides global warming, climate change is expected to cause alterations in precipitation amounts and distribution than can be linked to extreme events such as floods or prolonged droughts. This will have a significant impact in strategic societal sectors that base their activities on water resources. While the global climate projections inform us about the long-term and weather forecasts can give useful information only for a few days or weeks, decision-makers and end-users also need guidance on inter-annual to decadal time scales. In this context, the BINGO (Bringing INnovation to onGOing water management - a better future under climate change) H2020 project aims both at reducing the uncertainty of near-term climate predictions and developing response strategies in order to better manage the remaining uncertainty. One of the project's main objectives is to develop improved decadal predictions, in adequate spatiotemporal scales, with a specific focus on extreme precipitation events. The projected rainfall will be eventually used to drive hydrological impact models. BINGO focuses on research sites that encompass river basins, watersheds and urban areas of six European countries including Norway, Cyprus, Germany, Portugal, The Netherlands and Spain. In this study we present the dynamical downscaling of the ERA-Interim dataset for validation purposes and for the research site of Cyprus. Five extreme rainfall periods were identified from the observed precipitation archives and were simulated in very high horizontal resolutions (4~1 km) using the WRF limited area atmospheric model. To optimize the performance of the model we have tested a combination of three cumulus and five microphysics parameterization schemes that resulted in 15 simulations for each extreme precipitation event. The model output was compared with daily or hourly (where available) representative rain gauge data. A set of statistical metrics was applied in order to objectively select the best

  6. Predicting the Effect of Changing Precipitation Extremes and Land Cover Change on Urban Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SUN, N.; Yearsley, J. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research shows that precipitation extremes in many of the largest U.S. urban areas have increased over the last 60 years. These changes have important implications for stormwater runoff and water quality, which in urban areas are dominated by the most extreme precipitation events. We assess the potential implications of changes in extreme precipitation and changing land cover in urban and urbanizing watersheds at the regional scale using a combination of hydrology and water quality models. Specifically, we describe the integration of a spatially distributed hydrological model - the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), the urban water quality model in EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM10, and dynamical and statistical downscaling methods applied to global climate predictions. Key output water quality parameters include total suspended solids (TSS), toal nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal coliform bacteria and stream temperature. We have evaluated the performance of the modeling system in the highly urbanized Mercer Creek watershed in the rapidly growing Bellevue urban area in WA, USA. The results suggest that the model is able to (1) produce reasonable streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales; (2) provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that mostly agree with observations throughout a complex stream network, and characterize impacts of climate, landscape, near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature at local and regional scales; and (3) capture plausibly the response of water quality constituents to varying magnitude of precipitation events in urban environments. Next we will extend the scope of the study from the Mercer Creek watershed to include the entire Puget Sound Basin, WA, USA.

  7. Erythema nodosum of non-lower extremity sites - a histopathologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Perez-Chua, T; Miller, D D; Mahalingam, M

    2014-11-19

    We recently saw a 51 year--old female with a tender, erythematous nodule on the left elbow and histopathology consistent with Erythema nodosum (EN). A subsequent literature review of EN in non--lower extremity (LE) sites identified only three reports, with minimal histopathology, prompting the current study. We identified nine EN cases on non--LE sites over a 14--year period. Histopathology typical of EN observed included septal panniculitis, fibrosis and edema, a mixed septal inflammatory infiltrate with and spillover into adjacent lobules and Miescher's radial granulomas. Atypical features observed included a mixed (septal and lobular) panniculitis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, changes in septal small vessels (lymphocytic cuffing of septal venules, endothelial swelling), lipomembranous cystic change and asteroid bodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to detail the histopathologic findings of EN on non--LE sites. Similar to that noted in classical EN in the LE, findings from the current study indicate that EN in non--LE sites display typical as well as atypical features. Limitations include retrospective design and the unspecified duration of biopsied lesions relative to clinical presentation. PMID:25407105

  8. Dynamic extreme values modeling and monitoring by means of sea shores water quality biomarkers and valvometry.

    PubMed

    Durrieu, Gilles; Pham, Quang-Khoai; Foltête, Anne-Sophie; Maxime, Valérie; Grama, Ion; Tilly, Véronique Le; Duval, Hélène; Tricot, Jean-Marie; Naceur, Chiraz Ben; Sire, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Water quality can be evaluated using biomarkers such as tissular enzymatic activities of endemic species. Measurement of molluscs bivalves activity at high frequency (e.g., valvometry) during a long time period is another way to record the animal behavior and to evaluate perturbations of the water quality in real time. As the pollution affects the activity of oysters, we consider the valves opening and closing velocities to monitor the water quality assessment. We propose to model the huge volume of velocity data collected in the framework of valvometry using a new nonparametric extreme values statistical model. The objective is to estimate the tail probabilities and the extreme quantiles of the distribution of valve closing velocity. The tail of the distribution function of valve closing velocity is modeled by a Pareto distribution with parameter t,τ , beyond a threshold τ according to the time t of the experiment. Our modeling approach reveals the dependence between the specific activity of two enzymatic biomarkers (Glutathione-S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase) and the continuous recording of oyster valve velocity, proving the suitability of this tool for water quality assessment. Thus, valvometry allows in real-time in situ analysis of the bivalves behavior and appears as an effective early warning tool in ecological risk assessment and marine environment monitoring. PMID:27286974

  9. Changes in site-scale temperature extremes over China during 2071-2100 in CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongqin David; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Site-scale changes in probability behaviors of temperature extremes across China during 2071-2100 are studied with general circulation models (GCMs) provided by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Future temperature extremes are compared to those of 1961-2005 estimated from observed daily temperatures at 498 stations. Temperature extremes are described by 15 indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices; quantile mapping (QM) is used to downscale the gridded GCMs outputs to site scale. The site-scale and grid-scale changes of temperature extremes are compared. Results indicate that during 2071-2100, increases of daily maximum and minimum temperatures are more pronounced in the Songhua River Basin, the Liao River Basin, the Hai River Basin, the north part of the Yellow River Basin, and the Northwest Rivers. The numbers of warm days are 3 times of observations, and the warm spell durations become longer. Summer days and tropical nights, which have never been observed in the Tibetan Plateau, may occur in the future. Cold spell may disappear in the Songhua River Basin and the Liao River Basin. Compared to the grid-scale changes, appearance or disappearance of extremes at the site scale is more obvious with higher confidence. The spatial patterns of the site-scale and grid-scale changes are similar, but the change rates are different to a certain extent. For extremes that are more spatially homogenous, the site-scale and grid-scale change rates are close. But for extremes that are more spatially heterogeneous, the site-scale changes are more remarkable.

  10. Ankle Dorsiflexion Among Healthy Men With Different Qualities of Lower Extremity Movement

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Spitzer, Elad; Finestone, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity movement patterns have been implicated as a risk factor for various knee disorders. Ankle-dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) has previously been associated with a faulty movement pattern among healthy female participants. Objective: To determine the association between ankle DF ROM and the quality of lower extremity movement during the lateral step-down test among healthy male participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Training facility of the Israel Defense Forces. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-five healthy male Israeli military recruits (age = 19.7 ± 1.1 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.4 cm, mass = 72.0 ± 7.6 kg). Intervention(s): Dorsiflexion ROM was measured in weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing conditions using a fluid-filled inclinometer and a universal goniometer, respectively. Lower extremity movement pattern was assessed visually using the lateral step-down test and classified categorically as good or moderate. All measurements were performed bilaterally. Main Outcome Measure(s): Weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing DF ROM were more limited among participants with moderate quality of movement than in those with good quality of movement on the dominant side (P = .01 and P = .02 for weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing DF, respectively). Non–weight-bearing DF demonstrated a trend toward a decreased range among participants with moderate compared with participants with good quality of movement on the nondominant side (P = .03 [adjusted P = .025]). Weight-bearing DF was not different between participants with good and moderate movement patterns on the nondominant side (P = .10). Weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing ankle DF ROM correlated significantly with the quality of movement on both sides (P < .01 and P < .05 on the dominant and nondominant side, respectively). Conclusions: Ankle DF ROM was associated with quality of movement among healthy male participants. The association seemed weaker in

  11. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  12. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and Implications for Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shiliang; Hou, Pei

    2014-05-01

    Climate change can significantly affect air pollution meteorology. Of particular concern is the changes in extreme meteorological events (such as heat waves, temperature inversion, atmospheric stagnation and lightning) that have important implications for air quality and public health. We analyze the observed long-term changes in air pollution meteorology based on global datasets for the past decades (ca. 1950-2010) to examine the possible trends in the context of global climate change. Statistically significant increasing trends have been identified for heat waves, temperature inversion and lightning activities over large areas around the world. Global models are combined with statistical analysis to help us understand these changes as well as their implications for atmospheric composition and air quality in the past and future decades.

  13. Coal conversion siting on coal mined lands: water quality issues

    SciTech Connect

    Triegel, E. K.

    1980-01-01

    The siting of new technology coal conversion facilities on land disturbed by coal mining results in both environmental benefits and unique water quality issues. Proximity to mining reduces transportation requirements and restores disrupted land to productive use. Uncertainties may exist, however, in both understanding the existing site environment and assessing the impact of the new technology. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently assessing the water-related impacts of proposed coal conversion facilities located in areas disturbed by surface and underground coal mining. Past mining practices, leaving highly permeable and unstable fill, may affect the design and quality of data from monitoring programs. Current mining and dewatering, or past underground mining may alter groundwater or surface water flow patterns or affect solid waste disposal stability. Potential acid-forming material influences the siting of waste disposal areas and the design of grading operations. These and other problems are considered in relation to the uncertainties and potentially unique problems inherent in developing new technologies.

  14. Optimization of image quality and patient dose in radiographs of paediatric extremities using direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, C; Jerrom, C; Honey, I D

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of beam quality on the image quality (IQ) of ankle radiographs of paediatric patients in the age range of 0–1 year whilst maintaining constant effective dose (ED). Methods: Lateral ankle radiographs of an infant foot phantom were taken at a range of tube potentials (40.0–64.5 kVp) with and without 0.1-mm copper (Cu) filtration using a Trixell Pixium 4600 detector (Trixell, Morains, France). ED to the patient was computed for the default exposure parameters using PCXMC v. 2.0 and was fixed for other beam qualities by modulating the tube current-time product. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured between the tibia and adjacent soft tissue. The IQ of the phantom images was assessed by three radiologists and a reporting radiographer. Four IQ criteria were defined each with a scale of 1–3, giving a maximum score of 12. Finally, a service audit of clinical images at the default and optimum beam qualities was undertaken. Results: The measured CNR for the 40 kVp/no Cu image was 12.0 compared with 7.6 for the default mode (55  0.1 mm Cu). An improvement in the clinical IQ scores was also apparent at this lower beam quality. Conclusion: Lowering tube potential and removing filtration improved the clinical IQ of paediatric ankle radiographs in this age range. Advances in knowledge: There are currently no UK guidelines on exposure protocols for paediatric imaging using direct digital radiography. A lower beam quality will produce better IQ with no additional dose penalty for infant extremity imaging. PMID:25816115

  15. Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Querel, Richard R.; Hanuschik, Reinhard W.; Chacón, Arlette; Caneo, Marta; Cortes, Lissette; Cure, Michel; Illanes, Lizett; Naylor, David A.; Smette, Alain; Sarazin, Marc; Rabanus, David; Tompkins, Gregory

    2010-07-01

    In support of characterization of potential sites for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute for Space Imaging Science (ISIS) and the astrometeorology group of the Universidad Valparaiso have jointly established an improved understanding of atmospheric precipitable water vapour (PWV) above ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory. In a first step, 8 years worth of high resolution near-IR spectra taken with VLT-UVES have been statistically analysed to reconstruct the PWV history above Paranal. To this end a radiative transfer model of Earth's atmosphere (BTRAM) developed by ISIS has been used. A median PWV of 2.1 mm is found for Paranal based on UVES data covering the period 2001-2008. Furthermore we conclude that Paranal can serve as a reference site for Northern Chile due to the stable atmospheric conditions in the region. The median offset between Paranal and Armazones is derived to be 0.3 mm, but local arbitrary variations of a few tenths of a mm between the sites have been found by measurement. In order to better understand the systematics involved two dedicated campaigns were conducted in August and November 2009. Several methods for determining the water column were employed, including radiosonde launches, continuous measurements by infrared radiometer, and VLT instruments operating at various wavelengths: CRIRES, UVES, VISIR and X-shooter. In a first for astronomical instruments all methods have been evaluated with respect to the radiosondes, the established standard in atmospheric research. Agreement between the radiosondes and the IR radiometer (IRMA) is excellent while all other astronomical methods covering a wavelength range from 700 - 20000 nm have also been successfully validated in a quantitative manner. All available observations were compared to satellite estimates of water vapour above the observatory in an attempt to ground-truth the satellite data. GOES can successfully be used for site

  16. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    Kleinberg, CR, Ryan, ED, Tweedell, AJ, Barnette, TJ, and Wagoner, CW. Influence of lower extremity muscle size and quality on stair-climb performance in career firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1613-1618, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training. PMID:26605810

  17. Strategies for ensuring quality data from Indian investigational sites

    PubMed Central

    Hajos, Antal K.; Kamble, Sujal K.

    2011-01-01

    The topic of ensuring quality and compliance is and must be a top priority in the conduct of clinical trials, as warranted by regulatory guidelines as well as the inherent responsibility of the professionals conducting such research. Fast-growing emerging clinical geographies such as India demand special attention due to rapid growth and associated factors that may put study quality at risk. In this paper, we used the basic principle of PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Adjust) to structure the processes of a clinical trial from protocol to final analysis in order to highlight the interactive nature of involved people and processes required to ensure quality of data and site functioning. PMID:21731855

  18. Hazardous Waste Site Remediation, Neighborhood Change, and Neighborhood Quality.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neighborhoods with hazardous waste sites may no longer be undesirable places to live if they have been at least partly remediated. We collected 377 questionnaires (42% response rate) administered from within one-half mile of the number 1, 4, and 12 hazardous waste sites on the National Priority List (Superfund). These neighborhoods were rated higher quality than neighborhoods with unremediated hazardous waste sites and about the same as neighborhoods in northern New Jersey and the United States as a whole. Newer residents considered these formerly tainted areas to be opportunities to upgrade their housing and living conditions. Long-term residents retained the negative image of the blemished neighborhood. Images p542-a PMID:9679112

  19. Using the conceptual site model approach to characterize groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Glucksberg, N.; Walter, N.

    2007-07-01

    To understand groundwater quality, the first step is to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) that describes the site history, describes the geology and the hydrogeology of the site, identifies potential release areas or sources, and evaluates the fate and transport of site related compounds. After the physical site setting is understood and potential release areas are identified, appropriate and representative groundwater monitoring wells may be used to evaluate groundwater quality at a site and provide a network to assess impacts from potential future releases. To develop the CSM, the first step to understand the different requirements from each of the regulatory stakeholders. Each regulatory agency may have different approaches to site characterization and closure (i.e., different groundwater and soil remediation criteria). For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state governments have published guidance documents that proscribe the required steps and information needed to develop a CSM. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a proscriptive model for the Historical Site Assessment under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM), and contains requirements for developing a conceptual site model in NUREG 1757. Federal and state agencies may also have different closure criteria for potential contaminants of concern. Understanding these differences before starting a groundwater monitoring program is important because the minimum detectable activity (MDA), lowest limit detection (LLD), and sample quantitation limit (SQL) must be low enough so that data may be evaluated under each of the programs. After a Historical Site Assessment is completed a work plan is developed and executed to not only collect physical data that describes the geology and hydrogeology, but to also characterize the soil, groundwater, sediments, and surface water quality of each potentially impacted areas. Although the primary

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field-investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans.

  1. Investigating the observed sensitivities of air-quality extremes to meteorological drivers via quantile regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D.; Russell, B.

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution variability is strongly dependent on meteorology. However, quantifying the impacts of changes in regional climatology on pollution extremes can be difficult due to the many non-linear and competing meteorological influences on the production, transport, and removal of pollutant species. Furthermore, observed pollutant levels at many sites show sensitivities at the extremes that differ from those of the overall mean, indicating relationships that would be poorly characterized by simple linear regressions. To address this challenge, we apply quantile regression to observed daily ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and reanalysis meteorological fields in the USA over the past decade to specifically identify the meteorological sensitivities of higher pollutant levels. From an initial set of over 1700 possible meteorological indicators (including 28 meteorological variables with 63 different temporal options), we generate reduced sets of O3 and PM2.5 indicators for both summer and winter months, analyzing pollutant sensitivities to each for response quantiles ranging from 2 to 98 %. Primary covariates connected to high-quantile O3 levels include temperature and relative humidity in the summer, while winter O3 levels are most commonly associated with incoming radiation flux. Covariates associated with summer PM2.5 include temperature, wind speed, and tropospheric stability at many locations, while stability, humidity, and planetary boundary layer height are the key covariates most frequently associated with winter PM2.5. We find key differences in covariate sensitivities across regions and quantiles. For example, we find nationally averaged sensitivities of 95th percentile summer O3 to changes in maximum daily temperature of approximately 0.9 ppb °C-1, while the sensitivity of 50th percentile summer O3 (the annual median) is only 0.6 ppb °C-1. This gap points to differing sensitivities within various percentiles of the pollutant

  2. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

    PubMed

    Cabo Verde, Sandra; Almeida, Susana Marta; Matos, João; Guerreiro, Duarte; Meneses, Marcia; Faria, Tiago; Botelho, Daniel; Santos, Mateus; Viegas, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Poor hospital indoor air quality (IAQ) may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater (OT), the emergency service (ES) and the surgical ward (SW). Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts (BCs) and fungal load (FL) were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol (0.05%) plates, respectively using a MAS-100 air sampler. The ES revealed the highest airborne microbial concentrations (BC range 240-736 CFU/m(3) CFU/m(3); FL range 27-933 CFU/m(3)), exceeding, at several sampling sites, conformity criteria defined in national legislation [6]. Bacterial concentrations in the SW (BC range 99-495 CFU/m(3)) and the OT (BC range 12-170 CFU/m(3)) were under recommended criteria. While fungal levels were below 1 CFU/m(3) in the OT, in the SW (range 1-32 CFU/m(3)), there existed a site with fungal indoor concentrations higher than those detected outdoors. Airborne Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent phenotype (88%) detected from the measured bacterial population in all indoor environments. Staphylococcus (51%) and Micrococcus (37%) were dominant among the bacterial genera identified in the present study. Concerning indoor fungal characterization, the prevalent genera were Penicillium (41%) and Aspergillus (24%). Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings. PMID

  3. Extreme 3D reconstruction of the final ROSETTA/PHILAE landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capanna, Claire; Jorda, Laurent; Lamy, Philippe; Gesquiere, Gilles; Delmas, Cédric; Durand, Joelle; Garmier, Romain; Gaudon, Philippe; Jurado, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The Philae lander aboard the Rosetta spacecraft successfully landed at the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P/C-G) after two rebounds on November 12, 2014. The final landing site, now known as « Abydos », has been identified on images acquired by the OSIRIS imaging system onboard the Rosetta orbiter[1]. The available images of Abydos are very limited in number and reveal a very extreme topography containing cliffs and overhangs. Furthermore, the surface is only observed under very high incidence angles of 60° on average, which implies that the images also exhibit lots of cast shadows. This makes it very difficult to reconstruct the 3D topography with standard methods such as photogrammetry or standard clinometry. We apply a new method called ''Multiresolution PhotoClinometry by Deformation'' (MPCD, [2]) to retrieve the 3D topography of the area around Abydos. The method works in two main steps: (i) a DTM of this region is extracted from a low resolution MPCD global shape model of comet 67P/C-G, and (ii) the resulting triangular mesh is progressively deformed at increasing spatial sampling down to 0.25 m in order to match a set of 14 images of Abydos with projected pixel scales between 1 and 8 m. The method used to perform the image matching is a quasi-Newton non-linear optimization method called L-BFGS-b[3] especially suited to large-scale problems. Finally, we also checked the compatibility of the final MPCD digital terrain model with a set of five panoramic images obtained by the CIVA-P instrument aboard Philae[4]. [1] Lamy et al., 2016, submitted. [2] Capanna et al., Three dimensional reconstruction using multiresoluton photoclinometry by deformation, The visual Computer, v. 29(6-8) pp. 825-835, 2013. [3] Morales et al., Remark on "Algorithm 778: L-BFGS-B: Fortran subroutines for large-scale bound constrained optimization", v.38(1) pp.1-4, ACM Trans. Math. Softw., 2011 [4] Bibring et al., 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko surface properties as

  4. Reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) scores for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2-12 years. Method: Thirty-one QUESTs from 24 children with CP were rated once by two raters and twice by one rater. Internal consistency of total scores, inter- and intra-rater reliability findings for total,…

  5. Horses, Cows, and Water Quality: Prioritizing Stream Restoration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Ambers, R. K.

    2002-05-01

    In order to prioritize sites for a stream restoration project, water quality testing is being done in two small, partly forested watersheds on the Sweet Briar College campus east of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. The 1.3 km2 watershed of Dairy Creek contains a former dairy operation (now hayfields) and athletic fields. The 0.7 km2 watershed of Fern Creek contains an actively used horse pasture, riding, and stable area. The goals of this study are: (1) to determine which stream would benefit more from establishing or improving a forested riparian buffer zone and (2) to collect baseline water quality data which can be used in future years to monitor the effectiveness of the restoration project and other land management practices. Ten sites along the main stems and tributary streams in the two watersheds were chosen for water quality measurements. When water samples are collected, discharge is also determined at each site by dilution gauging using a conductivity logger. Water samples are tested in the lab for pH, turbidity, nitrate-nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate, and fecal and total coloform bacteria. Total and orthophosphate and pH show no systematic downstream variation or difference between the two watersheds. In contrast, nitrate increases downstream and is positively correlated with conductivity and the upstream area of non-forested land. Nitrate concentrations in the Dairy Creek watershed are significantly higher than in the Fern Creek watershed. Fecal and total coloform counts also tend to be higher in Dairy than in Fern Creek, but the numbers vary widely. Although discharge increases downstream in a predictable way, it does not correlate well with any of the measured constituents. Despite the fact that the riding center is functioning but the dairy operation is not, these preliminary data suggest that water quality in the Dairy Creek system is poorer than in Fern Creek. Further investigation is needed to identify non-point sources of nutrient

  6. Can global chemistry-climate models reproduce air-quality extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Michael; Schnell, Jordan; Holmes, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    A novel analysis of surface ozone measurements is shown to identify and characterize extreme air pollution episodes over the USA and EU. Over a decade of observations, major episodes are found and for the most part as coherent, connected synoptic patterns lasting a few days and covering 1000 x 1000 square km. The integrated exposure of human population and agriculture/ecosystems is heavily weighted towards these mega-episodes. The skill of global chemistry-climate models (CTMs) in reproducing these episodes (defined in terms of maximum daily 8-hour average values: MDA8 in ppb or nanomoles per mole) is tested using the UCI high-resolution (100 km) global chemistry-transport model in a hindcast mode to match the individual episodes. Although the UCI CTM has significant biases in surface ozone, it correctly identifies the major synoptic, multi-day episodes. Tests show (i) this skill is robust to different approaches in generating a gridded observational data set and (ii) the correlation coefficient at the 100-km scale (~0.25) is robust to white noise in the individual surface site measurements up to about 10 ppb. We conclude that even at relatively coarse resolution, global chemistry-climate models can be used to project major synoptic pollution episodes driven by large-scale climate and chemistry changes, although local absolute exposure will remain dominated by local emissions.

  7. A Low-Cost, Post Hoc Method to Rate Overall Site Quality in a Multi-Site Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Demonstration programs and social experiments are often subject to sophisticated, controlled evaluations. An important factor that is not subject to control, and sometimes even goes unobserved, is overall program site quality. Site quality can be observed in process evaluations, but these tend to be expensive. This paper describes an alternative…

  8. Extreme C-terminal sites are posttranslocationally glycosylated by the STT3B isoform of the OST

    PubMed Central

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Trueman, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan organisms assemble two isoforms of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) that have different catalytic subunits (STT3A or STT3B) and partially nonoverlapping roles in asparagine-linked glycosylation. The STT3A isoform of the OST is primarily responsible for co-translational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The C-terminal 65–75 residues of a glycoprotein will not contact the translocation channel–associated STT3A isoform of the OST complex before chain termination. Biosynthetic pulse labeling of five human glycoproteins showed that extreme C-terminal glycosylation sites were modified by an STT3B-dependent posttranslocational mechanism. The boundary for STT3B-dependent glycosylation of C-terminal sites was determined to fall between 50 and 55 residues from the C terminus of a protein. C-terminal NXT sites were glycosylated more rapidly and efficiently than C-terminal NXS sites. Bioinformatics analysis of glycopeptide databases from metazoan organisms revealed a lower density of C-terminal acceptor sites in glycoproteins because of reduced positive selection of NXT sites and negative selection of NXS sites. PMID:23530066

  9. Chondroblastoma of the Medial Malleolus: A Case Report of A Rare Tumor at an Extremely Uncommon Site

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Chaturvedi, Hemant; Patel, Vaibhav; Matti, Rajarshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tumors of the medial malleolus are rare. Chondrogenic tumors of the medial malleolus are extremely rare. Chondroblastoma of the medial malleolus has not been reported previously in the English literature. The purpose is to present a rare tumor occurring at an unusual site and its successful management. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 30 years old female with chondroblastoma of the medial malleolus with its clinical features, radiographic features, differential diagnosis, and management at an unusual site. Treatment comprised of an open biopsy followed by aggressive curettage, phenolization and bone cement. Symptoms resolved after treatment with resumption of normal activities and no signs of recurrence at 1 year follow-up. Conclusion: This case appears to be the first reported case of chondroblastoma occurring at medial malleolus. The present case report will increase the awareness of this rare tumor occurring at this unusual site thereby avoiding any chance of misdiagnosis. PMID:27299121

  10. Natural phenomena hazards modeling project: extreme wind/tornado hazard models for Department of Energy sites

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, D.W.

    1984-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed wind hazard models for the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS), Department of Energy (DOE). The work is part of a three-phase effort aimed at establishing uniform building design criteria for seismic and wind hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. In Phase 1, LLNL gathered information on the sites and their critical facilities, including nuclear reactors, fuel-reprocessing plants, high-level waste storage and treatment facilities, and special nuclear material facilities. In Phase 2, development of seismic and wind hazard models, was initiated. These hazard models express the annual probability that the site will experience an earthquake or wind speed greater than some specified magnitude. This report summarizes the final wind/tornado hazard models recommended for each site and the methodology used to develop these models. 19 references, 29 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Influence of site on the therapeutic ratio of adjuvant radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Alektiar, Kaled M. . E-mail: alektiak@mskcc.org; Brennan, Murray F.; Singer, Samuel

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity is to improve the therapeutic ratio by increasing local control while minimizing morbidity. Most efforts in trying to improve this ratio have focused on the sequencing of RT and surgery, with little attention to the potential influence of the tumor site. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of tumor site on local control and complications in a group of patients with primary high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity treated at a single institution with postoperative RT. Methods and Materials: Between July 1982 and December 2000, 369 adult patients with primary high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity were treated with limb-sparing surgery and postoperative RT. Patients who underwent surgery or RT outside our institution were excluded. The tumor site was the upper extremity (UE) in 103 (28%) and the lower extremity (LE) in 266 (72%). The tumor was {<=}5 cm in 98 patients (27%), and the microscopic margins were positive in 44 (12%). Of the 369 patients, 104 (28%) underwent postoperative external beam RT (EBRT), 233 (63%) postoperative brachytherapy (BRT), and 32 underwent a combination (9%); 325 (88%) received a 'conventional' radiation dose, defined as 60-70 Gy for EBRT, 45 Gy for BRT, and 45-50 Gy plus 15-20 Gy for EBRT plus BRT. Complications were assessed in terms of wound complications requiring repeat surgery, fracture, joint stiffness, edema, and Grade 3 or worse peripheral nerve damage. Results: The UE and LE groups were balanced with regard to age, depth, margin status, and type of RT (EBRT vs. BRT {+-} EBRT). However, more patients in the UE group had tumors {<=}5 cm and more received a conventional radiation dose (p = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local control, distant relapse-free survival, and overall survival for the whole population was 82% (95

  12. Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140

  13. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS: HISTORICAL ANALYSIS AND FUTURE PROJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will improve the fundamental understanding of EWEs and their impacts on air quality. The ensemble climate projections for air quality will link air quality projections directly to climate model outputs used by the IPCC assessment report. Furthermore, we will p...

  14. Threading polyintercalators with extremely slow dissociation rates and extended DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amy Rhoden; Iverson, Brent L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of small molecules that bind DNA sequence specifically has the potential to modulate gene expression in a general way. One mode of DNA binding is intercalation, or the insertion of molecules between DNA base pairs. We have developed a modular polyintercalation system in which intercalating naphthalene diimide (NDI) units are connected by flexible linkers that alternate between the minor and major grooves of DNA when bound. We recently reported a threading tetraintercalator with a dissociation half-life of 16 days, the longest reported to date, from its preferred 14 bp binding site. Herein, three new tetraintercalator derivatives were synthesized with one, two, and three additional methylene units in the central major groove-binding linker. These molecules displayed dissociation half-lives of 57, 27, and 18 days, respectively, from the 14 bp site. The optimal major groove-binding linker was used in the design of an NDI hexaintercalator that was analyzed by gel-shift assays, DNase I footprinting, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The hexaintercalator bound its entire 22 bp binding site, the longest reported specific binding site for a synthetic, non-nucleic acid based DNA binding molecule, but with a significantly faster dissociation rate compared to the tetraintercalators. PMID:23919778

  15. Threading polyintercalators with extremely slow dissociation rates and extended DNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Rhoden Smith, Amy; Iverson, Brent L

    2013-08-28

    The development of small molecules that bind DNA sequence specifically has the potential to modulate gene expression in a general way. One mode of DNA binding is intercalation, or the insertion of molecules between DNA base pairs. We have developed a modular polyintercalation system in which intercalating naphthalene diimide (NDI) units are connected by flexible linkers that alternate between the minor and major grooves of DNA when bound. We recently reported a threading tetraintercalator with a dissociation half-life of 16 days, the longest reported to date, from its preferred 14 bp binding site. Herein, three new tetraintercalator derivatives were synthesized with one, two, and three additional methylene units in the central major groove-binding linker. These molecules displayed dissociation half-lives of 57, 27, and 18 days, respectively, from the 14 bp site. The optimal major groove-binding linker was used in the design of an NDI hexaintercalator that was analyzed by gel-shift assays, DNase I footprinting, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The hexaintercalator bound its entire 22 bp binding site, the longest reported specific binding site for a synthetic, non-nucleic acid-based DNA binding molecule, but with a significantly faster dissociation rate compared to the tetraintercalators. PMID:23919778

  16. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    PubMed Central

    Gozani, Shai N

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Methods Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. Results One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9%) were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1) pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80.3% of responders reporting a reduction compared to 11.8% of non

  17. End-user perspectives on e-commerce and health care web site quality.

    PubMed

    Le Rouge, Cynthia; De Leo, Gianluca

    2008-01-01

    We explore and compare the importance of various quality dimensions for health care and e-commerce web sites. The results show that the importance of various quality attributes for all except four of ten quality dimensions studied differ between health care and e-commerce web sites. These results can help health care managers to improve and/or to guide the design of their web sites. PMID:18998907

  18. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for ...

  19. QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES; EXAMPLE SITE MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the remedial approach, organizational structure and key elements facilitating effective and efficient remediation of contaminated sites at March Air Force Base (AFB), California. The U.S. implementation and quality assurance approach to site remediation for a...

  20. The development of a site-specific water-quality standard for copper

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation proposes to determine, for one toxic chemical, copper, if the Federal water quality standard and the state interpretation of that standard are appropriate for the Duck River, some 50 miles south of Nashville, Tennessee. This involved conducting toxicity tests in Duck River water, and the use of the computer metal speciation program MINTEQA1 to predict instream impact. The speciation model chosen for the determination of chemical equilibria in this study was MINTEQA1. To test the validity of the MINTEQA1 speciation model, water chemistry from the Duck River was entered into the model. At the typical site pH of 7.8, 55.7% of the copper is bound as Cu(OH){sub 2}, 29.8% is bound as copper humate, and 12.7% is found as CuCO{sub 3}. Of extreme importance to the toxicity of copper in the site water is the complete absence of the most toxic species, ionic copper. The test species were the brook silversides minnow (Labidesthes sicculus), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), caddisfly larvae (Cheumatopsyche sp.), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), geniculate river snail (Lithasia geniculata), sunfish (Lepomis sp.), and the amphipod (Hyalella azeca). The test concentrations were confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy on selected concentrations. The caddisfly larvae was the single most tolerant species observed during this study, while the amphipod and snail were the two most sensitive species tested.

  1. Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian; Lo Curto, Gaspare; Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; Prieto, Gabriel; Chacón, Arlette; Cuevas, Omar; Pozo, Diana; Marín, Julio; Naylor, David A.; Curé, Michel; Sarazin, Marc S.; Guirao, Carlos; Avila, Gerardo

    2010-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute for Space Imaging Science (ISIS) and the AstroMeteorology group at the Universidad de Valparaiso collaborated on a project to understand the precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Both La Silla and Paranal were studied with the goal of using them as reference sites to evaluate potential E-ELT sites. As ground-based infrared astronomy matures, our understanding of the atmospheric conditions over the observatories becomes paramount, specifically water vapour since it is the principle source of atmospheric opacity at infrared wavelengths. Several years of archival optical spectra (FEROS) have been analysed to reconstruct the PWV history above La Silla using an atmospheric radiative transfer model (BTRAM) developed by ISIS. In order to better understand the systematics involved, a dedicated atmospheric water vapour measurement campaign was conducted in May 2009 in close collaboration with Las Campanas observatory and the GMT site testing team. Several methods of determining the water column were employed, including radiosonde launches, continuous measurements by infrared radiometers (IRMA), a compact echelle spectrograph (BACHES) and several high-resolution optical echelle spectrographs (FEROS, HARPS and MIKE). All available observations were compared to concurrent satellite estimates of water vapour in an attempt to ground-truth the satellite data. We present a comparison of the methods used, and results from the archival study and measurement campaign. A mean PWV of 3.4 ± 2.4 mm is found for La Silla using FEROS data covering the period 2005-2009. Important lessons on the strengths and limitations of satellite data are presented. The value of a stand-alone high time resolution PWV monitor has been demonstrated in the context of parallel observations from Las Campanas and La Silla.

  2. Characterizing the origin of extreme air pollution events over the Iberian Peninsula by clustering air quality-climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baró, Rocío; Egea, Jose A.; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    A wide number of studies show that the Iberian Peninsula (IP) exceeds some of the thresholds of air quality established in the legislation. Chemistry transport models (CTMs) play a key role in forecasting the threshold exceedances for human health and ecosystems, and to understand the causes of these extreme air pollution events. Despite improvements due to European legislations, particulate matter and ground-level ozone remain important pollutants affecting human health. However, the short-term forecasts available today (generally less than 48 hours) may hamper the decision-making and the design of abatement strategies to comply with air quality standards in the Iberian Peninsula. In this sense, a characterization of the types extreme air pollution events could help to characterize and understand future exceedances. Moreover, the variation of several circulation types projected under future climate scenarios may increase of the frequency of extreme events related to air pollution over southwestern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. In this context, a definition of extreme air pollution events based on a regionalization process has been carried out, applied to a model climatology of air pollution over the Iberian Peninsula. Data from the regional modeling system MM5-CHIMERE-EMEP (driven by ERA40 reanalysis) for the period 1970-2000 is used in this study. The studied pollutants are PM10 and ozone. The domain of study covers the Iberian Peninsula with a horizontal resolution of 25 km and a vertical resolution of 23 layers in the troposphere. The thresholds set for defining the extreme events are characterized from the objective and limit values defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC for ozone (120 µg m-3, 8-hour) and PM10 (50 µg m-3, daily mean). In order to identify locations with similar patterns in terms of the studied pollutants, a principal component analysis was carried out. This analysis helped us to group areas which usually present the same level of each

  3. Probing Sites of Extreme Astrophysics: the Science of ComPair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Elizabeth A.

    2016-04-01

    Fundamental astrophysics questions ranging from characterizing the formation, structure, and properties of astrophysical jets and compact objects to explaining a large population of unidentified sources found by the Fermi Large Area Telescope can be addressed by a mission that opens a window into the MeV range. ComPair aims to provide excellent continuum sensitivity and good angular resolution over a wide field-of-view in the underexplored region from ~200 keV to ~ 500 MeV. This critical band contains the onset, peak, or fall of a rich variety of nonthermal processes occurring at sites of strong gravitational and magnetic fields. ComPair will answer existing questions about well established source classes, such as MeV blazars, young luminous pulsars, and gamma-ray bursts, which are known to peak in energy flux within this band, as well as being poised to discover new source types and behaviors that have previously been unobservable.

  4. Using hospital standardised mortality ratios to assess quality of care--proceed with extreme caution.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian A; Brand, Caroline A; Phelps, Grant E; Barker, Anna L; Cameron, Peter A

    2011-06-20

    Australian Health Ministers have endorsed the hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR) as a key indicator of quality and safety, and efforts are currently underway towards its national implementation. In the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands and the United States, the HSMR has been used for several years within organisations to monitor performance and response to various quality and safety programs. In the UK and Canada, the HSMR is also publicly reported and used to compare performance between hospitals. The validity and reliability of the HSMR as a screening tool for distinguishing low-quality from high-quality hospitals remain in doubt, and it has not yet been proven that HSMR reporting necessarily leads to worthwhile improvement in quality of care and patient outcomes. Institutions may respond to an unfavourable HSMR by "gaming" administrative data and risk-adjustment models or implementing inappropriate changes to care. Despite its apparent low cost and ease of measurement, the HSMR is currently not "fit for purpose" as a screening tool for detecting low-quality hospitals and should not be used in making interhospital comparisons. It may be better suited to monitoring changes in outcomes over time within individual institutions. PMID:21692724

  5. Creating climate quality global datasets for studying trends, variability and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, K.; Thorne, P.

    2010-09-01

    Historical instrumental records are essential for climate monitoring and climate research, yet the data are riddled with issues of quality and inhomogeneity. This leaves uncertainty surrounding any conclusions drawn from the data. It is essential that data are quality controlled and homogenised. Furthermore, this must be done in an objective, reproducible and globally consistent manner that enables quantification of uncertainty. The Met Office Hadley Centre is pursuing the quality control and homogenisation of 6000+ stations sub-daily synoptic near-surface temperature data. The data focus mainly on temperature and dewpoint temperature but also include sea level pressure, wind speed and cloud cover. Quality control efforts address many known issues with observational data in an automated manner including outliers and spikes (individual and clusters), repeated values, wet-bulb reservoir drying/freezing and frequently occurring values to name a few. Homogenisation is still work in progress but makes use of ‘pseudo-data' to validate breakpoint detection and adjustment methods. An bootstrap approach will be used on application of homogenisation covering a wide spread of decision parameters with which to estimate uncertainties. This paper details an automated quality control system and presents efforts to date to homogenise these data.

  6. Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in science and technology of electrical equipment, despite increasing human welfare in everyday life, have increased the number of people exposed to Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs). Because of possible adverse effects on the health of exposed individuals, the EMFs have being the center of attention. This study was performed to determine possible correlation between Extremely Low Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF EMFs) and sleep quality and public health of those working in substation units of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran. Materials and method To begin with, magnetic flux density was measured at different parts of a Control Building and two substations in accordance with IEEE std 644–1994. Subsequently, the questionnaires “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index” (PSQI) and “General Health Quality (GHQ)” were used to investigate relationship between ELF exposure level and sleep quality and public health, respectively. Both questionnaires were placed at disposal of a total number of 40 workers at the complex. The filled out questionnaires were analyzed by T-test, Duncan and the Chi-square tests. Results The obtained results revealed that 28% of those in case group suffered from poor health status and 61% were diagnosed with a sleep disorder. However, all members in control group were in good health condition and only 4.5% of them had undesirable sleep quality. Conclusion In spite of a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of sleep quality and general health, no significant relationship was found between the exposure level and sleep quality and general health. It is worth noting that the measured EMF values were lower than the standard limits recommended by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, given the uncertainties about the pathogenic effects caused by exposure to ELF EMFs, further epidemiological studies and periodic testing of personnel working in high voltage substations

  7. Quality of Life of Caregiver Spouses of Veterans With Bilateral Lower Extremity Amputations

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Soroush, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing care for patients with chronic disability affects caregivers’ social lives and relationships and can lead to poor health and lower quality of life. Objectives: In this study, our goal was to assess the quality of life in spouses of war veterans with bilateral lower limb amputations to find factors affecting caregivers’ quality of life. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, spouses of 244 veterans with war-related bilateral lower limb amputations for at least one year were invited to participate in this study; 189 couples accepted to participate. Information about age, gender, education level, duration of time since amputation, duration of care provided by the spouses and SF-36 questionnaire for both veterans and their spouses were collected. Results: The average age of spouses was 47 years and duration of care provided by spouses was 25 years. We found lower scores for general health domains in amputees’ spouses compared to the general population. Factors correlated with both Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) included the duration of care, duration of marriage, spouses’ education level and the veterans’ PCS and MCS scores. Veterans’ age, spouses’ age and the number of children only correlated with PCS. Veterans’ education level only correlated with MCS. In multivariable analysis, only spouses’ education level correlated with MCS and the veterans’ PCS only correlated with that of spouses. Conclusions: The quality of life of amputees and their spouses were closely correlated; therefore, any improvement in one is likely to improve the other. In addition, lower education level should be considered as a risk factor for poorer quality of life in amputees’ spouses. PMID:25825698

  8. Site selection for extremely large telescopes using the FriOWL software and global re-analysis climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, E.; Sarazin, M.; Kurlandczyk, H.; Neun, M.; Matzler, C.

    2008-07-01

    FriOWL is a site selection tool for large or extremely large telescope projects. It consists of a graphical user interface and a large global climatic and geophysical database, and is directly accessible on the world wide web. A new version (version 3.1) of the software has recently been developed by scientists at the University of Bern (Switzerland; European Southern Observatory, Germany). The main feature of the new FriOWL database is the inclusion of ERA40 re-analysis data, giving access to over 40 years of long-term climate data. New software tools, programmed in the style of a Geographical Information System, include the capability of resampling layers and time series extraction. A new global seismic hazard layer has been introduced, as well as very high resolution (1km) topographic tiles. Reclassification and overlaying of layers is also possible. Although FriOWL is primarily designed for site selection projects, it can equally be used in other climate studies. It is especially important in the determination of the climatic stability of a potential site, and in the analysis of climatic anomalies and trends. The long-term astroclimatological seeing and photometric statistics for the Paranal and La Silla observatories can be used to validate FriOWL. A case study of ESO Paranal using FriOWL reveals that the deterioration in seeing conditions since 1998 is co-incident with a strong increase in 1000 hPa geopotential height to the south-east of the observatory; there may be a link with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation.

  9. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  10. Routine use of ultrasound-guided access reduces access-site related complications after lower extremity percutaneous revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Fokkema, Margriet T.M.; Curran, Thomas; Darling, Jeremy; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark; Martin, Michelle; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We sought to elucidate the risks for access site-related complications (ASC) following percutaneous lower extremity revascularization and to evaluate benefit of routine ultrasound-guided access (RUS) in decreasing ASC. Methods We reviewed all consecutive percutaneous revascularizations (PTA or stent) performed for lower extremity atherosclerosis at our institution from 2002–2012. RUS began September 2007. Primary outcome was any ASC (bleeding, groin or retroperitoneal [RP] hematoma, vessel rupture, or thrombosis). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of ASC. Results A total of 1,371 punctures were performed on 877 patients (43% women, median age 69 [IQR 60–78] yrs for claudication (29%), critical limb ischemia (59%), or bypass graft stenosis (12%) using 4–8Fr sheaths. There were 72 ASCs (5%): 52 instances of bleeding or groin hematoma, 9 pseudoaneurysms, 8 retroperitoneal hematomas, 2 artery lacerations, and 1 thrombosis. ASC were less frequent when RUS was used (4% vs. 7%, P=.02). Multivariable predictors of ASC were age >75 years (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.7, P=.03), CHF (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–1.3, P=.02), preoperative warfarin use (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.5, P=.02), & RUS (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.7, P<.01). Vascular closure devices (VCDs) were not associated with lower rates of ASCs (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.2–0.7, P<.01). RUS lowered ASCs in those >75 years (5% vs. 12%, P<.01) but not those on warfarin preoperatively (10% vs. 13%, P=.47). RUS did not decrease VCD failure (6% vs. 4%, P=.79). Conclusions We were able to decrease the rate of ASCs during lower extremity revascularization with the implementation of RUS. VCDs did not impact ASCs. Particular care should be taken on patients >75 years old, those with CHF, and those on warfarin. PMID:25240244

  11. Abrupt state change of river water quality (turbidity): Effect of extreme rainfalls and typhoons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chiang, Hui-Min

    2016-07-01

    River turbidity is of dynamic nature, and its stable state is significantly changed during the period of heavy rainfall events. The frequent occurrence of typhoons in Taiwan has caused serious problems in drinking water treatment due to extremely high turbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate impact of typhoons on river turbidity. The statistical methods used included analyses of paired annual mean and standard deviation, frequency distribution, and moving standard deviation, skewness, and autocorrelation; all clearly indicating significant state changes of river turbidity. Typhoon Morakot of 2009 (recorded high rainfall over 2000mm in three days, responsible for significant disaster in southern Taiwan) is assumed as a major initiated event leading to critical state change. In addition, increasing rate of turbidity in rainfall events is highly and positively correlated with rainfall intensity both for pre- and post-Morakot periods. Daily turbidity is also well correlated with daily flow rate for all the eleven events evaluated. That implies potential prediction of river turbidity by river flow rate during rainfall and typhoon events. Based on analysis of stable state changes, more effective regulations for better basin management including soil-water conservation in watershed are necessary. Furthermore, municipal and industrial water treatment plants need to prepare and ensure the adequate operation of water treatment with high raw water turbidity (e.g., >2000NTU). Finally, methodology used in the present of this study can be applied to other environmental problems with abrupt state changes. PMID:26994797

  12. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at the Savannah River Site, 1952--1986. Volume 1, Site geohydrology and waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, J.D.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides information regarding the status of and groundwater quality at the waste sites at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Specific information provided for each waste site at SRS includes its location, size, inventory (when known), and history. Many waste sites at SRS are considered to be of little environmental concern because they contain nontoxic or inert material such as construction rubble and debris. Other waste sites, however, either are known to have had an effect on groundwater quality or are suspected of having the potential to affect groundwater. Monitoring wells have been installed at most of these sites; monitoring wells are scheduled for installation at the remaining sites. Results of the groundwater analyses from these monitoring wells, presented in the appendices, are used in the report to help identify potential contaminants of concern, if any, at each waste site. The list of actions proposed for each waste site in Christensen and Gordon`s 1983 report are summarized, and an update is provided for each site. Planned actions for the future are also outlined.

  13. Decision-making in honeybee swarms based on quality and distance information of candidate nest sites.

    PubMed

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Termsaithong, Teerasit; Sae-Tang, Anuwat; Duangphakdee, Orawan

    2015-01-01

    In the nest-site selection process of honeybee swarms, an individual bee performs a waggle dance to communicate information about direction, quality, and distance of a discovered site to other bees at the swarm. Initially, different groups of bees dance to represent different potential sites, but eventually the swarm usually reaches an agreement for only one site. Here, we model the nest-site selection process in honeybee swarms of Apis mellifera and show how the swarms make adaptive decisions based on a trade-off between the quality and distance to candidate nest sites. We use bifurcation analysis and stochastic simulations to reveal that the swarm's site distance preference is moderate>near>far when the swarms choose between low quality sites. However, the distance preference becomes near>moderate>far when the swarms choose between high quality sites. Our simulations also indicate that swarms with large population size prefer nearer sites and, in addition, are more adaptive at making decisions based on available information compared to swarms with smaller population size. PMID:25218431

  14. Legacy Management CERCLA Sites. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Donna L.

    2007-05-03

    S.M. Stoller Corporation is the contractor for the Technical Assistance Contract (TAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) operations. Stoller employs a management system that applies to all programs, projects, and business management systems funded through DOE-LM task orders. The management system incorporates the philosophy, policies, and requirements of health and safety, environmental compliance, and quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of project planning and implementation. Health and safety requirements are documented in the Health and Safety Manual (STO 2), the Radiological Control Manual (STO 3), the Integrated Safety Management System Description (STO 10), and the Drilling Health and Safety Requirements (STO 14). Environmental compliance policy and requirements are documented in the Environmental Management Program Implementation Manual (STO 11). The QA Program is documented in the Quality Assurance Manual (STO 1). The QA Manual (STO 1) implements the specific requirements and philosophy of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance. This manual also includes the requirements of other standards that are regularly imposed by customers, regulators, or other DOE orders. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 830, “Quality Assurance Requirements,” ANSI/ASQC E4-2004, “Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs – Requirements with Guidance for Use,” and ISO 14001-2004, “Environmental Management Systems,” have been included. These standards are similar in content. The intent of the QA Manual (STO 1) is to provide a QA management system that incorporates the requirements and philosophy of DOE and other customers within the QA Manual. Criterion 1, “Quality Assurance Program,” identifies the fundamental requirements for establishing and implementing the QA management system; QA Instruction (QAI) 1.1, “QA Program Implementation,” identifies the TAC organizations that have responsibility for

  15. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Site Optimization for Poyang Lake, the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Wu, Mengan; Deng, Yanqing; Tang, Chunyan; Yang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on the field investigated water quality data in the 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the water quality inter-annual variation coefficients at all the present sites and the water quality correlation coefficients between adjacent sites were calculated and analyzed to present an optimization scheme. A 2-D unsteady water quality model was established to get the corresponding water quality data at the optimized monitoring sites, which were needed for the rationality test on the optimized monitoring network. We found that: (1) the water quality of Piaoshan (No. 10) fluctuated most distinguishably and the inter-annual variation coefficient of NH3-N and TP could reach 99.77% and 73.92%, respectively. The four studied indexes were all closely related at Piaoshan (No. 10) and Tangyin (No. 11), and the correlation coefficients of COD and NH3-N could reach 0.91 and 0.94 separately. (2) It was suggested that the present site No. 10 be removed to avoid repeatability, and it was suggested that the three sites of Changling, Huzhong, and Nanjiang be added to improve the representativeness of the monitoring sites. (3) According to the rationality analysis, the 21 optimized water quality monitoring sites could scientifically replace the primary network, and the new monitoring network could better reflect the water quality of the whole lake. PMID:25407419

  16. Study plan for urban stream indicator sites of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Price, C.V.

    1997-01-01

    Urban Indicator Sites are one component of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The objectives of monitoring at the Urban Indicator Sites are to: (1) characterize stream quality from drainage basins with predominantly residential and commercial land use, and (2) determine which selected natural and human factors most strongly affect stream quality. Urban Indicator Sites will be distributed across the United States in settings with statistically different climate and in metropolitan areas that have a population of 250,000 or more. Multiple sites in the same climatic setting will have a range in population density. Ideally, Urban Indicator Sites will monitor drainage basins that have only residential and commercial land use, are 50 square kilometers or larger, are in the same physiographic setting as other Indicator Sites, have sustained flow, and overlap other NAWQA study components. Ideal drainage basins will not have industrial or agricultural land use and will not have point-source-contamination discharges. Stream quality will be characterized by collecting and analyzing samples of streamflow, bed sediment, and tissue of aquatic organisms for selected constituents. Factors affecting stream quality will be determined by statistical analysis of ancillary data associated with Urban Indicator Sites and stream-quality samples.

  17. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  18. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991-92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  19. Identifying the Drivers and Occurrence of Historical and Future Extreme Air-quality Events in the United States Using Advanced Statistical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D. S.; Russell, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Episodes of air-quality extremes are known to be heavily influenced by meteorological conditions, but traditional statistical analysis techniques focused on means and standard deviations may not capture important relationships at the tails of these two respective distributions. Using quantile regression (QR) and extreme value theory (EVT), methodologies specifically developed to examine the behavior of heavy-tailed phenomena, we analyze extremes in the multi-decadal record of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. We investigate observations from the Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks for connections to meteorological drivers, as provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) product. Through regional characterization by quantile behavior and EVT modeling of the meteorological covariates most responsible for extreme levels of O3 and PM2.5, we estimate pollutant exceedance frequencies and uncertainties in the United States under current and projected future climates, highlighting those meteorological covariates and interactions whose influence on air-quality extremes differs most significantly from the behavior of the bulk of the distribution. As current policy may be influenced by air-quality projections, we then compare these estimated frequencies to those produced by NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM) identifying regions, covariates, and species whose extreme behavior may not be adequately captured by current models.

  20. Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, Ahsen; Okuş, Erdoğan; Yilmaz, I Noyan; Aslan-Yilmaz, Asli; Taş, Seyfettin

    2006-10-01

    Long-term biological data supported by physicochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the biodiversity of the Golden Horn Estuary from the past to the present. Limited observations dating back to 60 years ago indicated the existence of a diverse community in this small estuary. Unfortunately, in parallel with the increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn, pollution stress increased since the 1960s. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, in the relatively cleaner lower estuary. Following the intensification of rehabilitation studies in 1998 and particularly after the opening of the floating bridge at the mid estuary; a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has begun with the improving water quality. Nutrient concentrations decreased markedly; while water clarity significantly increased. Fecal coliform values decreased 10(3) fold. Phytoplankton composition changed and dense blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankters frequently occurred. Hydrogen sulfide almost completely disappeared even during the warmest periods of the year and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased. All results clearly depicted that the Golden Horn ecosystem shifted to eutrophic conditions from an anoxic environment. SCUBA dives in 2002, documented the level of diversification of life in the Golden Horn. All appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms until the Halic Bridge and filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Achieving the diversity of 1940s is not possible since the Black and Marmara seas, influencing water quality of the Golden Horn, are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far less diverse than their rich diversity in 1940s. However, the Golden Horn is a good example that even the most polluted ecosystems can recover when appropriate measures are taken. PMID:16814327

  1. Influence of the extreme conditions on the water quality and material exchange flux in the Strait of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altıok, Hüsne; Aslan, Aslı; Övez, Süleyman; Demirel, Nazlı; Yüksek, Ahsen; Kıratlı, Nur; Taş, Seyfettin; Müftüoğlu, Ahmet Edip; Sur, Halil Ibrahim; Okuş, Erdoğan

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the influence of extreme hydrological events on the water quality of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus), a stratified waterway, polluted by sewage outfalls and non-point sources. Monthly collected water quality parameters (nitrate + nitrite, ortho-phosphate, silicate, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a and fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform and enterococci)) were evaluated together with the hydrological data (salinity, temperature and current flow) for 1 year. Two blockage events, identified as extreme conditions, were detected during the study: a lower layer blockage in February 2003 and an upper layer blockage in October 2003. During the lower layer blockage, the volume fluxes of the upper layer significantly increased to 28,140 m3 s- 1 and the lower layer almost stopped flowing (19 m3 s- 1). The dissolved oxidative nitrogen, ortho-phosphate and silicate inputs outflowing from the Black Sea were 117, 17.6, and 309 tons which were 3, 2, and 4 times the average daily fluxes respectively, in addition to enhancement of fecal indicator bacteria contamination in the sea surface flow. During the upper layer blockage, the volume flux of the upper layer was 3837 m3 s- 1 and the counter flow reached 24,985 m3 s- 1 at the northern exit of the Strait of Istanbul resulting in 2.7 fold increase in the mean bottom flow. The daily exports of nutrients, total suspended solid and dissolved oxygen by the lower layer flow increased by at least 2 fold compared to the mass fluxes estimated from the seasonal/annual means of volume flux and concentrations. On the other hand, fecal indicator bacteria flux by the lower layer inflow to the Black Sea decreased by at least 2 fold compared to the mean daily flux. These results show that the material exchange between the Marmara and the Black seas becomes more important during blockage events.

  2. Development of a Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (HRQL) for patients with Extremity Soft Tissue Infections (ESTI)

    PubMed Central

    Storck, Aric J; Laupland, Kevin B; Read, Ronald R; Mah, Manuel W; Gill, John M; Nevett, Deborah; Louie, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    Background Past clinical trials of antimicrobial treatment in soft tissue infections have focused on non-standardized clinical and physiological outcome variables, and have not considered the subjective experience of patients. The objective of this study was to develop a health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQL) for patients with extremity soft tissue infections (ESTI) for future use in clinical trials. Methods The design of this study followed published guidelines and included item generation, item reduction, and questionnaire preparation. Study subjects were consenting English-speaking adults with acute ESTI requiring prescription of at least two days of outpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy. Results A list of 49 items that adversely impact the quality of life of patients with ESTI was generated by literature review, informal health professional feedback, and semi-structured interviews with twenty patients. A listing of these items was then administered to 95 patients to determine their relative importance on quality of life. A questionnaire was prepared that included the twenty most important items with a 5-point Likert scale response. Questionnaire domains included physical symptoms, problems performing their activities of daily living, impairment of their emotional functioning, and difficulties in their social interactions as related to their ESTI. The final questionnaire was pre-tested on a further ten patients and was named the ESTI-Score. Conclusion The ESTI-Score is a novel instrument designed to quantify the impact of ESTI on quality of life. Future study is required to determine its validity and responsiveness before use as an outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:17034641

  3. Wavelets-based clustering of air quality monitoring sites.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Monteiro, Alexandra; Alonso, Andres M

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at providing a variance/covariance profile of a set of 36 monitoring stations measuring ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hourly concentrations, collected over the period 2005-2013, in Portugal mainland. The resulting individual profiles are embedded in a wavelet decomposition-based clustering algorithm in order to identify groups of stations exhibiting similar profiles. The results of the cluster analysis identify three groups of stations, namely urban, suburban/urban/rural, and a third group containing all but one rural stations. The results clearly indicate a geographical pattern among urban stations, distinguishing those located in Lisbon area from those located in Oporto/North. Furthermore, for urban stations, intra-diurnal and daily time scales exhibit the highest variance. This is due to the more relevant chemical activity occurring in high NO2 emissions areas which are responsible for high variability on daily profiles. These chemical processes also explain the reason for NO2 and O3 being highly negatively cross-correlated in suburban and urban sites as compared with rural stations. Finally, the clustering analysis also identifies sites which need revision concerning classification according to environment/influence type. PMID:26483085

  4. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  5. Can Quality Improvement System Improve Childcare Site Performance in School Readiness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Watson, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the Quality Improvement System (QIS) developed and implemented by Children's Services Council of Palm Beach County (Florida) as a voluntary initiative to improve the quality of childcare and education. They adopted a growth model approach to investigate whether childcare sites that participated in…

  6. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  7. How to measure the quality of surgery-related web sites.

    PubMed

    Yermilov, Irina; Chow, Warren; Devgan, Lara; Makary, Martin; Ko, Clifford Y

    2008-10-01

    Appropriateness and adequacy of health information on the Internet varies. Given there is no validated instrument for web site evaluation focusing on elective general surgical procedures, our goal was to create a composite score as a web site quality rating system. The components of a composite score were developed through a literature review and included Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality guidelines of "Having Surgery? What You Need to Know" and previously published health-related web site scales. All criteria are given equal weight (0/1 scale). The composite score is reported as a percentage of a total possible 16 points. To pilot the rating scale, a web search for roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) was used. Validation compared the composite score with an evaluation by surgeons. Mean composite score for 18 RYGB web sites was 48 per cent (range, 19% to 75%). Composite score validation used a cutoff value of 50 per cent. There was 100 per cent agreement (kappa = 1.0) between composite and surgeon scores. This is the first validated comprehensive composite score to evaluate the web site quality for patients undergoing elective surgery. This score shows promise in increasing efficiency of surgical practices by providing a way in which we can evaluate web sites and encourage our patients to become well informed by reading only high-quality web sites. PMID:18942631

  8. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  9. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  10. Microbiological indicators for assessing ecosystem soil quality and changes in it at degraded sites treated with compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Barra Caracciolo, Anna; Grenni, Paola; Di Lenola, Martina; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Soil quality is defined as the capacity of a soil to function as a vital system, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, sustain plant and animal health and productivity, maintain or enhance air and water environment quality and support human health and habitation. Soil organisms are extremely diverse and contribute to a wide range of ecosystem services that are essential to the sustainable functioning of natural and managed ecosystems. In particular, microbial communities provide several ecosystem services, which ensure soil quality and fertility. In fact, they adapt promptly to environmental changes by varying their activity and by increasing the reproduction of populations that have favourable skills. The structure (e.g. cell abundance) and functioning (e.g. viability and activity) of natural microbial communities and changes in them under different environmental conditions can be considered useful indicators of soil quality state. In this work we studied the quality state of three different soils, located in Taranto Province (Southern Italy), affected by land degradation processes, such as organic matter depletion, desertification and contamination (PCB and metals). Moreover, compost, produced from selected organic waste, was added to the soils studied in order to improve their quality state. Soil samples were collected before and after compost addition and both microbial and chemical analyses were performed in order to evaluate the soil quality state at each site at different times. For this purpose, the microbiological indicators evaluated were bacterial abundance (DAPI counts), cell viability (Live/Dead method), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and soil respiration. At the same time, the main physico-chemical soil characteristics (organic carbon, available phosphorous, total nitrogen, carbonate and water content, texture and pH) were also measured. Moreover, in the contaminated soil samples PCB and inorganic (e.g. Pb, Se, Sn, Zn) contaminants were

  11. Evaluation of water-effect ratio methodology for establishing site-specific water quality criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, P.G.; Lipton, J.; Chapman, G.A.

    2000-06-01

    One approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for derivation of site-specific water quality criteria for metals in natural surface waters involves the development of water-effect ratios (WERs). This approach entails multiplying national water quality criteria by an experimentally derived WER, where the WER is defined as the ratio of the toxicity of the metal in the site water to the toxicity of the same metal in standard laboratory water. The authors discuss technical issues associated with test methods described in the US EPA WER guidance documents that may lead to inappropriate WERs. Critical issues include accounting for differences in calcium and magnesium concentrations (Ca:Mg ratios), alkalinity, and pH between site and laboratory waters; ensuring appropriate fish acclimation; and accounting for interspecies variability, multiple metals interactions, end-point variability, and temporal and spatial variability in the derivation of the WER. Failure to address these issues may have the unintended effect of deriving site-specific water quality criteria that are underprotective of aquatic life. The authors recommend that WER testing and future regulatory guidance for derivation of site-specific water quality criteria incorporate consideration of these potential confounding variables so that site-specific criteria can be established with greater confidence.

  12. Forest site-quality estimation using Forest Ecosystem Classification in Northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Carmean, W H

    1996-01-01

    Site index for jack pine, black spruce and trembling aspen was found to be poorly related to soil types described in the Northwestern Ontario Forest Ecosystem Classification (NWO FEC). Statistical analyses showed that average site indices for most soil types and groupings of soil types were not significantly different from each other.Site index varies greatly within presently defined NWO FEC soil types because certain soil and topographic features that are closely related to site index vary greatly within soil types or are not well described by the NWO FEC soil types. These critical soil features have been identified by soil-site studies that show features most closely related to site index usually are surface soil features found within the effective rooting zone of forest trees. These critical features include depth to bedrock, depth to root restricting soil layers, and coarse fragment content and texture of surface soil horizons.Site-quality research in Northwestern Ontario is closely integrated with the NWO FEC program, thus future NWO FEC soil classifications probably will use results from our soil-site research as a basis for soil type revisions. The result will be future soil types that are more closely related to forest site quality and thus to the capability of forest land to produce tree growth. PMID:24198025

  13. Implant-Supported Removable Partial Denture Improves the Quality of Life of Patients with Extreme Tooth Loss.

    PubMed

    Campos, Camila Heitor; Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in partially dentate subjects, presenting extreme tooth loss in posterior region with missing post-canines, comparing the use of conventional removable partial dentures (RPDs) and implant-supported RPDs. OHRQoL was measured using the Brazilian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile. Twelve subjects presenting maxillary total and mandibular Kennedy Class I edentulism (mean age 62.6±7.8 years) first received complete maxillary dentures and conventional mandibular free-end RPDs. After two months, the subjects had their OHRQoL assessed. Osseointegrated implants were inserted bilaterally in the mandibular first molar regions, and after four months ball abutments were placed to support the free-end RPD. Two months later, the patients had their OHRQoL reassessed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate differences in OHRQoL (α=0.05). Results showed improvement in all OHIP-49 domains (p<0.05) after associating implants to the RPD. The mandibular implant-supported free-end RPD significantly improved OHRQoL. PMID:26647929

  14. USING ADVANCED STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY THE DRIVERS AND OCCURRENCE OF HISTORICAL AND FUTURE EXTREME AIR QUALITY EVENTS IN THE UNITED STATES FROM OBSERVATIONS AND MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This proposed project will result in fundamentally new insights into the connections between extreme weather and air quality. This will include probabilistic relationships between pollutants (PM2.5 and O3) and important meteorological drivers regionally within the United St...

  15. INTEGRATING INFORMATION FROM CLIMATE SCIENTISTS AND RESOURCE MANAGERS: INFORMING PREPAREDNESS AND ADAPTATION TO EXTREME EVENT IMPACTS ON AIR AND WATER QUALITY IN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Together, these methods will be used to develop a policy-relevant, interpretable and accessible set of indicators of extreme event risks for air and water quality management under a changing climate. These indicators will demonstrate how the most up-to-date climate projection ...

  16. Hopping Microbot Access to Subsurface (Cave) and Rugged Terrain on Mars and Hazardous Extreme Earth Astrobiology Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.; Dubowsky, S.

    2005-12-01

    Subsurface microbial communities, biosignatures, and geochemistries as revealed in natural caves and lavatubes on Earth are of relevance to the question of extant and former Martian ecologies (Boston et al., 2001, 2005). Such communities have been postulated for the near and mid-subsurface of Mars (Boston et al., 1992; Fisk & Giavannoni, 1999). Recent NASA and ESA missions are providing imaging evidence of numerous lavatube structures (Boston, 2003). In addition, recent evidence of subsurface water ice layers coupled with MER evidence of extensive evaporates (Boynton et al., 2002; Gellert et al., 2004) lends additional plausibility to possible development of solutional cavities possibly by unique extraterrestrial mechanisms (Boston et al., 2005). Successful robotic access to subsurface and rugged, unpredictable surface terrain must be accomplished to allow exploration of such sites on Mars and even for some extreme Earth sites of astrobiological interest (Dubowsky et al., 2004). We have developed the concept of high energy-density polymer "muscle" actuated hopping spherical microbots that can self-deploy as subsurface networks for sensing, telemetering, and recon. Potential instrumentation suitable for life detection and other analyses have been identified as the project moves into a Phase II stage. Boston, P.J. 2003. Extraterrestrial Caves. Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science. Fitzroy-Dearborn Publishers, Ltd., London, UK. Boston, P.J., Ivanov, M.V., and McKay, C.P. 1992. On the possibility of chemosynthetic ecosystems in subsurface habitats on Mars. Icarus 95:300-308. Boston, P.J., Spilde, M.N., Northup, D.E., Melim, L.A., Soroka, D.S., Kleina, L.G., Lavoie, K.H., Hose, L.D., Mallory, L.M., Dahm, C.N., Crossey, L.J., and Schelble, R.T. 2001. Cave biosignature suites: Microbes, minerals and Mars. Astrobiology Journal 1(1):25-55. Boston, P.J., Hose, L.D., Northup, D.E., & Spilde, M.N. 2005. The microbial communities of sulfur caves: A newly appreciated

  17. Fuel quality/processing study. Volume 4: On site processing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.; Cutrone, M.; Doering, H.; Hickey, J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel treated at the turbine and the turbine exhaust gas processed at the turbine site are studied. Fuel treatments protect the turbine from contaminants or impurities either in the upgrading fuel as produced or picked up by the fuel during normal transportation. Exhaust gas treatments provide for the reduction of NOx and SOx to environmentally acceptable levels. The impact of fuel quality upon turbine maintenance and deterioration is considered. On site costs include not only the fuel treatment costs as such, but also incremental costs incurred by the turbine operator if a turbine fuel of low quality is not acceptably upgraded.

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1994 quality program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    This status report is for calendar year 1994. It summarizes the annual activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP or Project) quality assurance program. By identifying the accomplishments of the quality program, a baseline is established that will assist in decision making, improve administrative controls and predictability, and allow us to annually identify adverse trends and to evaluate improvements. This is the fourth annual status report.

  19. Development and implementation of an analytical quality assurance plan at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl-Klinger, K.J.; Taylor, C.D.; Kawabata, K.K.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) provides a uniform standard for onsite and offsite laboratories performing analytical work in support of Hanford Site environmental cleanup initiatives. The Hanford Site is a nuclear site that originated during World War 11 and has a legacy of environmental clean up issues. In early 1993, the need for and feasibility of developing a quality assurance plan to direct all analytical activities performed to support environmental cleanup initiatives set forth in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order were discussed. Several group discussions were held and from them came the HASQAP. This document will become the quality assurance guidance document in a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This paper presents the mechanics involved in developing a quality assurance plan for this scope of activity, including the approach taken to resolve the variability of quality control requirements driven by numerous regulations. It further describes the consensus building process and how the goal of uniting onsite and offsite laboratories as well as inorganic, organic, and radioanalytic disciplines under a common understanding of basic quality control concepts was achieved.

  20. Application of the biotic ligand model for regulatory purposes to selected rivers in Argentina with extreme water-quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Natale, Oscar E; Gómez, Carlos E; Leis, María V

    2007-10-01

    The biotic ligand model (BLM) was used to assess copper (Cu) bioavailability, toxicity, water-effect ratios (WER), and Cu site-specific water-quality criteria (SSWQC) in the Matanza River and Pilcomayo River, Argentina, where anthropogenic inputs and natural phenomena have led to high concentrations of chemical species capable of reducing metal toxicity: Sodium, total hardness, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended particulate matter (SPM), as well as other metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing Cu-SSWQC from a modified scenario of the BLM-Monte-Carlo method model. The response of the BLM model in these rivers, with water quality near its application boundary conditions, was evaluated during the 2003 to 2004 hydrological cycle. Cu toxicity tests were conducted with Daphnia magna as the test organism. The BLM (Version ap08) toxicity estimates for D. magna were within a factor of 2 of the line of perfect agreement with toxicity test results, although highly variable relevant water-quality parameters showed that mean estimates were more than 2 times the mean 50% effective concentration (EC50) derived from the corresponding toxicity tests. Suspended particulate matter was an important sink for Cu added to unfiltered water of the Pilcomayo River, but it also exerted some toxic effect. Minimums WER, estimated with a modified scenario of the BLM-MONTE, ranged from 1.5 (Pilcomayo River, at Misión La Paz) up to 11 (Matanza River, at Route 3). The corresponding Cu-SSWQC values were 30 and 105 microg/L, respectively. PMID:18046801

  1. Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlyustov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest V.K. Khlustov Head of the Forestry Department of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A.Timiryazev doctor of agricultural sciences, professor The efficiency of forest management can be improved substantially by development and introduction of principally new models of forest growth and productivity dynamics based on regionalized site specific parameters. Therefore an innovative information system was developed. It describes the current state and gives a forecast for forest stand parameters: growth, structure, commercial and biological productivity depend on type of site quality. In contrast to existing yield tables, the new system has environmental basis: site quality type. The information system contains set of multivariate statistical models and can work at the level of individual trees or at the stand level. The system provides a graphical visualization, as well as export of the emulation results. The System is able to calculate detailed description of any forest stand based on five initial indicators: site quality type, site index, stocking, composition, and tree age by elements of the forest. The results of the model run are following parameters: average diameter and height, top height, number of trees, basal area, growing stock (total, commercial with distribution by size, firewood and residuals), live biomass (stem, bark, branches, foliage). The system also provides the distribution of mentioned above forest stand parameters by tree diameter classes. To predict the future forest stand dynamics the system require in addition the time slot only. Full set of forest parameters mention above will be provided by the System. The most conservative initial parameters (site quality type and site index) can be kept in the form of geo referenced polygons. In this case the system would need only 3 dynamic initial parameters (stocking, composition and age) to

  2. Hydrochemical Assessment of Surfacewater and Groundwater Quality at Bank Infiltration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, M. K. N.; Suratman, S.; Ramli, M. F.; Sulaiman, W. N. A.; Sefie, A.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater and surface water quantity and quality are an important factor that contribute for drinking water demand and agriculture use. The water quality analysis was assessed using multivariate statistical analyses based on analytical quantitative data that include Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on 36 water quality parameters from the rivers, lakes, and groundwater sites at Jenderam Hilir, which were collected from 2013 to 2014 (56 observations). The DA identified six significant parameters (pH, NO2-, NO3-, F, Fe2+, and Mn2+) from 36 variables to distinguish between the river, lake, and groundwater groups (classification accuracy = 98%). The PCA had confirmed 10 possible causes of variation in the groundwater quality with an eigenvalue greater than 1, which explained 82.931% of the total variance in the water quality data set.

  3. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  4. Diabetes and Hypertension Quality Measurement in Four Safety-Net Sites

    PubMed Central

    Benkert, R.; Dennehy, P.; White, J.; Hamilton, A.; Tanner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background In this new era after the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, the literature on lessons learned with electronic health record (EHR) implementation needs to be revisited. Objectives Our objective was to describe what implementation of a commercially available EHR with built-in quality query algorithms showed us about our care for diabetes and hypertension populations in four safety net clinics, specifically feasibility of data retrieval, measurements over time, quality of data, and how our teams used this data. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2008 to October 2012 in four safety-net clinics located in the Midwest and Western United States. A data warehouse that stores data from across the U.S was utilized for data extraction from patients with diabetes or hypertension diagnoses and at least two office visits per year. Standard quality measures were collected over a period of two to four years. All sites were engaged in a partnership model with the IT staff and a shared learning process to enhance the use of the quality metrics. Results While use of the algorithms was feasible across sites, challenges occurred when attempting to use the query results for research purposes. There was wide variation of both process and outcome results by individual centers. Composite calculations balanced out the differences seen in the individual measures. Despite using consistent quality definitions, the differences across centers had an impact on numerators and denominators. All sites agreed to a partnership model of EHR implementation, and each center utilized the available resources of the partnership for Center-specific quality initiatives. Conclusions Utilizing a shared EHR, a Regional Extension Center-like partnership model, and similar quality query algorithms allowed safety-net clinics to benchmark and improve the quality of care across differing patient populations and health care

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1995 quality program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-07-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s (YMP`s) quality assurance program for January 1 to September 30, 1995. The report includes major sections on program activities and trend analysis.

  6. Quest for quality informal proceedings of the first Hanford Site Technical Communications Seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.E.

    1993-11-01

    Eighty-eight people from five Hanford contractors gathered November 17, 1993, at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to embark on a quest for quality in Technical Communications. PNL`s Applied Technologies Communication (ATC) section of the Technical Information and Communications Department (TI&CD) hosted the half-day Quest for Quality seminar, which covered such topics as document design, site-wide production standards, and ``reinventing government.`` The seminar was the first of its kind to include technical communications professionals from all Hanford Site contractors; attendees included technical editors and writers, publications assistants, text processors, and document production staff. A complete list of the attendees is included as Appendix A and the presenters are listed in Appendix B. Five Hanford contractors have technical communications staffs, all trying to meet the needs of one primary customer: the US Department of Energy (DOE). Historically, these contractors have maintained different processes and standards with regard to document production, and little interaction or information sharing has occurred. To begin remedying that situation, PNL invited technical communicators across the Hanford Site to attend the first Quest for Quality Technical Communications Seminar. The purpose of the seminar was to identify ways to improve the quality of Hanford`s communication products and processes and to strengthen ties among technical communications staffs at the site. We hoped to open the lines of communication for future collaborative efforts.

  7. School Age Center Connections: Site-Based Management Strategies for Implementation of Quality Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dahna R.

    This paper describes the outcomes of a practicum that initiated site-based-management strategies to support the consistent implementation of a quality school-age child-care program. Implemented at a multisite child-care center, the program sought to enhance staff members' job satisfaction and maximize their opportunities for professional growth…

  8. Toward Web-Site Quantitative Evaluation: Defining Quality Characteristics and Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsina, L; Rossi, G.

    This paper identifies World Wide Web site characteristics and attributes and groups them in a hierarchy. The primary goal is to classify the elements that might be part of a quantitative evaluation and comparison process. In order to effectively select quality characteristics, different users' needs and behaviors are considered. Following an…

  9. NEKTON HABITAT QUALITY AT SHALLOW-WATER SITES IN TWO RHODE ISLAND COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated nekton habitat quality at five shallow-water sites in two Rhode Island systems by comparing nekton densities and biomass, number of species, prey availability and feeding, and abundance of winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Nekton density and biomass wer...

  10. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  11. The effects of spatial patterns in habitat quality on community dynamics within a site

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R. T.; Thomas, J. A.; Elmes, G. W.; Hochberg, M. E.

    1997-01-01

    Metapopulation studies of single species have shown that the size and spatial arrangement of patches of assumed uniformly 'suitable' habitat can influence their population dynamics and persistence. We investigated whether variation in the spatial arrangement of 'suitable' habitat of varied quality within a single site can affect the abundance and persistence of interacting species. We accomplished this by extending a field-based spatial simulation model of four interacting species at two trophic levels (an endangered butterfly, its larval food-plant, and two ants). The habitat on sites with the same average and range of qualities was rearranged to give varying degrees of local spatial heterogeneity or 'site ruggedness'. We found that the ant species that acts as host to the butterfly caterpillars decreased with site ruggedness. The impact on the butterfly was more substantial: it often failed to persist on very rugged sites. Despite being free-ranging over the whole area, the butterfly's persistence depends on the arrangement of habitat quality at a finer spatial scale, due to its interactions with species possessing narrower habitat niches and more localized dispersal. Ruggedness also influenced the rate of recovery of the host ant, and hence community structure, for more than a century following the butterfly's extinction.

  12. Stormwater runoff water quality evaluation and management program for hazardous chemical sites: Development issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones-Lee, A.

    1998-12-31

    The deficiencies in the typical stormwater runoff water quality monitoring from hazardous chemical sites and an alternative approach (Evaluation Monitoring) for monitoring that shifts the monitoring program from periodic sampling and analysis of stormwater runoff for a suite of chemical parameters to examining the receiving waters to determine what, if any, water quality use impairments are occurring due to the runoff-associated constituents is presented in this paper. Rather than measuring potentially toxic constituents such as heavy metals in runoff, the monitoring program determines whether there is aquatic life toxicity in the receiving waters associated with the stormwater runoff. If toxicity is found, its cause is determined and the source of the constituents causing the toxicity is identified through forensic analysis. Based on this information, site-specific, technically valid stormwater runoff management programs can be developed that will control real water quality impacts caused by stormwater runoff-associated constituents.

  13. Waste deposit influences on groundwater quality as a tool for waste type and site selection for final storage quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, Jan-Dirk; Milde, Gerald; Kerndorff, Helmut; Schleyer, Ruprecht

    Leachates from deposits of wastes may, in the long run, adversely influence groundwater quality. Since tipping still constitutes the most important form of waste disposal, strategies must be developed which are capable of protecting groundwater against contamination from leachates. In the first instance such protective measures must provide for a minimization of contamination by setting up optimal barriers. Since it would seem difficult to reach this goal in a forseeable future, the avoidance of substances with a high potential for groundwater hazards has to be attributed much importance. In former times, little attention was given to impermeability or avoidance of substances with a high potential for groundwater hazards contained in wastes. Therefore, results of the investigation of groundwater near abandoned sites can be used to optimize groundwater protection on future tipping sites. In the present study, the results of chemical investigation of groundwater from the vicinity of 92 waste disposal sites in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented and the changes in groundwater quality owing to the penetration of leachates are discussed separately for inorganic and organic contaminants.

  14. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  15. Environmental Restoration Program quality system requirements for the Hanford Site. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, R.F.

    1993-11-01

    This document defines the quality system requirements for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Program at the Hanford Site. The Quality System Requirements (OSR) for the Hanford Site integrates quality assurance requirements from the US Department of Energy Orders, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), and applicable industry standards into a single source document for the development of quality systems applicable to the Environmental Restoration Program activities. This document, based on fifteen criteria and divided intro three parts, provides user organizations with the flexibility to incorporate only those criteria and parts applicable to their specific scopes of work. The requirements of this document shall be applied to activities that affect quality based on a graded approach that takes into consideration the risk inherent in, as well as the importance of, specific items, services, and activities in terms of meeting ER Program objectives and customer expectations. The individual quality systems developed in accordance with this document are intended to provide an integrated management control system that assures the conduct of ER Program activities in a manner that protects human health and the environment.

  16. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  17. Hydrologic Instrumentation of Field Sites to Understand Short Term Changes in Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Clayton, M.

    2011-12-01

    This project is funded by a successful NSF-CCLI grant currently in effect. The objective of this project is to build a real time water quality monitoring facility by the Dry Run Creek on the University of Northern Iowa campus. The long term goal is to turn this site into a model outdoor educational resource for students to study the critical elements of the hydrologic environment. Weekly class sessions otherwise make it difficult for students to deal with the daily changes is water chemistry. Upon completion of the project, students will be able to look at the diurnal variations in the water quality through a website available for public viewing. Besides, they will have the opportunity to participate in a variety of research and learning activities directly at the site. Four (4) pieces of instruments are in the process of being installed at the experimental site. The instruments are 1) YSI 6600 V2 extended deployment probe to measure water quality parameters in the Dry Run Creek (i.e., pH, Total Dissolved Solids, conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, temperature, turbidity, chlorophyll, etc.); 2) OTT RLS Radar to measure water level fluctuations in the creek; 3) Hydrolab MS5 mini-sonde to continuously measure pH, TDS, conductivity, DO, temperature, turbidity, and nitrate in a 70 ft deep ground water well on the site; and 4) DL 3000 data logger to receive all data from the above 3 pieces of equipment and automatically upload them to a website. Site preparation, including digging trenches for data cable and electric wires has been completed. Instrumental calibration is in progress and the site is expected to be up and running soon. We expect that this well site expansion plan will considerably strengthen our hydrology curriculum and facilitate more effective dissemination of the project outcome.

  18. Technical refinements of composite thoracodorsal system free flaps for 1-stage lower extremity reconstruction resulting in reduced donor-site morbidity.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, Holger; Strohm, Peter C; Al Awadi, Khalid; Stark, G Björn; Momeni, Arash

    2008-04-01

    A multitude of local flaps has been suggested for lower extremity reconstruction. However, the gold standard for defect coverage remains free tissue transfer. In this regard, the scapular vascular axis is a well-established source of expendable skin, fascia, muscle, and bone for use in free flap reconstruction of defects requiring bone and soft tissue in complex 3-dimensional relationships. Composite bone and soft-tissue flaps derived from the subscapular vascular axis include the osteocutaneous scapular flap, the "latissimus/bone flap," and the thoracodorsal artery perforator-scapular osteocutaneous flap.Patient outcome following reconstruction of lower extremity defects with composite free flaps from the thoracodorsal system were analyzed. Here, we demonstrate the execution of technical refinements on free composite flap transfers based on the thoracodorsal vascular axis, thus resulting in a stepwise reduction of donor-site morbidity. PMID:18362565

  19. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  20. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    considerations. This DQO report also updates the discussion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the PNNL Site air samples and how existing Hanford Site monitoring program results could be used. This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs.

  1. Quality, Range, and Legibility in Web Sites Related to Orofacial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Ferrari, Deborah Viviane; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Plenty of information about health is available on the Internet; however, quality and legibility are not always evaluated. Knowledge regarding orofacial functions can be considered important for the population because it allows proper stimulus, early diagnosis, and prevention of the oral myofunctional alterations during early infancy. Objective The aim was evaluate the quality, legibility, and range of Web sites available in Brazilian Portuguese regarding the orofacial functions. Methods Selected Web sites with information directed to parents/caregivers of babies regarding breast-feeding, feeding after 6 months, deleterious oral habits, and breathing and speech were studied. The Web sites were evaluated through the application of Flesch Reading Ease Test and aspects of the Health on the Net (HON) modified code (HONCode); the range of the subjects addressed was compared with other aspects of infant development. Results From the access of 350 pages of the Internet, 35 Web sites were selected and 315 excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In relation to legibility, Web sites scored an average of 61.23% in the Flesch Test, and the application of the modified HONCode showed an average of 6.43 points; an average of 2.49 subjects were found per Web site evaluated, with information on breast-feeding being more frequent and subjects such as breathing and speech less frequent. Conclusions Web sites that deal with orofacial functions presented standard legibility classification. Only half of the ethical principles were considered by the modified HONCode in their majority, and most addressed subjects after “breast-feeding” were presented with restricted range. PMID:25992036

  2. Quality, range, and legibility in web sites related to orofacial functions.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Ferrari, Deborah Viviane; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2013-10-01

    Introduction Plenty of information about health is available on the Internet; however, quality and legibility are not always evaluated. Knowledge regarding orofacial functions can be considered important for the population because it allows proper stimulus, early diagnosis, and prevention of the oral myofunctional alterations during early infancy. Objective The aim was evaluate the quality, legibility, and range of Web sites available in Brazilian Portuguese regarding the orofacial functions. Methods Selected Web sites with information directed to parents/caregivers of babies regarding breast-feeding, feeding after 6 months, deleterious oral habits, and breathing and speech were studied. The Web sites were evaluated through the application of Flesch Reading Ease Test and aspects of the Health on the Net (HON) modified code (HONCode); the range of the subjects addressed was compared with other aspects of infant development. Results From the access of 350 pages of the Internet, 35 Web sites were selected and 315 excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In relation to legibility, Web sites scored an average of 61.23% in the Flesch Test, and the application of the modified HONCode showed an average of 6.43 points; an average of 2.49 subjects were found per Web site evaluated, with information on breast-feeding being more frequent and subjects such as breathing and speech less frequent. Conclusions Web sites that deal with orofacial functions presented standard legibility classification. Only half of the ethical principles were considered by the modified HONCode in their majority, and most addressed subjects after "breast-feeding" were presented with restricted range. PMID:25992036

  3. Sediment quality criteria: A review with recommendations for developing criteria for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-05-01

    Criteria for determining the quality of liver sediment are necessary to ensure that concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems are within acceptable limits for the protection of aquatic and human life. Such criteria should facilitate decision-making about remediation, handling, and disposal of contaminants. Several approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) have been described and include both descriptive and numerical methods. However, no single method measures all impacts at all times to all organisms (U.S. EPA 1992b). The U.S. EPA`s interest is primarily in establishing chemically based, numerical SQC that are applicable nation-wide (Shea 1988). Of the approaches proposed for SQC development, only three are being considered for numerical SQC on a national level. These approaches include an Equilibrium Partitioning Approach, a site-specific method using bioassays (the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach), and an approach similar to EPA`s water quality criteria (Pavlou and Weston 1984). Although national (or even regional) criteria address a number of political, litigative, and engineering needs, some researchers feel that protection of benthic communities require site-specific, biologically based criteria (Baudo et al. 1990). This is particularly true for areas where complex mixtures of contaminants are present in sediments. Other scientifically valid and accepted procedures for freshwater SQC include a background concentration approach, methods using field or spiked bioassays, a screening level concentration approach, the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach, the Sediment Quality Triad, the International Joint Commission Sediment Assessment Strategy, and the National Status and Trends Program Approach. The various sediment assessment approaches are evaluated for application to the Hanford Reach and recommendations for Hanford Site sediment quality criteria are discussed.

  4. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Krenzien, Susan

    2012-10-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). NNSA/NSO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  5. Assessment of water quality at selected sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, 1993 and 1995 using biological indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, Jeffrey W.; Baker, N.T.; Lydy, M.J.; Stone, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, fish communities were sampled at 11 sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, in 1993 and 1995 to help determine water-quality conditions. Ninety-one species of fish with representatives from 18 families were collected in the basin. Total numbers of fish collected at every site increased between collection years. The Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) and Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) were calculated for all 11 sites in 1995. The QHEI scores indicated six sites had excellent habitat to support fish communities. Only three sites were rated in the “good” to “excellent” IBI water-quality categories, indicating some type of nonhabitat environmental degradation to the fish communities. Eight of the sites were rated in the “fair,” “poor,” or “very poor” IBI water-quality categories.

  6. PROBABILISTIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR TORNADOES, STRAIGHT-LINE WIND, AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, D.; , A.; Shine, G.

    2013-12-04

    distribution, and extrapolating the values for any return period from the tail of that function. For the DOE mandated return periods, we expect straight winds of 123 mph every 2500 years, and 132mph every 6250 years at any point within the SRS. These values are similar to those from the W98 report (which also used the Gumbel distribution for wind speeds) which gave wind speeds of 115mph and 122 mph for return periods of 2500 years and 6250 years, respectively. For extreme precipitation accumulation periods, we compared the fits of three different theoretical extreme-value distributions, and in the end decided to maintain the use of the Gumbel distribution for each period. The DOE mandated 6-hr accumulated rainfall for return periods of 2500 years and 6250 years was estimated as 7.8 inches and 8.4 inches, respectively. For the 24- hr rainfall return periods of 10,000 years and 25,000 years, total rainfall estimates were 10.4 inches and 11.1 inches, respectively. These values are substantially lower than comparable values provided in the W98 report. This is largely a consequence of the W98 use of a different extreme value distribution with its corresponding higher extreme probabilities.

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1993 Quality Program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1995-05-01

    This status report is for calendar year 1993. It summarizes the annual activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP or Project) quality assurance program. By identifying the accomplishments of the quality program, we establish a baseline that will assist in decision making, improve administrative controls and predictability, and allow us to annually identify long term trends and to evaluate improvements. This is the third annual status report (Bolivar, 1992; Bolivar, 1994). This report is divided into two primary sections: Program Activities and Trend Analysis. Under Program Activities, programmatic issues occurring in 1993 are discussed. The goals for 1993 are also listed, followed by a discussion of their status. Lastly, goals for 1994 are identified. The Trend Analysis section is a summary of 1993 quarterly trend reports and provides a good overview of the quality assurance issues of the Los Alamos YMP.

  8. Effects of habitat quality and ambient hyporheic flows on salmon spawning site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, Rohan; Tonina, Daniele; Marzadri, Alessandra; McKean, Jim; Isaak, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the role of stream hydrologic and morphologic variables on the selection of spawning sites by salmonid fishes at high resolution across broad scales is needed for effective habitat restoration and protection. Here we used remotely sensed meter-scale channel bathymetry for a 13.5 km reach of Chinook salmon spawning stream in central Idaho to describe habitat quality and set boundary conditions for a two-dimensional surface water model coupled with a three-dimensional hyporheic flux model. Metrics describing ambient hyporheic flow intensity and habitat quality, which is quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, were compared to the locations of nests built by female salmon. Nest locations were predicted most accurately by habitat quality followed by channel morphology (i.e., riffles location). As a lesser degree than habitat quality, water surface curvature was also a good indicator of spawning location because its intensity can identify riffle morphology. The ambient hyporheic flow predicted at meter-scale resolution was not a strong predictor of redd site selection. Furthermore, the study suggests direct morphological measurements obtained from easily measured channel bathymetry data could enable effective and rapid assessments of salmon spawning channels across broad areas.

  9. Compilation of surface-water and water-quality data-collection sites on selected streams in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prugh, Byron, Jr.; Humphrey, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a listing of about 8,900 selected surface-water and water-quality data sites in Virginia where hydrologic and water-quality measurements have been made for the past 100 yr. The listing includes the agency station/site identification number and name, drainage area, datum, source agency, type of data collected, period of record for data collection, latitude and longitude, county, and name of the 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle containing the site location

  10. Computerized stratified random site-selection approaches for design of a ground-water-quality sampling network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Computer software was written to randomly select sites for a ground-water-quality sampling network. The software uses digital cartographic techniques and subroutines from a proprietary geographic information system. The report presents the approaches, computer software, and sample applications. It is often desirable to collect ground-water-quality samples from various areas in a study region that have different values of a spatial characteristic, such as land-use or hydrogeologic setting. A stratified network can be used for testing hypotheses about relations between spatial characteristics and water quality, or for calculating statistical descriptions of water-quality data that account for variations that correspond to the spatial characteristic. In the software described, a study region is subdivided into areal subsets that have a common spatial characteristic to stratify the population into several categories from which sampling sites are selected. Different numbers of sites may be selected from each category of areal subsets. A population of potential sampling sites may be defined by either specifying a fixed population of existing sites, or by preparing an equally spaced population of potential sites. In either case, each site is identified with a single category, depending on the value of the spatial characteristic of the areal subset in which the site is located. Sites are selected from one category at a time. One of two approaches may be used to select sites. Sites may be selected randomly, or the areal subsets in the category can be grouped into cells and sites selected randomly from each cell.

  11. Social Media and Rating Sites as Tools to Understanding Quality of Care: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B

    2014-01-01

    Background Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient’s perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these “traditional” methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. Objective The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. Methods We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Results Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies

  12. Natural Phenomena Hazards Modeling Project. Extreme wind/tornado hazard models for Department of Energy sites. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, D.W.; Murray, R.C.

    1985-08-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed seismic and wind hazard models for the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS), Department of Energy (DOE). The work is part of a three-phase effort aimed at establishing uniform building design criteria for seismic and wind hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. This report summarizes the final wind/tornado hazard models recommended for each site and the methodology used to develop these models. Final seismic hazard models have been published separately by TERA Corporation. In the final phase, it is anticipated that the DOE will use the hazard models to establish uniform criteria for the design and evaluation of critical facilities. 19 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Generalized extreme gust wind speeds distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, E.; Yeung, C.

    2002-01-01

    Since summer 1996, the US wind engineers are using the extreme gust (or 3-s gust) as the basic wind speed to quantify the destruction of extreme winds. In order to better understand these destructive wind forces, it is important to know the appropriate representations of these extreme gust wind speeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable extreme value distributions for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded in large selected areas. To achieve this objective, we are using the generalized Pareto distribution as the diagnostic tool for determining the types of extreme gust wind speed distributions. The three-parameter generalized extreme value distribution function is, thus, reduced to either Type I Gumbel, Type II Frechet or Type III reverse Weibull distribution function for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded at a specific site.With the considerations of the quality and homogeneity of gust wind data collected at more than 750 weather stations throughout the United States, annual extreme gust wind speeds at selected 143 stations in the contiguous United States were used in the study. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  15. Effects of Extreme Climate Events on Tea (Camellia sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge and Sensory Preferences in Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  16. Trends of mean and extreme temperature indices since 1874 at low-elevation sites in the southern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnara, Yuri; Auchmann, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan; Bozzo, Alessio; Berro, Daniele Cat; Mercalli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    We describe the recovery of three daily meteorological records for the southern Alps (Domodossola, Riva del Garda, and Rovereto), all starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. We use these new data, along with additional records, to study regional changes in the mean temperature and extreme indices of heat waves and cold spells frequency and duration over the period 1874-2015. The records are homogenized using subdaily cloud cover observations as a constraint for the statistical model, an approach that has never been applied before in the literature. A case study based on a record of parallel observations between a traditional meteorological window and a modern screen shows that the use of cloud cover can reduce the root-mean-square error of the homogenization by up to 30% in comparison to an unaided statistical correction. We find that mean temperature in the southern Alps has increased by 1.4°C per century over the analyzed period, with larger increases in daily minimum temperatures than maximum temperatures. The number of hot days in summer has more than tripled, and a similar increase is observed in duration of heat waves. Cold days in winter have dropped at a similar rate. These trends are mainly caused by climate change over the last few decades.

  17. Analysis of water-quality data and sampling programs at selected sites in north-central Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The report provides an analysis of the water-quality data at selected sites and provides an evaluation of the suitability of the current (1987) sampling programs at each site for meeting future needs of defining water quality within the area affected by CBT Project operations. Specific objectives of the report are to: provide summary statistics of water-quality data at each site for the period of record; identify significant trends for water-quality constituents or properties at each site; determine whether certain stations could be discontinued without substantial loss of information; determine whether the frequency of sampling for any individual constituent or groups of constituents at any of the sites could be decreased without substantial loss of information; and evaluate which water-quality constituents and properties need to be measured in order to meet the water-quality-data needs at each site. Fourteen streamflow and reservoir stations were selected for the analysis. These sites represent a network of water-quality sampling stations that can be used to evaluate the effects of CBT Project water transfers on both sides of the Continental Divide.

  18. Ambient air quality at the site of a former manufactured gas plant.

    PubMed

    Collins, M J; Williams, P L; MacIntosh, D L

    2001-05-01

    Prior to the 1950's, manufactured gas was commercially produced from the pyrolysis of coal, coke, and oil at facilities that are termed manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The constituents of residual coal tar present on many MGP sites are an environmental health concern because of their toxicity and the possibility for their off-site migration via water and air. Atmospheric concentrations of five volatile organic compounds (VOCs, e.g., benzene), sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, e.g., naphthalene) and particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were measured at the site of a former MGP. Air samples were obtained before, during, and after excavation of subterranean coal tar at the site. The results of this investigation indicate that subterranean coal tar was not a primary source of VOCs and PAHs in the local atmosphere before or after remediation of the site. However, excavation, treatment, blending, and transfer of the coal tar during remediation generated concentrations of selected aromatic and semi-volatile organic compounds that were substantially greater than typical ambient levels. In addition, these data suggest that blending and mixing of coal tars could lead to exceedance of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM10, although additional research is required to fully evaluate this possibility. Nuisance odors associated with the site remediation were likely the result of naphthalene and possibly isomers of xylene. Air pollutant concentrations measured adjacent to the excavation area and at the site perimeter during remediation activities were less than the relevant occupational and environmental exposure limits. PMID:11411141

  19. Using Ecological Theory and Historic Surveys to Assess Water Quality When Reference Sites are Unavailable.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    In large areas of southern Ontario, local reference or minimally impaired sites are no longer available largely as a result of extensive deforestation and agricultural practices over the past 1.5 centuries. For example in Essex County, less than 2 percent of the original forest cover is remaining and all streams have been "improved", i.e. deepened and channelized, to assist drainage. Published and unpublished historic benthic studies and surveys have been conducted by various researchers, e.g. Dr. F. Ide, and agencies, e.g Department of Lands and Forest, in Ontario since 1910 and thus may assist in establishing reference conditions in some areas. Meanwhile, using the principle of longitudinal zonation, benthic species can be associated with specific habitat reaches, e.g. creeks, streams, rivers, based on historic and current studies. Although we lack theory to predict specific composition of communities at a site, we can establish a "candidates list" for each habitat reach under reference conditions. When the candidate species are abundant within a habitat reach, water quality conditions approximate reference conditions. A reduction in the proportion of candidate species implies water quality impairment, whereas a lack of candidate species implies degraded water quality conditions.

  20. Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Razem, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

  1. Preliminary geohydrologic site characterization and proposed water quality well locations for WAG 4, WAG 5, WAG 3, and SWSA 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baughn, D.C.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess general site conditions and to recommend water quality well locations at Waste Area Groupings (WAGs) 4, 5 and 3 and Solid Waste Storage Area 1 (SWSA 1) within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) complex. The subject sites are identified on the general site location map. For reference, the relationship of the subject sites to other WAGs are shown. WAGs are regions prescribed by Martin Marietta throughout the ORNL complex that require environmental assessment which will include design and installation of ground water monitoring systems. WAGs contain solid waste management units such as SWSAs, as well as pipelines, spill sites, buildings, ponds and experimental test sites. These solid waste management units are considered to be potential sources of contamination requiring further evaluation. This report recommends locations for water quality wells which will be installed at WAG boundaries in order to gather water quality data.

  2. Use of historical information in extreme-surge frequency estimation: the case of marine flooding on the La Rochelle site in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Y.; Bardet, L.; Duluc, C.-M.; Rebour, V.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear power plants located in the French Atlantic coast are designed to be protected against extreme environmental conditions. The French authorities remain cautious by adopting a strict policy of nuclear-plants flood prevention. Although coastal nuclear facilities in France are designed to very low probabilities of failure (e.g., 1000-year surge), exceptional surges (outliers induced by exceptional climatic events) have shown that the extreme sea levels estimated with the current statistical approaches could be underestimated. The estimation of extreme surges then requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a more solid theoretical motivation. This paper deals with extreme-surge frequency estimation using historical information (HI) about events occurred before the systematic record period. It also contributes to addressing the problem of the presence of outliers in data sets. The frequency models presented in the present paper have been quite successful in the field of hydrometeorology and river flooding but they have not been applied to sea level data sets to prevent marine flooding. In this work, we suggest two methods of incorporating the HI: the peaks-over-threshold method with HI (POTH) and the block maxima method with HI (BMH). Two kinds of historical data can be used in the POTH method: classical historical maxima (HMax) data, and over-a-threshold supplementary (OTS) data. In both cases, the data are structured in historical periods and can be used only as complement to the main systematic data. On the other hand, in the BMH method, the basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of HI is that at least one threshold of perception exists for the whole period (historical and systematic) and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, only information about surges above this threshold have been recorded or archived. The two frequency models were applied to a case study from France, at the La Rochelle site where

  3. Use of historical information in extreme surge frequency estimation: case of the marine flooding on the La Rochelle site in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Y.; Bardet, L.; Duluc, C.-M.; Rebour, V.

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear power plants located in the French Atlantic coast are designed to be protected against extreme environmental conditions. The French authorities remain cautious by adopting a strict policy of nuclear plants flood prevention. Although coastal nuclear facilities in France are designed to very low probabilities of failure (e.g. 1000 year surge), exceptional surges (outliers induced by exceptional climatic events) had shown that the extreme sea levels estimated with the current statistical approaches could be underestimated. The estimation of extreme surges then requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a more solid theoretical motivation. This paper deals with extreme surge frequency estimation using historical information (HI) about events occurred before the systematic record period. It also contributes to addressing the problem of the presence of outliers in data sets. The frequency models presented in the present paper have been quite successful in the field of hydrometeorology and river flooding but they have not been applied to sea levels data sets to prevent marine flooding. In this work, we suggest two methods of incorporating the HI: the Peaks-Over-Threshold method with HI (POTH) and the Block Maxima method with HI (BMH). Two kinds of historical data can be used in the POTH method: classical Historical Maxima (HMax) data, and Over a Threshold Supplementary (OTS) data. In both cases, the data are structured in historical periods and can be used only as complement to the main systematic data. On the other hand, in the BMH method, the basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of HI is that at least one threshold of perception exists for the whole period (historical and systematic) and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, only information about surges above this threshold have been recorded or archived. The two frequency models were applied to a case study from France, at the La Rochelle site where

  4. Remote Borehole Strainmeter Sites: Power system optimization improves data quality and increases equipment uptime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, E.; Gallaher, W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Fox, O.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G.

    2012-12-01

    have been installed as a secondary power source. The fuel cells provide an alternative power source during the lower light winter conditions. The power system modifications have had an immediate and positive impact in data quality and instrument uptime. Inspection of strainmeter data in the frequency domain shows considerable improvement in noise levels. Most solar sites remained online throughout the winter months, ensuring a continuous data stream.

  5. Prospective multicenter study of quality of life before and after lower extremity vein bypass in 1404 patients with critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Louis L.; Moneta, Gregory L.; Conte, Michael S.; Bandyk, Dennis F.; Clowes, Alexander W.; Seely, B. Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have multiple comorbidities and limited life spans. The ability of infrainguinal vein bypass to improve quality of life (QoL) in patients with CLI has therefore been questioned. Prospective preoperative and postoperative QoL data for patients undergoing lower extremity vein bypass for CLI are presented. Methods A validated, disease-specific QoL questionnaire (VascuQoL) with activity, symptom, pain, emotional, and social domains and responses scored 1 (lowest QoL) to 7 (best QoL) was administered before surgery and at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass for CLI. Changes in QoL at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass and multiple predetermined variables potentially influencing QoL after lower extremity vein bypass were analyzed to determine the effect of lower extremity vein bypass on QoL in CLI patients. Results A total of 1404 patients had lower extremity vein bypass for CLI at 83 centers in the United States and Canada as part of the PREVENT III clinical trial. Surveys were completed in 1296 patients at baseline, 862 patients at 3 months, and 732 patients at 12 months. The global QoL score (mean ± SD) was 2.8 ± 1.1 at baseline and was 4.7 ± 1.4 and 5.1 ± 1.4 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Mean changes from baseline at 3 and 12 months were statistically significant (P < .0001). Improved QoL scores extended across all domains. Diabetes and the development of graft-related events were associated with decreased improvement in QoL scores, though the mean relative change from baseline remained positive. Conclusions Patients with CLI have a low QoL at baseline that is improved at 3 and 12 months after lower extremity vein bypass. QoL improvements are lower in diabetic patients and those who develop graft-related events. Successful revascularization can be expected to improve QoL in patients with CLI, with benefits that are sustained to at least 1 year. PMID:17098529

  6. Air Quality at a Ranch Site in the Western Part of the Eagle Ford shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.; Brooks, S. D.; Zenker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The booming unconventional oil and gas industry in the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas continues to grow. Modeling studies of the air quality impacts of the Eagle Ford rely on emission inventories that may underestimate emissions from such operations, and air quality monitoring in the area remains limited. We conducted an air quality study on a ranch in Dimmit County, Texas, which was ranked 6th in Texas for natural gas production and 10th in Texas for oil production as of April 2015. An automated GC-FID was used to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons (C3 - C14), with concurrent measurements of CO, CO2, H2O, O3, NO/NOx. In addition, the concentration and sizing of aerosols ranging from 0.6 to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter were measured with a GRIMM aerosol spectrometer (GRIMM 1.108), and meteorological variables including wind speed, direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and insolation were recorded. We report on local air quality and changes during the process as observed during the measurement campaign. Local drilling on the ranch began in May 2015 and production started in June 2015, at a site approximately 5 km southeast of the air quality trailer. Local air quality showed typically low, near background abundances of CO and NOx early during the campaign, and more frequent local NOx plumes during the drilling and production phases. Aerosol mass measurements were also relatively low and well within attainment of NAAQS particulate matter standards. We assess OH radical reactivity of individual and/or groups of VOCs using observed concentrations and their reaction rate coefficient with OH, the dominant VOC sink in the troposphere.

  7. Image Quality and Radiation Dose of Lower Extremity CT Angiography Using 70 kVp, High Pitch Acquisition and Sinogram-Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Meinel, Felix G.; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhao, Yan E.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess image quality and radiation dose of lower extremity CT angiography (CTA) with 70 kVp, high pitch acquisition and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods Lower extremity CTAs were performed on 44 patients: 22 patients were examined using protocol A (120 kVp, pitch of 0.85 and 120 ml of contrast agent on a first-generation dual-source CT) (120 kVp group) and 22 patients were evaluated with protocol B (70 kVp, pitch of 2.2 and 80 ml of contrast agent on a second-generation dual-source CT) (70 kVp group). Images from the 120 kVp group were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and images from the 70 kVp group with SAFIRE. The attenuation, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Two radiologists subjectively assessed image quality of lower extremity arteries, plantar arterial enhancement and venous contamination of all patients. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Results Higher mean intravascular attenuation was obtained in the 70 kVp group (70 vs. 120 kVp group, 555.4±83.4 HU vs. 300.9±81.4 HU, P<0.001), as well as image noise (20.0±2.8 HU vs. 17.5±3.2 HU, P = 0.010), SNR (32.0±7.0 vs. 19.1±6.9, P<0.001) and CNR (28.1±6.6 vs 15.9±6.3, P<0.001). No difference in subjective image quality and plantar arterial enhancement was found between 120 kVp group and 70 kVp group (all P>0.05). The venous contamination score was 1.5±0.8 for 120 kVp group while no venous contamination was found in 70 kVp group. The inter-observer agreement was moderate to good for both groups (0.515∼1, P<0.001). The effective dose was lower in 70 kVp group (0.3±0.1 mSv) than in 120 kVp group (1.6±0.7 mSv)(P<0.001). Conclusions Lower extremity CTA using 70 kVp, high pitch acquisition and SAFIRE, except increasing imaging noise, allows for lower radiation dose and contrast material volume without compromising image quality. PMID

  8. Contaminants, water quality, and wildlife mortality on oil production sites in western South Dakota. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.J.; Ruelle, R.

    1993-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate oil pits and other hazards at oil production sites to (1) document the magnitude of wildlife mortality due to exposure to oil and other chemicals, (2) determine the physical and toxic effects of oil pit contents on wildlife, and (3) identify methods to prevent sublethal and lethal impacts to wildlife. Pits at oil production sites in Fall River and Harding Counties of western South Dakota were surveyed for wildlife carcasses by searching the shorelines and raking underwater around the pit edges in April, July, and October 1992. In July, composite water and sediment samples were collected from 26 pits, and analyzed for oil and grease. Bioassays were conducted with two life stages of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna to determine pit water toxicity. Seed germination tests were conducted using radish seeds exposed to pit water. Oil and poor water quality appeared to be the primary causes of pit liquid toxicity.

  9. Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Norkus, R G; Maurer, J; Schultz, N A; Stuart, J D; Robbins, G A; Bristol, R D

    1996-08-01

    Various portable electrodes and an on-line colorimetric test kit were used in the field to examine ground water quality as an indicator of natural bioremediation across two sites in Connecticut having subsurface gasoline contamination. The parameters examined included dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, direct redox potential (Eh), nitrate, ammonia and pH. These parameters permitted delineating regions of aerobic and anaerobic microbiological activity. Variations in these parameters over an eighteen month period along with gas chromatographic analyses of certain gasoline components in the ground water indicated that in-situ bioremediation was effective at containing the petroleum contamination at both sites. It was found that a new on-line colorimetric test kit for the determination of oxygen was more accurate than a commonly used dissolved oxygen electrode. PMID:8680831

  10. Sediment quality assessment and Toxicity Identification Evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas -- An estuarine Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.; Hooten, R.; May, L.; Teas, T.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in the Lavaca Bay system which has been designated a Superfund site because of elevated concentrations of mercury and other contaminants (e.g., PAHs) in the sediments. Twenty-four stations were sampled in the initial survey. Sediment pore water was extracted pneumatically and the toxicity of the pore water determined using the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. Based on the results of the toxicity tests, aliquots of the toxic sediments were analyzed for metals, PAHs, and pesticides. Based on these results, several of the most toxic sites were resampled and a preliminary Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed with the pore water using the sea urchin fertilization test. Preliminary results indicated that the toxic components were removed by adsorption on a C-18 column but were not affected by EDTA additions and, therefore, the primary toxicants are hydrophobic in nature.

  11. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, J. F.; Magnuson, S. O.; Scherbinske, P.; Case, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  12. Optimal Site Characterization and Selection Criteria for Oyster Restoration using Multicolinear Factorial Water Quality Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of nutrient loadings have enriched the Chesapeake Bay estuaries and coastal waters via point and nonpoint sources and the atmosphere. Restoring oyster beds is considered a Best Management Practice (BMP) to improve the water quality as well as provide physical aquatic habitat and a healthier estuarine system. Efforts include declaring sanctuaries for brood-stocks, supplementing hard substrate on the bottom and aiding natural populations with the addition of hatchery-reared and disease-resistant stocks. An economic assessment suggests that restoring the ecological functions will improve water quality, stabilize shorelines, and establish a habitat for breeding grounds that outweighs the value of harvestable oyster production. Parametric factorial models were developed to investigate multicolinearities among in situ water quality and oyster restoration activities to evaluate posterior success rates upon multiple substrates, and physical, chemical, hydrological and biological site characteristics to systematically identify significant factors. Findings were then further utilized to identify the optimal sites for successful oyster restoration augmentable with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and BMPs. Factorial models evaluate the relationship among the dependent variable, oyster biomass, and treatments of temperature, salinity, total suspended solids, E. coli/Enterococci counts, depth, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nitrogen and phosphorus, and blocks consist of alternative substrates (oyster shells versus riprap, granite, cement, cinder blocks, limestone marl or combinations). Factorial model results were then compared to identify which combination of variables produces the highest posterior biomass of oysters. Developed Factorial model can facilitate maximizing the likelihood of successful oyster reef restoration in an effort to establish a healthier ecosystem and to improve overall estuarine water quality in the Chesapeake Bay estuaries.

  13. Effects of Site Preparation for Pine Forest/Switchgrass Intercropping on Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Muwamba, A; Amatya, D M; Ssegane, H; Chescheir, G M; Appelboom, T; Tollner, E W; Nettles, J E; Youssef, M A; Birgand, F; Skaggs, R W; Tian, S

    2015-07-01

    A study was initiated to investigate the sustainability effects of intercropping switchgrass ( L.) in a loblolly pine ( L.) plantation. This forest-based biofuel system could possibly provide biomass from the perennial energy grass while maintaining the economics and environmental benefits of a forest managed for sawtimber. Operations necessary for successful switchgrass establishment and growth, such as site preparation, planting, fertilizing, mowing and baling, may affect hydrology and nutrient runoff. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the temporal effects of management on nutrient concentrations and loadings and (ii) to use pretreatment data to predict those treatment effects. The study watersheds (∼25 ha each) in the North Carolina Atlantic Coastal Plain were a pine/switchgrass intercropped site (D1), a midrotation thinned pine site with natural understory (D2), and a switchgrass-only site (D3). Rainfall, drainage, water table elevation, nitrogen (total Kjedahl N, NH-N, and NO-N), and phosphate were monitored for the 2007-2008 pretreatment and the 2009-2012 treatment periods. From 2010 to 2011 in site D1, the average NO-N concentration effects decreased from 0.18 to -0.09 mg L, and loads effects decreased from 0.86 to 0.49 kg ha. During the same period in site D3, the average NO-N concentration effects increased from 0.03 to 0.09 mg L, and loads effects increased from -0.26 to 1.24 kg ha. This study shows the importance of considering water quality effects associated with intensive management operations required for switchgrass establishment or other novel forest-based biofuel systems. PMID:26437108

  14. The Optical/Infrared Astronomical Quality of High Atacama Sites. I. Preliminary Results of Optical Seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Darling, Jeremy; Sarazin, Marc; Yu, Jennifer; Harvey, Paul; Henderson, Charles; Hoffman, William; Keller, Luke; Barry, Don; Cordes, James; Eikenberry, Stephen; Gull, George; Harrington, Joseph; Smith, J. D.; Stacey, Gordon; Swain, Mark

    2001-07-01

    The region surrounding the Llano de Chajnantor, a high-altitude plateau in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile, has caught the attention of the astronomical community for its potential as an observatory site. Combining high elevation and extremely low atmospheric water content, the Llano has been chosen as the future site of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. We have initiated a campaign to investigate the astronomical potential of the region in the optical/infrared. Here we report on an aspect of our campaign aimed at establishing a seeing benchmark to be used as a reference for future activities in the region. After a brief description of the region and its climate, we describe the results of an astronomical seeing campaign, carried out with a Differential Image Motion Monitor that operates at 0.5 μm wavelength. The seeing at the Llano altitude of 5000 m, measured over 7 nights in 1998 May, yielded a median FWHM of 1.1". However, the seeing decreased to 0.7" at a modest 100 m gain above the plateau (Cerro Chico), as measured over 38 nights spread between 1998 July and 2000 October. Neither of these represents the best seeing expected in the region; the set of measurements provides a reference base for simultaneous dual runs at Cerro Chico and at other sites of interest in the region, currently underway. A comparison between simultaneous measurements at Cerro Chico and Cerro Paranal indicates that the seeing at Cerro Chico is about 12% better than that at Paranal. The percentage of optically photometric nights in the Chajnantor region is about 60%, while that of nights useful for astronomical work is near 80%.

  15. Numerical simulation of extreme snowmelt observed at the SIGMA-A site, northwest Greenland, during summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwano, M.; Aoki, T.; Matoba, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Kuchiki, K.; Motoyama, H.

    2015-05-01

    The surface energy balance (SEB) from 30 June to 14 July 2012 at site SIGMA (Snow Impurity and Glacial Microbe effects on abrupt warming in the Arctic)-A, (78°03' N, 67°38' W; 1490 m a.s.l.) on the northwest Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) was investigated by using in situ atmospheric and snow measurements as well as numerical modeling with a one-dimensional multi-layered physical snowpack model called SMAP (Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process). At SIGMA-A, remarkable near-surface snowmelt and continuous heavy rainfall (accumulated precipitation between 10 and 14 July was estimated to be 100 mm) were observed after 10 July 2012. Application of the SMAP model to the GrIS snowpack was evaluated based on the snow temperature profile, snow surface temperature, surface snow grain size, and shortwave albedo, all of which the model simulated reasonably well. Above all, the fact that the SMAP model successfully reproduced frequently observed rapid increases in snow albedo under cloudy conditions highlights the advantage of the physically based snow albedo model (PBSAM) incorporated in the SMAP model. Using such data and model, we estimated the SEB at SIGMA-A from 30 June to 14 July 2012. Radiation-related fluxes were obtained from in situ measurements, whereas other fluxes were calculated with the SMAP model. By examining the components of the SEB, we determined that low-level clouds accompanied by a significant temperature increase played an important role in the melt event observed at SIGMA-A. These conditions induced a remarkable surface heating via cloud radiative forcing in the polar region.

  16. A Novel Quality Measure and Correction Procedure for the Annotation of Microbial Translation Initiation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Overmars, Lex; Siezen, Roland J.; Francke, Christof

    2015-01-01

    The identification of translation initiation sites (TISs) constitutes an important aspect of sequence-based genome analysis. An erroneous TIS annotation can impair the identification of regulatory elements and N-terminal signal peptides, and also may flaw the determination of descent, for any particular gene. We have formulated a reference-free method to score the TIS annotation quality. The method is based on a comparison of the observed and expected distribution of all TISs in a particular genome given prior gene-calling. We have assessed the TIS annotations for all available NCBI RefSeq microbial genomes and found that approximately 87% is of appropriate quality, whereas 13% needs substantial improvement. We have analyzed a number of factors that could affect TIS annotation quality such as GC-content, taxonomy, the fraction of genes with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the year of publication. The analysis showed that only the first factor has a clear effect. We have then formulated a straightforward Principle Component Analysis-based TIS identification strategy to self-organize and score potential TISs. The strategy is independent of reference data and a priori calculations. A representative set of 277 genomes was subjected to the analysis and we found a clear increase in TIS annotation quality for the genomes with a low quality score. The PCA-based annotation was also compared with annotation with the current tool of reference, Prodigal. The comparison for the model genome of Escherichia coli K12 showed that both methods supplement each other and that prediction agreement can be used as an indicator of a correct TIS annotation. Importantly, the data suggest that the addition of a PCA-based strategy to a Prodigal prediction can be used to ‘flag’ TIS annotations for re-evaluation and in addition can be used to evaluate a given annotation in case a Prodigal annotation is lacking. PMID:26204119

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1992 quality program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.; Burningham, A.; Chavez, P.

    1994-03-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s quality assurance program for calendar year 1992. The report includes major sections on Program Activities and Trend Analysis. Program Activities are discussed periodically at quality meetings. The most significant issue addressed in 1992 has been the timely revision of quality administrative procedures. The procedure revision process was streamlined from 55 steps to 7. The number of forms in procedures was reduced by 38%, and the text reduced by 29%. This allowed revision in 1992 of almost half of all implementing procedures. The time necessary to complete the revision process (for a procedure) was reduced from 11 months to 3 months. Other accomplishments include the relaxation of unnecessarily strict training requirements, requiring quality assurance reviews only from affected organizations, and in general simplifying work processes. All members of the YMP received training to the new Orientation class Eleven other training classed were held. Investigators submitted 971 records to the Project and only 37 were rejected. The software program has 115 programs approved for quality-affecting work. The Project Office conducted 3 audits and 1 survey of Los Alamos activities. We conducted 14 audits and 4 surveys. Eight corrective action reports were closed, leaving only one open. Internally, 22 deficiencies were recognized. This is a decrease from 65 in 1991. Since each deficiency requires about 2 man weeks to resolve, the savings are significant. Problems with writing acceptable deficiency reports have essentially disappeared. Trend reports for 1992 were examined and are summarized herein. Three adverse trends have been closed; one remaining adverse trend will be closed when the affected procedures are revised. The number of deficiencies issued to Los Alamos compared to other participants is minimal.

  18. Development of a site-specific marine water quality standard for cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Arredondo, L.A.; Brix, K.V.; Cardwell, R.D.; Marsden, A.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to develop a site-specific marine standard for cyanide. The generic cyanide standard of 1 {micro}g/L is ``driven`` by toxicity data for eastern rock crab (Cancer irroratus) zoeae. The reported LC50 for C. irroratus is 4.9 {micro}g/L cyanide and is six times more sensitive that any other marine species tested. In order to develop a site-specific standard for Washington state, cyanide toxicity tests were conducted using the first stage zoeae of Cancer magister and Cancer oregonensis, two Cancer resident to Puget Sound, in accordance with standard ASTM test methods. Testing with C. magister and C. oregonensis resulted in Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVS) of 68 and 131 {micro}g/L cyanide based on measured test concentrations. This is considerably higher than that reported for C. irroratus, is more consistent with cyanide toxicity values for other species tested, and results in a water quality criterion of 9.85 {micro}g/L cyanide with inclusion of these values in the data set. This paper presents the test methods used and the potential effects the test results may have on the marine water quality criterion for cyanide.

  19. Reconnaissance of water quality at a US Department of Energy site, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario

    1985-01-01

    Sanitary and industrial wastes at the Pinellas Plant of the U.S. Department of Energy, prior to December 1982, were combined, treated, and disposed of by ponding and spray irrigation on a 10-acre tract within the plant site. Prior to 1972, the treated wastes were released to surface drainage features. An electromagnetic survey for ground conductivity was made to identify changes in the ground conductivity that may be due to the spray irrigation disposal operations. Water samples from four test wells drilled into the surficial aquifer and the two disposal ponds and bottom material from the ponds were analyzed for priority and nonpriority pollutants, total organic carbon, volatile organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, trace metals, nutrients, and major constituents. Overall, concentrations of constituents in the water samples were (1) less than the detection limits, (2) within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency quality criteria for water, or (3) within the range of results for a designated background water-quality site. Concentrations of 12 priority pollutants were found to be considerably above detection limits. Concentrations of these compounds, mostly coal-tar derivatives, ranged from 220 to 5,500 micrograms per kilogram; the detection limit for these compounds is 10 micrograms per kilogram. Included in these compounds were anthracene, pyrenes, and chrysene. (USGS)

  20. Feasibility and outcomes of a classical Pilates program on lower extremity strength, posture, balance, gait, and quality of life in someone with impairments due to a stroke.

    PubMed

    Shea, Sarah; Moriello, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    Pilates is a method that can potentially be used for stroke rehabilitation to address impairments in gait, balance, strength, and posture. The purpose of this case report was to document the feasibility of using Pilates and to describe outcomes of a 9-month program on lower extremity strength, balance, posture, gait, and quality of life in an individual with stroke. The participant was taught Pilates exercises up to two times per week for nine months in addition to traditional rehabilitation in the United States. Outcomes were assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), GAITRite System(®), 5 repetition sit-to-stand test (STST), and flexicurve. Improvements were found in balance, lower extremity strength, and quality of life. Posture and gait speed remained the same. While these changes cannot be specifically attributed to the intervention, Pilates may have added to his overall rehabilitation program and with some modifications was feasible to use in someone with a stroke. PMID:25042304

  1. Estimates of peak flood discharge for 21 sites in the Front Range in Colorado in response to extreme rainfall in September 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rainfall in September 2013 caused destructive floods in part of the Front Range in Boulder County, Colorado. Erosion from these floods cut roads and isolated mountain communities for several weeks, and large volumes of eroded sediment were deposited downstream, which caused further damage of property and infrastructures. Estimates of peak discharge for these floods and the associated rainfall characteristics will aid land and emergency managers in the future. Several methods (an ensemble) were used to estimate peak discharge at 21 measurement sites, and the ensemble average and standard deviation provided a final estimate of peak discharge and its uncertainty. Because of the substantial erosion and deposition of sediment, an additional estimate of peak discharge was made based on the flow resistance caused by sediment transport effects.Although the synoptic-scale rainfall was extreme (annual exceedance probability greater than 1,000 years, about 450 millimeters in 7 days) for these mountains, the resulting peak discharges were not. Ensemble average peak discharges per unit drainage area (unit peak discharge, [Qu]) for the floods were 1–2 orders of magnitude less than those for the maximum worldwide floods with similar drainage areas and had a wide range of values (0.21–16.2 cubic meters per second per square kilometer [m3 s-1 km-2]). One possible explanation for these differences was that the band of high-accumulation, high-intensity rainfall was narrow (about 50 kilometers wide), oriented nearly perpendicular to the predominant drainage pattern of the mountains, and therefore entire drainage areas were not subjected to the same range of extreme rainfall. A linear relation (coefficient of determination [R2]=0.69) between Qu and the rainfall intensity (ITc, computed for a time interval equal to the time-of-concentration for the drainage area upstream from each site), had the form: Qu=0.26(ITc-8.6), where the coefficient 0.26 can be considered to be an

  2. Derivation of an ambient water quality criterion for mercury: taking account of site-specific conditions.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Richardson, G Mark

    2003-12-01

    Mercury is considered to be a serious risk to wildlife. As a result, the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative and others have developed ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for the protection of wildlife. These AWQC have been controversial, however, because the AWQC were single values that did not account for site-specific conditions, derivation of the AWQC relied on a single no-observed-adverse-effect level, and the AWQC had an unknown level of conservatism because of reliance on both average and conservative assumptions and uncertainty factors. Rather than develop a single-value AWQC for total mercury, we derived an AWQC model that explicitly incorporates factors controlling bioavailability, methylation rates, and bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment (e.g., pH, dissolved organic carbon). To derive our AWQC model, field data were collected from 31 lakes in Ontario and an additional 10 lakes in Nova Scotia (North America). In the field study, levels of total and methylmercury in water and fish as well as levels of key water quality variables were determined. We conducted multiple-regression analysis to derive a model that estimates mercury levels in prey of mink. Mink are very sensitive to mercury exposure. An independent dataset consisting of 51 water bodies in the United States was then used to confirm the validity and robustness of the AWQC model. Next, we combined the results of chronic-feeding studies with similar protocols and endpoints in a meta-analysis to derive a dose-response curve for mink exposed to mercury in the diet. In the final step, we used a probabilistic risk model to estimate the concentrations of methylmercury in water that would lead to levels in fish sufficient for a 10% probability of exceeding the lethal dose affecting 5% of the mink population. The result is an AWQC equation for mercury for the protection of wildlife that can be used with a variety of site-specific conditions. PMID:14713052

  3. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  4. Water-quality data for 35 sites, September 1984, near the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pulliam, Pamela J.

    1985-01-01

    Water quality data were collected at 35 sites in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on September 16 and 17, 1984. Concentrations of dissolved major and trace constituents were determined; field determinations of specific conductance, pH, temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were made. Gross alpha and beta activity were determined for seven of the sites sampled. 

  5. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  6. Improving the Quality of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision through Use of the Continuous Quality Improvement Approach: A Pilot in 30 PEPFAR-Supported Sites in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Opio, Alex; Calnan, Jacqueline; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Uganda adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) (also called Safe Male Circumcision in Uganda), as part of its HIV prevention strategy in 2010. Since then, the Ministry of Health (MOH) has implemented VMMC mostly with support from the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through its partners. In 2012, two PEPFAR-led external quality assessments evaluated compliance of service delivery sites with minimum quality standards. Quality gaps were identified, including lack of standardized forms or registers, lack of documentation of client consent, poor preparedness for emergencies and use of untrained service providers. In response, PEPFAR, through a USAID-supported technical assistance project, provided support in quality improvement to the MOH and implementing partners to improve quality and safety in VMMC services and build capacity of MOH staff to continuously improve VMMC service quality. Methods and Findings Sites were supported to identify barriers in achieving national standards, identify possible solutions to overcome the barriers and carry out improvement plans to test these changes, while collecting performance data to objectively measure whether they had bridged gaps. A 53-indicator quality assessment tool was used by teams as a management tool to measure progress; teams also measured client-level indicators through self-assessment of client records. At baseline (February-March 2013), less than 20 percent of sites scored in the “good” range (>80%) for supplies and equipment, patient counseling and surgical procedure; by November 2013, the proportion of sites scoring “good” rose to 67 percent, 93 percent and 90 percent, respectively. Significant improvement was noted in post-operative follow-up at 48 hours, sexually transmitted infection assessment, informed consent and use of local anesthesia but not rate of adverse events. Conclusion Public sector providers can be engaged to address the quality of

  7. Diversity of extremely halophilic cultivable prokaryotes in Mediterranean, Atlantic and Pacific solar salterns: Evidence that unexplored sites constitute sources of cultivable novelty.

    PubMed

    Viver, Tomeu; Cifuentes, Ana; Díaz, Sara; Rodríguez-Valdecantos, Gustavo; González, Bernardo; Antón, Josefa; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2015-06-01

    The culturable fraction of aerobic, heterotrophic and extremely halophilic microbiota retrieved from sediment and brine samples of eight sampling sites in the Mediterranean, Canary Islands and Chile was studied by means of a tandem approach combining large-scale cultivation, MALDI-TOF MS targeting whole cell biomass, and phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The approach allowed the identification of more than 4200 strains and a comparison between different sampling sites. The results indicated that the method constituted an excellent tool for the discovery of taxonomic novelty. Four new genera and nine new species could be identified within the archaeal family Halobacteriaceae, as well as one new bacterial species, and a representative of Salinibacter ruber phylotype II, a group that had been refractory to isolation for the last fifteen years. Altogether, the results indicated that in order to provide better yields for the retrieval of novel taxa from the environment, performance of non-redundant environment sampling is recommended together with the screening of large sets of strains. PMID:25752803

  8. Assessment of the Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Quality of the Tarim River Basin in an Extreme Arid Region, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca2+-HCO3 - water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na+-Cl- water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B3+, F-, and SO4 2- and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  9. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future. PMID:24221557

  10. Chemical and biomarker responses for site-specific quality assessment of the Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Pedriali, Alessandra; Binelli, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s, the Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) has been recognized as an aquatic environment contaminated by DDTs and other persistent organic pollutants, but to date just few studies were carried out to investigate the effects of pollution to aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was the application of a stepwise approach based on chemical data, a suite of biomarkers and the integration of their responses into a biomarker response index (BRI) to evaluate the site-specific quality assessment in different sampling stations of Lake Maggiore, one of the largest European lakes. We used as biological model the freshwater bivalve Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Several hundred bivalve specimens were sampled on May 2011 from eight sampling sites located along the lake shoreline. We measured levels of DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, HCB, and PAHs accumulated in D. polymorpha soft tissues by GC/MSn, while the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were evaluated in homogenates from native bivalves as oxidative stress indices. Moreover, DNA damage was investigated by the alkaline precipitation assay. Significant imbalances of enzymatic activity were found in mussels from most of the sampling sites, as well as notable increases of damage to macromolecules. Health status of mussels from Baveno was greatly affected by lake pollution, probably due to high levels of DDTs measured in this site, while a wide variability in biomarker responses was found in all the other stations. The application of a BRI allowed distinguishing impacts of pollution to bivalves, confirming mussels from Baveno as the most threatened and revealing that also the health status of bivalves from Suna, Brissago, Pallanza, and Laveno is affected. These evidences suggest the usefulness of a specific index to integrate all the biomarker endpoints in order to provide a correct environmental

  11. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  12. SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE CONSEQUENCE ASSESSMENT MODELS AT DOE'S SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C

    2007-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Atmospheric Technologies Group develops, maintains, and operates computer-based software applications for use in emergency response consequence assessment at DOE's Savannah River Site. These applications range from straightforward, stand-alone Gaussian dispersion models run with simple meteorological input to complex computational software systems with supporting scripts that simulate highly dynamic atmospheric processes. A software quality assurance program has been developed to ensure appropriate lifecycle management of these software applications. This program was designed to meet fully the overall structure and intent of SRNL's institutional software QA programs, yet remain sufficiently practical to achieve the necessary level of control in a cost-effective manner. A general overview of this program is described.

  13. Water-quality data from a landfill-leachate treatment and disposal site, Pinellas County, Florida, January 1979-August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Fernandez, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data collected between January 1979 and August 1980 at the landfill leachate treatment site in Pinellas County, Fla., are presented. Data include field and laboratory measurements of physical properties, major chemical constituents , nitrogen and phosphorus species, chemical oxygen demand, trace metals, coliform bacteria, taxonomy of macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton, and chlorophyll analyses. Data were collected as part of a study to determine water-quality changes resulting from aeration and ponding of leachate pumped from landfill burial trenches and for use in determining the rate of movement and quality changes as the leachate migrates through the surficial aquifer. Samples were collected from 81 surficial-aquifer water-quality monitoring wells constructed in January 1975, February 1979, and March 1979, and 8 surface-water quality monitoring sites established in January 1975, February 1978, and November 1978. (USGS)

  14. Effects of selected sources of contamination on ground-water quality at seven sites in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Bingham, James W.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of contaminants has altered the quality of ground water at several places in Connecticut. This investigation of the hydrogeologic environment and the quality of water in stratified-drift aquifers underlying seven probable contaminant sources in Connecticut shows some effects at each site. Water from test wells downgradient from septage-disposal facilities in Old Saybrook and Clinton contains elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, manganese, iron, detergent (as MBAS), dissolved organic carbon, and some trace metals. The effects are most pronounced at shallow depths close to the septage lagoons, where concentrations of some constituents exceed Connecticut Department of Health drinking water standards. Fly-ash disposal at Wallingford has contributed chromium, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon to water in the underlying aquifer, but the low hydraulic conductivity of the fine-grained surficial materials have kept effects to a minimum. Road salt leached from a storage area in the Tylerville section of Haddam has increased the sodium and chloride concentrations in ground water to the extent that it is unsuitable for drinking water. The effect diminishes in wells 1000 feet downgradient from the storage site. Water from some wells adjacent to landfills in Bristol and Southington has elevated sodium, chloride, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and samples from two wells near industrial-sludge disposal pits in the Bristol landfill contain cyanide and phenols. Gasoline odor is present in water samples from a test well 175 feet from a ruptured buried tank in Fairfield. The gasoline odor from this well was also detectable during well construction and sampling.

  15. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p < 0.05). With respect to the atmospheric deposition, the green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass. PMID:24056443

  16. Site-specific water quality criteria -- Case studies of available methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Water Act and EPA`s National Toxic Rule require states to either adopt EPA`s National Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQCs) or to develop Site Specific Water Quality Criteria (SSWQC). EPA has published several guidance documents on how to develop SSWQC. These methods as well as methods currently in development for calculating SSWQC were examined. EPA currently identifies three methods for developing SSWQC: the Recalculation Method, the Indicator Species or Water Effects Ratio (WER) Method, and the Resident Species Method. SSWQC have been developed in some states/regions using one of or a combination of these methods. Examples of studies conducted to develop SSWQCs including those conducted for San Francisco Bay and the Santa Ana River in California, and New York Harbor. Methods used to develop SSWQC in these regions and ongoing efforts in other regions were reviewed and compared. An evaluation of the effectiveness of these studies in terms of successfulness, timeliness, cost, and benefit to both the discharger and the environment was conducted. In addition, issues related to SSWQC development such as the use of total vs. dissolved metal concentrations, species selection, and laboratory and field techniques were examined. A summary of these evaluations will be presented.

  17. Preliminary geohydrologic site characterization and proposed water quality well locations for WAG 7, WAG 8 and WAG 9

    SciTech Connect

    Baughn, D.C.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess general site conditions and to recommend water quality well locations at three Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) complex. The subject sites are WAGs 7, 8 and 9 each of which is identified on the general site location map. For reference, the relationship of the subject sites to other WAGs are shown. WAGs are regions prescribed by Martin Marietta throughout the ORNL complex that require environmental assessment. WAGs contain solid waste management units such as Solid Waste Storage Areas (SWSAs), as well as pipelines, spill sites, buildings, ponds and experimental test sites. These solid waste management units are considered to be potential sources of contamination. The WAG boundaries describe the areal limits of specific waste management operations as well as currently known areas of waste constituent migration. Because solid waste management units within WAGs 7, 8 and 9 may continue to release waste constituents to the environment, the existing groundwater monitoring systems is being upgraded. This report recommends locations for water quality wells which will be installed at these three WAG boundaries in order to gather water quality data. The proposed well locations are shown. Water quality well design coordinates (ORNL grid) and estimated completion depths are given.

  18. Water-Quality Characteristics for Selected Sites Within the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Planning Area, Wisconsin, February 2004-September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; Graczyk, David J.; Richards, Kevin D.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bell, Amanda H.

    2007-01-01

    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study is a three-phase project designed to improve the understanding of water resources in the MMSD planning area to assist managers and policy makers in their decisions. Phase I of the Study involved the compilation of existing data from multiple agencies into a single database. These data were analyzed to identify spatial, temporal, and technological gaps in the planning area, and were used to develop Phase II of the Study. Phase II, the subject of this report, involved an intensive data-collection effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with MMSD (from February, 2004, through September, 2005). This phase addressed the data gaps identified in Phase I and completed a baseline assessment of water quality for selected stream and harbor sites in the MMSD planning area. This baseline assessment included evaluations of surface-water chemistry and microbial concentrations in the streams and harbor sites; additionally, stream sites were evaluated for discharge, sediment chemistry, fish-tissue chemistry, habitat, and the quality of biological communities (including fish, macroinvertebrates, and algae). In all, data were collected at 15 stream and 6 harbor sites within the MMSD planning area, including manual sampling and analysis for more than 220 water-quality properties and constituents at all 21 sites, stream-discharge data for 14 stream sites, and automated water-quality sampling at 4 stream sites. A bioassessment during autumn 2004 included collection of biologic-community data and stream-habitat data at wadeable streams. Quartiles of Phase II aggregate bioassessment rankings were used to divide the 14 wadeable stream sites into four groups to investigate relations between bioassessment data and site characteristic and water-quality data. Quartile numbers reflect relative water quality: quartile 1 contained sites where the bioassessment data indicated the least-degraded water quality

  19. Water Quality, Habitat, and Biological Conditions at Selected Sites in the Highly Urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, C. A.; Brown, L. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Santa Ana River Basin of southern California is highly urbanized and is affected by habitat loss, habitat alteration, and changes in water quality of the river and tributary streams. Nineteen sites, selected to represent the range in water source (mountain runoff, ground-water discharge, urban runoff, treated waste water), were sampled during summer 2000, to assess macroinvertebrate community structure and various measures of water quality. Sites were characterized on the basis of water source because much of the water in Santa Ana Basin is imported and does not typically originate within the watershed boundaries. Artificial substrates were employed for biological samples to minimize the effect of channel environments--natural, channelized but unlined, and concrete-lined-- as a confounding variable. The number of benthic macroinvertebrate genera ranged from five to 20 taxa per site. Pesticides were detected at 16 of 19 sites; the number of detections per site ranged from two to nine. Diazinon was the most commonly detected pesticide and was found at 13 of the 16 sites. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected at 9 of 10 sites; the number of detections ranged from 1 to 10 per site. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane, the most commonly detected VOCs, were found at six sites each. Results from a Microtox toxicity test using extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices installed at 14 sites indicated potential toxicity at 10 of the sites. Results suggest that water source and channel modifications associated with urbanization have altered water quality and associated ecological communities in the streams of the Santa Ana Basin.

  20. Water quality trends at an upland site in wales, UK, 1983-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, A. J.; Neal, C.

    1996-02-01

    relative to chloride. This suggests that dry deposition may vary with weather conditions: high when the wind direction is from the land and low when weather systems are predominantly frontal and laden with sea salts. Alternatively, high sea salt rainfall may be affecting absorption/solubility reactions in the soils.There are four main conclusions. Firstly, there is no indication of changing acid deposition inputs or changing acidity within the runoff, despite a decline in UK sulphur dioxide emissions. Secondly, streamwater DOC has shown an increase over time, but there is no clear corresponding decrease in pH as might be expected from acidification theory. Thirdly, there are cyclical variations in bulk precipitation inputs and in streamwater quality, which mean that trends cannot be established even with 10 years of data. Long-term cycles are likely to exist in other environmental data and extreme care is required for the interpretation of trend, especially if data sets are short. This aspect strongly supports the continuation of long-term monitoring programmes over several decades. Finally, the graphical application strongly enhances data analysis and should be considered an essential component of trend investigation.

  1. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1979-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water-quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. As part of this study, a water-quality monitoring network was established at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County. Water-quality samples were collected at 27 surface-water sites and 97 ground-water sites at 5 landfills from 1979-92. Samples were analyzed for selected physical and biological characteristics, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, organic compounds, and suspended sediment. Analyses for constituents of concern are presented in tables and as graphical time series plots. Results from all analyses are compiled in tabular form in appendixes.

  2. Preliminary examination of the impacts of repository site characterization activities and facility construction and operation activities on Hanford air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1986-04-01

    Air quality impacts that would result from site characterization activities and from the construction and operation of a high-level nuclear wste repository at Hanford are estimated using two simple atmospheric dispersion models, HANCHI and CHISHORT. Model results indicate that pollutant concentrations would not exceed ambient air quality standards at any point outside the Hanford fenceline or at any publicly accessible location within the Hanford Site. The increase in pollutant concentrations in nearby communities due to site activities would be minimal. HANCHI and CHISHORT are documented in the appendices of this document. Further study of the repository's impact on air quality will be conducted when more detailed project plans and work schedules are available.

  3. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

  4. Implementation of a DOD ELAP Conforming Quality System at a FUSRAP Site Field Temporary Radiological Screening Laboratory - 13500

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.S.; McElheny, G.; Houston, L.M.; Masset, M.R.; Spector, H.L.

    2013-07-01

    A case study is presented on specific program elements that supported the transition of a temporary field radiological screening lab to an accredited operation capable of meeting client quality objectives for definitive results data. The temporary field lab is located at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Linde Site in Tonawanda, NY. The site is undergoing remediation under the direction of the United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District, with Cabrera Services Inc. as the remediation contractor and operator of the on-site lab. Analysis methods employed in the on-site lab include gross counting of alpha and beta particle activity on swipes and air filters and gamma spectroscopy of soils and other solid samples. A discussion of key program elements and lessons learned may help other organizations considering pursuit of accreditation for on-site screening laboratories. (authors)

  5. Reinterpretation of gizzard sizes of red knots world-wide emphasises overriding importance of prey quality at migratory stopover sites.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Jan A; Battley, Phil F; Piersma, Theunis; Drent, Rudi

    2005-12-22

    The size of digestive organs can be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to ecological circumstances, but such phenotypic flexibility comes at a cost. Here, we test how the gizzard mass of a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus), is adjusted to (i) local climate, (ii) prey quality and (iii) migratory fuelling demands. For eight sites around the world (both wintering and stopover sites), we assembled data on gizzard masses of free-living red knots, the quality of their prey and the local climate. Using an energetic cost-benefit approach, we predicted the gizzard size required for fastest fuelling (net rate-maximization, i.e. expected during migration) and the gizzard size required to balance daily energy budgets (satisficing, expected in wintering birds) at each site. The measured gizzards matched the net rate-maximizing predictions at stopover sites and the satisficing predictions at wintering sites. To our surprise, owing to the fact that red knots selected stopover sites with prey of particularly high quality, gizzard sizes at stopovers and at wintering sites were nevertheless similar. To quantify the benefit of minimizing size changes in the gizzard, we constructed a model incorporating the size-dependent energy costs of maintaining and carrying a gizzard. The model showed that by selecting stopovers containing high-quality prey, metabolic rates are kept at a minimum, potentially reducing the spring migratory period by a full week. By inference, red knots appear to time their stopovers so that they hit local peaks in prey quality, which occur during the reproductive seasons of the intertidal benthic invertebrates. PMID:16321783

  6. Reinterpretation of gizzard sizes of red knots world-wide emphasises overriding importance of prey quality at migratory stopover sites

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, Jan A; Battley, Phil F; Piersma, Theunis; Drent, Rudi

    2005-01-01

    The size of digestive organs can be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to ecological circumstances, but such phenotypic flexibility comes at a cost. Here, we test how the gizzard mass of a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus), is adjusted to (i) local climate, (ii) prey quality and (iii) migratory fuelling demands. For eight sites around the world (both wintering and stopover sites), we assembled data on gizzard masses of free-living red knots, the quality of their prey and the local climate. Using an energetic cost–benefit approach, we predicted the gizzard size required for fastest fuelling (net rate-maximization, i.e. expected during migration) and the gizzard size required to balance daily energy budgets (satisficing, expected in wintering birds) at each site. The measured gizzards matched the net rate-maximizing predictions at stopover sites and the satisficing predictions at wintering sites. To our surprise, owing to the fact that red knots selected stopover sites with prey of particularly high quality, gizzard sizes at stopovers and at wintering sites were nevertheless similar. To quantify the benefit of minimizing size changes in the gizzard, we constructed a model incorporating the size-dependent energy costs of maintaining and carrying a gizzard. The model showed that by selecting stopovers containing high-quality prey, metabolic rates are kept at a minimum, potentially reducing the spring migratory period by a full week. By inference, red knots appear to time their stopovers so that they hit local peaks in prey quality, which occur during the reproductive seasons of the intertidal benthic invertebrates. PMID:16321783

  7. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling. Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater- treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  8. Understanding water extremes with caution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlík, Milan; Stehlíková, Silvia; Torres, Sebastián

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a sensitive topic, how to scientifically estimate extremes in water quality managements. Such extremes are incorporating establishment of thresholds or levels of certain chemicals in the drinking water. In particular, we address the water fluoridation and quality of drinking water in Chile. Statistical approaches demonstrating the necessary background of water manager will be given in a survey exposition to establish link between statistics of extremes and practice.

  9. Long-term measurements of NO(3) radical at a semiarid urban site: 1. Extreme concentration events and their oxidation capacity.

    PubMed

    Asaf, David; Pedersen, Daniel; Matveev, Valeri; Peleg, Mordechai; Kern, Christoph; Zingler, Jutta; Platt, Ulrich; Luria, Menachem

    2009-12-15

    Nitrate radical (NO(3)), an important nighttime tropospheric oxidant, was measured continuously for two years (July 2005 to September 2007) in Jerusalem, a semiarid urban site, by long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS). From this period, 21 days with the highest concentrations of nitrate radical (above 220 pptv) were selected for analysis. Joint measurements with the University of Heidelberg's LP-DOAS showed good agreement (r = 0.94). For all daytime measurements, NO(3) remained below the detection limit (8.5 pptv). The highest value recorded was more than 800 pptv (July 27, 2007), twice the maximum level reported previously. For this subset of measurements, mean maximum values for the extreme events were 345 pptv (SD = 135 pptv). Concentrations rose above detection limits at sunset, peaked between midnight and early morning, and returned to zero at sunrise. These elevated concentrations of NO(3) were a consequence of several factors, including an increase in ozone concentrations parallel to a substantial decrease in relative humidity during the night; Mean nighttime NO(2) levels above 10 ppbv, which prevented a deficiency in NO(3) precursors; Negligible NO levels during the night; and a substantial decrease in the loss processes, which led to a lower degradation frequency and allowed NO(3) lifetimes to build up to a maximum mean of 25 min. The results indicate that the major sink pathway for NO(3) was direct homogeneous gas phase reactions with VOC, and a smaller indirect pathway via hydrolysis of N(2)O(5). The Jerusalem measurements were used to estimate the oxidation potential of extreme NO(3) levels at an urban location. The 24 h average potential of NO(3), OH, and O(3) to oxidize hydrocarbons was evaluated for 30 separate VOCs. NO(3) was found to be responsible for approximately 70% of the oxidation of total VOCs and nearly 75% of the olefinic VOCs; which was more than twice the VOC oxidation potential of the OH radical. These results

  10. Role of soil macrofauna in soil formation in post mining sites along climatic and litter quality gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Soil macrofauna can play important role in soil formation. Here we used thin soil sections to study this process in two environmental gradients, climatic gradient, and liter quality gradient. Climatic gradient consist from four chronosequences of post mining sites in the USA, covering hardwood forest (TN, IN), tallgrass prairie (IL), or shortgrass prairie (WY). Earthworms and other saprophages were absent in such shortgrass sites but were present in the wetter, eastern sites. Absence of saprophagous groups, and especially earthworms, resulted in the absence of bioturbation in shortgrass prairie sites while worm casts and other biogenic structures formed an important part of the soil profile in other chronosequences, in short grass prairie in turn physical processes, such as erosion may play important role in soil mixing. Litter quality gradient consists from set of 28 sites planted with six kind of tree stand (pine, larch, spruce, oak, lime and alder) and unreclaimed sites (covered by willow, birch, aspen dominated forest) on one large heap in Czech Republic. Earthworm density on these sites negatively correlate with CN ratio, the same relationships was shown for proportion of earthworm cast in soil volume. In sites with high earthworm density Oe layer was absent and A layer formed by worm casts was well developed, in the contrary when earthworm were absent Oe layer was thick and A layer absent. Development of A layer correlate with soil carbon storage.

  11. Adjustment of regional regression equations for urban storm-runoff quality using at-site data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional regression equations have been developed to estimate urban storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations using a national data base. Four statistical methods using at-site data to adjust the regional equation predictions were developed to provide better local estimates. The four adjustment procedures are a single-factor adjustment, a regression of the observed data against the predicted values, a regression of the observed values against the predicted values and additional local independent variables, and a weighted combination of a local regression with the regional prediction. Data collected at five representative storm-runoff sites during 22 storms in Little Rock, Arkansas, were used to verify, and, when appropriate, adjust the regional regression equation predictions. Comparison of observed values of stormrunoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values from the regional regression equations for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen as N, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as N, total phosphorus as P, dissolved phosphorus as P, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) showed large prediction errors ranging from 63 percent to more than several thousand percent. Prediction errors for 6 of the 18 regional regression equations were less than 100 percent and could be considered reasonable for water-quality prediction equations. The regression adjustment procedure was used to adjust five of the regional equation predictions to improve the predictive accuracy. For seven of the regional equations the observed and the predicted values are not significantly correlated. Thus neither the unadjusted regional equations nor any of the adjustments were appropriate. The mean of the observed values was used as a simple estimator when the regional equation predictions and adjusted predictions were not appropriate.

  12. Data Quality Assessment Report for the Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-10

    This report summarizes the results of the data quality assessment that was performed on the analytical data generated in connection with the 2008/2009 surface water, sediment, and soil data collection; groundwater upwelling investigation sample collection; and fish tissue sample collection.

  13. Data Quality Assessment Report for the Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-09-21

    This report summarizes the results of the data quality assessment that was performed on the analytical data generated in connection with the 2008/2009 surface water, sediment, and soil data collection; groundwater upwelling investigation sample collection; and fish tissue sample collection.

  14. Geology, hydrology, and water quality in the vicinity of a brownfield redevelopment site in Canton, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Cornue, David B.; Ursic, James R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environmental Operations, Inc., assisted in the characterization of the geology, hydrology, and water quality at a Brownfield redevelopment site in Canton, Illinois. The investigation was designed to determine if metals and organic compounds historically used in industrial operations at the site resulted in a threat to the water resources in the area. The hydraulic units of concern in the study area are the upper semiconfining unit, the sand aquifer, and the lower semiconfining unit. The upper semiconfining unit ranges from about 1 to 19 feet in thickness and is composed of silt-and clay deposits with a geometric mean vertical hydraulic conductivity of 7.1 ? 10-3 feet per day. The sand aquifer is composed of a 1 to 5.5 foot thick sand deposit and is considered the primary pathway for ground-water flow and contaminant migration from beneath the study area. The geometric mean of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sand aquifer was calculated to be 1.8 feet per day. The direction of flow in the sand aquifer is to the east, south, and west, away from a ground-water ridge that underlies the center of the site. Ground-water velocity through the sand aquifer ranges from 7.3 ? 10-2 to 2.7 ? 10-1 feet per day. The lower semiconfining unit is composed of sandy silt-and-clay deposits with a geometric mean vertical hydraulic conductivity of 1.1 ? 10-3 feet per day. Volatile organic compounds were detected in ground water beneath the study area. Pesticide compounds were detected in ground water in the western part of the study area. Partial or complete degradation of some of the volatile organic and pesticide compounds is occurring in the soils and ground water beneath the study area. Concentrations of most of the metals and major cations in the ground water show some variation within the study area and may be affected by the presence of a source area, pH, oxidation

  15. Quality control of transcription start site selection by nonsense-mediated-mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Malabat, Christophe; Feuerbach, Frank; Ma, Laurence; Saveanu, Cosmin; Jacquier, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a translation-dependent RNA quality-control pathway targeting transcripts such as messenger RNAs harboring premature stop-codons or short upstream open reading frame (uORFs). Our transcription start sites (TSSs) analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient for RNA degradation pathways revealed that about half of the pervasive transcripts are degraded by NMD, which provides a fail-safe mechanism to remove spurious transcripts that escaped degradation in the nucleus. Moreover, we found that the low specificity of RNA polymerase II TSSs selection generates, for 47% of the expressed genes, NMD-sensitive transcript isoforms carrying uORFs or starting downstream of the ATG START codon. Despite the low abundance of this last category of isoforms, their presence seems to constrain genomic sequences, as suggested by the significant bias against in-frame ATGs specifically found at the beginning of the corresponding genes and reflected by a depletion of methionines in the N-terminus of the encoded proteins. PMID:25905671

  16. Indoor air quality at five site museums of Yangtze River civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tafeng; Jia, Wenting; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Li, Hua; Liu, Suixin; Ma, Tao; Zhu, Yuqing

    2015-12-01

    The Yangtze River civilization, dating back to more than 7 thousand years ago, is one of the most historic culture aggregates in China. For long-term conservation of archaeological artifacts and historical ruins along the Yangtze River, indoor air quality at five site museums were investigated during summer and winter. Unstable microclimate conditions were observed at all five museums. The maximal seasonal variations in temperature and relative humidity were 25.7 °C and 40.0%, respectively. The mass concentration of PM2.5 inside the museums remained at high levels, ranging from 33.9 to 79.6 μg/m3 in winter and from 52.8 to 113.0 μg/m3 in summer. Organic matter (OM) constituted a major fraction (39.3%-53.9% in summer, 22.1%-27.8% in winter) of total PM2.5. The results showed that besides short-term fluctuation and seasonal variation in microclimate conditions, infiltration of gaseous and particulate air pollutants should be of increasing concern at museums in Southern China.

  17. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  18. An evaluation of single-site statistical downscaling techniques in terms of indices of climate extremes for the Midwest of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajzadeh, M.; Oji, R.; Cannon, A. J.; Ghavidel, Y.; Massah Bavani, A.

    2015-04-01

    Seven single-site statistical downscaling methods for daily temperature and precipitation, including four deterministic algorithms [analog model (ANM), quantile mapping with delta method extrapolation (QMD), cumulative distribution function transform (CDFt), and model-based recursive partitioning (MOB)] and three stochastic algorithms [generalized linear model (GLM), Conditional Density Estimation Network Creation and Evaluation (CaDENCE), and Statistical Downscaling Model-Decision Centric (SDSM-DC] are evaluated at nine stations located in the mountainous region of Iran's Midwest. The methods are of widely varying complexity, with input requirements that range from single-point predictors of temperature and precipitation to multivariate synoptic-scale fields. The period 1981-2000 is used for model calibration and 2001-2010 for validation, with performance assessed in terms of 27 Climate Extremes Indices (CLIMDEX). The sensitivity of the methods to large-scale anomalies and their ability to replicate the observed data distribution in the validation period are separately tested for each index by Pearson correlation and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) tests, respectively. Combined tests are used to assess overall model performances. MOB performed best, passing 14.5 % (49.6 %) of the combined (single) tests, respectively, followed by SDSM, CaDENCE, and GLM [14.5 % (46.5 %), 13.2 % (47.1 %), and 12.8 % (43.2 %), respectively], and then by QMD, CDFt, and ANM [7 % (45.7 %), 4.9 % (45.3 %), and 1.6 % (37.9 %), respectively]. Correlation tests were passed less frequently than KS tests. All methods downscaled temperature indices better than precipitation indices. Some indices, notably R20, R25, SDII, CWD, and TNx, were not successfully simulated by any of the methods. Model performance varied widely across the study region.

  19. Negotiating the COAPRT Learning Outcomes Transition Using Quality Management Tools: A Case Study of the COAPRT Beta Test Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a case study. It tells the story of the process that the Council on Accreditation for Parks, Recreation, Tourism and Related Professions beta test site created its learning outcomes assessment program. A planning process was used that has evolved from quality management philosophy and practice: DMADV. Use of DMADV required precise…

  20. Site specific fertilization affects yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent' mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site specific fertilization (SSF) defines the type and rate of fertilizer needed for individual orchards. This study presents preliminary results (2010-2011) of a medium term project to quantify the effects of SSF on yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent’ mango. Two orchards are used f...

  1. Evaluation of temporal and spatial trends of groundwater quality alteration in the area of mining waste disposal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmiecik, Ewa; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Szczepanska, Jadwiga; Twardowska, Irena

    2004-12-01

    On the basis of data from long-term monitoring studies carried out in the impact area of the Smolnica coal mining waste disposal site in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Poland), the extent and propagation of originally good groundwater quality degradation that resulted from infiltration to the Quaternary aquifer of contaminants leached from the disposal site, as well as major trends of the natural water quality alteration were evaluated. For assessment of spatial and temporal groundwater quality trends in the vicinity of the disposal site, geostatistical methods were applied. Water quality alteration trends were monitored with use of two major constituents: chlorides and sulfates showing significant changes in time and space. The spatial variability was assessed with use of the GeoEas and Surfer models; for data aggregation and trend analysis, the SigmaPlot was used; preliminary data analysis was accomplished with use of the Statgraphics Plus for Windows software. The hydrogeochemical background of two analyzed compounds for each separate hydrogeochemical zone in the waste disposal area was simulated by a probabilistic method. Time- and space-dependent characteristics of chloride and sulfate distribution along with assessed data for the hydrogeochemical background provided a basis for the long-term evaluation of the groundwater chemical composition and deterioration rate variability in the area of the mining waste disposal site.

  2. Quality assurance manual for the environmental survey and site assessment program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-21

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Program policy and oversight for the maintenance of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) within the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. This manual describes administrative systems, as well as specific quality control procedures, which apply to all functional groups in ESSAP. The sites surveyed under this program are primarily those where residual contamination from previous operations may pose a potential risk to the environment or to the health and safety of those in the immediate vicinity. Other major activities include environmental assessments, training related to decommissioning survey activities, effluent sampling and monitoring, special laboratory analyses, program appraisals and document reviews, consulting on environment-related topics, and technical assistance for guideline development. The methodology for performance of particular field and laboratory activities is presented in the ESSAP Survey Procedures Manual and the Laboratory Procedures Manual.

  3. Water-Quality Data for Selected Stream Sites in Bridgeport Valley, Mono County, California, April 2000 to June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Gerald L.; Honeywell, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Lahonton Region, carried out a water-quality data collection program of selected streams in and near Bridgeport Valley, California, during April 2000 to June 2003. These data were collected to provide information used by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board to develop total maximum daily load standards. Field measurements of streamflow, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature were made at 15 sites located on 6 streams. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, turbidity, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and suspended sediment. Field data, turbidity, nutrient, major ion, and sediment concentrations and fecal coliform and fecal streptococci densities are given in tables for each site. Field blank data are also presented in a table.

  4. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1980-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddins, W.H.; Cardinell, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, to study, among other things, the effects of solid waste disposal on the water quality in Mecklenburg County. Water quality samples (747 inorganic and 168 organic) were collected at 20 surface water sites and 53 monitoring wells at four selected landfills from 1980 to 1986. Samples were analyzed for 142 selected physical and biological parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace metals, and (or) organic compounds. Results from all analyses are presented in tabular form in the appendices. Each appendix is divided into a surface water and a groundwater section. Within each water quality table the data is presented in the following order: field measurements, physical properties, biological constituents (if analyzed), major cations, major anions, dissolved and total solids, nutrients, trace inorganic constituents, and organic constituents.

  5. Analysis of streamflow and water-quality data at two long-term monitoring sites on the St. Croix River, Wisconsin and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Bernard N.

    2004-01-01

    Water-quality sampling conducted by the USGS at two associated water-quality monitoring sites from 1964 to 2001 have included analysis for nutrients, suspended sediments, metals, bacteria, and pesticides. The water-quality data at the two sites had considerable temporal variation and was often limited in extent by the data-collection needs of previous projects. The absence of consistent long-term water-quality data made detection of statistically significant trends in the water-quality data difficult. Nutrient, suspended-sediment, and major ion concentrations and field parameters were generally higher and more variable at the St. Croix Falls site than at the Danbury site. However, disparate sampling periods and strategies could cause possible biases in the comparison of water quality between sites. Access data at http://wi.waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis

  6. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  7. The influence of extreme river discharge conditions on the quality of suspended particulate matter in Rivers Meuse and Rhine (The Netherlands).

    PubMed

    Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; van Gils, Jos; Kotte, Marcel C; van Hattum, Albertus G M

    2015-11-01

    As a consequence of climate change, increased precipitation in winter and longer periods of decreased precipitation in summer are expected to cause more frequent episodes of very high or very low river discharge in the Netherlands. To study the impact of such extreme river discharge conditions on water quality, toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were determined of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from Rivers Meuse and Rhine. Archived (1993-2003) and fresh (2009-2011) SPM samples were selected from the Dutch annual monitoring program of the national water bodies (MWTL), representing episodes with river discharge conditions ranging from very low to regular to very high. SPM extracts were tested in a battery of in vitro bioassays for their potency to interact with the androgen receptor (AR), the estrogen receptor (ER), the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the thyroid hormone transporter protein transthyretin (TTR). SPM extracts were further tested for their mutagenic potency (Ames assay) and their potency to inhibit bacterial respiration (Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay). Target-analyzed pollutant concentrations of the SPM samples and additional sample information were retrieved from a public database of MWTL results. In vitro toxicity profiles and pollutant profiles were analyzed in relation to discharge conditions and in relation to each other using correlation analysis and multivariate statistics. Compared to regular discharge conditions, composition of SPM during very high River Meuse and Rhine discharges shifted to more coarse, sandy, organic carbon (OC) poor particles. On the contrary, very low discharge led to a shift to more fine, OC rich material, probably dominated by algae. This shift was most evident in River Meuse, which is characterized by almost stagnant water conditions during episodes of drought. During such episodes, SPM extracts from River Meuse demonstrated increased potencies to inhibit bacterial respiration and to

  8. Workflow in Clinical Trial Sites & Its Association with Near Miss Events for Data Quality: Ethnographic, Workflow & Systems Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Araujo de Carvalho, Elias Cesar; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Claudino, Wederson; Lima Reis, Luiz Fernando; Schmerling, Rafael A.; Shah, Jatin; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Background With the exponential expansion of clinical trials conducted in (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) and VISTA (Vietnam, Indonesia, South Africa, Turkey, and Argentina) countries, corresponding gains in cost and enrolment efficiency quickly outpace the consonant metrics in traditional countries in North America and European Union. However, questions still remain regarding the quality of data being collected in these countries. We used ethnographic, mapping and computer simulation studies to identify/address areas of threat to near miss events for data quality in two cancer trial sites in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Two sites in Sao Paolo and Rio Janeiro were evaluated using ethnographic observations of workflow during subject enrolment and data collection. Emerging themes related to threats to near miss events for data quality were derived from observations. They were then transformed into workflows using UML-AD and modeled using System Dynamics. 139 tasks were observed and mapped through the ethnographic study. The UML-AD detected four major activities in the workflow evaluation of potential research subjects prior to signature of informed consent, visit to obtain subject́s informed consent, regular data collection sessions following study protocol and closure of study protocol for a given project. Field observations pointed to three major emerging themes: (a) lack of standardized process for data registration at source document, (b) multiplicity of data repositories and (c) scarcity of decision support systems at the point of research intervention. Simulation with policy model demonstrates a reduction of the rework problem. Conclusions/Significance Patterns of threats to data quality at the two sites were similar to the threats reported in the literature for American sites. The clinical trial site managers need to reorganize staff workflow by using information technology more efficiently, establish new standard procedures and manage

  9. Guidance on the application of quality assurance for characterizing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.; Starmer, R.J.; Hedges, D.

    1990-10-01

    This document provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's staff guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Section 61.12 (10 CFR 61.12), for a low-level waste disposal facility. The QC requirements combined with the requirements for managerial controls and audits are the basis for developing a quality assurance (QA) program and for the guidance provided herein. QA guidance is specified for site characterization activities necessary to meet the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 61 and to limit exposure to or the release of radioactivity. 1 tab.

  10. Assessment of diffusion tensor image quality across sites and vendors using the American College of Radiology head phantom.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyue J; Seo, Youngseob; Babcock, Evelyn; Huang, Hao; Bluml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica; Holshouser, Barbara; Panigrahy, Ashok; Shaw, Dennis W W; Altman, Nolan; McColl, Roderick W; Rollins, Nancy K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of assessing quality of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) from multiple sites and vendors using American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. Participating sites (Siemens (n = 2), GE (n= 2), and Philips (n = 4)) reached consensus on parameters for DTI and used the widely available ACR phantom. Tensor data were processed at one site. B0 and eddy current distortions were assessed using grid line displacement on phantom Slice 5; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured at the center and periphery of the b = 0 image; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed using phantom Slice 7. Variations of acquisition parameters and deviations from specified sequence parameters were recorded. Nonlinear grid line distortion was higher with linear shimming and could be corrected using the 2nd order shimming. Following image registration, eddy current distortion was consistently smaller than acquisi-tion voxel size. SNR was consistently higher in the image periphery than center by a factor of 1.3-2.0. ROI-based FA ranged from 0.007 to 0.024. ROI-based MD ranged from 1.90 × 10-3 to 2.33 × 10-3 mm2/s (median = 2.04 × 10-3 mm2/s). Two sites had image void artifacts. The ACR phantom can be used to compare key qual-ity measures of diffusion images acquired from multiple vendors at multiple sites. PMID:27167268

  11. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Jason E; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E; Kennedy, Patricia L; Nigro, Debora

    2015-10-01

    indicative of higher-quality habitat), are a priority for continued protection from potential nearby development and disturbance to minimize population-level impacts. Climate change. may affect Arctic peregrines in multiple ways, including through access to more snow-free nest sites and a lengthened breeding season that may increase likelihood of nest success. Our work provides insight into factors affecting a population during and after recovery, and demonstrates how the Dail-Madsen model can be used for any unmarked population with multiple years of abundance data collected through repeated surveys. PMID:26591458

  12. Effects of three phosphate industrial sites on ground-water quality in central Florida, 1979 to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida are presented. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at the AMAX Phosphate, Inc. chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS Agri-Chemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximately 5,400 field and laboratory water quality determinations on water samples collected from about 100 test holes and 28 surface-water , 5 rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste disposal operations are tabulated. Maps are included to show sampling sites. (USGS)

  13. Potato root-associated bacteria: site/cultivar differences and associations with tuber yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the fourth most important food crop in the world with consumption increasing worldwide, especially in developing nations. Breeding programs focus on potato quality for disease resistance and culinary quality; in addition, some programs are beginning to focus on anti-cancer activity of ...

  14. Understanding Teachers' Perceptions of Academic Coaching Quality in an On-Site Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Phillip R.

    2013-01-01

    Quality teacher training and continued learning is essential to providing the high quality education that yields adequate levels of student success. Though called by many different names, academic coaches appear to be the answer to the continuing problem of creating a positive learning environment that meets the challenges of educating students…

  15. Digital mammography--DQE versus optimized image quality in clinical environment: an on site study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhofer, Nadia; Fracchetti, Alessandro; Springeth, Margareth; Moroder, Ehrenfried

    2010-04-01

    The intrinsic quality of the detection system of 7 different digital mammography units (5 direct radiography DR; 2 computed radiography CR), expressed by DQE, has been compared with their image quality/dose performances in clinical use. DQE measurements followed IEC 62220-1-2 using a tungsten test object for MTF determination. For image quality assessment two different methods have been applied: 1) measurement of contrast to noise ratio (CNR) according to the European guidelines and 2) contrast-detail (CD) evaluation. The latter was carried out with the phantom CDMAM ver. 3.4 and the commercial software CDMAM Analyser ver. 1.1 (both Artinis) for automated image analysis. The overall image quality index IQFinv proposed by the software has been validated. Correspondence between the two methods has been shown figuring out a linear correlation between CNR and IQFinv. All systems were optimized with respect to image quality and average glandular dose (AGD) within the constraints of automatic exposure control (AEC). For each equipment, a good image quality level was defined by means of CD analysis, and the corresponding CNR value considered as target value. The goal was to achieve for different PMMA-phantom thicknesses constant image quality, that means the CNR target value, at minimum dose. All DR systems exhibited higher DQE and significantly better image quality compared to CR systems. Generally switching, where available, to a target/filter combination with an x-ray spectrum of higher mean energy permitted dose savings at equal image quality. However, several systems did not allow to modify the AEC in order to apply optimal radiographic technique in clinical use. The best ratio image quality/dose was achieved by a unit with a-Se detector and W anode only recently available on the market.

  16. Effects of urbanization on stream quality at selected sites in the seacoast region in New Hampshire, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Soule, Sally A.; Smith, Thor E.

    2005-01-01

    A study of selected water-quality and macroinvertebrate community data was conducted at 10 stream sites in the Seacoast region of New Hampshire to determine if a relation is present between stream quality and the extent of urbanization in a watershed. Watersheds with similar characteristics, but varying in their degree of urban development, were studied. The percent of impervious surface, the percent of urban land use in a watershed, and the percent of urban land use in two types of stream buffers were compared and correlated with stream-quality variables. Specific conductance, turbidity, nitrite plus nitrate yields, and selected macroinvertebrate community data were significantly correlated with most measures of urbanization used in this study; however, concentrations and total phosphorus yields were not statistically correlated with most measures of urbanization in this study. The measures of urbanization that had the highest correlations with stream-quality variables were those measures that were associated with the percent of urban land in buffer zones near and upstream of a sampling site. A water-quality and habitat conditions score was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (rho (r) = -0.86; p < 0.001), the percent of impervious surface (r = -0.70; p < 0.05), and the percent of urban land in the watershed (r = -0.67; p < 0.05). A biological condition score also was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (r = -0.95; p < 0.0001), the percent of impervious surface (r = -0.75; p < 0.05), and the percent of urban land in the watershed (r = -0.79; p < 0.01). The percent of urban land in a 25-meter stream buffer along the stream corridor also had negative correlations with a water-quality and habitat conditions score (r = -0.80; p < 0.01) and a biological condition score (r = -0.86; p < 0.01). Mean Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and

  17. Application of EPA quality assurance procedures to a soil characterization study at the DOE Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, K.E.; Byers, G.E.; Van Remortel, R.D.; Gustafson, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    The transfer, modification, and application of well formulated and tested quality assurance (QA) procedures from one project to another deserves consideration. The use of a proven QA program design could result in cost savings and the collection of data with a greater degree of confidence. To test this thesis, a QA program, originally developed for large nationwide Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) programs, was adapted and implemented in a site characterization study at the Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site to ensure that laboratory data satisfied pre-determined measurement quality objectives (MQOs). The QA Program was adapted from EPA programs such as the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, and to a lesser degree, the Comprehensive Environmental Recovery, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program. The QA design adopted the batch or lot concept, in which samples are organized into groups of quality samples (non-blinds, blinds, and double-blinds), which were included in each batch to evaluate and control measurement uncertainty and to address sample preparation. Detectability was assessed using instrument detection limits and precision data for low-concentration samples. Precision was assessed using data from reference samples under a two-tiered system based on concentration ranges. Accuracy was investigated in terms of bias with respect to reference values. The results showed that QA concepts developed for previous nationwide EPA programs were successfully adapted for the site-specific DOE project.

  18. Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

    2015-02-15

    A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site. PMID:25577474

  19. Visible and infrared spectroscopy to evaluate soil quality in degraded sites: an applicative study in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Matarrese, Raffaella; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Salzano, Roberto; Regano, Simona; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation processes like organic matter impoverishment and contamination are growing increasingly all over the world due to a non-rational and often sustainable spread of human activities on the territory. Consequently the need to characterize and monitor degraded sites is becoming very important, with the aim to hinder such main threats, which could compromise drastically, soil quality. Visible and infrared spectroscopy is a well-known technique/tool to study soil properties. Vis-NIR spectral reflectance, in fact, can be used to characterize spatial and temporal variation in soil constituents (Brown et al., 2006; Viscarra Rossel et al., 2006), and potentially its surface structure (Chappell et al., 2006, 2007). It is a rapid, non-destructive, reproducible and cost-effective analytical method to analyse soil properties and therefore, it can be a useful method to study land degradation phenomena. In this work, we present the results of proximal sensing investigations of three degraded sites (one affected by organic and inorganic contamination and two affected by soil organic matter decline) situated southern Italy close to Taranto city (in Apulia Region). A portable spectroradiometer (ASD-FieldSpec) was used to measure the reflectance properties in the spectral range between 350-2500 nm of the soil, in the selected sites, before and after a recovery treatment by using compost (organic fertilizer). For each measurement point the soil was sampled in order to perform chemical analyses to evaluate soil quality status. Three in-situ campaigns have been carried out (September 2012, June 2013, and September 2013), collecting about 20 soil samples for each site and for each campaign. Chemical and spectral analyses have been focused on investigating soil organic carbon, carbonate content, texture and, in the case of polluted site, heavy metals and organic toxic compounds. Statistical analyses have been carried out to test a prediction model of different soil quality

  20. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell waste management area B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    SM Narbutovskih

    2000-03-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a first determination groundwater quality assessment at the Hanford Site. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement during the time period 1996--1998. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY had entered the groundwater at levels above the drinking water standards (DWS). The resulting assessment report documented evidence demonstrating that waste from the WMA has, most likely, impacted groundwater quality. Based on 40 CFR 265.93 [d] paragraph (7), the owner-operator must continue to make the minimum required determinations of contaminant level and of rate/extent of migrations on a quarterly basis until final facility closure. These continued determinations are required because the groundwater quality assessment was implemented prior to final closure of the facility.

  1. Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors : site selection, field operation, calibration, record computation, and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Mattraw, H.C.; Ritz, G.F.; Smith, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey uses continuous water-quality monitors to assess variations in the quality of the Nation's surface water. A common system configuration for data collection is the four-parameter water-quality monitoring system, which collects temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH data, although systems can be configured to measure other properties such as turbidity or chlorophyll. The sensors that are used to measure these water properties require careful field observation, cleaning, and calibration procedures, as well as thorough procedures for the computation and publication of final records. Data from sensors can be used in conjunction with collected samples and chemical analyses to estimate chemical loads. This report provides guidelines for site-selection considerations, sensor test methods, field procedures, error correction, data computation, and review and publication processes. These procedures have evolved over the past three decades, and the process continues to evolve with newer technologies.

  2. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:27155859

  3. Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeff; Larsen, Jon

    2013-11-01

    Acknowledgements; 1. Extreme environments: what, where, how; 2. Properties of dense and classical plasmas; 3. Laser energy absorption in matter; 4. Hydrodynamic motion; 5. Shocks; 6. Equation of state; 7. Ionization; 8. Thermal energy transport; 9. Radiation energy transport; 10. Magnetohydrodynamics; 11. Considerations for constructing radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes; 12. Numerical simulations; Appendix: units and constants, glossary of symbols; References; Bibliography; Index.

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. Summary and analysis of water-quality data for the basic-fixed-site network, 1993-95. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents summaries and analyses of water-quality data collected at sites in the basic - fixed site network during the RIOG high-intensity sampling phase, including regression equations relating selected water-quality data to selected field properties and time. The report focuses on the field-property, DS, major-constituent, nutrient, dissolved-iron, and dissolved-manganese data collected at the network sites.

  5. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    SciTech Connect

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Johnson, D O

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance, pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.

  6. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  7. Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

  8. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krenzien, Susan; Farnham, Irene

    2015-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1D, Change 1, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2013a); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). If a participant’s requirement document differs from this QAP, the stricter requirement will take precedence. NNSA/NFO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  9. CHARACTERIZING POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS INDIGENOUS TO SITES WITH DIFFERING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus were collected from New Bedford Harbor and distant clean sites to investigate whether indigenous populations have adapted genetically to the harbor's contamination. New Bedford Harbor, a major port in southe...

  10. Continuous and discrete water-quality data collected at five sites on Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beussink, Amy M.; Burnich, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Houston, a reservoir impounded in 1954 by the City of Houston, Texas, is a primary source of drinking water for Houston and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Houston, developed a continuous water-quality monitoring network to track daily changes in water quality in the southwestern quadrant of Lake Houston beginning in 2006. Continuous water-quality data (the physiochemical properties water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and turbidity) were collected from Lake Houston to characterize the in-lake processes that affect water quality. Continuous data were collected hourly from mobile, multi-depth monitoring stations developed and constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Multi-depth monitoring stations were installed at five sites in three general locations in the southwestern quadrant of the lake. Discrete water-quality data (samples) were collected routinely (once or twice each month) at all sites to characterize the chemical and biological (phytoplankton and bacteria) response to changes in the continuous water-quality properties. Physiochemical properties (the five continuously monitored plus transparency) were measured in the field when samples were collected. In addition to the routine samples, discrete water-quality samples were collected synoptically (one or two times during the study period) at all sites to determine the presence and levels of selected constituents not analyzed in routine samples. Routine samples were measured or analyzed for acid neutralizing capacity; selected major ions and trace elements (calcium, silica, and manganese); nutrients (filtered and total ammonia nitrogen, filtered nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, total nitrate nitrogen, filtered and total nitrite nitrogen, filtered and total orthophosphate phosphorus, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total organic carbon); fecal indicator bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli); sediment

  11. Assessment of water quality parameters of the Harike wetland in India, a Ramsar site, using IRS LISS IV satellite data.

    PubMed

    Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Chawla, Amit; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2010-11-01

    This study aims at the classification and water quality assessment of Harike wetland (Ramsar site) in India using satellite images from the Indian Remote Sensing satellite, Resourcesat (IRS P6). The Harike wetland is a converging zone of two rivers, Beas and Sutlej. The satellite images of IRS Linear Imaging Self Scanner (LISS) IV multispectral sensor with three bands (green, red, and near infrared (NIR)) and a spatial resolution of 5.8 m were classified using supervised image classification techniques. Field points for image classification and water sampling were recorded using a Garmin eTrex Global Positioning System. The water quality parameters assessed were dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total and suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand, and Secchi disk transparency (SDT). Correlations were established between turbidity and SS, SS and SDT, and total solids and turbidity. Using reflectance values from the green, red, and NIR bands, we then plotted the water quality parameters with the mean digital number values from the satellite imagery. The NIR band correlated significantly with the water quality parameters, whereas, using SDT values, it was observed that the green and the red reflectance bands were able to distinguish the waters from the two rivers, which have different water qualities. PMID:19882220

  12. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  13. Integrated use of biomarkers and bioaccumulation data in Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) for site-specific quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Binelli, A; Ricciardi, F; Riva, C; Provini, A

    2006-01-01

    One of the useful biological tools for environmental management is the measurement of biomarkers whose changes are related to the exposure to chemicals or environmental stress. Since these responses might vary with different contaminants or depending on the pollutant concentration reached in the organism, the support of bioaccumulation data is needed to prevent false conclusions. In this study, several persistent organic pollutants -- 23 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), six dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT) relatives, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlorpyrifos and its oxidized metabolite -- and some herbicides (lindane and the isomers alpha, beta, delta; terbutilazine; alachlor; metolachlor) were measured in the soft tissues of the freshwater mollusc Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) from 25 sampling sites in the Italian portions of the sub-alpine great lakes along with the measure of ethoxyresorufin dealkylation (EROD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The linkage between bioaccumulation and biomarker data allowed us to create site-specific environmental quality indexes towards man-made chemicals. This classification highlighted three different degrees of xenobiotic contamination of the Italian sub-alpine great lakes: a high water quality in Lake Lugano with negligible pollutant levels and no effects on enzyme activities, an homogeneous poor quality for Lakes Garda, Iseo and Como, and the presence of some xenobiotic point-sources in Lake Maggiore, whose ecological status could be jeopardized, also due to the heavy DDT contamination revealed since 1996. PMID:16966160

  14. Near-coastal water quality at reference sites following storm events.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth; Brown, Jeff; Trump, Steen; Hardin, Dane

    2016-02-15

    Stormwater is a challenging source of coastal pollution to abate because stormwater also involves complex natural processes, and differentiating these processes from anthropogenic excesses is difficult. The goal of this study was to identify the natural concentrations of stormwater constituents along the 1377 km coastline of California, USA. Twenty-eight ocean reference sites, a priori defined by lack of human disturbance in its adjacent watershed, were collected following 78 site-events and measured for 57 constituents and toxicity. Results indicated a complete lack of toxicity and undetectable levels of anthropogenic constituents (i.e., pesticides). The range of concentrations in ocean receiving waters for naturally-occurring constituents (i.e., total suspended solids, nutrients, trace metals) typically ranged three orders of magnitude. Regional differences and storm characteristics did not explain much of the variations in concentration. The reference site information is now being used to establish targets for marine protected areas subject to runoff from developed watersheds. PMID:26719071

  15. Nationwide regression models for predicting urban runoff water quality at unmonitored sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Driver, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    Regression models are presented that can be used to estimate mean loads for chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, dissolved solids, total nitrogen, total ammonia plus nitrogen, total phosphorous, dissolved phosphorous, total copper, total lead, and total zinc at unmonitored sites in urban areas. Explanatory variables include drainage area, imperviousness of drainage basin to infiltration, mean annual rainfall, a land-use indicator variable, and mean minimum January temperature. Model parameters are estimated by a generalized-least-squares regression method that accounts for cross correlation and differences in reliability of sample estimates between sites. The regression models account for 20 to 65 percent of the total variation in observed loads.

  16. EFFECTS OF CLOUDS AND TROPOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY ON SURFACE UV AT 6 UV RESEARCH SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a summary of results of the EPA STAR funded proposal “Effects of Clouds and Tropospheric Pollution on Surface UV at six EPA UV Research Sites”. This project worked to provide high quality UV spectral solar irradiance, erythema (UV Index), oz...

  17. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND RELATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR A LARGE SCALE, MULTI-SITE RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 2000, as part of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study designed to improve microbial water quality monitoring protocols at public beaches, over 11,000 water samples were collected at five selected beaches across the country. At each beach, samples wer...

  18. WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS DURING RIVERBANK FILTRATION AT THREE SITES IN THE MIDWESTERN US

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 3-year project is underway to evaluate riverbank filtration systems along three major US rivers. A principal aspects of the study involved monitoring a suite or organic, inorganic, and microbiological water quality parameters, with emphasis on disinfection byproduct formation p...

  19. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  20. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  1. Quality evaluation of portal sites in health system, as a tool for education and learning

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Sayed Mehdi; Sarmadi, Sima

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main objective of creating a portal is to make information service available for users who need them for performance of duties and responsibilities regardless of the sources. This article is attempted to consider the parameters that can evaluate these sites since these criteria can be effective in designing and implementing such portals. On the other hand, portal sites in health systems of every country make it possible for leaders, policy makers, and directors to system education as a tool for new learning technologies. One of the main decisions each manager has to make is precise selection of appropriate portal sites. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and qualitative study. The research sample was 53 computer professional working in the area of computer programming and design. In the first part of the study a questionnaire was send to the participants and in the second part of the study based on their response to the questionnaire the participant was interviewed and the main themes of the studies were formulated. The validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. Results: The study results were summarized in 10 themes and 50 sub-categories. The main themes included were portal requirements, security, management, and efficiency, user friendliness, built-in applications, portal flexibility, interoperability, and support systems. Conclusion: Portal sites in any education systems make it possible for health system leaders and policy makers to manage their organization information system efficiently and effectively. One of the major decisions each manager has to make is precise selection of an appropriate portal sites design and development. The themes and sub-categories of this study could help health system managers and policy makers and information technology professionals to make appropriate decisions regarding portal design and development. PMID:24520554

  2. Derivation of a chronic site-specific water quality standard for selenium in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; DeForest, David K; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a site-specific water quality standard for selenium in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. The study examined the bioavailability and toxicity of selenium, as selenate, to biota resident to the Great Salt Lake and the potential for dietary selenium exposure to aquatic dependent birds that might consume resident biota. Because of its high salinity, the lake has limited biological diversity with bacteria, algae, diatoms, brine shrimp, and brine flies being the only organisms present in the main (hypersaline) portions of the lake. To evaluate their sensitivity to selenium, a series of acute and chronic toxicity studies were conducted on brine shrimp (Artemia franiciscana), brine fly (Ephydra cinerea), and a hypersaline alga (Dunaliella viridis). The resulting acute and chronic toxicity data indicated that resident species are more selenium tolerant than many freshwater species. Because sulfate is known to reduce selenate bioavailability, this selenium tolerance is thought to result in part from the lake's high ambient sulfate concentrations (>5,800 mg/L). The acute and chronic test results were compared to selenium concentrations expected to occur in a mining effluent discharge located at the south end of the lake. Based on these comparisons, no appreciable risks to resident aquatic biota were projected. Field and laboratory data collected on selenium bioaccumulation in brine shrimp demonstrated a linear relationship between water and tissue selenium concentrations. Applying a dietary selenium threshold of 5 mg/kg dry weight for aquatic birds to this relationship resulted in an estimate of 27 microg/L Se in water as a safe concentration for this exposure pathway and an appropriate chronic site-specific water quality standard. Consequently, protection of aquatic birds represents the driving factor in determining a site-specific water quality standard for selenium. PMID:15285352

  3. Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This report is mandated by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2012. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2012. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, revising the QAPP, and publishing documents. In addition, processes and procedures were developed to address deficiencies identified in the FY 2011 QAPP gap analysis.

  4. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  6. Simulation of water-quality data at selected stream sites in the Missouri River Basin, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.; Jacobson, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Modification of sampling programs at some water-quality stations in the Missouri River basin in Montana has eleminated the means by which solute loads have been directly obtained in past years. To compensate for this loss, water-quality and streamflow data were statistically analyzed and solute loads were simulated using computer techniques. Functional relationships existing between specific conductance and solute concentration for monthly samples were used to develop linear regression models. The models were then used to simulate daily solute concentrations using daily specific conductance as the independent variable. Once simulated, the solute concentrations, in milligrams per liter, were transformed into daily solute loads, in tons, using mean daily streamflow records. Computer output was formatted into tables listing simulated mean monthly solute concentrations, in milligrams per liter, and the monthly and annual solute loads, in tons, for water years 1975-78. (USGS)

  7. Image Quality of the Evryscope: Method for On-Site Optical Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfken, Philip J.; Law, Nicholas M.; Ratzloff, Jeffrey; Fors, Octavi

    2015-01-01

    Previous wide field surveys have been conducted by taking many images each night to cover thousands of square degrees. The Evryscope is a new type of system designed to search for transiting exoplanets around nearby bright stars, M-dwarfs, white dwarfs, and other transients. The Evryscope is an array of 70 mm telescopes that will continuously image 10200 square degrees of the night sky at once. One of the image quality requirements is for the PSFs to be well-sampled at two pixels across and it was found that tilt caused by slight misalignment between the optics and the CCD increased the size of the FWHM towards the edges and corners of the image. Here we describe the image quality of the Evryscope cameras and the alignment procedure to achieve the required 2 pixel FWHM.

  8. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications program in Wisconsin and Michigan. System and site definition, program plans, environmental summary and supplemental information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    U.S. Navy communications with submarines will be improved by deploying a small, operational Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications system. This system will be attained by upgrading the existing ELF Communications Facility near Clam Lake, Wisconsin and building a second ELF Communications facility in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The two facilities will be operated synchronously when completed and will transmit coded messages to ELF receiving systems installed on all submarines. This report identifies the work to be done to implement the ELF communications plan approved by the President.

  9. The use of lidar as optical remote sensors in the assessment of air quality near oil refineries and petrochemical sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, Juliana; Landulfo, Eduardo; Guardani, Roberto; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudio A.; Moreira, Andréia

    2008-10-01

    Petrochemical and oil refining facilities play an increasingly important role in the industrial context. The corresponding need for monitoring emissions from these facilities as well as in their neighborhood has raised in importance, leading to the present tendency of creating real time data acquisition and analysis systems. The use of LIDAR-based techniques, both for air quality and emissions monitoring purposes is currently being developed for the area of Cubatao, Sao Paulo, one of the largest petrochemical and industrial sites in Brazil. In a partnership with the University of SÃ#o Paulo (USP) the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS has implemented an Environmental Research Center - CEPEMA - located in the industrial site, in which the development of fieldwork will be carried out. The current joint R&D project focuses on the development of a real time acquisition system, together with automated multicomponent chemical analysis. Additionally, fugitive emissions from oil processing and storage sites will be measured, together with the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4), and aerosols. Our first effort is to assess the potential chemical species coming out of an oil refinery site and to verify which LIDAR technique, DIAL, Raman, fluorescence would be most efficient in detecting and quantifying the specific atmospheric emissions.

  10. Effects of soil quality and depth on seed germination and seedling survival at the Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, K.W.; Lyon, G.E.

    1993-12-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended in 1987, directs the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a potential site for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. DOE policy mandates the restoration of all lands disturbed by site characterization activities and DOE has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization activities at Yucca.Mountain. DOE is currently conducting reclamation feasibility trials as part of this environmental program. No topsoil was saved on disturbances during early site investigation and minimal soil remains at existing disturbances on Yucca Mountain. A study was developed to test the effects of soil quality and depth on seedling emergence and survival. A series of plots was established and two treatments were tested. The first treatment compared native topsoil to subsoil imported from a borrow pit. The second treatment compared four different depth ranges of both soil types. All plots received identical seeding treatments. Seedling density was measured after emergence. Overall seedling densities were low, averaging 10.3 {plus_minus} 8.8 (SD) plants/m{sup 2}. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the two treatment factors. The subsoil had increasing densities from the deep soil depths to the shallow depths while the topsoil had increasing densities from the shallow soil depths to the deep depths. The cause of this interaction may have resulted from the bedrock being close to the soil surface of the shallow plots.