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Sample records for extremely important discovery-the

  1. The importance of range edges for an irruptive species during extreme weather events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, Brooke L.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Allstadt, Andrew J.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    In a changing climate where more frequent extreme weather may be more common, conservation strategies for weather-sensitive species may require consideration of habitat in the edges of species’ ranges, even though non-core areas may be unoccupied in ‘normal’ years. Our results highlight the conservation importance of range edges in providing refuge from extreme events, such as drought, and climate change.

  2. An important Norwegian contribution to the study of the bursae of the upper and lower extremities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the monograph of A.S.D. Synnestvedt (1869) “En anatomisk beskrivelse af de paa over- og underestremiteterne forekommende Bursae mucosae”. The analysis was completed using anatomical information from the historically oldest publications dealing with the bursae of the extremities: Albinus (1734), Monro (1788), Rosenmüller (1799). We are of the opinion that Synnestvedt's publication is important, not only historically but also as a source of information for recent medical practitioners. Synnestvedt's monograph has a wealth of literary citations, unambiguous opinions of seasoned anatomists regarding the structure and function of the synovial membrane, and detailed descriptions of dissections he performed on fetal and adult cadavers. The information in this publication may enhance the diagnosis of bursopathies and enthesopathies of the extremities. PMID:20860444

  3. Upper Extremity Assessment in Tetraplegia: The Importance of Differentiating Between Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Anne M; Hoyen, Harry A; Keith, Michael W; Mejia, Melvin; Kilgore, Kevin L; Nemunaitis, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    Scientific advances are increasing the options for improved upper limb function in people with cervical level spinal cord injury (SCI). Some of these interventions rely on identifying an aspect of paralysis that is not uniformly assessed in SCI: the integrity of the lower motor neuron (LMN). SCI can damage both the upper motor neuron and LMN causing muscle paralysis. Differentiation between these causes of paralysis is not typically believed to be important during SCI rehabilitation because, regardless of the cause, the muscles are no longer under voluntary control by the patient. Emerging treatments designed to restore upper extremity function (eg, rescue microsurgical nerve transfers, motor learning-based interventions, functional electrical stimulation) all require knowledge of LMN status. The LMN is easily evaluated using surface electrical stimulation and does not add significant time to the standard clinical assessment of SCI. This noninvasive evaluation yields information that contributes to the development of a lifetime upper extremity care plan for maximizing function and quality of life. Given the relative simplicity of this assessment and the far-reaching implications for treatment and function, we propose that this assessment should be adopted as standard practice for acute cervical SCI. PMID:27233597

  4. Communicating natural hazards. The case of marine extreme events and the importance of the forecast's errors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    possible to produce short and long term forecasts. While the statistic of extremes is useful for many stakeholders, short term forecasts could be of importance for the whole society. Whatever the case, the prediction errors have to be emphasizes even more than the forecasts. The most common forecast in terms of general public understanding is the weather prediction. Nowadays, general public knows it well enough to properly deal with the uncertainties, because after so many year of not perfect forecasts, society knows the limits. Other coastal hazards deserve to be presented more carefully, and some successful example of the use of the precautionary principle could be observed, for instance, on the Pacific Tsunami alert system. Nowadays, the preparedness of the coastal population is good enough (even in such big and diverse area) not to be bored to run up the hill, most of the times unnecessarily, because they know the uncertainty and accept it. The key issue we, scientists, have to work better at any level, is the need of properly estimate and communicate the uncertainties of our results, cause they are not obvious nor irrelevant.

  5. Importance of Depletion Width on Charge Transport and Interfacial Recombination in Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edley, Michael; Jones, Treavor; Baxter, Jason

    The dynamics of charge carrier transport and recombination and their dependence on physical and electrochemical length scales in extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells is vital to cell design. We used J-V characterization, transient photocurrent / photovoltage, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study electron transport and interfacial recombination in ETA cell. ETA cells were composed of ZnO nanowires coated with an ultrathin (5 nm) CdS buffer layer and CdSe absorbers with thicknesses of 10 - 40 nm, with polysulfide electrolyte. In thinner absorbers near short circuit, the depletion region can extend radially into the nanowire, inhibiting interfacial recombination rate. However, depleting the periphery of the nanowire reduces the cross sectional area for charge transport, resulting in longer characteristic collection times. Thicker absorbers suffered more significant bias-dependent collection, and we conclude that slight radial penetration of the depletion region into the nanowires enhances charge collection. This work highlights the importance of considering the impact of depletion width on charge transport and interfacial recombination in the design of liquid junction, semiconductor-sensitized solar cells.

  6. Importance of temporal and spatial resolution on modelling hydrological extremes in a small catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouhal, L.; Seibert, J.; David, V.

    2012-04-01

    Under the conditions of changing climate the more frequent extremes in hydrological regime are expected. For the small watershed management it is therefore of big interest what the possible range of these changes could be, since it is essential for design of appropriate mitigation measures. An exemplary case study of possible impacts of the climate change was carried out. The conceptual model HBV was applied in a small hilly pre-alpine Rietholzbach catchment with the aim to assess the frequency and magnitude of hydrological extremes under different climatic conditions. The effect of the time and spatial distribution on the model output characteristics was also investigated. For impact evaluation a conceptual lumped model HBV was chosen because of its robustness, easy applicability for long-term simulations and perceptually straight-forward parameters. Two different modelling approaches were used, in the first one the catchment of interest was treated as a lumped system and in the other where it was divided into several subcatchments. As a first step HBV was applied to the historical data set to evaluate his performance and suitability for hydrological predictions. One half of the data time-series was used for HBV parameter calibration, the other one for model validation, wherefore several objective functions were used for goodness of fit evaluation. In order to obtain the range of changes in hydrological characteristics which can be expected due to the changing climate, two extreme scenarios were then applied to the catchment model. A standard daily step was used to obtain data for water balance and long-term droughts analysis and a study of applicability of the model with the hourly computational step was performed, so that occurrance of maximum discharges could be evaluated. The poster presents the model outcomes with focus on flood and long-drought characteristics. The uncertainty of the impacts is illustrated by the range of characteristics obtained from

  7. Importance of an early tissue transfer in the treatment of complicated injuries of lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Nejedlý, A; Tvrdek, M; Kletenský, J; Pros, Z

    1994-01-01

    3rd degree fractures with extensive defects of soft tissues represent a major therapeutical problem. The technique of free tissue transfer makes it possible to adopt an active access to primary treatment to this injuries. Radical necrectomies may be performed without respect to the extent of the defect that will arise. The authors present their experience regarding an early coverage of the defect of the lower extremity by means of a free flap. The time period between the accident and tissue transfer as well as a suitable flap type are taken in consideration. PMID:7618393

  8. Socio-Economic Hazards and Impacts of Space Weather: The Important Range Between Mild and Extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.

    2015-09-01

    Society needs to prepare for more severe space weather than it has experienced in the modern technological era. To enable that we must both quantify extreme-event characteristics and analyze impacts of lesser events that are frequent yet severe enough to be informative. Exploratory studies suggest that economic impacts of a century-level space hurricane and of a century of lesser space weather "gales" may turn out to be of the same order of magnitude. The economic benefits of effective mitigation of the impacts of space gales may substantially exceed the required investments, even as these investments provide valuable information to prepare for the worst possible storms.

  9. Relative importance of ring and tail currents to Dst under extremely disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, V. V.; Makarenkov, E. V.

    2008-02-01

    Relative ring current (RC) and tail current (TC) contributions to Dst were investigated on the basis of the statistical study of 70 magnetic storms of different intensities. Special attention was paid to the extremely disturbed conditions during magnetic storms in October-November 2003. Variations of the magnetic field produced by magnetospheric currents on the Earth's surface were calculated using paraboloid model of the magnetosphere A2000 [Alexeev, I.I., Belenkaya, E.S., Kalegaev, V.V., Feldstein, Y.I., Grafe, A., 1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 101,7737; Alexeev, I.I., Kalegaev, V.V., Belenkaya, E.S., Bobrovnikov, S.Yu., Feldstein, Ya.I., Gromova, L.I., 2001. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 25683], taking into account the effect of terrestrial induced currents. For each magnetic storm we calculated Dst and contributions produced by large-scale magnetospheric current systems. The relative RC and TC contributions for each event at the storm maximum were examined in relationship to the peak pressure-corrected Dst value. Analysis of Dst sources confirms the conclusions of Kalegaev and Ganushkina [2005. In: Pulkkinen, T., Tsyganenko, N.A., Friedel, R.H.W. (Eds.), Physics and Modeling of the Inner Magnetosphere, AGU Geophysical Monograph 155. AGU, Washington, DC, p. 293] and Kalegaev and Makarenkov [2006. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy 46, 570] about saturation of the TC effect under extremely disturbed conditions. The RC becomes the dominant Dst source during severe magnetic storms, but during moderate storms its contribution to Dst is comparable with TC's contribution. The RC injection amplitude increases with the growth of magnetospheric disturbance level.

  10. The importance of interacting climate modes on Australia's contribution to global carbon cycle extremes.

    PubMed

    Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Luo, Qunying; Restrepo Coupe, Natalia; Kljun, Natascha; Ma, Xuanlong; Ewenz, Cacilia; Li, Longhui; Yu, Qiang; Huete, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is highly sensitive to climate-driven fluctuations of precipitation, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. This was clearly manifested by a 20% increase of the global terrestrial C sink in 2011 during the strongest sustained La Niña since 1917. However, inconsistencies exist between El Niño/La Niña (ENSO) cycles and precipitation in the historical record; for example, significant ENSO-precipitation correlations were present in only 31% of the last 100 years, and often absent in wet years. To resolve these inconsistencies, we used an advanced temporal scaling method for identifying interactions amongst three key climate modes (El Niño, the Indian Ocean dipole, and the southern annular mode). When these climate modes synchronised (1999-2012), drought and extreme precipitation were observed across Australia. The interaction amongst these climate modes, more than the effect of any single mode, was associated with large fluctuations in precipitation and productivity. The long-term exposure of vegetation to this arid environment has favoured a resilient flora capable of large fluctuations in photosynthetic productivity and explains why Australia was a major contributor not only to the 2011 global C sink anomaly but also to global reductions in photosynthetic C uptake during the previous decade of drought. PMID:26976754

  11. The importance of interacting climate modes on Australia’s contribution to global carbon cycle extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Luo, Qunying; Restrepo Coupe, Natalia; Kljun, Natascha; Ma, Xuanlong; Ewenz, Cacilia; Li, Longhui; Yu, Qiang; Huete, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    The global carbon cycle is highly sensitive to climate-driven fluctuations of precipitation, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. This was clearly manifested by a 20% increase of the global terrestrial C sink in 2011 during the strongest sustained La Niña since 1917. However, inconsistencies exist between El Niño/La Niña (ENSO) cycles and precipitation in the historical record; for example, significant ENSO–precipitation correlations were present in only 31% of the last 100 years, and often absent in wet years. To resolve these inconsistencies, we used an advanced temporal scaling method for identifying interactions amongst three key climate modes (El Niño, the Indian Ocean dipole, and the southern annular mode). When these climate modes synchronised (1999–2012), drought and extreme precipitation were observed across Australia. The interaction amongst these climate modes, more than the effect of any single mode, was associated with large fluctuations in precipitation and productivity. The long-term exposure of vegetation to this arid environment has favoured a resilient flora capable of large fluctuations in photosynthetic productivity and explains why Australia was a major contributor not only to the 2011 global C sink anomaly but also to global reductions in photosynthetic C uptake during the previous decade of drought.

  12. On the Importance of the Flare's Late Phase for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Hock, Rachel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Bailey, Scott; Tobiska, W. Kent; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Webb, David F.; Warren, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The new solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have revealed a new class of solar flares that are referred to as late phase flares. These flares are characterized by the hot 2-5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) showing large secondary peaks that appear many minutes to hours after an eruptive flare event. In contrast, the cool 0.7-1.5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe IX 17.1 nm) usually dim immediately after the flare onset and do not recover until after the delayed second peak of the hot coronal emissions. We refer to this period of 1-5 hours after the fl amrea sin phase as the late phase, and this late phase is uniquely different than long duration flares associated with 2-ribbon flares or large filament eruptions. Our analysis of the late phase flare events indicates that the late phase involves hot coronal loops near the flaring region, not directly related to the original flaring loop system but rather with the higher post-eruption fields. Another finding is that space weather applications concerning Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere need to consider these late phase flares because they can enhance the total EUV irradiance flare variation by a factor of 2 when the late phase contribution is included.

  13. The importance of interacting climate modes on Australia’s contribution to global carbon cycle extremes

    PubMed Central

    Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Luo, Qunying; Restrepo Coupe, Natalia; Kljun, Natascha; Ma, Xuanlong; Ewenz, Cacilia; Li, Longhui; Yu, Qiang; Huete, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is highly sensitive to climate-driven fluctuations of precipitation, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. This was clearly manifested by a 20% increase of the global terrestrial C sink in 2011 during the strongest sustained La Niña since 1917. However, inconsistencies exist between El Niño/La Niña (ENSO) cycles and precipitation in the historical record; for example, significant ENSO–precipitation correlations were present in only 31% of the last 100 years, and often absent in wet years. To resolve these inconsistencies, we used an advanced temporal scaling method for identifying interactions amongst three key climate modes (El Niño, the Indian Ocean dipole, and the southern annular mode). When these climate modes synchronised (1999–2012), drought and extreme precipitation were observed across Australia. The interaction amongst these climate modes, more than the effect of any single mode, was associated with large fluctuations in precipitation and productivity. The long-term exposure of vegetation to this arid environment has favoured a resilient flora capable of large fluctuations in photosynthetic productivity and explains why Australia was a major contributor not only to the 2011 global C sink anomaly but also to global reductions in photosynthetic C uptake during the previous decade of drought. PMID:26976754

  14. Representing ozone extremes in European megacities: the importance of resolution in a global chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Z. S.; Russo, M. R.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    The continuing growth of the world's urban population has led to an increasing number of cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. The higher emissions of pollutants, coupled to higher population density, makes predictions of air quality in these megacities of particular importance from both a science and a policy perspective. Global climate models are typically run at coarse resolution to enable both the efficient running of long time integrations, and the ability to run multiple future climate scenarios. However, when considering surface ozone concentrations at the local scale, coarse resolution can lead to inaccuracies arising from the highly nonlinear ozone chemistry and the sensitivity of ozone to the distribution of its precursors on smaller scales. In this study, we use UM-UKCA, a global atmospheric chemistry model, coupled to the UK Met Office Unified Model, to investigate the impact of model resolution on tropospheric ozone, ranging from global to local scales. We focus on the model's ability to represent the probability of high ozone concentrations in the summer and low ozone concentrations, associated with polluted megacity environments, in the winter, and how this varies with horizontal resolution. We perform time-slice integrations with two model configurations at typical climate resolution (CR, ~150 km) and at a higher resolution (HR, ~40 km). The CR configuration leads to overestimation of ozone concentrations on both regional and local scales, while it gives broadly similar results to the HR configuration on the global scale. The HR configuration is found to produce a more realistic diurnal cycle of ozone concentrations and to give a better representation of the probability density function of ozone values in urban areas such as the megacities of London and Paris. We find the observed differences in model behaviour between CR and HR configurations to be largely caused by chemical differences during the winter and meteorological differences

  15. Representing ozone extremes in European megacities: the importance of resolution in a global chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Z. S.; Russo, M. R.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The continuing growth of the world's urban population has led to an increasing number of cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. The higher emissions of pollutants, coupled to higher population density, makes predictions of air quality in these megacities of particular importance from both a science and a policy perspective. Global climate models are typically run at coarse resolution to enable both the efficient running of long time integrations, and the ability to run multiple future climate scenarios. However, when considering surface ozone concentrations at the local scale, coarse resolution can lead to inaccuracies arising from the highly non-linear ozone chemistry and the sensitivity of ozone to the distribution of its precursors on smaller scales. In this study, we use UM-UKCA, a global atmospheric chemistry model, coupled to the UK Met Office Unified Model, to investigate the impact of model resolution on tropospheric ozone, ranging from global to local scales. We focus on the model's ability to represent the probability of high ozone concentrations in the summer and low ozone concentrations, associated with polluted megacity environments, in the winter, and how this varies with horizontal resolution. We perform time-slice integrations with two model configurations at typical climate resolution (CR, ~150 km) and at a higher resolution (HR, ~40 km). The CR configuration leads to overestimation of ozone concentrations on both regional and local scales, while it gives broadly similar results to the HR configuration on the global scale. The HR configuration is found to produce a more realistic diurnal cycle of ozone concentrations and to give a better representation of the probability density function of ozone values in urban areas such as the megacities of London and Paris. We discuss the possible causes for the observed difference in model behaviour between CR and HR configurations and estimate the relative contribution of chemical and meteorological

  16. PHASER 2.10 methodology for dependence, importance, and sensitivity: The role of scale factors, confidence factors, and extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    PHASER (Probabilistic Hybrid Analytical System Evaluation Routine) is a software tool that has the capability of incorporating subjective expert judgment into probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) along with conventional data inputs. An earlier report described the PHASER methodology, but only gave a cursory explanation about how dependence was incorporated in Version 1.10 and about how ``Importance`` and ``Sensitivity`` measures were to be incorporated in Version 2.00. A more detailed description is given in this report. The basic concepts involve scale factors and confidence factors that are associated with the stochastic variability and subjective uncertainty (which are common adjuncts used in PSA), and the safety risk extremes that are crucial to safety assessment. These are all utilized to illustrate methodology for incorporating dependence among analysis variables in generating PSA results, and for Importance and Sensitivity measures associated with the results that help point out where any major sources of safety concern arise and where any major sources of uncertainty reside, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of Concepts in Disturbance Hydrology and the Importance for Hydrologic Response to Extreme Hydroclimatic Events in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, B. A.; Mirus, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    The watersheds we rely on for water resources, ecosystem services, and protection from hydrologically driven natural hazards are increasingly impacted by landscape disturbance. Abrupt alterations of hydrologic processes resulting from wildfires, urban development, resource extraction, deforestation, hurricanes, tsunamis, and landslides change the storage or buffering capacity as well as the hydrologic functional connectivity in watersheds. We highlight some of the critical issues and major challenges to predicting disturbance impacts on water resources and natural hazards and outline some of the opportunities for improved mechanistic understanding of how disturbances propagate through landscape hydrological processes. In particular, we emphasize synthesis of conceptual commonalities and opportunities from other disciplines, primarily ecologic sciences, which are well versed in the study of disturbed landscapes. Cross scale interactions and complex adaptive systems theory are examples of useful concepts for synthesis across different disturbance effects. We also highlight the importance of improved understanding of disturbance hydrology for predicting the effects of extreme hydroclimatic events on the hydrologic response of the Critical Zone. An example from the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, USA of a watershed with multiple disturbances subjected to a low frequency extreme rainfall event is presented to show the diversity of runoff generation mechanisms and the implications for watershed scale impacts.

  18. Revealing rate-limiting steps in complex disease biology: The crucial importance of studying rare, extreme-phenotype families.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Aravinda; Turner, Tychele N

    2016-06-01

    The major challenge in complex disease genetics is to understand the fundamental features of this complexity and why functional alterations at multiple independent genes conspire to lead to an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesize that the various genes involved are all functionally united through gene regulatory networks (GRN), and that mutant phenotypes arise from the consequent perturbation of one or more rate-limiting steps that affect the function of the entire GRN. Understanding a complex phenotype thus entails unraveling the details of each GRN, namely, the transcription factors that bind to cis regulatory elements affected by sequence variants altering transcription of specific genes, and their mutual feedback relationships. These GRNs can be identified through their rate-limiting steps and are best uncovered by genomic analyses of rare, extreme phenotype families, thus providing a coherent molecular basis to complex traits and disorders. PMID:27062178

  19. On the use of ocean-atmosphere-wave models during an extreme CAO event: the importance of being coupled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniel, Sandro; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Miglietta, Mario M.; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    During winter 2012 an extreme meteorological event stroke the whole Europe and particularly its central-southern sector. A strong and persistent spit of cold air coming from Siberian region (a Cold Air Outbreak, CAO) insisted on northern Italy and the Adriatic sea basin, leading to decreases in the sea temperatures up to 6 °C in less than two weeks, ice formation on the Venice lagoon and an exceptional snow fall in the Apennine region. In the sea the CAO was associated to a significant episode of dense water formation (DWF), a crucial phenomenon that heavily impacts the whole Adriatic Sea (from the sinking of water masses and associated ventilation of the northernmost shelf, to the flow along the western coast, until the flushing of southern Adriatic open slope and submarine canyons, with associated sediment transport and bottom reshaping). The extent of the DWF event in the Northern Adriatic sub-basin was estimated by means of coastal observatories, ad hoc measurements and, until now, results from existing one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean models. These are characterized by no SST feedback from the ocean to the atmosphere, and therefore by turbulent heat fluxes that may heavily reflect a non-consistent ocean state. The study proposes an investigation of the 2012 CAO using a fully coupled, three components, ocean-atmosphere-wave system (COAWST). Results highlight that, although the energy interplays between air and sea do not seem to significantly impact the wind forecasts, when providing heat fluxes that are consistent with the ocean temperature we find modified heat fluxes and air sea temperatures figures. Moreover, the consistent description of thermal exchanges adopted in the fully coupled model can affect the basin circulation, the quantification of dense water produced mass, and the description of its migration pathways and rates of off-shelf descent.

  20. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  1. The Importance of Moral Construal: Moral versus Non-Moral Construal Elicits Faster, More Extreme, Universal Evaluations of the Same Actions

    PubMed Central

    Van Bavel, Jay J.; Packer, Dominic J.; Haas, Ingrid Johnsen; Cunningham, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, intuitionist models of morality have challenged the view that moral reasoning is the sole or even primary means by which moral judgments are made. Rather, intuitionist models posit that certain situations automatically elicit moral intuitions, which guide moral judgments. We present three experiments showing that evaluations are also susceptible to the influence of moral versus non-moral construal. We had participants make moral evaluations (rating whether actions were morally good or bad) or non-moral evaluations (rating whether actions were pragmatically or hedonically good or bad) of a wide variety of actions. As predicted, moral evaluations were faster, more extreme, and more strongly associated with universal prescriptions—the belief that absolutely nobody or everybody should engage in an action—than non-moral (pragmatic or hedonic) evaluations of the same actions. Further, we show that people are capable of flexibly shifting from moral to non-moral evaluations on a trial-by-trial basis. Taken together, these experiments provide evidence that moral versus non-moral construal has an important influence on evaluation and suggests that effects of construal are highly flexible. We discuss the implications of these experiments for models of moral judgment and decision-making. PMID:23209557

  2. The importance of the anterior longitudinal ligament in lumbar disc arthroplasty: 36-Month follow-up experience in extreme lateral total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luis; Oliveira, Leonardo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Current total disc replacement (TDR) for lumbar spine requires an anterior approach for implantation but presents inherent limitations, including risks to the abdominal structures, as well as resection of the anterior longitudinal ligament. By approaching the spine laterally, it is possible to preserve the stabilizing ligaments, which are a natural restraint to excessive rotations and translations, and thereby help to minimize facet stresses. This less invasive approach also offers a biomechanical advantage of placement of the device over the ring apophysis bilaterally; importantly, it also offers a greater opportunity for safer revision surgery, if necessary, by avoiding scarring of the anterior vasculature. We present the clinical and radiologic results of a lateral TDR device from a prospective single-center study. Methods A new metal-on-metal TDR device designed for implantation through a true lateral, retroperitoneal, transpsoatic approach (extreme lateral interbody fusion) was implanted in 36 patients with discography-confirmed 1- or 2-level degenerative disc disease. Clinical (pain and function) and radiographic (range of motion) outcome assessments were prospectively collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and serially up to a minimum of 36 months’ follow-up. Results Between December 2005 and December 2006, 36 surgeries were performed in 16 men and 20 women (mean age, 42.6 years). These included 15 single-level TDR procedures at L3-4 or L4-5, 3 2-level TDR procedures spanning L3-4 and L4-5, and 18 hybrid procedures (anterior lumbar interbody fusion) at L5-S1 and TDR at L4-5 (17) or L3-4 (1). Operative time averaged 130 minutes, with mean blood loss of 60 mL and no intraoperative complications. Postoperative X-rays showed good device placement, with restoration of disc height, foraminal volume, and sagittal balance. All patients were up and walking within 12 hours of surgery, and all but 9 were discharged the next day (7 of those 9 were

  3. Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of risks posed by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis or cyclones, is often based on short-term historical records that may not reflect the full range or magnitude of events possible. As human populations grow, especially in hazard-prone areas, methods for accurately assessing natural hazard risks are becoming increasingly important. In Extreme Events Jonathan Nott describes the many methods used to reconstruct such hazards from natural long-term records. He demonstrates how long-term (multi-century to millennial) records are essential in gaining a realistic understanding of the variability of natural hazards, and how short-term historical records can often misrepresent the likely risks associated with natural hazards. This book will form a useful resource for students taking courses covering natural hazards and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for urban planners, policy makers and non-specialists as a guide to understanding and reconstructing long-term records of natural hazards. Explains mechanisms that cause extreme events and discusses their prehistoric records Describes how to reconstruct long-term records of natural hazards in order to make accurate risk assessments Demonstrates that natural hazards can follow cycles over time and do not occur randomly

  4. Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeff; Larsen, Jon

    2013-11-01

    Acknowledgements; 1. Extreme environments: what, where, how; 2. Properties of dense and classical plasmas; 3. Laser energy absorption in matter; 4. Hydrodynamic motion; 5. Shocks; 6. Equation of state; 7. Ionization; 8. Thermal energy transport; 9. Radiation energy transport; 10. Magnetohydrodynamics; 11. Considerations for constructing radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes; 12. Numerical simulations; Appendix: units and constants, glossary of symbols; References; Bibliography; Index.

  5. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  6. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  7. Penetrating extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Ivatury, Rao R; Anand, Rahul; Ordonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Penetrating extremity trauma (PET) usually becomes less important when present along with multiple truncal injuries. The middle eastern wars documented the terrible mortality and morbidity resulting from PET. Even in civilian trauma, PET can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. There are now well-established principles in the evaluation and management of vascular, bony, soft tissue, and neurologic lesions that will lead to a reduction of the poor outcomes. This review will summarize some of these recent concepts. PMID:25413177

  8. Workshop on Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, Carole; Sullivan, Mark

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryNever before has there been such a wealth of versatile ground- and space-based facilities with which to detect variable emission across the electromagnetic spectrum and beyond, to non-EM signals such as neutrinos and gravitational waves, to probe the most extreme phenomena in the Universe. The variable sky is already providing a wealth of new and surprising observations of phenomena such as GRBs, SNe and AGN that are pushing current theories beyond the state of the art. Multi-messenger follow-up will soon become de rigeur, and upcoming radio and optical all-sky transient surveys will revolutionise the study of the transient Universe. In addition to the technical and data challenges presented by such surveys, a major new challenge will be the interpretation of the wealth of available data and the identification of the underlying physics of new classes of variable (and potentially exotic) objects. Theoretical predictions will be vital for interpreting these future transient discoveries. The goal of this workshop was to bring together theorists and observers in order to identify unexplored synergies across three main research areas of extreme physics: gamma-ray bursts, supernovæ and, more generically, relativistic jets. It aimed to discuss key outstanding questions in these rapidly moving fields, such as the composition and acceleration of GRB and AGN jets, GRB progenitors and central engines, the origin of the wide range of observed variability time-scales in GRB prompt and after-glow light curves and related cosmological applications, the physics of the newly-discovered ultra-luminous SN-like optical transients-as well as to speculate on what we might hope to discover with future technology. The workshop absorbed two 90-minute sessions, selecting 3 main science topics (Relativistic Jets, GRBs and SNe) which it organised as structured discussions driven by a series of short but provocative questions. The final session featured a panel

  9. "A discovery! The Higgs? Why is this important? How it was done"

    ScienceCinema

    Sally Dawson; Howard Gordan

    2013-07-18

    Data collected during 2011 and 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland, the world's highest-energy proton collider, has culminated in the discovery of a new particle that is about 135 times heavier than a proton. But is it really the Higgs particle predicted by the theory that explains the origin of the mass of most elementary particles in the universe? The discovery and its possible identity is discussed by two Brookhaven Lab physicists, Sally Dawson and Howard Gordon, with deep roots in the hunt for the Higgs.

  10. "A discovery! The Higgs? Why is this important? How it was done"

    SciTech Connect

    Sally Dawson; Howard Gordan

    2012-06-26

    Data collected during 2011 and 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland, the world's highest-energy proton collider, has culminated in the discovery of a new particle that is about 135 times heavier than a proton. But is it really the Higgs particle predicted by the theory that explains the origin of the mass of most elementary particles in the universe? The discovery and its possible identity is discussed by two Brookhaven Lab physicists, Sally Dawson and Howard Gordon, with deep roots in the hunt for the Higgs.

  11. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  12. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  13. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    PubMed

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks. PMID:22817845

  14. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra M; White, Piran C L; Ewertowski, Marek W

    2016-01-15

    A continued supply of ecosystem services (ES) from a system depends on the resilience of that system to withstand shocks and perturbations. In many parts of the world, climate change is leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather events, potentially influencing ES provision. Our study of the effects of an intense rainfall event in Gorce National Park, Poland, shows: (1) the intense rainfall event impacted heavily on the supply of ES by limiting potential recreation opportunities and reducing erosion prevention; (2) these negative impacts were not only restricted to the period of the extreme event but persisted for up to several years, depending on the pre-event trail conditions and post-event management activities; (3) to restore the pre-event supply of ES, economic investments were required in the form of active repairs to trails, which, in Gorce National Park, were an order of magnitude higher than the costs of normal trail maintenance; and (4) when recreational trails were left to natural restoration, loss of biodiversity was observed, and recovery rates of ES (recreation opportunities and soil erosion prevention) were reduced in comparison to their pre-event state. We conclude that proper trail design and construction provides a good solution to avoid some of the negative impacts of extreme events on recreation, as well as offering co-benefits in terms of protecting biodiversity and enhancing the supply of regulating services such as erosion prevention. PMID:26496846

  15. Lower extremity muscle perforator flaps for lower extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2004-10-01

    A true muscle perforator flap is distinguished by the requisite intramuscular dissection of its musculocutaneous perforator to capture the same musculocutaneous territory but with total exclusion of the muscle, and thereby results in minimal functional impairment. Adhering to this definition, several lower extremity donor sites now are available, each with specific attributes especially useful for consideration in the treatment of lower extremity defects. In this author's experience over the past two decades, 20 lower extremity muscle perforator flaps using multiple donor sites proved advantageous for lower extremity coverage problems as either a local pedicled flap or as a microsurgical tissue transfer. Significant complications occurred in 30 percent of flaps (six of 20) in that further intervention was required. Venous insufficiency and bulkiness were found to be the major inherent shortcomings. However, giant flaps, lengthy and large-caliber vascular pedicles, and the possibility for combined flaps were important assets. The choice of a lower extremity muscle perforator flap for lower extremity reconstruction limited the surgical intervention and morbidity to a single body region. PMID:15457022

  16. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  17. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  18. Evolutions from extremality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    We examine the evolution of extremal spherically symmetric black holes, developing both general theory as well as the specific cases of (charged) null dust and massless scalar field spacetimes. As matter accretes onto extremal marginally trapped tubes, they generically evolve to become nonextremal, with the initial extremal horizon bifurcating into inner and outer nonextremal horizons. At the start of this process arbitrarily slow matter accretion can cause a geometrically invariant measure of horizon growth to jump from zero to infinity. We also consider dynamical horizons that are extremal throughout their evolution and see that such spacetimes contain two extremal black hole horizons: an inner isolated one and an outer dynamical one. We compare these extremal dynamical horizons with the dynamical extreme event horizon spacetimes of Murata, Reall and Tanahashi.

  19. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Imray, Christopher H E; Grocott, Michael P W; Wilson, Mark H; Hughes, Amy; Auerbach, Paul S

    2015-12-19

    Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine are modern and rapidly evolving specialties that address the spirit of adventure and exploration. The relevance of and interest in these specialties are changing rapidly to match the underlying activities, which include global exploration, adventure travel, and military deployments. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine share themes of providing best available medical care in the outdoors, especially in austere or remote settings. Early clinical and logistics decision making can often have important effects on subsequent outcomes. There are lessons to be learned from out-of-hospital care, military medicine, humanitarian medicine, and disaster medicine that can inform in-hospital medicine, and vice-versa. The future of extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine will be defined by both recipients and practitioners, and empirical observations will be transformed by evidence-based practice. PMID:26738718

  20. Quorum Sensing in Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kate; Charlesworth, James C.; LeBard, Rebecca; Visscher, Pieter T.; Burns, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communication, particularly that of quorum sensing, plays an important role in regulating gene expression in a range of organisms. Although this phenomenon has been well studied in relation to, for example, virulence gene regulation, the focus of this article is to review our understanding of the role of microbial communication in extreme environments. Cell signaling regulates many important microbial processes and may play a pivotal role in driving microbial functional diversity and ultimately ecosystem function in extreme environments. Several recent studies have characterized cell signaling in modern analogs to early Earth communities (microbial mats), and characterization of cell signaling systems in these communities may provide unique insights in understanding the microbial interactions involved in function and survival in extreme environments. Cell signaling is a fundamental process that may have co-evolved with communities and environmental conditions on the early Earth. Without cell signaling, evolutionary pressures may have even resulted in the extinction rather than evolution of certain microbial groups. One of the biggest challenges in extremophile biology is understanding how and why some microbial functional groups are located where logically they would not be expected to survive, and tightly regulated communication may be key. Finally, quorum sensing has been recently identified for the first time in archaea, and thus communication at multiple levels (potentially even inter-domain) may be fundamental in extreme environments. PMID:25371335

  1. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network ``mobile'' can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

  2. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  3. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C‑1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  4. Characteristics of Extreme Auroral Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Today’s presentation describes preliminary results from a study of extreme auroral charging in low Earth orbit. Goal of study is to document characteristics of auroral charging events of importance to spacecraft design, operations, and anomaly investigations.

  5. Extremity x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  6. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  7. A Millennial Challenge: Extremism in Uncertain Times

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    This comment highlights the relevance and importance of the uncertainty-extremism topic, both scientifically and societally, identifies common themes, locates this work in a wider scientific and social context, describes what we now know and what we still do not, acknowledges some limitations, foreshadowing future directions, and discusses some potential policy relevance. Common themes emerge around the importance of social justice as sound anti-extremism policy. PMID:24511155

  8. Computed Tomography Angiography of the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tessa Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) of the lower extremities is an important and versatile, noninvasive tool for diagnosis as well as surgical or endovascular interventional planning. Although lower extremity CTA is most commonly performed in patients with peripheral artery disease or trauma affecting the lower extremities, it also plays a role in the workup of nonischemic etiologies such as vasculitis, aneurysms, and congenital vascular malformations. CT scan protocols should adjust bolus timing and multiphasic imaging to account for the clinical question of interest, and 3-dimensional postprocessing plays an important role in the visualization and interpretation of these high-resolution imaging examinations. PMID:26654395

  9. Generalized extreme gust wind speeds distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, E.; Yeung, C.

    2002-01-01

    Since summer 1996, the US wind engineers are using the extreme gust (or 3-s gust) as the basic wind speed to quantify the destruction of extreme winds. In order to better understand these destructive wind forces, it is important to know the appropriate representations of these extreme gust wind speeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable extreme value distributions for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded in large selected areas. To achieve this objective, we are using the generalized Pareto distribution as the diagnostic tool for determining the types of extreme gust wind speed distributions. The three-parameter generalized extreme value distribution function is, thus, reduced to either Type I Gumbel, Type II Frechet or Type III reverse Weibull distribution function for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded at a specific site.With the considerations of the quality and homogeneity of gust wind data collected at more than 750 weather stations throughout the United States, annual extreme gust wind speeds at selected 143 stations in the contiguous United States were used in the study. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  11. Improving extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni

    2014-11-01

    The rate of convergence in extreme value statistics is nonuniversal and can be arbitrarily slow. Further, the relative error can be unbounded in the tail of the approximation, leading to difficulty in extrapolating the extreme value fit beyond the available data. We introduce the T method, and show that by using simple nonlinear transformations the extreme value approximation can be rendered rapidly convergent in the bulk, and asymptotic in the tail, thus fixing both issues. The transformations are often parametrized by just one parameter, which can be estimated numerically. The classical extreme value method is shown to be a special case of the proposed method. We demonstrate that vastly improved results can be obtained with almost no extra cost. PMID:25493780

  12. Extreme environments and exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  13. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007644.htm Hardware removal - extremity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help ...

  14. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    PubMed

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  15. Extreme horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.

  16. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  17. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  18. Recent Developments in Statistical Downscaling of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertig, E.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the output of general circulation models (GCMs) regionalization techniques are usually applied to obtain fine-scale climate change information. Different types of regionalization techniques have been developed which comprise regional climate models and statistical downscaling approaches such as conditional weather generators, artificial neural networks, synoptic studies, and transfer functions. In the scope of climate variability and climate change the variations and changes of extremes are of special importance. Extreme events are not only of scientific interest but also have a profound impact on society. For the statistical downscaling of extremes, promising approaches have been introduced and/or developed further in the last few years. Aspects of recent developments in the scope of statistical downscaling of extremes will be presented. In this context, various approaches to downscale extremes, particularly those associated with extreme precipitation events, will be discussed. Key problems related to statistical downscaling of extremes will be addressed. Furthermore, information on Working Group 4 "Extremes" of the EU COST action VALUE (www.value-cost.eu) will be provided. VALUE systematically validates and develops downscaling methods for climate change research in order to improve regional climate change scenarios for use in climate impact studies.

  19. Upper extremity injuries in golf.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Matthew C; Wadsworth, L Tyler

    2009-04-01

    Golf is an asymmetric sport with unique patterns of injury depending upon the skill level. Higher handicap players typically experience injuries that result from swing mechanics, whereas lower handicap and professional players have overuse as the major cause of their injuries. The majority of shoulder injuries affecting golfers occur in the nondominant shoulder. Common shoulder injuries include subacromial impingement, rotator cuff pathology, glenohumeral instability, and arthritis involving the acromioclavicular and/or glenohumeral joints. Lead arm elbow pain resulting from lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow) is the leading upper extremity injury in amateur golfers. Tendon injury is the most common problem seen in the wrist and forearm of the golfer. Rehabilitation emphasizing improvement in core muscle streng is important in the treatment of golf injury. Emerging treatments for tendinopathy include topical nitrates, ultrasound-guided injection of therapeutic substances, and eccentric rehabilitation. There is evidence supporting physiotherapy, and swing modification directed by a teaching professional, for treatment of upper extremity golf injuries. This article focuses on upper extremity injuries in golf, including a discussion of the epidemiology, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of injuries occurring in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. PMID:20048492

  20. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  1. Book review: New concepts and discoveries: the Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium Proceedings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.

    2016-01-01

    The Nevada Geological Society has a long history of convening meetings and workshops focused on the geology and metallogeny of the western United States relevant to the mineral exploration and mining community across the Great Basin. One outgrowth of the Geological Society of Nevada’s 2015 Symposium is a two-volume set, edited by W.M. Pennell and L.J. Garside, entitled New Concepts and Discoveries. The symposium was held in Sparks, Nevada, May 14–23, 2015, with more than 1,000 attendees, 59 talks in 10 thematic sessions, 7 field trips, and 10 short courses, all focused on serving the geologic, exploration, and mining community. The attractively produced, hardbound, two-volume set includes a CD-ROM containing all the manuscripts as well as numerous abstracts from presentations arranged by the thematic session in which they were presented. The papers range from detailed case study descriptions of individual deposits to important syntheses covering the geologic evolution and resulting metallogeny of the Great Basin and beyond.

  2. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. PMID:26900120

  3. Extremal entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Leif Ove; Hauge, Andreas; Myrheim, Jan; Sollid, Per Øyvind

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of extremal entanglement witnesses on a bipartite composite quantum system. We define the cone of witnesses as the dual of the set of separable density matrices, thus TrΩρ≥0 when Ω is a witness and ρ is a pure product state, ρ=ψψ† with ψ=ϕ⊗χ. The set of witnesses of unit trace is a compact convex set, uniquely defined by its extremal points. The expectation value f(ϕ,χ)=TrΩρ as a function of vectors ϕ and χ is a positive semidefinite biquadratic form. Every zero of f(ϕ,χ) imposes strong real-linear constraints on f and Ω. The real and symmetric Hessian matrix at the zero must be positive semidefinite. Its eigenvectors with zero eigenvalue, if such exist, we call Hessian zeros. A zero of f(ϕ,χ) is quadratic if it has no Hessian zeros, otherwise it is quartic. We call a witness quadratic if it has only quadratic zeros, and quartic if it has at least one quartic zero. A main result we prove is that a witness is extremal if and only if no other witness has the same, or a larger, set of zeros and Hessian zeros. A quadratic extremal witness has a minimum number of isolated zeros depending on dimensions. If a witness is not extremal, then the constraints defined by its zeros and Hessian zeros determine all directions in which we may search for witnesses having more zeros or Hessian zeros. A finite number of iterated searches in random directions, by numerical methods, leads to an extremal witness which is nearly always quadratic and has the minimum number of zeros. We discuss briefly some topics related to extremal witnesses, in particular the relation between the facial structures of the dual sets of witnesses and separable states. We discuss the relation between extremality and optimality of witnesses, and a conjecture of separability of the so-called structural physical approximation (SPA) of an optimal witness. Finally, we discuss how to treat the entanglement witnesses on a complex Hilbert space as a subset of the

  4. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the

  5. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example there are ultra strong magnetic fields in neutron stars) relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynold`s numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. I will describe one of the more exciting examples. I will attempt to convey the excitement I felt when I was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics, which have not been so easily resolved. In fact a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. I will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma-astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynold`s-number MHD dynamos.

  6. Going to Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project which gave students a chance to explore the idea of using "extreme" materials in a sculpture. While the process was, at times, challenging and stressful for teacher and student alike, the results proved that, with proper planning, even young students can independently demonstrate multiple solutions…

  7. Optimization using Extremal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    We explore a new heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to NP-hard optimization problems which we have recently introduced [see ``Nature's Way of Optimizing," Artificial Intelligence 119, 275-286 (2000) and cond-mat/0010337]. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively replaces extremely undesirable elements of a single sub-optimal solution with new, random ones. Large fluctuations ensue that efficiently explore many local optima. With only one adjustable parameter, its performance has proved competitive with more elaborate methods, especially near phase transitions which are believed to contain the hardest instances. In particular, extremal optimization is superior to simulated annealing in the partitioning of sparse graphs, it finds the overlap of all ground-states at the phase transition of the 3-coloring problem, and it provides independent confirmation for the ground-state energy of spin glasses, previously obtained with elaborate genetic algorithms.

  8. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M. D.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Zscheischler, J.

    2013-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Ongoing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that rare climate extremes can lead to a decrease in ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate the expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, and propose a pathway to improve our understanding of present and future impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon budget. In addition to direct impact on the carbon fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration via extreme temperature and (or) drought, effects of extreme events may also lead to lagged responses, such as wildfires triggered by heat waves and droughts, or pest and pathogen outbreaks following wind-throw caused by heavy storms, reduced plant health due to drought stress or due to less frequent cold extremes in presently cold regions. One extreme event can potentially override accumulated previous carbon sinks, as shown by the Western European 2003 heat wave.. Extreme events have the potential to affect the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance through a single factor, or as a combination of factors. Climate extremes can cause carbon losses from accumulated stocks, as well as long-lasting impacts on (e.g. lagged effects) on plant growth and mortality, extending beyond the duration of the extreme event itself. The sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon balance to climate change and extreme events varies according to the type of extreme, the climatic region, the land cover, and the land management. Extreme event impacts are very relevant in forests due to the importance of lagged and memory effects on tree growth and mortality, the longevity of tree species, the large forest carbon stocks and their vulnerability, as well as the

  9. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  10. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  11. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution analysis approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily temperature data set for Australia to assess changes in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from 1910 to 2010. Changes in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low minimum temperature are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high maximum temperatures, but it is weaker than that for minimum temperatures, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are broadly consistent with observed changes in mean temperatures and in the frequency of temperatures above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices). The GEV tree analysis provides insight into behavior of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of <span class="hlt">importance</span> to engineering design/applications, while <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices represent moderately <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...55..519T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...55..519T"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospect for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> field science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tajima, T.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The kind of laser <span class="hlt">extreme</span> light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the “material” property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other <span class="hlt">extreme</span> lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most <span class="hlt">important</span> features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. Finally, as the last lecture of this workshop the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21567625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21567625"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> HOSTS OF <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> SUPERNOVAE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Neill, James D.; Quimby, Robert; Ofek, Eran; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Sullivan, Mark; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter; Seibert, Mark; Overzier, Roderik; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M.</p> <p>2011-01-20</p> <p>We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of 17 luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M{sub V} < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26, 000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSN hosts on the galaxy NUV - r versus M{sub r} color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low-luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M{sub *}) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M{sub *} in the area having higher sSFR and lower M{sub *}. This preference for low M{sub *}, high sSFR hosts implies that the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M{sub sun}), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4135339','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4135339"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlling <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on complex networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is of fundamental <span class="hlt">importance</span> and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network “mobile” can effectively suppress <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131344"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlling <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on complex networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is of fundamental <span class="hlt">importance</span> and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network "mobile" can effectively suppress <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.U13B..01N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.U13B..01N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> space weather studies: Addressing societal needs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngwira, C. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very <span class="hlt">important</span> component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20718729','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20718729"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> quantum cloning machines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.</p> <p>2005-10-15</p> <p>We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are <span class="hlt">extremal</span> in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all <span class="hlt">extremal</span> cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464107','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464107"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient transformation meets gene function <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> strawberry fruit case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guidarelli, Michela; Baraldi, Elena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Beside the well known nutritional and health benefits, strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa) crop draws increasing attention as plant model system for the Rosaceae family, due to the short generation time, the rapid in vitro regeneration, and to the availability of the genome sequence of F. X ananassa and F. vesca species. In the last years, the use of high-throughput sequence technologies provided large amounts of molecular information on the genes possibly related to several biological processes of this crop. Nevertheless, the function of most genes or gene products is still poorly understood and needs investigation. Transient transformation technology provides a powerful tool to study gene function in vivo, avoiding difficult drawbacks that typically affect the stable transformation protocols, such as transformation efficiency, transformants selection, and regeneration. In this review we provide an overview of the use of transient expression in the investigation of the function of genes <span class="hlt">important</span> for strawberry fruit development, defense and nutritional properties. The technical aspects related to an efficient use of this technique are described, and the possible impact and application in strawberry crop improvement are discussed. PMID:26124771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124771"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient transformation meets gene function <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> strawberry fruit case.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guidarelli, Michela; Baraldi, Elena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Beside the well known nutritional and health benefits, strawberry (FragariaXananassa) crop draws increasing attention as plant model system for the Rosaceae family, due to the short generation time, the rapid in vitro regeneration, and to the availability of the genome sequence of F.Xananassa and F. vesca species. In the last years, the use of high-throughput sequence technologies provided large amounts of molecular information on the genes possibly related to several biological processes of this crop. Nevertheless, the function of most genes or gene products is still poorly understood and needs investigation. Transient transformation technology provides a powerful tool to study gene function in vivo, avoiding difficult drawbacks that typically affect the stable transformation protocols, such as transformation efficiency, transformants selection, and regeneration. In this review we provide an overview of the use of transient expression in the investigation of the function of genes <span class="hlt">important</span> for strawberry fruit development, defense and nutritional properties. The technical aspects related to an efficient use of this technique are described, and the possible impact and application in strawberry crop improvement are discussed. PMID:26124771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405898"><span id="translatedtitle">MicroRNA in neurodegenerative drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> way forward?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campbell, Kristyn; Booth, Stephanie A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Neurodegenerative diseases occur when neuronal cells in the brain or spinal cord progressively lose function and eventually die. Pathological analysis of these tissues reveals changes that include the loss of synapses, tangles of misfolded protein and immune cell activation, even during very early stages of disease well before debilitating clinical signs are apparent. This suggests that if neurodegeneration is treated early enough, drugs designed to delay the progress of these diseases by either repairing the early damage and loss of neurons, or protecting neuron functionality from further insult, may be efficacious. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. They are particularly numerous within neurons where many are expressed with high specificity, which suggests that they have <span class="hlt">important</span> roles in the healthy brain. Indeed, miRNAs are essential for the post-mitotic survival of neurons, implying a crucial role in survival and neuroprotection. This has focused attention on exploring the use of miRNA-based drugs as a means to correct cellular abnormalities and maintain neuronal function in neurodegenerative diseases. These efforts are spurred on by the rapid progress to clinical trials for a number of miRNA-based therapies for other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, fibrosis and cancer. PMID:25405898</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1114932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1114932"><span id="translatedtitle">Rehabilitation in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moskowitz, E</p> <p>1975-03-01</p> <p>General principles in the rehabilitation of a patient with an <span class="hlt">extremity</span> fracture include: treat the patient, not the x-ray; move all joints not immobilized; prevent disuse atrophy; use gravity to assist in mobilizing a joint; stabilize proximal joints to avoid reverse action of biarticular muscles; permit early protected weight bearing until adequate joint mobility is achieved; appropriately instruct the patient in a home program, and avoid all stretching. PMID:1114932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5094S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5094S"><span id="translatedtitle">Near future changes of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and compound <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the regional scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sedlmeier, Katrin; Feldmann, Hendrik; Schädler, Gerd</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Reliable knowledge of near future changes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and compound <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on the regional scale is of great <span class="hlt">importance</span> for impact studies and planning of adaptation/mitigation strategies. Different types of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> might intensify each other, e.g. heat waves and droughts via evapotranspiration and heat flux. Compared to projections for the end of the century, the climate change and variation signals for the near future are weaker and more contaminated by to natural variations. On the other hand several studies (e.g. Feldmann et al. [1]) have shown that <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are likely to undergo more pronounced changes than mean values. To derive reliable estimates of these changes, ensembles of simulations are a useful method since the larger number of data allows for a better estimate of probability density function parameters and higher signal-to-noise ratios which are especially needed for the analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and compound <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Furthermore, using ensembles enables an assessment of the uncertainty of the deduced changes. Our work is based on an ensemble of high resolution regional climate simulations with a resolution of 7 km with the COSMO-CLM regional climate model using different global driving data. Our ensemble is enlarged by results from the ENSEMBLES project, thus also including different regional and global driving models. Changes between a control period (1971-200) and the near future (2011-2040) are assessed with a special focus on central Europe. The analysis focuses on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events related to temperature and precipitation such as heat and cold waves or dry spells with a subsequent examination of compound <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Compound <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are defined as the simultaneous or successive occurrence of two or more <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events (IPCC Special Report on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, 2012), e.g. the simultaneous occurrence of dry periods and heat waves or cold spells and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> are expressed in terms of return values and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geomagnetic storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..75a2074S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..75a2074S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> wind turbine response during operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sørensen, John D.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response values is very <span class="hlt">important</span> for structural design of wind turbines. Due to the influence of control system and nonlinear structural behavior the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response is usually assessed based on simulation of turbulence time series. In this paper the problem of statistical load extrapolation is considered using techniques from structural reliability theory. Different simulation techniques to estimate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response characteristics are described and compared, including crude Monte Carlo simulation, <span class="hlt">Importance</span> Sampling, and splitting methods such as the Russian Roulette and the Double and Clump algorithm. A statistically consistent technique is described for including statistical uncertainty and assessing the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 50-year response using simulated time series and conditioned on the model parameters. The peak over threshold method together with the Maximum Likelihood Method provides a tool to obtain consistent estimates incl. the statistical uncertainty. An illustrative example indicates that the statistical uncertainty is <span class="hlt">important</span> compared to the coefficient of variation of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response when the number of 10 minutes simulations at each mean wind speed is limited to 10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090102&hterms=Barometric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBarometric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090102&hterms=Barometric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBarometric"><span id="translatedtitle">Acclimatization and tolerance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>West, J. B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>During the last ten years, two major experiments have elucidated the factors determining acclimatization and tolerance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude (over 7000 m). These were the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest, and the low pressure chamber simulation, Operation Everest II. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> hyperventilation is one of the most <span class="hlt">important</span> responses to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude. Its chief value is that it allows the climber to maintain an alveolar PO2 which keeps the arterial PO2 above dangerously low levels. Even so, there is evidence of residual impairment of central nervous system function after ascents to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude, and maximal oxygen consumption falls precipitously above 7000 m. The term 'acclimatization' is probably not appropriate for altitudes above 8000 m, because the body steadily deteriorates at these altitudes. Tolerance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude is critically dependent on barometric pressure, and even seasonal changes in pressure probably affect climbing performance near the summit of Mt Everest. Supplementary oxygen always improves exercise tolerance at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitudes, and rescue oxygen should be available on climbing expeditions to 8000 m peaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048196"><span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Whether they are exposed to <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles. PMID:26048196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779737','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779737"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Regional Anesthesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1032651','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1032651"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shu, Jinfu</p> <p>2012-02-07</p> <p>We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ858952.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ858952.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming" in a Bioinformatics Class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelley, Scott; Alger, Christianna; Deutschman, Douglas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">importance</span> of Bioinformatics tools and methodology in modern biological research underscores the need for robust and effective courses at the college level. This paper describes such a course designed on the principles of cooperative learning based on a computer software industry production model called "<span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming" (EP). The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861339"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> luminosity imaging conical spectrograph</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Mitchell, M. D.; Chandler, K. M.; Douglass, J. D.; McBride, R. D.; Jackson, D. P.; Hammer, D. A.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>A new configuration for a two-dimensional (2D) imaging x-ray spectrograph based on a conically bent crystal is introduced: <span class="hlt">extreme</span> luminosity imaging conical spectrograph (ELICS). The ELICS configuration has <span class="hlt">important</span> advantages over spectrographs that are based on cylindrically and spherically bent crystals. The main advantages are that a wide variety of large-aperture crystals can be used, and any desired magnification in the spatial direction (the direction orthogonal to spectral dispersion) can be achieved by the use of different experimental arrangements. The ELICS can be set up so that the detector plane is almost perpendicular to the incident rays, a good configuration for time-resolved spectroscopy. ELICSs with mica crystals of 45x90 mm{sup 2} aperture have been successfully used for imaging on the XP and COBRA pulsed power generators, yielding spectra with spatial resolution in 2D of Z pinches and X pinches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.632a2058H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.632a2058H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hudson, Hugh S.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “<span class="hlt">extreme</span> events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLB..743...87G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLB..743...87G"><span id="translatedtitle">"Triangular" <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dilatonic dyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Khramtsov, Mikhail; Orlov, Dmitri</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Explicit dyonic solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for three particular values of the dilaton coupling constant: a = 0 , 1 ,√{ 3}. However, numerical evidence was presented on existence of dyons admitting an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> limit in theories with more general sequence of dilaton couplings a =√{ n (n + 1) / 2 } labeled by an integer n. Apart from the lower members n = 0 , 1 , 2, this family of theories does not have motivation from supergravity/string theory, and analytical origin of the above sequence remained unclear so far. We fill the gap showing that this formula follows from analyticity of the dilaton function at the AdS2 ×S2 event horizon of the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dyonic black hole, with n being the leading dilaton power in the Taylor expansion. We also derive generalization of this rule for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, planar and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113513T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113513T"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of victims in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very <span class="hlt">important</span> problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea wave events are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SES.EB004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SES.EB004S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Scale Computational Astrophysics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shoemaker, Deirdre</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.H43N..02W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.H43N..02W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> via Bivariate <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We introduce methodology from statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC13C..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC13C..01G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events: dynamics, statistics and prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghil, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In this talk, I will review work on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, their causes and consequences, by a group of European and American researchers involved in a three-year project on these topics. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two <span class="hlt">important</span> results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NPGeo..18..295G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NPGeo..18..295G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events: dynamics, statistics and prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghil, M.; Yiou, P.; Hallegatte, S.; Malamud, B. D.; Naveau, P.; Soloviev, A.; Friederichs, P.; Keilis-Borok, V.; Kondrashov, D.; Kossobokov, V.; Mestre, O.; Nicolis, C.; Rust, H. W.; Shebalin, P.; Vrac, M.; Witt, A.; Zaliapin, I.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>We review work on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, their causes and consequences, by a group of European and American researchers involved in a three-year project on these topics. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two <span class="hlt">important</span> results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6148E..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6148E..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">New solutions for innovative <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large telescopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco; Salinari, Piero</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The new generation of <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Telescopes, may require the identification of new construction technologies, in order to improve the stiffness to weight ratio of the structure, to introduce higher damping while maintaining under control the construction and maintenance costs. The identification of new construction technologies and the consequent development of the materials used, may allow to obtain a leading technological instrument able to meet also the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> scientific requests, and able to adapt to the new requests that might be raised along the life of the telescope. The control of the weight of the structure is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span> also for the dimensioning of the auxiliary structures such as drives, bearings, shafts, hard stops, counterweight, stow pins, hydrostatics support systems, etc., for energy management, and for the problems related to pre-assembly, disassembly in factory and erection on site. In this preliminary study we consider a light weight floating telescope structure made of composite materials and plastic foams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..01I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..01I"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..153N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..153N"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral electrojet indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Masao; Yoneda, Asato; Oda, Mitsunobu; Tsubouchi, Ken</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> auroral electrojet activities can damage electrical power grids due to large induced currents in the Earth, degrade radio communications and navigation systems due to the ionospheric disturbances and cause polar-orbiting satellite anomalies due to the enhanced auroral electron precipitation. Statistical estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral electrojet activities is an <span class="hlt">important</span> factor in space weather research. For this estimation, we utilize <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory (EVT), which focuses on the statistical behavior in the tail of a distribution. As a measure of auroral electrojet activities, auroral electrojet indices AL, AU, and AE, are used, which describe the maximum current strength of the westward and eastward auroral electrojets and the sum of the two oppositely directed in the auroral latitude ionosphere, respectively. We provide statistical evidence for finite upper limits to AL and AU and estimate the annual expected number and probable intensity of their <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We detect two different types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> AE events; therefore, application of the appropriate EVT analysis to AE is difficult.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212295"><span id="translatedtitle">Detectors in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blaj, G.; Carini, G.; Carron, S.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.</p> <p>2015-08-06</p> <p>Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 10<sup>12</sup> - 10<sup>13</sup> photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This <span class="hlt">extreme</span> detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872884','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography machine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361517"><span id="translatedtitle">Stacked <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Learning Machines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed. PMID:25361517</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..652J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..652J"><span id="translatedtitle">Future population exposure to US heat <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Bryan; O'Neill, Brian C.; McDaniel, Larry; McGinnis, Seth; Mearns, Linda O.; Tebaldi, Claudia</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> heat events are likely to become more frequent in the coming decades owing to climate change. Exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat depends not only on changing climate, but also on changes in the size and spatial distribution of the human population. Here we provide a new projection of population exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat for the continental United States that takes into account both of these factors. Using projections from a suite of regional climate models driven by global climate models and forced with the SRES A2 scenario and a spatially explicit population projection consistent with the socioeconomic assumptions of that scenario, we project changes in exposure into the latter half of the twenty-first century. We find that US population exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat increases four- to sixfold over observed levels in the late twentieth century, and that changes in population are as <span class="hlt">important</span> as changes in climate in driving this outcome. Aggregate population growth, as well as redistribution of the population across larger US regions, strongly affects outcomes whereas smaller-scale spatial patterns of population change have smaller effects. The relative <span class="hlt">importance</span> of population and climate as drivers of exposure varies across regions of the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738d0006S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738d0006S"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding water <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with caution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stehlík, Milan; Stehlíková, Silvia; Torres, Sebastián</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We discuss a sensitive topic, how to scientifically estimate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in water quality managements. Such <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are incorporating establishment of thresholds or levels of certain chemicals in the drinking water. In particular, we address the water fluoridation and quality of drinking water in Chile. Statistical approaches demonstrating the necessary background of water manager will be given in a survey exposition to establish link between statistics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613307H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613307H"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather disasters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Single disasters related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain <span class="hlt">important</span> challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather event, and the associated consequences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.B71B0741M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.B71B0741M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments: Why NASA?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, M. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Life on our planet is the only known example in the universe and so we are relegated to this planet for the study of life. However, life may be a natural consequence of planet formation, and so the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life may be greatly informed by planetary exploration. Astrobiology has adopted several approaches to study life on Earth, for deducing our origins, for determining the likelihood of life elsewhere, and for enabling the search for evidence of past or present life. The first approach has been the Exobiology Program, centered around understanding the origins of life and which supports individual investigator research. Second has been the construction of consortia-type research in which researchers from different disciplines focus on a larger problem. This structure began with NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training and has grown to include the Astrobiology Institute - a collection of competitively selected groups of researchers attacking problems in Astrobiology as individual teams and as a consolidated Institute. With the formation of an intellectual basis for exploring for life elsewhere, Astrobiology has initiated the competitive research and development program in instrument development (Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development [ASTID] Program) that would enable future mission instruments for the exploration of planetary bodies in the search for prebiotic chemistry, habitable environments (past or present), biomarkers, and possibly life itself. However, the act of exploring requires robust instrumentation, mobile robotic platforms, efficient operations, and a high level of autonomy. To this end, Astrobiology has started a new research activity that promotes scientifically-driven robotic exploration of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments on Earth that are analogous to suspected habitable environments on other planetary bodies. The program is called Astrobiology Science and Technology for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.2909Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.2909Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zscheischler, J.; Reichstein, M.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Mahecha, M. D.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are still not well documented and in the focus of this paper. Specifically, we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (i.e., statistically unusual increases in carbon uptake rates) and negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (i.e., statistically unusual decreases in carbon uptake rates) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are power-law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more <span class="hlt">important</span> role for the overall impact of GPP <span class="hlt">extremes</span> compared to the durations or maximal GPP. An analysis of possible causes across continents indicates that most negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in GPP can be attributed clearly to water scarcity, whereas <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures play a secondary role. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we also identify fire as an <span class="hlt">important</span> driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events supports our results to a large extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1869Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1869Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zscheischler, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Reichstein, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake) and negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (decrease in uptake) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more <span class="hlt">important</span> role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an <span class="hlt">important</span> driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events supports our results to a large extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC11A0123W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC11A0123W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall Events Over Southern Africa: Assessment of a Climate Model to Reproduce Daily <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. This issue is of particular <span class="hlt">importance</span> for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of a state-of-the-art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce <span class="hlt">extremes</span> has been assessed, idealised regions of SST anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model's domain size are firstly presented. Then simulations of current climate from the model, operating in both regional and global mode, are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Thirdly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will be assessed, again by a comparison with <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from the MIRA dataset. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are briefly presented, suggesting associations between rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and both local and remote SST anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850062617&hterms=nitrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnitrite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850062617&hterms=nitrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnitrite"><span id="translatedtitle">Denitrification by <span class="hlt">extremely</span> halophilic bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+violence&pg=6&id=EJ813794','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+violence&pg=6&id=EJ813794"><span id="translatedtitle">Gender, Education, <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, <span class="hlt">extremism</span> and security. After defining <span class="hlt">extremism</span> and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43N..05R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43N..05R"><span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate Bayesian Models of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahill-Marier, B.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.; Farnham, D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Accounting for spatial heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall has <span class="hlt">important</span> ramifications in hydrological design and climate models alike. Traditional methods, including areal reduction factors and kriging, are sensitive to catchment shape assumptions and return periods, and do not explicitly model spatial dependence between between data points. More recent spatially dense rainfall simulators depend on newer data sources such as radar and may struggle to reproduce <span class="hlt">extremes</span> because of physical assumptions in the model and short historical records. Rain gauges offer the longest historical record, key when considering rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and changes over time, and particularly relevant in today's environment of designing for climate change. In this paper we propose a probabilistic approach of accounting for spatial dependence using the lengthy but spatially disparate hourly rainfall network in the greater New York City area. We build a hierarchical Bayesian model allowing <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at one station to co-vary with concurrent rainfall fields occurring at other stations. Subsequently we pool across the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall fields of all stations, and demonstrate that the expected catchment-wide events are significantly lower when considering spatial fields instead of maxima-only fields. We additionally demonstrate the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of using concurrent spatial fields, rather than annual maxima, in producing covariance matrices that describe true storm dynamics. This approach is also unique in that it considers short duration storms - from one hour to twenty-four hours - rather than the daily values typically derived from rainfall gauges. The same methodology can be extended to include the radar fields available in the past decade. The hierarchical multilevel approach lends itself easily to integration of long-record parameters and short-record parameters at a station or regional level. In addition climate covariates can be introduced to support the relationship of spatial covariance with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64c5101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64c5101B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> properties of random trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Majumdar, Satya N.</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>We investigate <span class="hlt">extremal</span> statistical properties such as the maximal and the minimal heights of randomly generated binary trees. By analyzing the master evolution equations we show that the cumulative distribution of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> heights approaches a traveling wave form. The wave front in the minimal case is governed by the small-<span class="hlt">extremal</span>-height tail of the distribution, and conversely, the front in the maximal case is governed by the large-<span class="hlt">extremal</span>-height tail of the distribution. We determine several statistical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> height distribution analytically. In particular, the expected minimal and maximal heights grow logarithmically with the tree size, N, hmin~vmin ln N, and hmax~vmax ln N, with vmin=0.373365... and vmax=4.31107..., respectively. Corrections to this asymptotic behavior are of order O(ln ln N).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018280','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018280"><span id="translatedtitle">Representing <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in Agricultural Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruane, Alex</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AgMIP and related projects are conducting several activities to understand and improve crop model response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This involves crop model studies as well as the generation of climate datasets and scenarios more capable of capturing <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Models are typically less responsive to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events than we observe, and miss several forms of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Models also can capture interactive effects between climate change and climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Additional work is needed to understand response of markets and economic systems to food shocks. AgMIP is planning a Coordinated Global and Regional Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Production and Food Security with an aim to inform the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005607','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005607"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Mean and Its Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swaroop, R.; Brownlow, J. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value statistics obtained from normally distributed data are considered. An <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean is defined as the mean of p-th probability truncated normal distribution. An unbiased estimate of this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean and its large sample distribution are derived. The distribution of this estimate even for very large samples is found to be nonnormal. Further, as the sample size increases, the variance of the unbiased estimate converges to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. The computer program used to obtain the density and distribution functions of the standardized unbiased estimate, and the confidence intervals of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean for any data are included for ready application. An example is included to demonstrate the usefulness of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012sptz.prop90192R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012sptz.prop90192R"><span id="translatedtitle">Lightcurves of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Debris Disks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieke, George; Meng, Huan; Su, Kate</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We have recently discovered that some planetary debris disks with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fractional luminosities are variable on the timescale of a few years. This behavior opens a new possibility to understand planet building. Two of the known variable disks are around solar-like stars in the age range of 30 to 100+ Myr, which is the expected era of the final stages of terrestrial planet building. Such variability can be attributed to violent collisions (up to ones on the scale of the Moon-forming event between the proto-Earth and another proto-planet). The collisional cascades that are the aftermaths of these events can produce large clouds of tiny dust grains, possibly even condensed from silica vapor. A Spitzer pilot program has obtained the lightcurve of such a debris disk and caught two minor outbursts. Here we propose to continue the lightcurve monitoring with higher sampling rates and to expand it to more disks. The proposed time domain observations are a new dimension of debris disk studies that can bring unique insight to their evolution, providing <span class="hlt">important</span> constraints on the collisional and dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A45A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A45A..01G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events: Dynamics, Statistics and Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghil, M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>In this talk, I will review some recent work on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, their causes and consequences. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two <span class="hlt">important</span> results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts. US GDP data used in validating the vulnerability paradox found in a Non-Equilibrium Dynamical Model (NEDyM) for studying the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on a dynamic economy. The paradoxical result is that natural hazards affect more strongly an economy in expansion than when it is in a recession. The connection to the macroeconomic data is given by fluctuation-dissipation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..864N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..864N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall In A City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nkemdirim, Lawrence</p> <p></p> <p> industrialization. The development of small cloud droplets into larger particles requires time. A single thunderstorm cell has a mean development time of about 20 minutes and a life time of around 45 minutes with a mean mind of 10m/s, an air parcel would travel 12 km from the beginning of droplet formation to the first precipitation. That means that the precipitation field is shifted downwind of settlements. It could also explain the the higher frequency of the trace to small amounts observed in Calgary since those events occur under relatively calm weather. Whereas the majority of studies have focused on summer convectional type events, little appears to have been done on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events on which most structural designs are based. Is there a detectable urban bias in these events? Do urban areas intensify them? What are the implications of point distribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events on flood frequency across a city. This paper examines the spatial distribution of the mean annual maximum rainfall event in Calgary, Canada, with a view to determining the relative contribution of geographical setting and urbanisation to point patterns. The data are subsequently maximized to produce maps of probable maximum precipitation for the city. The major results are as follows: (a) position along storm path is the most <span class="hlt">important</span> variable determining maximum rainfall hazard, (b) higher grounds receive up to seventy percent more maximum rainfall than values based on spatial trend, (c) urban structure and geometry correlate negatively with maximum rainfall intensity, however, (d) zones of maximum flood peaks are found down slope of areas of maximum precipitation increasing flood hazard in the inner city in spite of its lower precipitation. Drainage networks based on point rainfall patterns have proved grossly inadequate for flood mitigation. The new design based on this study recognizes the strong moisture gradients caused by rapid movement of water and other elements down slope. Snow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058280"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonparametric Spatial Models for <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>: Application to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fuentes, Montserrat; Henry, John; Reich, Brian</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Estimating the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature events is difficult because of limited records across time and the need to extrapolate the distributions of these events, as opposed to just the mean, to locations where observations are not available. Another related issue is the need to characterize the uncertainty in the estimated probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events at different locations. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are well-developed, extending these tools to model spatial <span class="hlt">extreme</span> data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order to make inference about spatial <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, we introduce a new nonparametric model for <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We present a Dirichlet-based copula model that is a flexible alternative to parametric copula models such as the normal and t-copula. The proposed modelling approach is fitted using a Bayesian framework that allow us to take into account different sources of uncertainty in the data and models. We apply our methods to annual maximum temperature values in the east-south-central United States. PMID:24058280</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38..447D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38..447D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitability in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre</p> <p></p> <p>A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than <span class="hlt">important</span> to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most <span class="hlt">important</span>. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to <span class="hlt">important</span> conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..1112731O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..1112731O"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">extremes</span> modeling applied to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation data in the state of Paraná</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olinda, R. A.; Blanchet, J.; dos Santos, C. A. C.; Ozaki, V. A.; Ribeiro, P. J., Jr.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Most of the mathematical models developed for rare events are based on probabilistic models for <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate and multivariate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are well developed, the extension of these tools to model spatial <span class="hlt">extremes</span> includes an area of very active research nowadays. A natural approach to such a modeling is the theory of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spatial and the max-stable process, characterized by the extension of infinite dimensions of multivariate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, and making it possible then to incorporate the existing correlation functions in geostatistics and therefore verify the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dependence by means of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> coefficient and the Madogram. This work describes the application of such processes in modeling the spatial maximum dependence of maximum monthly rainfall from the state of Paraná, based on historical series observed in weather stations. The proposed models consider the Euclidean space and a transformation referred to as space weather, which may explain the presence of directional effects resulting from synoptic weather patterns. This method is based on the theorem proposed for de Haan and on the models of Smith and Schlather. The isotropic and anisotropic behavior of these models is also verified via Monte Carlo simulation. Estimates are made through pairwise likelihood maximum and the models are compared using the Takeuchi Information Criterion. By modeling the dependence of spatial maxima, applied to maximum monthly rainfall data from the state of Paraná, it was possible to identify directional effects resulting from meteorological phenomena, which, in turn, are <span class="hlt">important</span> for proper management of risks and environmental disasters in countries with its economy heavily dependent on agribusiness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710997P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710997P"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> into discharge <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a changing climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piras, Monica; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Deidda, Roberto; Vivoni, Enrique R.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> sub-basins with loamy soils. Hence, both soil properties and topography play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in the basin response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/groups/lower.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/groups/lower.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Muscles of the Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611667','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611667"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in computational turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yeung, P. K.; Zhai, X. M.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We have performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box with 8,1923 grid points. These are the largest simulations performed, to date, aimed at improving our understanding of turbulence small-scale structure. We present some basic statistical results and focus on “extreme” events (whose magnitudes are several tens of thousands the mean value). The structure of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is quite different from that of moderately large events (of the order of 10 times the mean value). In particular, intense vorticity occurs primarily in the form of tubes for moderately large events whereas it is much more “chunky” for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events (though probably overlaid on the traditional vortex tubes). We track the temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and find that they are generally short-lived. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy occur simultaneously in space and remain nearly colocated during their evolution. PMID:26424452</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...54W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...54W"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of dynamically downscaled <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature using a spatially-aggregated generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jiali; Han, Yuefeng; Stein, Michael L.; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Huang, Whitney K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The weather research and forecast (WRF) model downscaling skill in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum daily temperature is evaluated by using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution. While the GEV distribution has been used extensively in climatology and meteorology for estimating probabilities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, accurately estimating GEV parameters based on data from a single pixel can be difficult, even with fairly long data records. This work proposes a simple method assuming that the shape parameter, the most difficult of the three parameters to estimate, does not vary over a relatively large region. This approach is applied to evaluate 31-year WRF-downscaled <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum temperature through comparison with North American regional reanalysis (NARR) data. Uncertainty in GEV parameter estimates and the statistical significance in the differences of estimates between WRF and NARR are accounted for by conducting a novel bootstrap procedure that makes no assumption of temporal or spatial independence within a year, which is especially <span class="hlt">important</span> for climate data. Despite certain biases over parts of the United States, overall, WRF shows good agreement with NARR in the spatial pattern and magnitudes of GEV parameter estimates. Both WRF and NARR show a significant increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum temperature over the southern Great Plains and southeastern United States in January and over the western United States in July. The GEV model shows clear benefits from the regionally constant shape parameter assumption, for example, leading to estimates of the location and scale parameters of the model that show coherent spatial patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Prama..53..405.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Prama..53..405."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of nuclear structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>With the advent of medium and large gamma detector arrays, it is now possible to look at nuclear structure at high rotational forces. The role of pairing correlations and their eventual breakdown, along with the shell effects have showed us the interesting physics for nuclei at high spins - superdeformation, shape co-existence, yrast traps, alignments and their dramatic effects on nuclear structure and so on. Nuclear structure studies have recently become even more exciting, due to efforts and possibilities to reach nuclei far off from the stability valley. Coupling of gamma ray arrays with 'filters', like neutron wall, charged particle detector array, gamma ray total energy and multiplicity castles, conversion electron spectrometers etc gives a great handle to study nuclei produced online with 'low' cross-sections. Recently we studied, nuclei in mass region 80 using an array of 8 germanium detectors in conjunction with the recoil mass analyser, HIRA at the Nuclear Science Centre and, most unexpectedly came across the phenomenon of identical bands, with two quasi-particle difference. The discovery of magnetic rotation is another highlight. Our study of light In nucleus, 107In brought us face to face with the 'dipole' bands. I plan to discuss some of these aspects. There is also an immensely <span class="hlt">important</span> development - that of the 'radioactive ion beams'. The availability of RIB, will probably very dramatically influence our 'conventional' concept of nuclear structure. The exotic shapes of these exotic nuclei and some of their expected properties will also be touched upon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1228081','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1228081"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Energy in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David; Cai, Lixue</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on <span class="hlt">imports</span>. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....85...64L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....85...64L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Learning Machines for spatial environmental data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The use of machine learning algorithms has increased in a wide variety of domains (from finance to biocomputing and astronomy), and nowadays has a significant impact on the geoscience community. In most real cases geoscience data modelling problems are multivariate, high dimensional, variable at several spatial scales, and are generated by non-linear processes. For such complex data, the spatial prediction of continuous (or categorical) variables is a challenging task. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of the recently developed <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Learning Machine (ELM) for environmental data analysis, modelling and spatial prediction purposes. An <span class="hlt">important</span> contribution of this study deals with an application of a generic self-consistent methodology for environmental data driven modelling based on <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Learning Machine. Both real and simulated data are used to demonstrate applicability of ELM at different stages of the study to understand and justify the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4857228','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4857228"><span id="translatedtitle">Resuscitation of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants - controversies and current evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, <span class="hlt">importance</span> of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170925"><span id="translatedtitle">Resuscitation of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants - controversies and current evidence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, <span class="hlt">importance</span> of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51C1632P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51C1632P"><span id="translatedtitle">Disaster Risks Reduction for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Natural Hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>. Integration of these low-probability, high-impact events in DRR requires an approach focused on resilience and antifragility, as well as the ability to cope with, and recover from failure of infrastructure and social systems. Resilience does not primarily result from the robustness of infrastructure but mainly is a function of the social capital. While it is <span class="hlt">important</span> to understand the hazards (the contribution of geosciences), it is equally <span class="hlt">important</span> to understand the processes that let us cope with the hazards, or lead to failure (the contribution of social sciences and engineering). For the latter, we need a joint effort of social sciences and engineering and a revised science-policy relationship. Democratizing knowledge about <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geohazards is very <span class="hlt">important</span> in order to inform deliberations of DRR through increased resilience and reduced fragility. The current science-society dialog is not fully capable of supporting deliberative governance. Most scientific knowledge is created independent of those who could put it to use, and a transition to co-design and co-development of knowledge involving a broad stakeholder base is necessary for DRR, particularly for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This transition may have the consequence of more responsibility and even liability for science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC44A..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC44A..02P"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Weather Events and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> ENSO States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perlwitz, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Xu, T.; Hoell, A.; Cheng, L.; Wolter, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To what extent are the risks of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events over the contiguous US, such as heavy precipitation, heat and cold waves, conditioned by the state of tropical east Pacific SSTs? Further, do <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnitudes of El Niño and La Niña events exert a unique and particularly strong controlling effect on weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>? Here, we utilize both observations and multi-model large ensemble historical simulations to characterize the behavior of 5-day maximum precipitation distributions. We focus on relations between ENSO impacts on seasonal means and weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and explore the distinction between effects based on ENSO phase and intensity. For the cold season (November to April), overall ENSO impacts on mean precipitation are shown to be consistent with observations. This signal includes enhanced seasonal mean precipitation over the southern part of the U.S. and central Great Plains during El Niño, and enhanced seasonal mean precipitation over the Midwest during La Nina. We further demonstrate how these signals change under the influence of the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ENSO events, conditions that are difficult to verify from observations owing to small sample sizes, but are modeled via large ensemble methods. The statistics of 5-day maximum precipitation, with a focus on 20-year return levels that characterizes rare but potentially damaging events, are examined. We demonstrate substantial differences in changes in the risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 5-day precipitation and the seasonal mean precipitation signal, especially in such regions as California, and the western Great Plains including the Front Range of the Rockies from Montana to New Mexico. The plausibility of such behavior is discussed via physical considerations and by examining the structural uncertainty in such outcomes across three different climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308435"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan</p> <p>2014-08-14</p> <p>Studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1609...34B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1609...34B"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6428P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6428P"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winds in Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petersen, Gudrun Nina</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Iceland is a fairly windy country, due to it's location adjacent the North Atlantic storm track. The orography of the island is rugged, mountains are steep and fjords and valleys narrow, and this impacts local winds. Thus, mountain wind phenomena such as low level jets, gap winds, down-slope wind storms, mountain waves and wind wakes are common. To increase our knowledge of the behaviour of wind in Iceland an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value analysis was conducted based on observations from 61 automatic weather stations, applying the Peak Over Threshold technique on maximum daily wind speed and maximum daily wind gust at each site. The time series included at least 10 years of data and the threshold was chosen as the 0.9 quantile of maximum mean wind speed/maximum wind gust at each location. Among the results is the larger impact the local orography has on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind gusts compared to the mean wind. With <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value models in place, a few significant weather events were selected from recent years and the observed wind speeds compared to the models in order to evaluate how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> the events were and how large area they impacted. Actually, in most of these events the observed wind speed only turned out to be <span class="hlt">extreme</span> at a few stations, emphasising the local effects. However, in an event from December 2007, when the observed maximum wind speed exceeded 23 m/s in most of western Iceland, the event was estimated as rare at a number of weather stations. Clearly this gives indication for further studying this particular weather event. An automatic system has been set up, running once an hour, comparing observed wind measurements to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value models and producing maps of the return periods for all sites. This system gives us the possibility to, on a daily basis, evaluate the <span class="hlt">extremeness</span> of each situation and simultaneously increase our knowledge of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind behaviour in Iceland. This work is a foundation for studying changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winds in Iceland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17568257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17568257"><span id="translatedtitle">The incidence of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries in endoscopy nurses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drysdale, Susan A</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Endoscopy nurses are at risk for upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injury because of the nature of their work, yet there has been little attention to this problem in the literature. The purpose of this study was to explore whether endoscopy nurses commonly experience upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries and to identify factors associated with upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries in this population. Results reveal that for this sample, endoscopy nurses working full-time are at the highest risk for injury, suggesting the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of ergonomics in the endoscopy suite. PMID:17568257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33g5015L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33g5015L"><span id="translatedtitle">Transverse deformations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> horizons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We consider the inverse problem of determining all <span class="hlt">extreme</span> black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112317W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112317W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over southern Africa: assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular <span class="hlt">importance</span> for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124695"><span id="translatedtitle">Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed <span class="hlt">extremities</span>: a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed <span class="hlt">extremities</span> that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very <span class="hlt">important</span> and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology. PMID:12124695</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032525','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032525"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Bimodality of ENSO Cycle <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Robert M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>On the basis of sea surface temperature in the El Nino 3.4 region (5 deg. N.,-5 deg. S., 120-170 deg. W.) during the interval of 1950-1997, Kevin Trenberth previously has identified some 16 El Nino and 10 La Nina, these 26 events representing the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the quasi-periodic El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Runs testing shows that the duration, recurrence period, and sequencing of these <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vary randomly. Hence, the decade of the 1990's, especially for El Nino, is not significantly different from that of previous decadal epochs, at least, on the basis of the frequency of onsets of ENSO <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Additionally, the distribution of duration for both El Nino and La Nina looks strikingly bimodal, each consisting of two preferred modes, about 8- and 16-mo long for El Nino and about 9- and 18-mo long for La Nina, as does the distribution of the recurrence period for El Nino, consisting of two preferred modes about 21- and 50-mo long. Scatterplots of the recurrence period versus duration for El Nino are found to be statistically <span class="hlt">important</span>, displaying preferential associations that link shorter (longer) duration with shorter (longer) recurrence periods. Because the last onset of El Nino occurred in April 1997 and the event was of longer than average duration, onset of the next anticipated El Nino is not expected until February 2000 or later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6730W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6730W"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic similarity, comparative hydrology and hydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagener, T.; Laaha, G.; Koffler, D.; Singh, R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Recent years have brought a renewed focus on the issue of hydrologic similarity. What makes two catchments similar and what can we do with this understanding? The reason for this issue being so <span class="hlt">important</span> lies at least partially in the need for generalization of results in a scientific field, which is limited through the large heterogeneity in our environment. The issue of hydrologic similarity is of course as old as hydrology itself, however, we believe that taking stock is needed from time to time to guide comparative hydrology efforts that have the potential to bring structure into the field of catchment hydrology. Apart from that, catchment similarity is the rational behind any attempt of predicting streamflow at ungauged basins, and a better understanding and definition of hydrologic similarity will enhance our ability to estimate water resources in absence of stream gauges. In this talk we focus on signatures of hydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, i.e. flood and low flow characteristics of streamflow. Can similarity concepts relate catchment behavior under both high and low flow <span class="hlt">extremes</span>? In how far do our understanding and our predictive capability regarding hydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> benefit from a holistic few of individual catchments, and from a comparative analysis between catchment? We will review different studies and present a meta analysis to highlight the proven and the potential benefit of taking a broader view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000044331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000044331"><span id="translatedtitle">On The Bimodality of ENSO Cycle <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Robert M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>On the basis of sea surface temperature in the El Nino 3.4 region (5N.-5S., 120-170W.) during the interval of 1950-1997, Kevin Trenberth previously has identified some 16 El Nino and 10 La Nina, these 26 events representing the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the quasi-periodic El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Runs testing shows that the duration, recurrence period, and sequencing of these <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vary randomly. Hence, the decade of the 1990's, especially for El Nino, is not significantly different from that of previous decadal epochs, at least, on the basis of the frequency of onsets of ENSO <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Additionally, the distribution of duration for both El Nino and La Nina looks strikingly bimodal, each consisting of two preferred modes, about 8- and 16-months long for El Nino and about 9- and 18-months long for La Nina, as does the distribution of the recurrence period for El Nino, consisting of two preferred modes about 21- and 50- mo long. Scatterplots of the recurrence period versus duration for El Nino are found to be statistically <span class="hlt">important</span>, displaying preferential associations that link shorter (longer) duration with shorter (longer) recurrence periods. Because the last onset of El Nino occurred in April 1997 and the event was of longer than average duration, onset of the next anticipated El Nino is not expected until February 2000 or later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901403"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional metagenomics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mirete, Salvador; Morgante, Verónica; González-Pastor, José Eduardo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The bioprospecting of enzymes that operate under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions is of particular interest for many biotechnological and industrial processes. Nevertheless, there is a considerable limitation to retrieve novel enzymes as only a small fraction of microorganisms derived from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions. Functional metagenomics has the advantage of not requiring the cultivation of microorganisms or previous sequence information to known genes, thus representing a valuable approach for mining enzymes with new features. In this review, we summarize studies showing how functional metagenomics was employed to retrieve genes encoding for proteins involved not only in molecular adaptation and resistance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental conditions but also in other enzymatic activities of biotechnological interest. PMID:26901403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.369..181K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.369..181K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> hydrological events and security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Economic losses caused by hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> - floods and droughts - have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security - the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011675','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011675"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Auroral Charging Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Parker, Linda Neergard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The highest level spacecraft charging observed in low Earth orbit (LEO) occurs when spacecraft are exposed to energetic auroral electrons. Since auroral charging has been identified as a mechanism responsible for on-orbit anomalies and even possible satellite failures it is <span class="hlt">important</span> to consider <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral charging events as design and test environments for spacecraft to be used in high inclination LEO orbits. This paper will report on studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral charging events using data from the SSJ/4 and SSJ/5 precipitating electron and ion sensors on the Defense Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. Early studies of DMSP charging to negative potentials =100 V focused on statistics of the electron environment responsible for charging. Later statistical studies of auroral charging have generally focused on solar cycle dependence of charging behavior and magnitude of the maximum potential and duration of the charging events. We extend these studies to focus on more detailed investigations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> charging event characteristics that are required to evaluate potential threats to spacecraft systems. A collection of example auroral charging events is assembled from the DMSP data set using the criteria that "<span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral charging" is defined as periods with spacecraft negative potentials =400 V. Specific characteristics to be treated include (but are not limited to) maximum and mean potentials, time history of spacecraft potentials through the events, total charging duration and the time potentials exceed voltage thresholds, frame charging/discharging rates, and information on geographic and geomagnetic latitudes at which the events are observed. Finally, we will comment on the implications of these studies for potential auroral charging risks to the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149224','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149224"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions Modeling Workshop Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3217424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3217424"><span id="translatedtitle">Consequences and Costs of Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Injuries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dischinger, PC; Read, KM; Kufera, JA; Kerns, TJ; Burch, CA; Jawed, N; Ho, SM; Burgess, AR</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes are common and have become relatively more <span class="hlt">important</span> as more drivers with newer occupant restraints survive high-energy crashes. CIREN data provide a greater level of clinical detail based on coding guidelines from the Orthopedic Trauma Association. These detailed data, in conjunction with long-term follow-up data obtained from patient interviews, reveal that the most costly and disabling injuries are those involving articular (joint) surfaces, especially those of the ankle/foot. Patients with such injuries exhibit residual physical and psychosocial problems, even at one year post-trauma. PMID:15319134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26429298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26429298"><span id="translatedtitle">Expansion of chemical space for collaborative lead generation and drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> European Lead Factory Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karawajczyk, Anna; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Benningshof, Jorg; Hamza, Daniel; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Pouwer, Kees; Morgentin, Remy; Nelson, Adam; Müller, Gerhard; Piechot, Alexander; Tzalis, Dimitrios</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>High-throughput screening (HTS) represents a major cornerstone of drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>. <span class="hlt">The</span> availability of an innovative, relevant and high-quality compound collection to be screened often dictates the final fate of a drug discovery campaign. Given that the chemical space to be sampled in research programs is practically infinite and sparsely populated, significant efforts and resources need to be invested in the generation and maintenance of a competitive compound collection. The European Lead Factory (ELF) project is addressing this challenge by leveraging the diverse experience and know-how of academic groups and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) engaged in synthetic and/or medicinal chemistry. Here, we describe the novelty, diversity, structural complexity, physicochemical characteristics and overall attractiveness of this first batch of ELF compounds for HTS purposes. PMID:26429298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC22D..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC22D..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Representing <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Events and Resolving Their Implications for Yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huybers, P. J.; Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although it is well recognized that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures occurring at particular growth stages are destructive to yield, there appears substantial scope for improved empirical assessment and simulation of the relationship between temperature and yield. Several anecdotes are discussed. First, a statistical analysis of historical U.S. <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures is provided. It is demonstrated that both reanalysis and model simulations significantly differ from near-surface temperature observations in the frequency and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. This finding supports empirical assessment using near-surface instrumental records and underscores present difficulties in simulating past and predicting future changes. Second, an analysis of the implications of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures on U.S. maize yield is provided where the response is resolved regionally and according to growth stage. Sensitivity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures during silking is found to be uniformly high across the U.S., but the response during grain filling varies spatially, with higher sensitivity in the North. This regional and growth-stage dependent sensitivity implies the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of representing cultivar, planting times, and development rates, and is also indicative of the potential for future changes according to the combined effects of climate and technology. Finally, interaction between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures and agriculture is indicated by analysis showing that historical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures in the U.S. Midwest have cooled in relation to changes in regional productivity, possibly because of greater potential for cooling through evapotranspiration. This interpretation is consistent with changes in crop physiology and management, though also noteworthy is that the moderating influence of increased evapotranspiration on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures appears to be lost during severe drought. Together, these findings indicate that a more accurate assessment of the historical relationship between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures and yield</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651739','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651739"><span id="translatedtitle">Removing obstacles in neuroscience drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">The</span> future path for animal models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Markou, Athina; Chiamulera, Christian; Geyer, Mark A.; Tricklebank, Mark; Steckler, Thomas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Despite great advances in basic neuroscience knowledge, the improved understanding of brain functioning has not yet led to the introduction of truly novel pharmacological approaches to the treatment of central nervous system disorders. This situation has been partly attributed to the difficulty of predicting efficacy in patients based on results from preclinical studies. To address these issues, this review critically discusses the traditional role of animal models in drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>, <span class="hlt">the</span> difficulties encountered, and the reasons why this approach has led to suboptimal utilization of the information animal models provide. The discussion focuses on how animal models can contribute most effectively to translational medicine and drug discovery and the changes needed to increase the probability of achieving clinical benefit. Emphasis is placed on the need to improve the flow of information from the clinical/human domain to the preclinical domain and the benefits of using truly translational measures in both preclinical and clinical testing. Few would dispute the need to move away from the concept of modeling CNS diseases in their entirety using animals. However, the current emphasis on specific dimensions of psychopathology that can be objectively assessed in both clinical populations and animal models has not yet provided concrete examples of successful preclinical-clinical translation in CNS drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>. <span class="hlt">The</span> purpose of this review is to strongly encourage ever more intensive clinical and preclinical interactions to ensure that basic science knowledge gained from improved animal models with good predictive and construct validity readily becomes available to the pharmaceutical industry and clinical researchers to benefit patients as quickly as possible. PMID:18830240</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.7378M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.7378M"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent spatiotemporal patterns in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> across conterminous United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutiibwa, Denis; Vavrus, Steven J.; McAfee, Stephanie A.; Albright, Thomas P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>With a warming climate, understanding the physical dynamics of hot and cold <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events has taken on increased <span class="hlt">importance</span> for public health, infrastructure, ecosystems, food security, and other domains. Here we use a high-resolution spatial and temporal seamless gridded land surface forcing data set to provide an assessment of recent spatiotemporal patterns in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the conterminous United States (CONUS). We asked the following: (1) How are temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> changing across the different regions of CONUS? (2) How do changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vary on seasonal, annual, and decadal scales? (3) How do changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relate to changes in mean conditions? And (4) do <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relate to major modes of ocean-atmosphere variability? We derive a subset of the CLIMDEX <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices from the North American Land Data Assimilation phase 2 forcing data set. While there were warming trends in all indices, daytime temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> warmed more than nighttime. Spring warming was the strongest and most extensive across CONUS, and summer experienced the strongest and most extensive decrease in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Increase in winter warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> appeared weakening relative to the rapid 1950-1990 increase found in previous studies. The Northeast and Midwest experienced the most warming, while the Northwest and North Great Plains saw the least. We found changes in average temperatures were more associated with changes in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Since 2006 there have been 5 years when more than 5% of the U.S. experienced at least 90 warm days, something not observed in the previous 25 years. The unusually warm first decade of 21st century could have been associated with the warm conditions of near El Niño-Southern Oscillation-neutral phase of the decade, and possibly amplified by anthropogenic forcing. The widespread, lengthy, and severe <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hot events documented here during the past three decades underscore the need to implement thoughtful</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047465"><span id="translatedtitle">How Cells Endure <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>One of natures most gripping feats of survival is now better understood. For the first time, Berkeley Lab scientists observed the chemical changes in individual cells that enable them to survive in conditions that should kill them. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/07/cells-endure-<span class="hlt">extremes</span>/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..443I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..443I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation: Increases all round</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ingram, William</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Globally, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall is expected to increase with warming, but regional changes over land have been less certain. Now research shows that this intense precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844819"><span id="translatedtitle">Tetrasulfide <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure lubricant additives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.</p> <p>1980-08-19</p> <p>A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6045789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6045789"><span id="translatedtitle">Applied <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-value statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kinnison, R.R.</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>The statistical theory of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6352251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6352251"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance testing of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harty, R.; Reece, W.D.; Hooker, C.D.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>The Health Physics Society Standing Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the <span class="hlt">extremities</span> and the performance criterion used to determine compliance. The draft standard has been evaluated by testing the performance of existing processors of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters against the standard's proposed criterion. The proposed performance criterion is: absolute value of B + S less than or equal to 0.35, where B is the bias (calculated as the average of the performance quotients) of 15 dosimeter measurements and S is the standard deviation of the performance quotients. Dosimeter performance was tested in seven irradiation categories: low-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), high-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), beta particles, neutrons, and a mixture category. Twenty-one types of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters (both finger ring and wrist/ankle dosimeters) were received from 11 processors. The dosimeters were irradiated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to specific dose levels in one or more of the seven categories as specified in the draft standard and were returned to the processors. The processors evaluated the doses and returned the results to PNL for analysis. The results were evaluated against the performance criterion specified in the draft standard. The results indicate that approximately 60% of both the finger ring and the wrist/ankle dosimeters met the performance criterion. Two-thirds of the dosimeters that did not meet the performance criterion had large biases (ranging from 0.25 to 0.80) but small standard deviations (less than 0.15). 21 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046955&hterms=Big+bang+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Big%2Bbang%2529%2Btheory%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046955&hterms=Big+bang+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Big%2Bbang%2529%2Btheory%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Universe Space Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This talk will describe the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Lorentz factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..077B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..077B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> higher spin black holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole <span class="hlt">extremality</span> which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of <span class="hlt">extremality</span> does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all <span class="hlt">extremal</span> solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-<span class="hlt">extremal</span> supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNG14A..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNG14A..06K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Networks and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurths, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We analyse some climate dynamics from a complex network approach. This leads to an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. Moreover, we evaluate different regional climate models from this aspect. This concept is also applied to Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rain events and its impact on predictability. Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in magnitude and frequency of spatially extensive <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events in the eastern Central Andes of South America. These events impose substantial natural hazards for population, economy, and ecology by floods and landslides. For example, heavy floods in Bolivia in early 2007 affected more than 133.000 households and produced estimated costs of 443 Mio. USD. Here, we develop a general framework to predict <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events by combining a non-linear synchronization technique with complex networks. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and are able to predict a large amount of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events. Our study reveals a linkage between polar and subtropical regimes as responsible mechanism: <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> rainfall in the eastern Central Andes is caused by the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics, providing additional moisture. Frontal systems from the Antarctic thus play a key role for sub-seasonal variability of the South American Monsoon System.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111548B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111548B"><span id="translatedtitle">The Meteorological and Fire <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of California 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, T.; Abatzoglou, J.; Snook, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The California wildfires beginning in June 2008 were historic in the way that four <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events synergized to cause the most geographically extensive, lengthy, and costly fire and smoke event to impact a single state to date. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> dry conditions during the spring and early summer produced plentiful dry fuels. Then beginning on 20 June, an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event of over 5,500 lightning strikes occurred--rare for both the sheer number and time of year. These strikes caused more than 1000 fire starts over a two-day period, an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> number of starts for a limited geographic area and the short period of time. Because of limited suppression resources available in the face of an overwhelming number of natural caused fires, many fires became large conflagrations and produced substantial amounts of smoke. Shortly after the fires began, a persistent atmospheric circulation pattern led to long sequences of non-mixing days, which also was a rare condition for the time of year. This situation led to substantial surface smoke, and subsequent visibility and human health impacts. The <span class="hlt">importance</span> of identifying and discussing this event in part is the nature of these <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and how they fit into the emerging global picture of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fire and societal impacts. This presentation provides details on the climate and weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> related to the California fires of 2008, and a discussion of impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1484F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1484F"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events in the North Atlantic Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franzke, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">important</span> part of European weather and climate are storms. European winter storms cause economic damage and insurance losses on the order of billions of Euro per year. European winter storms rank as the second highest cause of global natural catastrophe insurance loss. Many of these hazard events are not independent; for instance, severe storms can occur in trains of storms. Recent examples of such subsequently occurring storms include January 2008 (Paula and Resi) and March 2008 (Emma, Johanna and Kirsten). Each of these trains of storms caused damages on the order of ~€1bn. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value statistics are based on the premise that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are iid but this is rarely the case in natural systems where <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events tend to cluster. Thus, no account is taken of memory and correlation that characterise many natural time series; this fundamentally limits our ability to forecast and to estimate return periods of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. In my presentation I will discuss two possible causes of this clustering: (i) The propensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events to depend on large-scale circulation regimes and (ii) the long-range correlation properties of surface windspeeds enhances the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events to cluster. These two characteristics affect the return periods of atmospheric <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and thus insurance pricing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468855','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468855"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> multifunctional proteins identified from a human protein interaction network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chapple, Charles E.; Robisson, Benoit; Spinelli, Lionel; Guien, Céline; Becker, Emmanuelle; Brun, Christine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Moonlighting proteins are a subclass of multifunctional proteins whose functions are unrelated. Although they may play <span class="hlt">important</span> roles in cells, there has been no large-scale method to identify them, nor any effort to characterize them as a group. Here, we propose the first method for the identification of ‘<span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional' proteins from an interactome as a first step to characterize moonlighting proteins. By combining network topological information with protein annotations, we identify 430 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional proteins (3% of the human interactome). We show that the candidates form a distinct sub-group of proteins, characterized by specific features, which form a signature of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctionality. Overall, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional proteins are enriched in linear motifs and less intrinsically disordered than network hubs. We also provide MoonDB, a database containing information on all the candidates identified in the analysis and a set of manually curated human moonlighting proteins. PMID:26054620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.7709M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.7709M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A global quantification of compound precipitation and wind <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martius, Olivia; Pfahl, Stephan; Chevalier, Clément</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The concomitant occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and winds can have severe impacts. Here this concomitant occurrence is quantified globally using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. A logistic regression model is used to determine significant changes in the odds of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> given a wind <span class="hlt">extreme</span> that occurs on the same day, the day before, or the day after. High percentages of cooccurring wind and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are found in coastal regions and in areas with frequent tropical cyclones, with maxima of more than 50% of concomitant events. Strong regional-scale variations in this percentage are related to the interaction of weather systems with topography resulting in Föhn winds, gap winds, and orographic drying and the structure and tracks of extratropical and tropical cyclones. The percentage of concomitant events increases substantially if spatial shifts by one grid point are taken into account. Such spatially shifted but cooccurring events are <span class="hlt">important</span> in insurance applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Chaos..22a3139C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Chaos..22a3139C"><span id="translatedtitle">Network <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalue: From mutimodal to scale-free networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.; Lai, C. H.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalues of adjacency matrices are <span class="hlt">important</span> indicators on the influence of topological structures to the collective dynamical behavior of complex networks. Recent findings on the ensemble averageability of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalue have further authenticated its applicability to the study of network dynamics. However, the ensemble average of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalue has only been solved analytically up to the second order correction. Here, we determine the ensemble average of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalue and characterize its deviation across the ensemble through the discrete form of random scale-free network. Remarkably, the analytical approximation derived from the discrete form shows significant improvement over previous results, which implies a more accurate prediction of the epidemic threshold. In addition, we show that bimodal networks, which are more robust against both random and targeted removal of nodes, are more vulnerable to the spreading of diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22165585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22165585"><span id="translatedtitle">[Prehospital care in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> major vascular injuries].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samokhvallov, I M; Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Seleznev, A B</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The problem of temporary hemorrhage control is one of the most <span class="hlt">important</span> issues of modern war surgery and surgery of trauma. It is a review of literature devoted to prehospital care in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> major vascular injuries, embraced up-to-date domestic materials as well as the modern foreign papers in this area. The most <span class="hlt">important</span> historical landmarks of temporary hemorrhage control system are considered. We paid special attention to the most usable methods and means of hemorrhage control which are utilized at the modern time: pressure bandages, tourniquets, local haemostatic agents. The comprehensive analysis of the contamporary haemostatic means concerning U.S. Army has done. The experience of foreign colleagues in development of prehospital care for the injured, creation and progress of new haemostatic methods, application of temporary hemorrhage control system is analyzed. PMID:22165585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.288P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.288P"><span id="translatedtitle">Credibility of statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pop, L.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>This paper deals with credibility of statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed. The work has been done in the framework of Project KJB300420905 - Analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed in the Czech Republic (2009-2011, AV0/KJ). Statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed is based on the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> types theorem. The theorem states that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values converge to so-called Generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV). Depending on one parameter, usually called k, the distribution is usually called Fréchet (k > 0), Gumbel (k = 0) or Weibull (k < 0). Using upper tail of these distributions, it is simple to estimate wind speed with return period N years. The most <span class="hlt">important</span> value for technical applications is the case N = 50. Fréchet distribution has an upper limit, while Gumbel and Weibull distributions have not. Consequently, Fréchet distribution is considered not to be suitable for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed applications, because there is no physical reason for such an upper limit However, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed based on Fréchet distribution enables arbitrary high upper tail of distribution, so the previous reason is by not sufficient for excllusion of the distribution from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind modeling by some authors. The most applied method is Gumbel distribution. There is not any theoretical reason for this fact. But the value of wind speed with return period of 50 years is strongly affected by thickness of right tail of GEV distribution and, consequently, by value of parameter k. Limitation of Gumbell distribution is keeping this value equal to zero, so estimated values of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind are expected to be less scattered. <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> types theorem has two presumptions: stationarity and <span class="hlt">extremity</span> of modeled data. Stationarity strongly depends on quality of the measured data, however this issue will not be addressed here. Instead we will suppose that all measured data are of good quality Other problems preventing stationarity are due to time correlations of wind speed. Possible reasons are as follows: 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873452','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873452"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872784','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872784"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4906649','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4906649"><span id="translatedtitle">On causality of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in one element correspond to the appearance of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713888R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713888R"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2014 Silba Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extreme</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasol, Dubravka; Ólafsson, Haraldur</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>On 30 July 2014 a 24 h precipitation record of 218 mm was set at the island of Silba in the N-Adriatic Sea. The precipitation was of convective nature and significantly less precipitation was recorded only small distances away, at the coast of mainland Croatia. The event is reproduced numerically and discussed in terms of dynamics and predictability. On a large scale, the precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> was associated with a slow-moving upper tropospheric low that formed over the N-Atlantic several days earlier. At lower levels, there were humid mediterranean airmasses. On a smaller scale, there are indications that the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> convection may have been triggered by an orographic disturbance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920034468&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920034468&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welsh, Barry Y.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) is a NASA astronomy mission which will operate in the 70-760A spectral band. The science payload consists of three grazing incidence scanning telescopes and an EUV spectrometer/deep survey instrument. An overview of the planned mission profile is given, and the instrumentation which comprises the science payload is discussed. The EUVE is scheduled for launch in late August 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658738"><span id="translatedtitle">[Genes for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violent behaviour?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jordan, Bertrand</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new genetic study focussing on the degree of violence in criminals and using both candidate gene and GWAS approaches finds statistically significant associations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violent behaviour with low activity alleles of monoamine oxydase A (MAOA) and with the CD13 gene. However, the alleles implicated are common in the general population, thus they cannot be causal, and only represent potential indicators of increased risk. PMID:25658738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11932219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11932219"><span id="translatedtitle">Paediatric personnel <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dose study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallet, J M C; Reed, M H</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Concern has been expressed in paediatric radiology regarding the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dose received by attending personnel during routine fluoroscopic procedures and CT. Common procedures that may be of short duration in adults can be quite the opposite in paediatric patients. The <span class="hlt">extremities</span> of attending personnel are more likely to be exposed to the primary beam and for a longer period of time owing to a variety of reasons such as assisting in the procedure or physically restraining the patient during the examination. During the period mid 1998 to mid 2000, two paediatric radiologists, four senior radiographers and two paediatric nurses were monitored using ring thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Each participant wore the ring TLD on either the left or right ring finger, depending on which hand the individual favoured. Left/right asymmetrical studies were not conducted, nor were records kept of whether an examination used a grid or gridless technique. Initial apprehension about higher paediatric fluoroscopic and CT <span class="hlt">extremity</span> doses was dispelled as a result of this quantitative dosimetric study. PMID:11932219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..725T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..725T"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven <span class="hlt">extremes</span> because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such <span class="hlt">extremes</span> unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..04R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events and global crop production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ray, D. K.; Gerber, J. S.; West, P. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events can lead to significant loss in crop production and even trigger global price spikes. However it is still not clear where exactly and what types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have resulted in sharp declines in crop production. Neither is it clear how frequently such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have resulted in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> crop production losses. Using <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event metrics with a newly developed high resolution and long time series of crop statistics database we identify the frequency and type of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event driven crop production losses globally at high resolutions. In this presentation we will present our results as global maps identifying the frequency and type of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events that resulted in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> crop production losses and quantify the losses. Understanding how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events affects crop production is critical for managing risk in the global food system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988638"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcomes for <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1086639','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1086639"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Instrumentation for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger; Fugate, David L</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110357"><span id="translatedtitle">Moving in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments: <span class="hlt">extreme</span> loading; carriage versus distance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W; Goldman, Ralph F; Cotter, James D</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses <span class="hlt">extreme</span> duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may be at least as problematic, and are therefore included as a reference, e.g. when considering exposure, dangers and (mal)adaptations. As per the other reviews in this series, we describe the nature of the stress and the associated consequences; illustrate relevant regulations, including why and how they are set; present the pros and cons for self versus prescribed acute and chronic exposure; describe humans' (mal)adaptations; and finally suggest future directions for practice and research. In summary, we describe adaptation patterns that are often U or J shaped and that over time minimal or no load carriage decreases the global load carrying capacity and eventually leads to severe adverse effects and manifest disease under minimal absolute but high relative loads. We advocate that further understanding of load carrying capacity and the inherent mechanisms leading to adverse effects may advantageously be studied in this perspective. With improved access to insightful and portable technologies, there are some exciting possibilities to explore these questions in this context. PMID:27110357</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESS.....320204R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESS.....320204R"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> planetary system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raetz, Stefanie; Schmidt, Tobias O. B.; Briceno, Cesar; Neuhäuser, Ralph</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Almost 500 planet host stars are already known to be surrounded by more than one planet. Most of them (except HR8799) are old and all planets were found with the same or similar detection method.We present an unique planetary system. For the first time, a close in transiting and a wide directly imaged planet are found to orbit a common host star which is a low mass member of a young open cluster. The inner candidate is the first possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star and was detected in our international monitoring campaign of young stellar clusters. The transit shape is changing between different observations and the transit even disappears and reappears. This unusual transit behaviour can be explained by a precessing planet transiting a gravity-darkened star.The outer candidate was discovered in the course of our direct imaging survey with NACO at ESO/VLT. Both objects are consistent with a <5 Jupiter mass planet. With ~2.4 Myrs it is among the youngest exoplanet systems. Both planets orbit its star in very <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. The inner planet is very close to its Roche limiting orbital radius while the outer planet is far away from its host star at a distance of ~660 au. The detailed analysis will provide <span class="hlt">important</span> constraints on planet formation and migration time-scales and their relation to protoplanetary disc lifetimes. Furthermore, this system with two planets on such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> orbits gives us the opportunity to study the possible outcome of planet-planet scattering theories for the first time by observations.I will report on our monitoring and photometric follow-up observations as well as on the direct detection and the integral field spectroscopy of this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> planetary system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..537..117T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..537..117T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating multimodal seasonality in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tye, Mari R.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.; Stephenson, David B.; Kilsby, Christopher G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Floods pose multi-dimensional hazards to critical infrastructure and society and these hazards may increase under climate change. While flood conditions are dependent on catchment type and soil conditions, seasonal precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> also play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role. The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events driving flood occurrence may arrive non-uniformly in time. In addition, their seasonal and inter-annual patterns may also cause sequences of several events and enhance likely flood responses. Spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrence are characterized across the UK. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> and very heavy daily precipitation is not uniformly distributed throughout the year, but exhibits spatial differences, arising from the relative proximity to the North Atlantic Ocean or North Sea. Periods of weeks or months are identified during which <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrences are most likely to occur, with some regions of the UK displaying multimodal seasonality. A Generalized Additive Model is employed to simulate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrences over the UK from 1901 to 2010 and to allow robust statistical testing of temporal changes in the seasonal distribution. Simulations show that seasonality has the strongest correlation with intra-annual variations in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event occurrence, while Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) have the strongest correlation with inter-annual variations. The north and west of the UK are dominated by MSLP in the mid-North Atlantic and the south and east are dominated by local SST. All regions now have a higher likelihood of autumnal <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation than earlier in the twentieth century. This equates to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurring earlier in the autumn in the north and west, and later in the autumn in the south and east. The change in timing is accompanied by increases in the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrences during the autumn, and in the number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4754907','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4754907"><span id="translatedtitle">A universal mechanism of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and critical phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, J. H.; Jia, Q.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and critical phenomena is of <span class="hlt">importance</span> because they can have inquisitive scientific impact and profound socio-economic consequences. Here we show a universal mechanism describing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events along with critical phenomena and derive a general expression of the probability distribution without concerning the physical details of individual events or critical properties. The general probability distribution unifies most <span class="hlt">important</span> distributions in the field and demonstrates improved performance. The shape and symmetry of the general distribution is determined by the parameters of the fluctuations. Our work sheds judicious insights into the dynamical processes of complex systems with practical significance and provides a general approach of studying <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and critical episodes in a combined and multidisciplinary scheme. PMID:26880219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4544S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4544S"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex network analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation over the Indian subcontinent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stolbova, Veronika; Kurths, Jürgen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Indian monsoon is a large scale pattern in the climate system of the Earth. The motivation of our work was to reveal spatial structures in strong precipitation over the Indian subcontinent, and their evolution during the year, because it is crucial as for understanding of monsoon regularities as well for India's agriculture and economy. We present an analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall over the Indian peninsula and Sri Lanka. Using the method of event synchronization we constructed networks of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events(heavier than the 90-th percentile) for three time periods: during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM, June-September), the Northeast monsoon (NEM, October - December, so called winter monsoon) and period before the summer monsoon (January - May). Obtained networks show how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall for specific areas in India is synchronized with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall for other areas in India. Analysis of degree centrality of the networks reveals clusters of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events in India which are strongly connected to maximal number of other areas with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events, e.g., North Pakistan and the Eastern Ghats. Additionally, betweenness centrality shows areas that are <span class="hlt">important</span> in the sense of water transport in the networks (e.g. the Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats etc.). By comparison of networks before the summer monsoon, during summer and winter monsoon season we determined how spatial patterns of rainfalls synchronization change during the year. These changes play a crucial role in the organization of the rainfall all over the Indian subcontinent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24601952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24601952"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant volatiles in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> terrestrial and marine environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have <span class="hlt">important</span> roles in stress resistance and adaptation to <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. PMID:24601952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3448M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3448M"><span id="translatedtitle">Is climate change modifying precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanari, Alberto; Papalexiou, Simon Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The title of the present contribution is a relevant question that is frequently posed to scientists, technicians and managers of local authorities. Although several research efforts were recently dedicated to rainfall observation, analysis and modelling, the above question remains essentially unanswered. The question comes from the awareness that the frequency of floods and the related socio-economic impacts are increasing in many countries, and climate change is deemed to be the main trigger. Indeed, identifying the real reasons for the observed increase of flood risk is necessary in order to plan effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. While mitigation of climate change is an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span> issue at the global level, at small spatial scales several other triggers may interact with it, therefore requiring different mitigation strategies. Similarly, the responsibilities of administrators are radically different at local and global scales. This talk aims to provide insights and information to address the question expressed by its title. High resolution and long term rainfall data will be presented, as well as an analysis of the frequency of their <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and its progress in time. The results will provide pragmatic indications for the sake of better planning flood risk mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B23A0926S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B23A0926S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, C.; D'Antoni, H.; Burgess, S.; Zamora, J.; Skiles, J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The upper timberline of the Andes Cordillera on the island of Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America is an environment subject to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In order to further understand this environment, ecosystem parameters were measured within two transects of the Andes at Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco. The measurements included pH, soil temperature, soil moisture, nitrogen, sodium and potassium concentration, chlorophyll absorbance, and irradiance in the ultraviolet range (200-400 nm). These data comprise a survey that serves as a baseline for an intensive research program. Chlorophyll concentration and soil data were within the range of our observations at several other sites, from Lapataia Bay on the southwestern boundary with Chile, through the eastern end of Lake Fagnano. However, unusual levels of solar irradiance were found in the open sites of both transects while those in the forest exhibited lower UV values, suggesting strong absorption and/or reflection by the forest canopy. High levels of UV radiation damage <span class="hlt">important</span> biomolecules and may be partially responsible for the presence of life forms such as the krummholz belt in the upper timberline. These UV values may be due to the effects of global ozone depletion and the ozone hole. The low temperatures, strong winds, snow and ice-covered soil and especially the exposure to UV radiation make this area an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environment for life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010460','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010460"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiberoptic characteristics for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> operating environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delcher, R. C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Fiberoptics could offer several major benefits for cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines, including lightning immunity, weight reduction, and the possibility of implementing a number of new measurements for engine condition monitoring. The technical feasibility of using fiberoptics in the severe environments posed by cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines was determined. The issues of <span class="hlt">importance</span> and subsequent requirements for this use of fiberoptics were compiled. These included temperature ranges, moisture embrittlement succeptability, and the ability to withstand <span class="hlt">extreme</span> shock and vibration levels. Different types of optical fibers were evaluated and several types of optical fibers' ability to withstand use in cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines was demonstrated through environmental testing of samples. This testing included: cold-bend testing, moisture embrittlement testing, temperature cycling, temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> testing, vibration testing, and shock testing. Three of five fiber samples withstood the tests to a level proving feasibility, and two of these remained intact in all six of the tests. A fiberoptic bundle was also tested, and completed testing without breakage. Preliminary cabling and harnessing for fiber protection was also demonstrated. According to cable manufacturers, the successful -300 F cold bend, vibration, and shock tests are the first instance of any major fiberoptic cable testing below roughly -55 F. This program has demonstrated the basic technical feasibility of implementing optical fibers on cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines, and a development plan is included highlighting requirements and issues for such an implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520917"><span id="translatedtitle">To the limit of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> malnutrition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frølich, Jacob; Palm, Camilla Viola Buskbjerg; Støving, Rene K</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> malnutrition with body mass index (BMI) as low as 10 kg/m(2) is not uncommon in anorexia nervosa, with survival enabled through complex metabolic adaptations. In contrast, outcomes from hunger strikes and famines are usually fatal after weight loss to about 40% below expected body weight, corresponding to BMI 12 to 13 kg/m(2) in adults. Thus, many years of adaptation in adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa, supported by supplements of vitamins and treatment of intercurrent diseases, may allow survival at a much lower BMI. However, in the literature only a few cases of survival in patients with BMI <9 kg/m(2) have been described. We report on the case of a 29-y-old woman who was successfully treated in a specialized unit. She had a BMI of 7.8 kg/m(2). To our knowledge, this level of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> malnutrition has not previously been reported. The present case emphasizes the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of adherence to guidelines to decrease refeeding complications. PMID:26520917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.7746G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.7746G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of WRF <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation over Alaska using self-organizing maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glisan, Justin M.; Gutowski, William J.; Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Seefeldt, Mark W.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We analyze daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from simulations of a polar-optimized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Simulations cover 19 years and use the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) domain. We focus on Alaska because of its proximity to the Pacific and Arctic oceans; both provide large moisture fetch inland. Alaska's topography also has <span class="hlt">important</span> impacts on orographically forced precipitation. We use self-organizing maps (SOMs) to understand circulation characteristics conducive for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. The SOM algorithm employs an artificial neural network that uses an unsupervised training process, which results in finding general patterns of circulation behavior. The SOM is trained with mean sea level pressure (MSLP) anomalies. Widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, defined as at least 25 grid points experiencing 99th percentile precipitation, are examined using SOMs. Widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days are mapped onto the SOM of MSLP anomalies, indicating circulation patterns. SOMs aid in determining high-frequency nodes, and hence, circulations are conducive to <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Multiple circulation patterns are responsible for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days, which are differentiated by where <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events occur in Alaska. Additionally, several meteorological fields are composited for nodes accessed by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and nonextreme events to determine specific conditions necessary for a widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event. Individual and adjacent node composites produce more physically reasonable circulations as opposed to composites of all <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, which include multiple synoptic regimes. Temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is also traced through SOM space. Thus, this analysis lays the groundwork for diagnosing differences in atmospheric circulations and their associated widespread, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002012','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002012"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885374','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885374"><span id="translatedtitle">Materials Response under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Remington, B A; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S; McNaney, J M</p> <p>2005-10-06</p> <p>Solid state experiments at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures, 10-100 GPa (0.1-1 Mbar) and strain rates (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities. The goal is an experimental capability to test constitutive models for high-pressure, solid-state strength for a variety of materials. Relevant constitutive models are discussed, and our progress in developing a quasi-isentropic, ramped-pressure, shockless drive is given. Designs to test the constitutive models with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042320','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042320"><span id="translatedtitle">Communication path for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..06M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events: The Indian Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murty, K. S.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The geographical situation of India is such that it experiences varied types of climate in different parts of the country and invariably the natural events, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and normal, would affect such areas that are prone to them. Cyclones hit the eastern coast, while floods affect mostly northern India, while earthquakes hit any part of the country, particuarly when itbecame evident after the 1967 earthquake of Koyna that the peninsular part toois prone to seismic events. The National Commission on Floods estimated that nearly 40 millionn hectares of land is prone to flooding, which could rise to60 million soon. The cropped area thus affected annually is about 10 millionhectares. On an average 1500 lives are lost during floods annually, while the damage to property could run into billions of dollars. The total loss on account of floods damage to crops is estimated at about Rs 53,000 crores(crore= 100 lakhs), during the period 1953-1998. The other <span class="hlt">extreme</span> natural event is drought which affects large parts of the country, except the northeast. Both floods and droughts can hit different parts of the country during the same period. The 2001 earthquake that hit Gujarat is perhaps the severest and studies on that event are still in progress. The 2004 tsunami which hit large parts of southeast Asia did not spare India. Its southern coast was battered and many lives were lost. In fact some geogrphic landmarks were lost, while some of the cities have suffered a shift in their position. It was estimated that about 1.2 billion dollars were required ro meet the rehabilitation and relief measures. The seismic zone map of India thus had to be revised more often than before. Apart from these, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall has also caused floods in urban areas as in Mumbai in 2005, but this was mostly because of lack of proper drainage system and the existing system proved ineffective. Human hand in such cases is evident. There are systems working to forecast floods, cyclones, and droughts, though</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SoPh..291.1447V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SoPh..291.1447V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present the first large statistical study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113664W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113664W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over southern Africa: Assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C. J. R.; Kniveton, D. R.; Layberry, R.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular <span class="hlt">importance</span> for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270539','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270539"><span id="translatedtitle">Will <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climatic events facilitate biological invasions?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27065539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27065539"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of RFID technology-upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation training.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation after an injury is very <span class="hlt">important</span>. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span> to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> show that the RFID-based upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034288','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034288"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zimmermann, N.E.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Meier, E.S.; Thuiller, W.; Guisan, A.; Schmatz, D.R.; Pearman, P.B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Understanding niche evolution, dynamics, and the response of species to climate change requires knowledge of the determinants of the environmental niche and species range limits. Mean values of climatic variables are often used in such analyses. In contrast, the increasing frequency of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> suggests the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (i.e., interannual variability in climate parameters) explain and predict spatial patterns of 11 tree species in Switzerland. We find clear, although comparably small, improvement (+20% in adjusted D2, +8% and +3% in cross-validated True Skill Statistic and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values) in models that use measures of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in addition to means. The primary effect of including information on climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a correction of local overprediction and underprediction. Our results demonstrate that measures of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are <span class="hlt">important</span> for understanding the climatic limits of tree species and assessing species niche characteristics. The inclusion of climate variability likely will improve models of species range limits under future conditions, where changes in mean climate and increased variability are expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4793003','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4793003"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of RFID technology—upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation training</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation after an injury is very <span class="hlt">important</span>. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span> to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> show that the RFID-based upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=waterfall&pg=2&id=EJ870658','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=waterfall&pg=2&id=EJ870658"><span id="translatedtitle">Dancing with Nature: Rhythm and Harmony in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Sport Participation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brymer, Eric; Gray, Tonia</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Research on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sports has downplayed the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of the athletes' connection to the natural world. This neglect stems, in part, from the assumption that these activities derive their meaning primarily from risk. The authors' long-term research reveals that the interplay between adventure athletes and the natural world is, in fact, crucial…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..964A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..964A"><span id="translatedtitle">Two Architectural Practices for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azim Sharifloo, Amir; Saffarian, Amir S.; Shams, Fereidoon</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> programming (XP) is one of the <span class="hlt">important</span> agile methods and is being used widely. Although XP itself is quite new, many of the practices utilized by it have been around for some time. The most controversial aspect of XP is the change management aspect of the process. In XP, the on-site customer requests the changes informally, often by verbally informing the development team. In spite of all benefits known about XP, it does not involve architectural techniques that are necessary to expect acceptable level of quality for the system being developed. This paper introduces two practices in order to empower XP's development process toward improving system's architecture. The main characteristic of proposed solution is that it is derived from values and practices of XP so as to be compatible with this process model and to keep its agility intact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6444709','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6444709"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital subtraction angiography in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> trauma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goodman, P.C.; Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) may have considerable impact on the work-up of patients who have suffered trauma. The angiographic evaluation of vascular injuries can be accomplished rapidly and with minimal catheter use and manipulation, which is particularly <span class="hlt">important</span> for those critically ill patients who have significant immobility because of multiple fractures. The authors retrospectively reviewed the digital subtraction angiograms in 50 consecutive cases of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> trauma. The quality of the images in 44 of these permitted a confident diagnosis, the accuracy of which was confirmed by surgical or clinical follow-up. DSA reduces the time required to perform the procedure, the amount of contrast material injected, patient discomfort, and film cost. Its major disadvantage is the limited field size of the image intensifier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.3138C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.3138C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> wave runup on a vertical cliff</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carbone, Francesco; Dutykh, Denys; Dudley, John M.; Dias, FréDéRic</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Wave impact and runup onto vertical obstacles are among the most <span class="hlt">important</span> phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know that the wave amplitude on a vertical wall is twice the incident wave amplitude with weakly nonlinear theories bringing small corrections to this result. In this present study, however, we show that certain simple wave groups may produce much higher runups than previously predicted, with particular incident wave frequencies resulting in runup heights exceeding the initial wave amplitude by a factor of 5, suggesting that the notion of the design wave used in coastal structure design may need to be revisited. The results presented in this study can be considered as a note of caution for practitioners, on one side, and as a challenging novel material for theoreticians who work in the field of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wave-coastal structure interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1510624S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1510624S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of Quasar Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, Daniel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Variability is one of the key observational properties of quasars, and it can be used as a probe of their fueling, physics, and evolution. A new generation of synoptic sky surveys, in combination with the novel data analytics tools, offers unprecedented data sets for the studies of quasars in the time domain. I will illustrate this with examples from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), which has an open and growing archive of 500 million light curves, including 350,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars, with the time baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 10 years. I will discuss a new approach to discover quasars using a combination of variability and mid-IR colors from WISE, which results in a catalog of over a million quasar candidates. I will then discuss quasars with <span class="hlt">extreme</span>, anomolous light curves, including quasars that have gone through <span class="hlt">extreme</span> brightening events over the past decade with concordant large changes in their spectroscopic properties. I will also discuss a small subset of quasars with periodic light curves which we interpret as a signature of close (milliparsec scale) supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237847"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical homicide and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> negligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duncanson, Emily; Richards, Virginia; Luce, Kasey M; Gill, James R</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Deaths that occur during medical care for the treatment of a disease are rarely certified as homicides. Some "medical" deaths, however, have been criminally prosecuted for manslaughter, reckless endangerment, or reckless homicide. We describe 5 deaths due to medical complications that underwent criminal prosecution. Three of the deaths were certified as homicides. Deaths certified as homicides due to the actions (or inactions) of a caregiver occur in 3 circumstances. The first is when the medical caregiver intentionally causes the death of the patient. The second is a death due to treatment by an unlicensed fraud or quack. The final circumstance is due to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> medical negligence that involves a gross and wanton disregard for the well-being of the patient and is the most controversial in the medical community. The law defines reckless endangerment as the conscious disregard of a known substantial likelihood of injury to the patient. Criminal neglect typically is defined as the failure to provide timely, safe, adequate, and appropriate services, treatment, and/or care to a patient. In instances of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> medical negligence, a homicide manner of death is appropriate because the fatality is due to the criminal acts (or inactions) of another. It also furthers one of the major goals of the medicolegal death investigation system, which is to safeguard the public health. PMID:19237847</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920024082&hterms=living+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dliving%2Benvironment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920024082&hterms=living+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dliving%2Benvironment"><span id="translatedtitle">Dome cities for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leonard, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Milton</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> environments whether they be the frigid nights of the polar regions, the burning sands of the desert, or the harsh environment of space pose interesting challenges to the architect, the engineer, and the constructor in their efforts to create habitats for mankind. In space, the goals are to provide radiation protection while also providing an aesthetic living environment for long duration missions. Because of the need to provide both radiation protection and options for expansion of base facilities, a unique structural system which separates the radiation protection systems from the pressure envelope of the habitats was created. The system uses cable networks in a tensioned structural system, which supports the lunar regolith used for shielding above the facilities. The system is modular, easily expandable, and simple to construct. Additional innovations include the use of rock melting perpetrators for piles and anchoring deadmen, and various sized craters to provide side shielding. The reflective properties of the fabric used in the membrane are utilized to provide diffuse illumination. The use of craters along with the suspended shielding allows the dome to be utilized in fashions similar to those proposed by various designers unaware of the Moon's hostile radiation environment. Additional topics addressed deal with construction techniques for large domes, i.e., on the order of 100's to 1000's of meters, thermal control, the integration of tertiary water treatment schemes with architectural design, human factors, and its implications for the design of habitats for long term use in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992seit.proc..284L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992seit.proc..284L"><span id="translatedtitle">Dome cities for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leonard, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Milton</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> environments whether they be the frigid nights of the polar regions, the burning sands of the desert, or the harsh environment of space pose interesting challenges to the architect, the engineer, and the constructor in their efforts to create habitats for mankind. In space, the goals are to provide radiation protection while also providing an aesthetic living environment for long duration missions. Because of the need to provide both radiation protection and options for expansion of base facilities, a unique structural system which separates the radiation protection systems from the pressure envelope of the habitats was created. The system uses cable networks in a tensioned structural system, which supports the lunar regolith used for shielding above the facilities. The system is modular, easily expandable, and simple to construct. Additional innovations include the use of rock melting perpetrators for piles and anchoring deadmen, and various sized craters to provide side shielding. The reflective properties of the fabric used in the membrane are utilized to provide diffuse illumination. The use of craters along with the suspended shielding allows the dome to be utilized in fashions similar to those proposed by various designers unaware of the Moon's hostile radiation environment. Additional topics addressed deal with construction techniques for large domes, i.e., on the order of 100's to 1000's of meters, thermal control, the integration of tertiary water treatment schemes with architectural design, human factors, and its implications for the design of habitats for long term use in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DPPhTP120M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DPPhTP120M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Low Aspect Ratio Stellarators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moroz, Paul</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Recently proposed Spherical Stellarator (SS) concept [1] includes the devices with stellarator features and low aspect ratio, A <= 3.5, which is very unusual for stellarators (typical stellarators have A ≈ 7-10 or above). Strong bootstrap current and high-β equilibria are two distinguished elements of the SS concept leading to compact, steady-state, and efficient fusion reactor. Different coil configurations advantageous for the SS have been identified and analyzed [1-6]. In this report, we will present results on novel stellarator configurations which are unusual even for the SS approach. These are the <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-low-aspect-ratio-stellarators (ELARS), with the aspect ratio A ≈ 1. We succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform (ι ≈ 0.1 - 0.15), large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Stellarator News 48, 2 (1996); [5] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 8 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1056633.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1056633.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Min and Max <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Interval Values</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The paper shows how to find the min and max <span class="hlt">extreme</span> interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform <span class="hlt">extreme</span> interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max <span class="hlt">extreme</span> interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3382921','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3382921"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcome Trajectories in <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Preterm Infants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carlo, Waldemar A.; Tyson, Jon E.; Langer, John C.; Walsh, Michele C.; Parikh, Nehal A.; Das, Abhik; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: Methods are required to predict prognosis with changes in clinical course. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature neonates can be predicted at birth/admission to the ICU by considering gender, antenatal steroids, multiple birth, birth weight, and gestational age. Predictions may be improved by using additional information available later during the clinical course. Our objective was to develop serial predictions of outcome by using prognostic factors available over the course of NICU hospitalization. METHODS: Data on infants with birth weight ≤1.0 kg admitted to 18 large academic tertiary NICUs during 1998–2005 were used to develop multivariable regression models following stepwise variable selection. Models were developed by using all survivors at specific times during hospitalization (in delivery room [n = 8713], 7-day [n = 6996], 28-day [n = 6241], and 36-week postmenstrual age [n = 5118]) to predict death or death/neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months. RESULTS: Prediction of death or neurodevelopmental impairment in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infants is improved by using information available later during the clinical course. The <span class="hlt">importance</span> of birth weight declines, whereas the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of respiratory illness severity increases with advancing postnatal age. The c-statistic in validation models ranged from 0.74 to 0.80 with misclassification rates ranging from 0.28 to 0.30. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic models of the changing probability of individual outcome can improve outcome predictions in preterm infants. Various current and future scenarios can be modeled by input of different clinical possibilities to develop individual “outcome trajectories” and evaluate impact of possible morbidities on outcome. PMID:22689874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595053"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma physics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> astrophysical environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uzdensky, Dmitri A; Rightley, Shane</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very <span class="hlt">extreme</span> physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems <span class="hlt">important</span> to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RPPh...77c6902U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RPPh...77c6902U"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma physics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> astrophysical environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Rightley, Shane</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very <span class="hlt">extreme</span> physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)—the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems <span class="hlt">important</span> to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1189918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1189918"><span id="translatedtitle">Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized <span class="hlt">extremities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenquist, J B</p> <p>1975-11-01</p> <p>The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852546"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon tetrachloride under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella</p> <p>2014-05-21</p> <p>We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl4 were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl4 above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl4 using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl4+ hν → C + 2Cl2. PMID:24852546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013xmm..prop..179B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013xmm..prop..179B"><span id="translatedtitle">Observing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> SFXTs with XMM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bozzo, Enrico</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We propose a 130 ks-long XMM-Newton observation of the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> among the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient, IGR J17544 2619, to unveil the mechanism regulating the unique behavior of these objects in the X-ray domain. This deep observation with XMM will secure: (i) enough sensitivity to study with the required accuracy soft spectral components, which are the most reliable tracers of the donor wind structure and can be used to efficiently probe the accretion flow geometry in wind-fed systems; (ii) catch at least one bright burst and 7-10 smaller flares, permitting an accurate spectral and statistical analysis of the triggering mechanism; (iii) measure pulsations down to pulsed fractions of 4-5% and spin periods of 3-4 ks, expected for magnetars in binaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23101609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23101609"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> prosthetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Until recently, upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. PMID:23101609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EOSTr..93..194B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EOSTr..93..194B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> could affect agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254855"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon tetrachloride under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pravica, Michael Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella</p> <p>2014-05-21</p> <p>We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl{sub 4} were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl{sub 4} above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl{sub 4} using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl{sub 4}+ hν → C + 2Cl{sub 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhA...49oLT01E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhA...49oLT01E"><span id="translatedtitle">Zipf law: an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eliazar, Iddo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7965V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7965V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> solar energetic particle events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vainio, Rami; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Properties of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar energetic particle (SEP) events, here defined as those leading to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays, are reviewed. We review recent efforts on modeling SEP acceleration to relativistic energies and present simulation results on particle acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in different types of coronal magnetic structures and turbulent downstream compression regions. Based on these modeling results, we discuss the possible role of solar and CME parameters in the lack of GLEs during the present sunspot cycle. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354372','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354372"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> deep vein thrombosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saseedharan, Sanjith; Bhargava, Sunil</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011. PMID:22624098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185560"><span id="translatedtitle">Gut Microbiota and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Longevity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biagi, Elena; Franceschi, Claudio; Rampelli, Simone; Severgnini, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Turroni, Silvia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Quercia, Sara; Scurti, Maria; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The study of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae). PMID:27185560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMGC21A0857W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMGC21A0857W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Pineapple Express phenomenon via Multivariate <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weller, G.; Cooley, D. S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The pineapple express (PE) phenomenon is responsible for producing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winter precipitation events in the coastal and mountainous regions of the western United States. Because the PE phenomenon is also associated with warm temperatures, the heavy precipitation and associated snowmelt can cause destructive flooding. In order to study impacts, it is <span class="hlt">important</span> that regional climate models from NARCCAP are able to reproduce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events produced by PE. We define a daily precipitation quantity which captures the spatial extent and intensity of precipitation events produced by the PE phenomenon. We then use statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory to model the tail dependence of this quantity as seen in an observational data set and each of the six NARCCAP regional models driven by NCEP reanalysis. We find that most NCEP-driven NARCCAP models do exhibit tail dependence between daily model output and observations. Furthermore, we find that not all <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events are pineapple express events, as identified by Dettinger et al. (2011). The synoptic-scale atmospheric processes that drive <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events produced by PE have only recently begun to be examined. Much of the current work has focused on pattern recognition, rather than quantitative analysis. We use daily mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) fields from NCEP to develop a "pineapple express index" for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation, which exhibits tail dependence with our observed precipitation quantity for pineapple express events. We build a statistical model that connects daily precipitation output from the WRFG model, daily MSLP fields from NCEP, and daily observed precipitation in the western US. Finally, we use this model to simulate future observed precipitation based on WRFG output driven by the CCSM model, and our pineapple express index derived from future CCSM output. Our aim is to use this model to develop a better understanding of the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22817779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22817779"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> losses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease <span class="hlt">extreme</span> flood losses. Increased return periods of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy. PMID:22817779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3898U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3898U"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> solar particle events: The worst case scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Usoskin, Ilya; Kovaltsov, Gennady</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sporadic eruptive energetic events on the Sun may occur during periods of high solar activity. Sometimes such events can be strong or even <span class="hlt">extreme</span> posing serious hazards for the modern technology and communication dependent society. It is <span class="hlt">important</span> to asses the worst case scenario for an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar particle event and what the probability of its occurrence. The era of direct scientific exploration of the Sun is short - from few decades to a century, and yet several strong harmful events took place during that time. Can we expect even greater events? How often? What shall we prepare for? In order to answer these questions, one has to rely upon indirect methods by analyzing natural proxy archives. Here we present an overview of the history of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar events in the past, from hundreds to millions of year, based on an analysis of cosmogenic isotopes in terrestrial archives (polar ice cores and tree rings) and in lunar rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1218389S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1218389S"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on wildlife plant flowering over Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how <span class="hlt">extremes</span> specifically impact the timing of this <span class="hlt">important</span> phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290542','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290542"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptome and Network Changes in Climbers at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guojie; Zhou, Bing; Yi, Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hang; Xu, Xiaohong; Shen, Feng; Qu, Ning; Wang, Yading; Gao, Guoyi; San, A.; JiangBai, LuoSang; Sang, Hua; Fang, Xiangdong; Kristiansen, Karsten; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Jian</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m), and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an <span class="hlt">important</span> regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples. PMID:22393366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712647M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712647M"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational early warning platform for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> meteorological events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Operational early warning platform for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> meteorological events Most natural disasters are related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events (e.g. typhoons); weather conditions, however, are also highly relevant for humanitarian and disaster relief operations during and after other natural disaster like earthquakes. The internet service "Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung" (WF) provides various information on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events, especially when these events are associated with a high potential for large damage. The main focus of the platform is on Central Europe, but major events are also monitored worldwide on a daily routine. WF provides high-resolution forecast maps for many weather parameters which allow detailed and reliable predictions about weather conditions during the next days in the affected areas. The WF service became operational in February 2004 and is part of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) since 2007. At the end of 2011, CEDIM embarked a new type of interdisciplinary disaster research termed as forensic disaster analysis (FDA) in near real time. In case of an imminent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather event WF plays an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in CEDIM's FDA group. It provides early and precise information which are always available and updated several times during a day and gives advice and assists with articles and reports on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..08U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..08U"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures: soil water supply and yield variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urban, D.; Lobell, D. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events have profound consequences for both the mean and interannual variability of agricultural production, but while the role of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat has been convincingly demonstrated, soil water supply has received less attention. In particular, there is debate over the extent to which damages attributed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat are confounded with drought conditions. In a pair of studies, we examine the effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> moisture conditions, both wet and dry, on maize and soybean yields in the U.S. We find significant effects of waterlogging during the planting season, when crops are most vulnerable to excess moisture, as well as evidence for a strong interaction between high temperatures and low moisture during during the critical stages of the summer growing season. Using both precipitation and model-derived soil moisture data, our results suggest that considering temperature and moisture independently will underestimate yield damages during hot, dry conditions. Many warming scenarios project increases in both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> summer temperatures and soil dryness, and considering these effects jointly can be <span class="hlt">important</span> in estimating future yield variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASCMO...1...45J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASCMO...1...45J"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation within atmospheric river events over California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeon, S.; Prabhat; Byna, S.; Gu, J.; Collins, W. D.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are large, spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor. These systems often cause severe downpours and flooding over the western coastal United States - and with the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming we expect ARs to play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role as potential causes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation changes. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation properties correlated with AR events in a warmer climate, which are large-scale meteorological patterns affecting the weather and climate of California. We have recently developed the TECA (Toolkit for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Analysis) software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate data sets. Specifically, we can now identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. Based on this detection procedure, we can investigate the impact of ARs by exploring the spatial extent of AR precipitation using climate model (CMIP5) simulations and characterize spatial patterns of dependence for future projections between AR precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under climate change within the statistical framework. Our results show that AR events in the future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway)8.5 scenario (2076-2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer days than events from the historical run (1981-2005). We also find that the dependence between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events has a shorter spatial range, within localized areas in California, under the high future emissions scenario than under the historical run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1226108-characterization-extreme-precipitation-within-atmospheric-river-events-over-california','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1226108-characterization-extreme-precipitation-within-atmospheric-river-events-over-california"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation within atmospheric river events over California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Jeon, S.; Prabhat,; Byna, S.; Gu, J.; Collins, W. D.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are large, spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor. These systems often cause severe downpours and flooding over the western coastal United States – and with the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming we expect ARs to play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role as potential causes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation changes. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation properties correlated with AR events in a warmer climate, which are large-scale meteorological patterns affecting the weather and climate of California. We have recently developed the TECA (Toolkit for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climatemore » Analysis) software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate data sets. Specifically, we can now identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. Based on this detection procedure, we can investigate the impact of ARs by exploring the spatial extent of AR precipitation using climate model (CMIP5) simulations and characterize spatial patterns of dependence for future projections between AR precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under climate change within the statistical framework. Our results show that AR events in the future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway)8.5 scenario (2076–2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer days than events from the historical run (1981–2005). We also find that the dependence between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events has a shorter spatial range, within localized areas in California, under the high future emissions scenario than under the historical run.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........20D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........20D"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low-temperature event using nonparametric methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Silva, Anisha</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis presents a new method of estimating the one-in-N low temperature threshold using a non-parametric statistical method called kernel density estimation applied to daily average wind-adjusted temperatures. We apply our One-in-N Algorithm to local gas distribution companies (LDCs), as they have to forecast the daily natural gas needs of their consumers. In winter, demand for natural gas is high. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> low temperature events are not directly related to an LDCs gas demand forecasting, but knowledge of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low temperatures is <span class="hlt">important</span> to ensure that an LDC has enough capacity to meet customer demands when <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low temperatures are experienced. We present a detailed explanation of our One-in-N Algorithm and compare it to the methods using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution, the normal distribution, and the variance-weighted composite distribution. We show that our One-in-N Algorithm estimates the one-in- N low temperature threshold more accurately than the methods using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution, the normal distribution, and the variance-weighted composite distribution according to root mean square error (RMSE) measure at a 5% level of significance. The One-in- N Algorithm is tested by counting the number of times the daily average wind-adjusted temperature is less than or equal to the one-in- N low temperature threshold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPCS...84....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPCS...84....1S"><span id="translatedtitle">Focus issue on the Study of Matter at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saini, Naurang L.; Saxena, Surendra K.; Bansil, Arun</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Study of matter at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions encompasses many different approaches for understanding the physics, chemistry and materials science underlying processes, products and technologies <span class="hlt">important</span> for society. Although <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions have been associated traditionally with research in areas of geology, mineral and earth sciences, the field has expanded in the recent years to include work on energy related materials and quantum functional materials from hard to soft matter. With the motivation to engage a large number of scientists with various disciplinary interests, ranging from physics, chemistry, geophysics to materials science, the study of matter at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions has been the theme of a series of conferences hosted by the High Pressure Science Society of America (HiPSSA) and the Center for the Study of Matter at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions (CeSMEC) of Florida International University (FIU), Miami. These SMEC (Study of Matter at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions) conferences are aimed at providing a unique platform for leading researchers to meet and share cutting-edge developments, and to bridge established fields under this interdisciplinary umbrella for research on materials. The seventh meeting in the SMEC series was held during March 23-30, 2013, while sailing from Miami to the Caribbean Islands, and concluded with great enthusiasm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9549V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9549V"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial regression models for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in Belgium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van de Vyver, H.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Quantification of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is <span class="hlt">important</span> for flood planning purposes, and a common measure of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is the T year return level. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation depths in Belgium are analyzed for accumulation durations ranging from 10 min to 30 days. Spatial generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) models are presented by considering multisite data and relating GEV parameters to geographical/climatological covariates through a common regression relationship. Methods of combining data from several sites are in common use, and in such cases, there is likely to be nonnegligible intersite dependence. However, parameter estimation in GEV models is generally done with the maximum likelihood estimation method (MLE) that assumes independence. Estimates of uncertainty are adjusted for spatial dependence using methodologies proposed earlier. Consistency of GEV distributions for various durations is obtained by fitting a smooth function to the preliminary estimations of the shape parameter. Model quality has been assessed by various statistical tests and indicates the relevance of our approach. In addition, a methodology is applied to account for the fact that measurements have been made in fixed intervals (usually 09:00 UTC-09:00 UTC). The distribution of the annual sliding 24 h maxima was specified through <span class="hlt">extremal</span> indices of a more than 110 year time series of 24 h aggregated 10 min rainfall and daily rainfall. Finally, the selected models are used for producing maps of precipitation return levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6484M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6484M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical phenomena: implications for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event attribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Dann; Davini, Paolo; Harvey, Ben; Massey, Neil; Haustein, Karsten; Woollings, Tim; Jones, Richard; Otto, Fredi; Guillod, Benoit; Sparrow, Sarah; Wallom, David; Allen, Myles</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric modes of variability relevant for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature and precipitation events are evaluated in models currently being used for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event attribution. A multi-thousand initial condition ensemble of the global circulation model HadAM3P is compared with both the multi-model ensemble from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP-5) and the CMIP-5 atmosphere-only counterparts (AMIP-5). The analysis focuses on mid Northern Latitudes (primarily Europe) during winter, and is compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis. The tri-modal Atlantic Eddy-driven jet distribution is remarkably well captured in HadAM3P, but not so in CMIP-5 or AMIP-5. The well known underestimation of blocking in the Atlantic region is apparent in CMIP-5 and AMIP-5, and to a lesser extent in HadAM3P. Pacific blocking features are well produced in all modeling initiatives. Blocking duration is generally biased towards models reproducing too many short-lived events. Associated storm tracks are too zonal over the Atlantic in the CMIP-5 ensemble, but well simulated in HadAM3P with the exception of being too weak over Western Europe. In all cases, the CMIP-5 and AMIP-5 performances were almost identical, suggesting that the atmospheric modes considered here are not strongly coupled to SSTs, and perhaps other model characteristics such as resolution are more <span class="hlt">important</span>. It is recommended that only models capable of producing the necessary dynamical phenomena be used for event attribution analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090039389','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090039389"><span id="translatedtitle">Polyimide Resins Resist <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51J..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51J..02B"><span id="translatedtitle">Remembrance of ecohydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> past</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Band, L. E.; Hwang, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Ecohydrological systems operate at time scales that span several orders of magnitude. Significant processes and feedbacks range from subdaily physiologic response to meteorological drivers, to soil forming and geomorphic processes ranging up through 10^3-10^4 years. While much attention in ecohydrology has focused on ecosystem optimization paradigms, these systems can show significant transience in structure and function, with apparent memory of hydroclimate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and regime shifts. While optimization feedbacks can be reconciled with system transience, a better understanding of the time scales and mechanisms of adjustment to increased hydroclimate variability and to specific events is required to understand and predict dynamics and vulnerability of ecosystems. Under certain circumstances of slowly varying hydroclimate, we hypothesize that ecosystems can remain adjusted to changing climate regimes, without displaying apparent system memory. Alternatively, rapid changes in hydroclimate and increased hydroclimate variability, amplified with well expressed non-linearity in the processes controlling feedbacks between water, carbon and nutrients, can move ecosystems far from adjusted states. The Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory is typical of humid, broadleaf forests in eastern North America, with a range of forest biomes from northern hardwoods at higher elevations, to oak-pine assemblages at lower elevations. The site provides almost 80 years of rainfall-runoff records for a set of watersheds under different management, along with multi-decadal forest plot structural information, soil moisture conditions and stream chemistry. An initial period of multi-decadal cooling, was followed by three decades of warming and increased hydroclimate variability. While mean temperature has risen over this time period, precipitation shows no long term trends in the mean, but has had a significant rise in variability with repeated <span class="hlt">extreme</span> drought and wet periods. Over this latter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMAA..338..675R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMAA..338..675R"><span id="translatedtitle">Semistable <span class="hlt">extremal</span> ground states for nonlinear evolution equations in unbounded domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Bernal, Aníbal; Vidal-López, Alejandro</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>In this paper we show that dissipative reaction-diffusion equations in unbounded domains posses <span class="hlt">extremal</span> semistable ground states equilibria, which bound asymptotically the global dynamics. Uniqueness of such positive ground state and their approximation by <span class="hlt">extremal</span> equilibria in bounded domains is also studied. The results are then applied to the <span class="hlt">important</span> case of logistic equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/the-importance-of-corneal-thickness.php','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/the-importance-of-corneal-thickness.php"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Importance</span> of Corneal Thickness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... News About Us Donate In This Section The <span class="hlt">Importance</span> of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is <span class="hlt">important</span> because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080043956&hterms=Magnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080043956&hterms=Magnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swank, Jean; Kallman, Timothy R.; Jahoda, Keith M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Gas accreting ont,o black holes and neutron stars form a dynamic system generating X-rays with spectroscopic signatures and varying on time scales determined by the system. The radiation from various parts of these systems is surely polarized and compact sources have been calculated to give rise to net polarization from the unresolved sum of the radiation from the systems. Polarization has been looked to for some time as also bearing the imprint of strong gravity and providing complementary information that could resolve ambiguities between the physical models that can give rise to frequencies, time delays, and spectra. In the cases of both stellar black holes and supermassive black holes the net polarizations predicted for probable disk and corona models are less than 10 needed. This sensitivity can be achieved, even for sources as faint as 1 milliCrab, in the Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission that uses foil mirrors and Time Projection Chamber detectors. Similarities have been pointed out between the timing and the spectral characteristics of low mass X-ray binaries and stellar black hole sources. Polarization measurements for these sources could play a role in determining the configuration of the disk and the neutron star.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6181"><span id="translatedtitle">Masks for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001478','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001478"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Case of Magnetars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kouveliotou, Chryssa</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 18) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11, 2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from four magnetar sources. Two of these were brand new sources, SGR J0501+4516, discovered with Swift and extensively monitored with Swift and GBM, SGR J0418+5729, discovered with GBM and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). A third was SGR J1550-5418, a source originally classified as an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP 1E1547.0-5408), but exhibiting a very prolific outburst with over 400 events recorded in January 2009. In my talk I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts. Finally, I will describe the exciting new results of Fermi in this field and the current status of our knowledge of the magnetar population properties and magnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75d6110M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75d6110M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> times for volatility processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masoliver, Jaume; Perelló, Josep</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> times techniques, generally applied to nonequilibrium statistical mechanical processes, are also useful for a better understanding of financial markets. We present a detailed study on the mean first-passage time for the volatility of return time series. The empirical results extracted from daily data of major indices seem to follow the same law regardless of the kind of index thus suggesting an universal pattern. The empirical mean first-passage time to a certain level L is fairly different from that of the Wiener process showing a dissimilar behavior depending on whether L is higher or lower than the average volatility. All of this indicates a more complex dynamics in which a reverting force drives volatility toward its mean value. We thus present the mean first-passage time expressions of the most common stochastic volatility models whose approach is comparable to the random diffusion description. We discuss asymptotic approximations of these models and confront them to empirical results with a good agreement with the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSMSM32C..04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSMSM32C..04C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD (or ISM) models, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash, which provides a challenge to the existing MHD (or ISM) models. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. During high solar wind pressure period on April 21, 1999, the POLAR spacecraft observed lower ion flux in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighbouring cusp cavities. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1288C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1288C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large cusp diamagnetic cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, J.; Fritz, T.; Siscoe, G.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities have been observed in the morningside during intervals when the IMF By component was positive (duskward), suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity to the entire magnetopause may have significant global impacts on the geospace environment. They will possibly be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in the regions upstream of the subsolar magnetopause where energetic ion events frequently are observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARW28006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARW28006K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Mechanics of Growing Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhl, Ellen</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Growth is a distinguishing feature of all living things. Unlike standard materials, living matter can autonomously respond to alterations in its environment. As a result of a continuous ultrastructural turnover and renewal of cells and extracellular matrix, living matter can undergo <span class="hlt">extreme</span> changes in composition, size, and shape within the order of months, weeks, or days. While hard matter typically adapts by increasing its density to grow strong, soft matter adapts by increasing its volume to grow large. Here we provide a state-of-the-art review of growing matter, and compare existing mathematical models for growth and remodeling of living systems. Applications are plentiful ranging from plant growth to tumor growth, from asthma in the lungs to restenosis in the vasculature, from plastic to reconstructive surgery, and from skeletal muscle adaptation to heart failure. Using these examples, we discuss current challenges and potential future directions. We hope to initiate critical discussions around the biophysical modeling of growing matter as a powerful tool to better understand biological systems in health and disease. This research has been supported by the NSF CAREER award CMMI 0952021.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..APRE17002G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..APRE17002G"><span id="translatedtitle">Driving <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Efficiency to Market</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garbesi, Karina</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The rapid development of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030012934','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030012934"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming in a Research Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the applicability of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming in a scientific research context. The cultural environment at a government research center differs from the customer-centric business view. The chief theoretical difficulty lies in defining the customer to developer relationship. Specifically, can <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming be utilized when the developer and customer are the same person? Eight of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming's 12 practices are perceived to be incompatible with the existing research culture. Further, six of the nine 'environments that I know don't do well with XP' apply. A pilot project explores the use of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming in scientific research. The applicability issues are addressed and it is concluded that <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming can function successfully in situations for which it appears to be ill-suited. A strong discipline for mentally separating the customer and developer roles is found to be key for applying <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming in a field that lacks a clear distinction between the customer and the developer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1810547P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1810547P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and wet precipitation spell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Onof, Chris</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global warming is expected to alter the behavior of hydroclimatic variables in various ways. Therefore, it is of great <span class="hlt">importance</span> not only to identify which hydroclimatic variables are going through changes but also which of their specific characteristics change and in what way. For example the major focus regarding precipitation has been on changes or trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events or in annual totals, obviously, not without a reason. Yet one of the aspects of precipitation we believe is of equal <span class="hlt">importance</span> and has not been extensively studied is <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and wet spells. Changes in dry and wet spells can severely impact all aspects of human lives, ranging from infrastructure planning and water resources management to agriculture and infectious disease spread. In this study we perform an extensive analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and wet precipitation spells using tenths of thousands of daily precipitation records in order to identify trends or variability changes in the maximum number of consecutive dry or wet days of each year. Our final goal is to evaluate the percentage of stations globally with positive/negative trends either in the mean value or in variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and wet spells and assess if this percentage is statistically justifiable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1310178-python-import-replacement','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1310178-python-import-replacement"><span id="translatedtitle">Python <span class="hlt">import</span> replacement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Smart<span class="hlt">Import</span>.py is a Python source-code file that implements a replacement for the standard Python module <span class="hlt">importer</span>. The code is derived from knee.py, a file in the standard Python diestribution , and adds functionality to improve the performance of Python module <span class="hlt">imports</span> in massively parallel contexts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036670"><span id="translatedtitle">[Injury mechanisms in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violence settings].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arcaute-Velazquez, Fernando Federico; García-Núñez, Luis Manuel; Noyola-Vilallobos, Héctor Faustino; Espinoza-Mercado, Fernando; Rodríguez-Vega, Carlos Eynar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> violence events are consequence of current world-wide economic, political and social conditions. Injury patterns found among victims of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violence events are very complex, obeying several high-energy injury mechanisms. In this article, we present the basic concepts of trauma kinematics that regulate the clinical approach to victims of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violence events, in the hope that clinicians increase their theoretical armamentarium, and reflecting on obtaining better outcomes. PMID:27036670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411665B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411665B"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> events trough a geoadditive model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bocci, C.; Caporali, E.; Petrucci, A.; Rossi, G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Rainfall can be considered a very <span class="hlt">important</span> variable, and rainfall <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events analysis of great concern for the enormous impacts that they may have on everyday life particularly when related to intense rainfalls and floods, and hydraulic risk management. On the catchment area of Arno River in Tuscany, Central Italy, a geoadditive mixed model of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is developed. Most of the territory of Arno River has suffered in the past of many severe hydro-geological events, with high levels of risk due to the vulnerability of a unique artistic and cultural heritage. The area has a complex topography that greatly influences the precipitation regime. The dataset is composed by the time series of the annual maxima of daily rainfall recorded in about 400 rain gauges, spatially distributed over the catchment area of about 8.800 km2. The record period covers mainly the second half of 20th century. The rainfall observations are assumed to follow generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions whose locations are spatially dependent and where the dependence is captured using a geoadditive model. In particular, since rainfall has a natural spatial domain and a significant spatial variability, a spatial hierarchical model for <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is used. The spatial hierarchical models, in fact, take into account data from all locations, borrowing strength from neighbouring locations when they estimate parameters and are of great interest when small set of data is available, as in the case of rainfall <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values. Together with rain gauges location variables further physiographic variables are investigated as explanation variables. The implemented geoadditive mixed model of spatially referenced time series of rainfall <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values, is able to capture the spatial dynamics of the rainfall <span class="hlt">extreme</span> phenomenon. Since the model shows evidence of a spatial trend in the rainfall <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dynamic, the temporal dynamic and the time influence can be also taken into account. The implemented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A12D..04Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A12D..04Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Summer Convection over equatorial America and Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuluaga, M. D.; Houze, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> cases over tropical America. Over Africa the monsoon is also <span class="hlt">important</span> in modulating the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> convection; however, diurnal heating and the passage of African Easterly Waves are of primary <span class="hlt">importance</span> in distributing the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> convection zonally across the tropical African savannas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nZpPzuoqdg','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nZpPzuoqdg"><span id="translatedtitle">Real World: Analog Testing in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>See how NASA uses analog testing to simulate space exploration. Explore <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments like the Aquarius underwater laboratory in Key Largo, Florida. Find out how scientists use mathematical ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARW27001W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARW27001W"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasmons under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dimensional confinement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weitering, Hanno</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>In our studies, we explore how surface and bulk plasmons emerge under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dimensional confinement, i.e., dimensions that are orders of magnitude smaller than those employed in `nanoplasmonics'. Atomically-smooth ultrathin Mg films were epitaxially grown on Si(111), allowing for atomically-precise tuning of the plasmon response.ootnotetextM.M. "Ozer, E.J. Moon, A.G. Eguiluz, and H.H. Weitering, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 197601 (2011). While the single-particle states in these 3-12 monolayer (ML) thick films consist of a series of two-dimensional subbands, the bulk-plasmon response is like that of a thin slice carved from bulk Mg subject to quantum-mechanical boundary conditions. Remarkably, this bulk-like behavior persists all the way down to 3 ML. In the 3-12 ML thickness range, bulk loss spectra are dominated by the n=1 and n=2 normal modes, consistent with the excitation of plasmons involving quantized electronic subbands. The collective response of the thinnest films is furthermore characterized by a thickness-dependent spectral weight transfer from the high-energy collective modes to the low-energy single-particle excitations, until the bulk plasmon ceases to exist below 3 ML. Surface- and multipole plasmon modes even persist down to 2 ML. These results are striking manifestations of the role of quantum confinement on plasmon resonances in precisely controlled nanostructures. They furthermore suggest the intriguing possibility of tuning resonant plasmon frequencies via precise dimensional control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4187138','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4187138"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetotactic Bacteria from <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lefèvre, Christopher T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, <span class="hlt">extremely</span> alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0. PMID:25369742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Life....3..295B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Life....3..295B"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetotactic Bacteria from <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lefère, Christopher T.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth's geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, <span class="hlt">extremely</span> alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25369742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25369742"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetotactic bacteria from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bazylinski, Dennis A; Lefèvre, Christopher T</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth's geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, <span class="hlt">extremely</span> alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0. PMID:25369742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21090754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21090754"><span id="translatedtitle">Staff Radiation Doses to the Lower <span class="hlt">Extremities</span> in Interventional Radiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shortt, C. P.; Al-Hashimi, H.; Malone, L.; Lee, M. J.</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the radiation doses to the lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> in interventional radiology suites and evaluate the benefit of installation of protective lead shielding. After an alarmingly increased dose to the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> in a preliminary study, nine interventional radiologists wore thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) just above the ankle, over a 4-week period. Two different interventional suites were used with Siemens undercouch fluoroscopy systems. A range of procedures was carried out including angiography, embolization, venous access, drainages, and biopsies. A second identical 4-week study was then performed after the installation of a 0.25-mm lead curtain on the working side of each interventional table. Equivalent doses for all nine radiologists were calculated. One radiologist exceeded the monthly dose limit for a Category B worker (12.5 mSv) for both lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> before lead shield placement but not afterward. The averages of both lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> showed a statistically significant dose reduction of 64% (p < 0.004) after shield placement. The left lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> received a higher dose than the right, 6.49 vs. 4.57 mSv, an increase by a factor of 1.42. Interventional radiology is here to stay but the benefits of interventional radiology should never distract us from the <span class="hlt">important</span> issue of radiation protection. All possible measures should be taken to optimize working conditions for staff. This study showed a significant lower limb <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dose reduction with the use of a protective lead curtain. This curtain should be used routinely on all C-arm interventional radiologic equipment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22660979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22660979"><span id="translatedtitle">Adolescent baseball pitching technique: lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> biomechanical analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Milewski, Matthew D; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Solomito, Matthew; Westwell, Melany; Nissen, Carl W</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Documentation of the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> motion patterns of adolescent pitchers is an <span class="hlt">important</span> part of understanding the pitching motion and the implication of lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> technique on upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> loads, injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to take the initial step in this process by documenting the biomechanics of the lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> during the pitching cycle in adolescent pitchers and to compare these findings with the published data for older pitchers. Three-dimensional motion analysis using a comprehensive lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> model was used to evaluate the fast ball pitch technique in adolescent pitchers. Thirty-two pitchers with a mean age of 12.4 years (range 10.5-14.7 years) and at least 2 years of experience were included in this study. The pitchers showed a mean of 49 ± 12° of knee flexion of the lead leg at foot contact. They tended to maintain this position through ball release, and then extended their knee during the follow through phase (ball release to maximal internal glenohumeral rotation). The lead leg hip rapidly progressed into adduction and flexion during the arm cocking phase with a range of motion of 40 ± 10° adduction and 30 ± 13° flexion. The lead hip mean peak adduction velocity was 434 ± 83°/s and flexion velocity was 456 ± 156°/s. Simultaneously, the trailing leg hip rapidly extended approaching to a mean peak extension of -8 ± 5° at 39% of the pitch cycle, which is close to passive range of motion constraints. Peak hip abduction of the trailing leg at foot contact was -31 ± 12°, which also approached passive range of motion constraints. Differences and similarities were also noted between the adolescent lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> kinematics and adult pitchers; however, a more comprehensive analysis using similar methods is needed for a complete comparison. PMID:22660979</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B41B0268Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B41B0268Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation patterns reduced terrestrial ecosystem production across biomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Moran, S. M.; Nearing, M.; Ponce Campos, G. E.; Huete, A. R.; Buda, A. R.; Bosch, D. D.; Gunter, S. A.; Kitchen, S. G.; McNab, W.; Morgan, J. A.; McClaran, M. P.; Montoya, D. S.; Peters, D. P.; Starks, P. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Precipitation regimes are predicted to shift to more <span class="hlt">extreme</span> patterns that are characterized by more intense rainfall events and longer dry intervals, yet their ecological impacts on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. This in situ study investigated the effects of novel climatic conditions on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) by combining a greenness index from satellite measurements and climatic records during 2000 to 2009 from 11 long-term experimental sites in multiple biomes and climates. Results showed that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation patterns decreased the sensitivity of ANPP to total annual precipitation (PT), at the regional and decadal scales, leading to a mean 20% decrease in rain-use efficiency across biomes. Relative decreases in ANPP were greatest for arid grassland (16%) and Mediterranean forest (20%), and less for mesic grassland and temperate forest (3%). The co-occurrence of more heavy rainfall events and longer dry intervals caused greater water stress that resulted in reduced vegetation production. A new generalized model was developed to improve predictions of the ANPP response to changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation patterns by using a function of both PT and an index of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. These findings suggest that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation patterns have more substantial and complex effects on vegetation production across biomes, and are as <span class="hlt">important</span> as total annual precipitation in understanding vegetation processes. With predictions of more <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events, forecasts of ecosystem production should consider these non-linear responses to altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change. Figure. Relation of production across precipitation gradients for 11 sites for two groups (Low: R95p% < 20%, High: R95p% ≥ 20%). See Table 2 for R95p% definitions. The relations were significantly different for the two groups (F2, 106 = 18.51, P < 0.0001).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0164G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0164G"><span id="translatedtitle">SOMs-Based Analysis of WRF <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Daily Precipitation in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glisan, J. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We analyze daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of precipitation produced with a polar-optimized version of the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model that simulated 19 years on the domain developed for the Regional Arctic System (RASM) model. Analysis focuses on Alaska, because of its proximity to the Pacific and Arctic oceans, both of which provide a large moisture fetch inland. Alaska's topography also has an <span class="hlt">important</span> impact on orographically-forced precipitation. In order to understand the circulation characteristics conducive for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events, we use Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) to find general patterns of circulation behavior. The SOM algorithm employs an artificial neural network that uses an unsupervised training process. In our analysis, we use mean sea level pressure (MSLP) anomalies to train the SOM. We examine daily widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events, defined as at least 25 grid points experiencing 99th percentile precipitation. Using the SOM procedure, we map days with widespread <span class="hlt">extremes</span> onto the SOM's array of circulation patterns. This mapping aids in determining which nodes are being accessed at higher frequencies, and hence, which circulations are more conducive to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We show that there are multiple circulation patterns responsible for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation differentiated by where they produce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in our analysis region. Additionally, we plot composites of several meteorological fields for SOM nodes being accessed by both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and non-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> events to determine what specific conditions are necessary for a widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event. Composites of individual nodes (or of adjacent nodes in SOM space) produce more physically reasonable circulations as opposed to composites of all <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, which can include multiple synoptic circulation regimes. We also trace the temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events through SOM space. Thus, our analysis lays the groundwork for diagnosing differences in atmospheric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.6037S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.6037S"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of microphysics on the scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Martin S.; O'Gorman, Paul A.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium with a cloud-system resolving model are used to investigate the scaling of high percentiles of the precipitation distribution (precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>) over a wide range of surface temperatures. At surface temperatures above roughly 295 K, precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> increase with warming in proportion to the increase in surface moisture, following what is termed Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling. At lower temperatures, the rate of increase of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> depends on the choice of cloud and precipitation microphysics scheme and the accumulation period, and it differs markedly from CC scaling in some cases. Precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are found to be sensitive to the fall speeds of hydrometeors, and this partly explains the different scaling results obtained with different microphysics schemes. The results suggest that microphysics play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in determining the response of convective precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> to warming, particularly when ice- and mixed-phase processes are <span class="hlt">important</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=250854','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=250854"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in vegetation dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climatic events challenge the capacity of vegetation models, including Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, to predict changes in plant species dynamics at local and regional spatial scales and over time periods relevant to ecologists and managers. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climatic events are defined as large,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21251205','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21251205"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex Plasma Research Under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ishihara, Osamu</p> <p>2008-09-07</p> <p>Complex plasma research under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions is described. The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=likelihood+AND+type+AND+%7c%7c+AND+censoring&pg=5&id=EJ1019119','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=likelihood+AND+type+AND+%7c%7c+AND+censoring&pg=5&id=EJ1019119"><span id="translatedtitle">Generalized IRT Models for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Response Style</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> response style (ERS) is a systematic tendency for a person to endorse <span class="hlt">extreme</span> options (e.g., strongly disagree, strongly agree) on Likert-type or rating-scale items. In this study, we develop a new class of item response theory (IRT) models to account for ERS so that the target latent trait is free from the response style and the tendency…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..342O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..342O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events: The art of attribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otto, Friederike E. L.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A high-impact weather event that occurred at the end of a decade of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> led to the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event attribution science. The challenge is now to move on to assessing the actual risks, rather than simply attributing meteorological variables to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720015987','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720015987"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface atmospheric <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (Launch and transportation areas)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values of surface and low altitude atmospheric parameters on space vehicle design, tests, and operations are discussed. Atmospheric <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from the surface to 150 meters for geographic locations of interest to NASA are given. Thermal parameters (temperature and solar radiation), humidity, pressure, and atmospheric electricity (lighting and static) are presented. Weather charts and tables are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+violence+AND+religion&pg=4&id=EJ872433','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+violence+AND+religion&pg=4&id=EJ872433"><span id="translatedtitle">The Nature and Characteristics of Youthful <span class="hlt">Extremism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremism</span> is an acute problem of the present day. Moods of <span class="hlt">extremism</span> are manifested in all spheres of the life and activities of young people--in education, work, business, political life, and leisure activity. They can be found in both individual and group social self-determination and are influenced by the immediate social environment as well as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164753','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164753"><span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting responses of mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> snowfall to climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Gorman, Paul A</p> <p>2014-08-28</p> <p>Snowfall is an <span class="hlt">important</span> element of the climate system, and one that is expected to change in a warming climate. Both mean snowfall and the intensity distribution of snowfall are <span class="hlt">important</span>, with heavy snowfall events having particularly large economic and human impacts. Simulations with climate models indicate that annual mean snowfall declines with warming in most regions but increases in regions with very low surface temperatures. The response of heavy snowfall events to a changing climate, however, is unclear. Here I show that in simulations with climate models under a scenario of high emissions of greenhouse gases, by the late twenty-first century there are smaller fractional changes in the intensities of daily snowfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than in mean snowfall over many Northern Hemisphere land regions. For example, for monthly climatological temperatures just below freezing and surface elevations below 1,000 metres, the 99.99th percentile of daily snowfall decreases by 8% in the multimodel median, compared to a 65% reduction in mean snowfall. Both mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> snowfall must decrease for a sufficiently large warming, but the climatological temperature above which snowfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> decrease with warming in the simulations is as high as -9 °C, compared to -14 °C for mean snowfall. These results are supported by a physically based theory that is consistent with the observed rain-snow transition. According to the theory, snowfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> occur near an optimal temperature that is insensitive to climate warming, and this results in smaller fractional changes for higher percentiles of daily snowfall. The simulated changes in snowfall that I find would influence surface snow and its hazards; these changes also suggest that it may be difficult to detect a regional climate-change signal in snowfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. PMID:25164753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008729','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008729"><span id="translatedtitle">EPE The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Physics Explorer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, Michael; Elvis, Martin; Bookbinder, Jay; Brenneman, Laura; Bulbul, Esra; Nulsen, Paul; Patnaude, Dan; Smith, Randall; Bandler, Simon; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andy; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Danner, Rolf; Daily, Dean; Fraser, George; Willingale, Richard; Miller, Jon; Turner, T. J.; Risalti, Guido; Galeazzi, Massimiliano</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Physics Explorer (EPE) is a mission concept that will address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics which are primary science objectives of IXO. The reach of EPE to the areas outlined in NASA RFI NNH11ZDA018L is shown as a table. The dark green indicates areas in which EPE can do the basic IXO science, and the light green areas where EPE can contribute but will not reach the full IXO capability. To address these science questions, EPE will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin in active galactic nuclei (AGN), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. EPE gives up the high resolution imaging of IXO in return for lightweight, high TRL foil mirrors which will provide >20 times the effective area of ASTRO-H and similar spatial resolution, with a beam sufficient to study point sources and nearby galaxies and clusters. Advances in micro-calorimeters allow improved performance at high rates with twice the energy resolution of ASTRO-H. A lower TRL option would provide 200 times the area of ASTRO-H using a micro-channel plate optic (MCPO) and a deployable optical bench. Both options are in the middle range of RFI missions at between $600M and $1000M. The EPE foil optic has direct heritage to ASTRO-H, allowing robust cost estimates. The spacecraft is entirely off the shelf and introduces no difficult requirements. The mission could be started and launched in this decade to an L2 orbit, with a three-year lifetime and consumables for 5 years. While ASTRO-H will give us the first taste of high-resolution, non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, it will be limited to small numbers of objects in many categories. EPE will give us the first statistically significant samples in each of these categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5724B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5724B"><span id="translatedtitle">Microrover Design for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertrand, R.; van Winnendael, M.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>With the emergence of ESA's BepiColombo cornerstone mission to the Planet Mercury, a new class of operational environment has become relevant for the design of planetary surface systems. In the past years, Mars was a primary focus for planetary landers, planetary mobility elements such as rovers or moles, and payload instruments. The typical environmental conditions were characterized by a temperature range between -120 and +20°C, low atmospheric pressure in the range of 7 hPa, and a dust/regolith environment. For a Mercury mission including a planetary landing, this situation can change dramatically, depending on the landing site and landing season. Local temperatures can be as low as -170°C in shadow or during night, and they can easily reach 200 to 250°C in sun light, even in temperate zones, e.g. at high latitudes of 85°. Such an environment is of course a particular challenge for both, the payload instruments and the accommodating microrobotic system. The strong limitation in size, mass, and power does not allow to apply classical, large sized passive thermal control mechanisms, or to implement active thermal control techniques with high power demand. The situation is even worse, if - as in the case of the BepiColombo Surface Element - the system is powered by primary batteries, resulting in a severe limitation of energy and on-surface life time. In the last years, the Nanokhod microrover has been developed to the state of an advanced laboratory model with the primary focus of an Mars mission application. For BepiColombo, Nanokhod became part of the lander's model payload. As a consequence, the related ESA technology development activity "Robotic Technology for Planetary Exploration" (RTPE) has been re-oriented towards a Mercury mission application. This paper presents the results of the RTPE activity in the context of an application of the Nanokhod microrover in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environment. It describes the design approach, focusing on the thermal and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23252379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23252379"><span id="translatedtitle">Colors of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> exo-Earth environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hegde, Siddharth; Kaltenegger, Lisa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The search for extrasolar planets has already detected rocky planets and several planetary candidates with minimum masses that are consistent with rocky planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. A low-resolution spectrum in the form of a color-color diagram of an exoplanet is likely to be one of the first post-detection quantities to be measured for the case of direct detection. In this paper, we explore potentially detectable surface features on rocky exoplanets and their connection to, and <span class="hlt">importance</span> as, a habitat for extremophiles, as known on Earth. Extremophiles provide us with the minimum known envelope of environmental limits for life on our planet. The color of a planet reveals information on its properties, especially for surface features of rocky planets with clear atmospheres. We use filter photometry in the visible as a first step in the characterization of rocky exoplanets to prioritize targets for follow-up spectroscopy. Many surface environments on Earth have characteristic albedos and occupy a different color space in the visible waveband (0.4-0.9 μm) that can be distinguished remotely. These detectable surface features can be linked to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> niches that support extremophiles on Earth and provide a link between geomicrobiology and observational astronomy. This paper explores how filter photometry can serve as a first step in characterizing Earth-like exoplanets for an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere, thereby prioritizing targets to search for atmospheric biosignatures. PMID:23252379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJMPS..3360357D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJMPS..3360357D"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospects for quantum computing: <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> doubtful</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyakonov, M. I.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The quantum computer is supposed to process information by applying unitary transformations to 2N complex amplitudes defining the state of N qubits. A useful machine needing N 103 or more, the number of continuous parameters describing the state of a quantum computer at any given moment is at least 21000 10300 which is much greater than the number of protons in the Universe. However, the theorists believe that the feasibility of large-scale quantum computing has been proved via the “threshold theorem”. Like for any theorem, the proof is based on a number of assumptions considered as axioms. However, in the physical world none of these assumptions can be fulfilled exactly. Any assumption can be only approached with some limited precision. So, the rather meaningless “error per qubit per gate” threshold must be supplemented by a list of the precisions with which all assumptions behind the threshold theorem should hold. Such a list still does not exist. The theory also seems to ignore the undesired free evolution of the quantum computer caused by the energy differences of quantum states entering any given superposition. Another <span class="hlt">important</span> point is that the hypothetical quantum computer will be a system of 103 -106 qubits PLUS an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> complex and monstrously sophisticated classical apparatus. This huge and strongly nonlinear system will generally exhibit instabilities and chaotic behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6398264','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6398264"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> winds and tornadoes: an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McDonald, J.R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this course on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winds, hurricanes and tornadoes is to provide an overview of these natural phenomenon from the perspective of design of new buildings and structures or the evaluation of existing ones. Information is directly applicable to design and evaluation processes. The premise is that the facility under consideration, which may consist of various buildings, structures, processing equipment, stacks, ventilation ducts, etc., can be classified into certain categories, depending on the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of the mission performed in the facility or the hazard that is presented by the particular operation. Having classified the facility into an appropriate category will automatically define certain design goals for the facility. The design goals are then met by selecting a design wind speed that is appropriate for the specified exceedance probability and by following certain specified design procedures. The problem then is to determine appropriate wind loads and other applicable loads, including dead loads, live loads, seismic loads and other loads that may act on the structures. The design process can then proceed in the usual manner. In the case of existing facilities the strengths of the various structural elements, subsystems and systems are evaluated and these strengths are related to wind speeds that would result in failure to meet the design goals. 12 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4609829','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4609829"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> low temperature tolerance in woody plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Strimbeck, G. Richard; Schaberg, Paul G.; Fossdal, Carl G.; Schröder, Wolfgang P.; Kjellsen, Trygve D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40°C and minimum temperatures below -60°C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196°C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have <span class="hlt">important</span> roles in survival at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low temperature (ELT). Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at ELT: (1) Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to -30°C), preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. (2) High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. (3) Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane–membrane interactions. PMID:26539202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=189676&keyword=school+AND+competition&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65344403&CFTOKEN=65897400','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=189676&keyword=school+AND+competition&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65344403&CFTOKEN=65897400"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergy and Its <span class="hlt">Importance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Emergy is an <span class="hlt">important</span> quantity needed for public policy analysis that is based on a complex methodology. The intent of this Environmental Research Brief is to define emergy and its <span class="hlt">importance</span> in a manner that is accessible to everyone with at least a high school education. Emer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27281326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27281326"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> and Pelvic Tumors Using Computer Assisted Modeling (CAM) A Case Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haskoor, John; Sinno, Sammy; Blank, Alan; Saadeh, Pierre; Rapp, Timothy</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Computer assisted modeling (CAM) has become an <span class="hlt">important</span> tool in surgical oncology and reconstructive surgery. The preservation of the limb is an <span class="hlt">important</span> consideration when approaching the treatment of lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> and pelvic tumors. The use of cutting guides allows for optimal conservation of disease-free bone and maintenance of function. We present a small case series that illustrates the use of CAM in patients with lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> and pelvic bone tumors. PMID:27281326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18557021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18557021"><span id="translatedtitle">[Assessment of animal welfare aspects in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> breeds of pet animals: principles, rules and other measures].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steiger, A</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The review deals with fundamental aspects of the problems and the assessment of animal welfare aspects in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> breeds of companion and pet animals, with legislation and with other measures to avoid breeding animals with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> characteristics. Efforts are <span class="hlt">important</span> in particular by breeding organisations to adapt breeding standards and to improve the education of judges and breeders. Furthermore adequate activities to correctly inform animal keepers are <span class="hlt">important</span>. PMID:18557021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11b4005O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11b4005O"><span id="translatedtitle">Synoptic and meteorological drivers of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ozone concentrations over Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otero, N.; Sillmann, J.; Schnell, J. L.; Rust, H. W.; Butler, T.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8 h average values are investigated, along with drivers of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative <span class="hlt">importance</span> of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most <span class="hlt">important</span> predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an <span class="hlt">important</span> role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values, especially during warmer months.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7072O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7072O"><span id="translatedtitle">Synoptic and meteorological drivers of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ozone concentrations over Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative <span class="hlt">importance</span> of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most <span class="hlt">important</span> predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an <span class="hlt">important</span> role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values, especially during warmer months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38.1960U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38.1960U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Reconnection in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Astrophysical Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uzdensky, Dmitri</p> <p></p> <p>Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma physics process of breaking ideal-MHD's frozen-in constraints on magnetic field connectivity and of dramatic rearranging of the magnetic topol-ogy, which often leads to a violent release of the free magnetic energy. Reconnection has long been acknowledged to be of great <span class="hlt">importance</span> in laboratory plasma physics (magnetic fusion) and in space and solar physics (responsible for solar flares and magnetospheric substorms). In addition, its <span class="hlt">importance</span> in Astrophysics has been increasingly recognized in recent years. However, due to a great diversity of astrophysical environments, the fundamental physics of astrophysical magnetic reconnection can be quite different from that of the traditional recon-nection encountered in the solar system. In particular, environments like the solar corona and the magnetosphere are characterized by relatively low energy densities, where the plasma is ad-equately described as a mixture of electrons and ions whose numbers are conserved and where the dissipated magnetic energy basically stays with the plasma. In contrast, in many high-energy astrophysical phenomena the energy density is so large that photons play as <span class="hlt">important</span> a role as electrons and ions and, in particular, radiation pressure and radiative cooling become dominant. In this talk I focus on the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> case of high-energy-density astrophysical reconnec-tion — reconnection of magnetar-strength (1014 - 1015 Gauss) magnetic fields, <span class="hlt">important</span> for giant flares in soft-gamma repeaters (SGRs), and for rapid magnetic energy release in either the central engines or in the relativistic jets of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). I outline the key relevant physical processes and present a new theoretical picture of magnetic reconnection in these environments. The corresponding magnetic energy density is so enormous that, when suddenly released, it inevitably heats the plasma to relativistic temperatures, resulting in co-pious production of electron</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015Nanop...4...13K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015Nanop...4...13K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Limitations of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Nonlinear Ultrafast Nanophotonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kern, Christian; Zürch, Michael; Spielmann, Christian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High-harmonic generation (HHG) has been established as an indispensable tool in optical spectroscopy. This effect arises for instance upon illumination of a noble gas with sub-picosecond laser pulses at focussed intensities significantly greater than 1012W/cm2. HHG provides a coherent light source in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (XUV) spectral region, which is of <span class="hlt">importance</span> in inner shell photo ionization of many atoms and molecules. Additionally, it intrinsically features light fields with unique temporal properties. Even in its simplest realization, XUV bursts of sub-femtosecond pulse lengths are released. More sophisticated schemes open the path to attosecond physics by offering single pulses of less than 100 attoseconds duration. Resonant optical antennas are <span class="hlt">important</span> tools for coupling and enhancing electromagnetic fields on scales below their free-space wavelength. In a special application, placing field-enhancing plasmonic nano antennas at the interaction site of an HHG experiment has been claimed to boost local laser field strengths, from insufficient initial intensities to sufficient values. This was achieved with the use of arrays of bow-tie-shaped antennas of ˜ 100nm in length. However, the feasibility of this concept depends on the vulnerability of these nano-antennas to the still intense driving laser light.We show, by looking at a set of exemplary metallic structures, that the threshold fluence Fth of laser-induced damage (LID) is a greatly limiting factor for the proposed and tested schemes along these lines.We present our findings in the context of work done by other groups, giving an assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27338120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27338120"><span id="translatedtitle">Acquired dermal melanocytosis of the face and <span class="hlt">extremities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ouchi, T; Ishii, K; Nishikawa, T; Ishiko, A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Acquired dermal melanocytosis (ADM) is a relatively rare, but well-described disease among adolescent to middle-aged East Asian women, particularly those of Japanese and Chinese descent. Clinically, ADM manifests as multiple punctate and greyish-brown pigmented areas 1-3 mm in diameter occurring on both sides of the forehead and zygomatic region. The subtype of ADM affecting the face and <span class="hlt">extremities</span> is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> rare even in East Asian women. We describe three patients with ADM of the face and <span class="hlt">extremities</span> (ADMFE) and their characteristic clinical features. All patients were Japanese women, and showed multiple greyish-brown pigmentations on both nasal wings and on the extensor surface of the <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. We found that the clinical features were strikingly uniform, and that a pigmented lesion on the nasal wing can be an <span class="hlt">important</span> clue to distinguish ADMFE from other hyperpigmented diseases of the hands and feet. One patient was treated with Q-switched ruby laser with excellent outcome. Increased awareness of ADMFE can lead to earlier diagnosis and potential treatment. PMID:27338120</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317278','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317278"><span id="translatedtitle">New Options for Vascularized Bone Reconstruction in the Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Houdek, Matthew T.; Wagner, Eric R.; Wyles, Cody C.; Nanos, George P.; Moran, Steven L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Originally described in the 1970s, vascularized bone grafting has become a critical component in the treatment of bony defects and non-unions. Although well established in the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span>, recent years have seen many novel techniques described to treat a variety of challenging upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> pathologies. Here the authors review the use of different techniques of vascularized bone grafts for the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> bone pathologies. The vascularized fibula remains the gold standard for the treatment of large bone defects of the humerus and forearm, while also playing a role in carpal reconstruction; however, two other <span class="hlt">important</span> options for larger defects include the vascularized scapula graft and the Capanna technique. Smaller upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> bone defects and non-unions can be treated with the medial femoral condyle (MFC) free flap or a vascularized rib transfer. In carpal non-unions, both pedicled distal radius flaps and free MFC flaps are viable options. Finally, in skeletally immature patients, vascularized fibular head epiphyseal transfer can provide growth potential in addition to skeletal reconstruction. PMID:25685100</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817928F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817928F"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional frequency analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation for Sicily (Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several <span class="hlt">important</span> activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114441"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear processes reinforce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Indian Ocean Dipole events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin; Santoso, Agus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Under global warming, climate models show an almost three-fold increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events by 2100. These <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pIODs are characterised by a westward extension of cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) which push the downstream atmospheric convergence further west. This induces severe drought and flooding in the surrounding countries, but the processes involved in this projected increase have not been fully examined. Here we conduct a detailed heat budget analysis of 19 models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project and show that nonlinear zonal and vertical heat advection are <span class="hlt">important</span> for reinforcing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pIODs. Under greenhouse warming, these nonlinear processes do not change significantly in amplitude, but the frequency of occurrences surpassing a threshold increases. This is due to the projected weakening of the Walker circulation, which leads to the western tropical Indian Ocean warming faster than the east. As such, the magnitude of SSTAs required to shift convection westward is relatively smaller, allowing these convection shifts to occur more frequently in the future. The associated changes in wind and ocean current anomalies support the zonal and vertical advection terms in a positive feedback process and consequently, moderate pIODs become more <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-like. PMID:26114441</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QJRMS.142..102S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QJRMS.142..102S"><span id="translatedtitle">Waxing and waning of observed <span class="hlt">extreme</span> annual tropical rainfall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sukhatme, Jai; Venugopal, V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We begin by providing observational evidence that the probability of encountering very high and very low annual tropical rainfall has increased significantly in the recent decade (1998-present) as compared to the preceding warming era (1979-1997). These changes over land and ocean are spatially coherent and comprise of a rearrangement of very wet regions and a systematic expansion of dry zones. While the increased likelihood of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is consistent with a higher average temperature during the pause (as compared to 1979-1997), it is <span class="hlt">important</span> to note that the periods considered are also characterized by a transition from a relatively warm to cold phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To further probe the relation between contrasting phases of ENSO and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in accumulation, a similar comparison is performed between 1960-1978 (another extended cold phase of ENSO) and the aforementioned warming era. Though limited by land-only observations, in this cold-to-warm transition, remarkably, a near-exact reversal of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is noted both statistically and geographically. This is despite the average temperature being higher in 1979-1997 as compared to 1960-1978. Taken together, we propose that there is a fundamental mode of natural variability, involving the waxing and waning of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in accumulation of global tropical rainfall with different phases of ENSO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016HESS...20.3027P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016HESS...20.3027P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mekong River flow and hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phi Hoang, Long; Lauri, Hannu; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Supit, Iwan; Leemans, Rik; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Climate change poses critical threats to water-related safety and sustainability in the Mekong River basin. Hydrological impact signals from earlier Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3)-based assessments, however, are highly uncertain and largely ignore hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. This paper provides one of the first hydrological impact assessments using the CMIP5 climate projections. Furthermore, we model and analyse changes in river flow regimes and hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (i.e. high-flow and low-flow conditions). In general, the Mekong's hydrological cycle intensifies under future climate change. The scenario's ensemble mean shows increases in both seasonal and annual river discharges (annual change between +5 and +16 %, depending on location). Despite the overall increasing trend, the individual scenarios show differences in the magnitude of discharge changes and, to a lesser extent, contrasting directional changes. The scenario's ensemble, however, shows reduced uncertainties in climate projection and hydrological impacts compared to earlier CMIP3-based assessments. We further found that <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high-flow events increase in both magnitude and frequency. <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> low flows, on the other hand, are projected to occur less often under climate change. Higher low flows can help reducing dry season water shortage and controlling salinization in the downstream Mekong Delta. However, higher and more frequent peak discharges will exacerbate flood risks in the basin. Climate-change-induced hydrological changes will have <span class="hlt">important</span> implications for safety, economic development, and ecosystem dynamics and thus require special attention in climate change adaptation and water management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS23B..01I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS23B..01I"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical Hazards and Preventive Disaster Management of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Natural Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Takeuchi, K.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Geophysical hazard is potentially damaging natural event and/or phenomenon, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> natural hazards are a key manifestation of the complex hierarchical nonlinear Earth system. An understanding, accurate modeling and forecasting of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hazards are most <span class="hlt">important</span> scientific challenges. Several recent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> natural events (e.g., 2004 Great Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami and the 2005 violent Katrina hurricane) demonstrated strong coupling between solid Earth and ocean, and ocean and atmosphere. These events resulted in great humanitarian tragedies because of a weak preventive disaster management. The less often natural events occur (and the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are rare by definition), the more often the disaster managers postpone the preparedness to the events. The tendency to reduce the funding for preventive disaster management of natural catastrophes is seldom follows the rules of responsible stewardship for future generations neither in developing countries nor in highly developed economies where it must be considered next to malfeasance. Protecting human life and property against earthquake disasters requires an uninterrupted chain of tasks: from (i) understanding of physics of the events, analysis and monitoring, through (ii) interpretation, modeling, hazard assessment, and prediction, to (iii) public awareness, preparedness, and preventive disaster management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ThApC.107..201T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ThApC.107..201T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of trends in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Zhejiang, east China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Ye; Xu, Yue-Ping; Booij, M. J.; Lin, Shengji; Zhang, Qingqing; Lou, Zhanghua</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather exerts a huge impact on human beings and it is of vital <span class="hlt">importance</span> to study the regular pattern of meteorological and hydrological factors. In this paper, a selection of seven <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices is used to analyze the trend of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of 18 meteorological stations located in Zhejiang Province, east China using the Mann-Kendall test. Then the precipitation trends in the plum season (from May to July) and typhoon season (from August to October) are studied separately. The results show that the precipitation trend varies from east to west. There is a positive trend in the east and a negative one in the west. The largest part of Zhejiang Province shows a positive trend in heavy precipitation and the most significant upward trend is detected in Dinghai with 3.4 mm/year for precipitation on very wet days. Although the upward trend of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is not prevailing, the range of increase in specific areas is apparent, like Dinghai with 1.3 mm/year. Precipitation intensity exhibits an upward trend in most areas and a typical upward trend can be found in Dachendao, Tianmushan, and Yuhuan with 0.04, 0.02, and 0.05 mm/year respectively. Precipitation intensity in both plum and typhoon seasons has increased too, especially for the coastal stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481856','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481856"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear processes reinforce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Indian Ocean Dipole events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin; Santoso, Agus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Under global warming, climate models show an almost three-fold increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events by 2100. These <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pIODs are characterised by a westward extension of cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) which push the downstream atmospheric convergence further west. This induces severe drought and flooding in the surrounding countries, but the processes involved in this projected increase have not been fully examined. Here we conduct a detailed heat budget analysis of 19 models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project and show that nonlinear zonal and vertical heat advection are <span class="hlt">important</span> for reinforcing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pIODs. Under greenhouse warming, these nonlinear processes do not change significantly in amplitude, but the frequency of occurrences surpassing a threshold increases. This is due to the projected weakening of the Walker circulation, which leads to the western tropical Indian Ocean warming faster than the east. As such, the magnitude of SSTAs required to shift convection westward is relatively smaller, allowing these convection shifts to occur more frequently in the future. The associated changes in wind and ocean current anomalies support the zonal and vertical advection terms in a positive feedback process and consequently, moderate pIODs become more <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-like. PMID:26114441</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...511697N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...511697N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear processes reinforce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Indian Ocean Dipole events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin; Santoso, Agus</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Under global warming, climate models show an almost three-fold increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events by 2100. These <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pIODs are characterised by a westward extension of cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) which push the downstream atmospheric convergence further west. This induces severe drought and flooding in the surrounding countries, but the processes involved in this projected increase have not been fully examined. Here we conduct a detailed heat budget analysis of 19 models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project and show that nonlinear zonal and vertical heat advection are <span class="hlt">important</span> for reinforcing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pIODs. Under greenhouse warming, these nonlinear processes do not change significantly in amplitude, but the frequency of occurrences surpassing a threshold increases. This is due to the projected weakening of the Walker circulation, which leads to the western tropical Indian Ocean warming faster than the east. As such, the magnitude of SSTAs required to shift convection westward is relatively smaller, allowing these convection shifts to occur more frequently in the future. The associated changes in wind and ocean current anomalies support the zonal and vertical advection terms in a positive feedback process and consequently, moderate pIODs become more <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-like.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007epsc.conf..555F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007epsc.conf..555F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Astrobiological studies with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> halophilic Archaea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fendrihan, S.; Lotter, H. Stan</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> halophilic Archaea were isolated and characterized by both classical and modern molecular biological methods from hypersaline and haloalkaline lakes, salted soils, solar salterns and rock salt deposits (1). The survival of these micro-organisms after embedding in laboratory-made halite was investigated. Their presence in fluid inclusions was demonstrated by staining with the BacLight LIVE/DEAD kit and observation of their fluorescence by microscopy. Following resuspension of cells from halite crystals, a survival of about 0.5 - 4% according to colony forming units was obtained. In previous studies which focussed on the resistance of halophilic archaea to UV radiation or the space environment, survival of a dose of 110 J/m2 (using liquid cultures) and up to 10 000 J/m2 at a range of 200 - 400 nm was reported, when dried Haloarcula sp. in a single layer were exposed on the Biopan facility (2). We exposed a few haloarchaeal strains to a Martian UV simulator lamp with a range of 200 - 400 nm and an intensity of 41.2 W/m2, obtaining a viability of about 51- 67% of cells following different exposure times. Other studies focus on the detection of haloarchaea in halite by Raman microspectroscopy and by NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy, which are considered to be <span class="hlt">important</span> future tools for Mars exploration (3). Using the Dilor XY Raman spectrometer with laser excitation at 514.5 nm, equipped with a confocal microscope BX40 (Olympus Corp., Japan) and a Bruker IFS 66 + FRA106 with laser excitation at 1064 nm (Bruker, Germany), instruments, we obtained characteristic carotenoid peaks contained by these microorganisms. 1. Fendrihan S., Legat A., Pfaffenhuemer M., Gruber C., Weidler G., Gerbl F. Stan Lotter H. (2006) <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> halophilic archaea and the issue of long-term microbial survival. Review. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 5: 203-218. 2. Mancinelli R. L., White M. R., Rothschild L. J. (1998) Biopan survival I : exposure of the osmophiles Synechococcus sp. (Nägeli) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21560415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21560415"><span id="translatedtitle">[Notable <span class="hlt">imported</span> infectious diseases].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohnishi, Kenji</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Japanese doctors are somewhat unfamiliar with <span class="hlt">imported</span> infectious diseases, however, the following <span class="hlt">imported</span> infectious diseases are notable: cholera, which is currently endemic in Haiti and which there is a possibility of it being <span class="hlt">imported</span> to Japan from endemic areas; typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, whose causative organisms showing low sensitivity to fluoroquinolones have become predominant; rabies, which exhibits a high mortality; avian influenza H5N1, which has the possibility of changing into a new type of human influenza; chikungunya fever, in which the number of Japanese patients is increasing; and cyclosporiasis, which led to a number of food poisonings in the USA and Canada, and as a growing number of Japanese travel abroad, the number of infected Japanese patients returning from endemic areas will increase. It is thus <span class="hlt">important</span> to identify the presence of these diseases on diagnosis. PMID:21560415</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.healthychildren.org/English/family-life/family-dynamics/pages/The-Importance-of-Family-Routines.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/family-life/family-dynamics/pages/The-Importance-of-Family-Routines.aspx"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Importance</span> of Family Routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The <span class="hlt">Importance</span> of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC51D1112T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC51D1112T"><span id="translatedtitle">The Climatology of Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the World's Major Growing Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troy, T.; Zhu, X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A stable food supply is increasingly <span class="hlt">important</span> as global populations grow and climate variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> affect crop yields. It is therefore critical to quantify the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in major growing regions globally to understand the vulnerability of the global food supply to climate. First, we grid the GHCN historical climate data and evaluate the effect of gridding on estimation of agriculturally relevant climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, such as heat waves, consecutive dry days, and precipitation intensity. We find that the differences between gridded indices and the raw station indices are small, mostly less than 10%. We then evaluate the climatology of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the probability of concurrent <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, both within one growing region and across multiple regions globally. We find that the correlation of two precipitation or temperature related indices are quite strong, such that the probability of another <span class="hlt">extreme</span> occurring increases given the occurrence of one <span class="hlt">extreme</span>. These results provide estimations of the global food supply's vulnerability to climate variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, which is critical for planning in the coming decades with projections of more frequent and more intense climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93f4062R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93f4062R"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasinormal modes of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richartz, Maurício</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The continued fraction method (also known as Leaver's method) is one of the most effective techniques used to determine the quasinormal modes of a black hole. For <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes, however, the method does not work (since, in such a case, the event horizon is an irregular singular point of the associated wave equation). Fortunately, there exists a modified version of the method, devised by Onozawa et al. [Phys. Rev. D 53, 7033 (1996)], which works for neutral massless fields around an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> Reissner-Nordström black hole. In this paper, we generalize the ideas of Onozawa et al. to charged massless perturbations around an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> Reissner-Nordström black hole and to neutral massless perturbations around an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> Kerr black hole. In particular, the existence of damped modes is analyzed in detail. Similarities and differences between the results of the original continued fraction method for near <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes and the results of the new continued fraction method for <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes are discussed. Mode stability of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes is also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1237543','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1237543"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, analyses of concurrence of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are scarce, and climate change effects on joint <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43N..03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43N..03T"><span id="translatedtitle">Threshold modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spatial rainfall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thibaud, E.; Davison, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Complex events such as sustained <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation have major effects on human populations and environmental sustainability, and there is a growing interest in modeling them realistically. For risk assessment based on spatial quantities such as the total amount of rainfall falling over a region, it is necessary to properly model the dependence among <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over that region, based on data from perhaps only a few sites within it. We propose an approach to spatial modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall, based on max-stable processes fitted using partial duration series and a censored threshold likelihood function. The resulting models are coherent with classical <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-value theory and allow the consistent treatment of spatial dependence of rainfall using ideas related to those of classical geostatistics. The method can be used to produce simulations needed for hydrological models, and in particular for the generation of spatially heterogeneous <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall fields over catchments. We illustrate the ideas through data from the Val Ferret watershed in the Swiss Alps, based on daily cumulative rainfall totals recorded at 24 stations for four summers, augmented by a longer series from nearby. References: Davison, A. C., Huser, R., Thibaud, E. (2013). Geostatistics of Dependent and Asymptotically Independent <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>, Mathematical Geosciences, vol. 45, num. 5, p. 511-529, 2013, doi:10.1007/s11004-013-9469-y Thibaud, E., Mutzner, R., Davison A. C. (2013, to appear). Threshold modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spatial rainfall, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20329</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813705M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813705M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Anthropocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mård, Johanna; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, from floods to droughts, pose one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Many of these challenges are associated with societal interactions with water, as people control or impact hydrological systems in a multitude of ways while they are also being affected and shaped by hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, depending on their response to drought and flood events. However, the fact that the human and natural components of freshwater systems interact and co-evolve over time is often not taken into account. There is a need to study the two-way coupling between hydrology and society within a more comprehensive framework for hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> to anticipate future trajectories in a rapidly changing world. We present an interdisciplinary framework (and concepts) to identify internal controlling variables, processes and feedbacks, and the external system drivers and disturbances of the coupled human-water system with regard to hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. To achieve this, the study (i) synthesizes existing research on coupled human-water system focusing on floods and droughts, (ii) analyzes hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> that have already occurred and their spatiotemporal patterns to investigate what patterns are observed in different regions of the world, and (iii) systematically describe the observed hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, their causes and the interactions and feedbacks between hydrology and society. Advancing our understanding of mechanisms and feedbacks driving hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is essential to better anticipate how the coupled human-water system will respond to future environmental change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1237543-changes-concurrent-precipitation-temperature-extremes','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1237543-changes-concurrent-precipitation-temperature-extremes"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, analyses of concurrence of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are scarce, and climate change effects on joint <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90b2917K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90b2917K"><span id="translatedtitle">Route to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in excitable systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karnatak, Rajat; Ansmann, Gerrit; Feudel, Ulrike; Lehnertz, Klaus</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Systems of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with different coupling topologies are capable of self-generating and -terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics that can be regarded as <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events due to their rareness and recurrent occurrence. Here we demonstrate the crucial role of an interior crisis in the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. In parameter space we identify this interior crisis as the organizing center of the dynamics by employing concepts of mixed-mode oscillations and of leaking chaotic systems. We find that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events occur in certain regions in parameter space, and we show the robustness of this phenomenon with respect to the system size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21084955','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21084955"><span id="translatedtitle">American coal <span class="hlt">imports</span> 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frank Kolojeski</p> <p>2007-09-15</p> <p>As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and <span class="hlt">imports</span> on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: <span class="hlt">Import</span> growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter <span class="hlt">imports</span> from being railed far inland and that the great majority of <span class="hlt">imports</span> will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing <span class="hlt">import</span> facilities and other plants making investments to add <span class="hlt">imports</span> to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal <span class="hlt">import</span> market; and Geographic analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614955P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614955P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Geohazards: Reducing Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Campus, Paola</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> damage on a global scale for a globally connected and stressed society. In particular, large volcanic eruptions could impact climate, damage anthropogenic infrastructure and interrupt resource supplies on a global scale. The occurrence of one or more of the largest volcanic eruptions that took place during the last 2,000 years under today's conditions would likely cause global disasters or catastrophes challenging civilization. Integration of these low-probability, high-impact events in DRR requires an approach focused on resilience and antifragility, as well as the ability to cope with, and recover from failure of infrastructures and social systems. Resilience results from social capital even more than from the robustness of infrastructure. While it is <span class="hlt">important</span> to understand the hazards through the contribution of geosciences, it is equally <span class="hlt">important</span> to understand through the contribution of social sciences and engineering the societal processes involved with coping with hazards or leading to failure. For comprehensive development of resilience to natural hazards and, in particular, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geohazards, synergy between geosciences, engineering and social sciences, jointed to an improved science-policy relationship is key to success. For example, a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that a comprehensive monitoring system that could identify the onset of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> volcanic eruption with sufficient lead time to allow for a globally coordinated preparation makes economic sense. The WP recommends implementation of such a monitoring system with global coverage, assesses the existing assets in current monitoring systems, and illustrates many benefits, besides providing early warning for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> volcanic eruptions. However, such a monitoring system can provide resilience only via the capability of the global community to react to early warnings. The WP recommends achieving this through the establishment of a global coordination platform comparable to IPCC's role in addressing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980007459','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980007459"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lemen, J. R.; Freeland, S. L.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Efforts concentrated on development and implementation of the SolarSoft (SSW) data analysis system. From an EIT analysis perspective, this system was designed to facilitate efficient reuse and conversion of software developed for Yohkoh/SXT and to take advantage of a large existing body of software developed by the SDAC, Yohkoh, and SOHO instrument teams. Another strong motivation for this system was to provide an EIT analysis environment which permits coordinated analysis of EIT data in conjunction with data from <span class="hlt">important</span> supporting instruments, including Yohkoh/SXT and the other SOHO coronal instruments; CDS, SUMER, and LASCO. In addition, the SSW system will support coordinated EIT/TRACE analysis (by design) when TRACE data is available; TRACE launch is currently planned for March 1998. Working with Jeff Newmark, the Chianti software package (K.P. Dere et al) and UV /EUV data base was fully integrated into the SSW system to facilitate EIT temperature and emission analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.168...24K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.168...24K"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of trends in rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with mixed effects models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamruzzaman, M.; Beecham, S.; Metcalfe, A. V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Estimates of seasonal rainfall maxima at durations as short as 6 min are needed for many applications including the design and analysis of urban drainage systems. It is also <span class="hlt">important</span> to investigate whether or not there is evidence of changes in these <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, both as an indicator of the sensitivity of rainfall to anthropogenic and natural climate change and as an aid to the calibration of future scenarios. Estimation of trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values in a region needs to be based on all the available data if precision is to be achieved. However, <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at different periods of accumulation at neighbouring sites are not independent because there are temporal and spatial correlations, respectively. A linear mixed effects (lme) model allows for this correlation structure, and can be fitted to unequal record lengths at different sites. The modelling technique is demonstrated with an analysis of monthly maximum rainfall, at nine aggregations between 6 min and 24 h, from six sites, with record lengths between 10 and 25 years, from a region in South Australia. In terms of mean value, there is no evidence of a trend or change in the seasonal distribution of the monthly <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall. However, there is a strong evidence of an increase in variability of monthly <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall, estimated as a 58% increase in absolute value of deviation from the mean over a 25 year period. Rainfall records are often only available as a daily accumulation. A formula for the ratio of the monthly maxima at durations shorter than 24 h, down to 6 min, to the 24 h monthly maximum, in terms of: duration, month of the year, and a site specific adjustment is estimated. There is a clear seasonal variation in the ratios and there is evidence of a difference between rainfall stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC53A1045A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC53A1045A"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed and Projected Climate <span class="hlt">Extremities</span> in Chennai Metropolitan Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Any change in the frequency or severity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very <span class="hlt">important</span> to analyze <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate <span class="hlt">extremities</span> over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH33C1931C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH33C1931C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Are recent severe floods in Xiang River basin of China linked with the increase <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, L.; Du, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Xiang River, a main tributary of the Yangtze River, is subjected to high floods frequently in recent twenty years. Climate change, including abrupt shifts and fluctuations in precipitation is an <span class="hlt">important</span> factor influencing hydrological <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In addition, human activities are widely recognized as another reasons leading to high flood risk. With the effects of climate change and human interventions on hydrological cycle, there are several questions that need to be addressed. Are floods in the Xiang River basin getting worse? Whether the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> streamflow shows an increasing tendency? If so, is it because the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events have predominant effect on floods? To answer these questions, the article detected existing trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and discharge using Mann-Kendall test. Continuous wavelet transform method was employed to identify the consistency of changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and discharge. The Pearson correlation analysis was applied to investigate how much degree of variations in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> discharge can be explained by climate change. The results indicate that slightly upward trends can be detected in both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfalls and discharge in the upper region of Xiang River basin. For the most area of middle and lower river basin, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfalls show significant positive trends, but the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> discharge displays slightly upward trends with no significance at 90% confidence level. Wavelet transform analysis results illustrate that highly similar patterns of signal changes can be seen between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and discharge in upper section of the basin, while the changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation for the middle and lower reaches do not always coincide with the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> streamflow. The correlation coefficients of the wavelet transforms for the precipitation and discharge signals in most area of the basin pass the significance test. The conclusion may be drawn that floods in recent years are not getting worse in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15766435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15766435"><span id="translatedtitle">Golf injuries of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiesler, Ethan R; Lumsden, Boyd</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Golf has demonstrated increasing popularity and with this heightened enthusiasm has come an increased awareness of the significant number of injuries associated with playing golf. While back injuries represent the most commonly injured specific body part, upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries are most frequent overall and the most likely to result in loss of play. Patterns of injury differ based on level of play and time spent playing or practicing golf. Among golf professionals, the hand/wrist is the most commonly injured upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> structure. Among amateurs, the elbow is most commonly injured. The vast majority of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries are due to overuse. Age, ability, equipment, and swing mechanics also play contributing roles. Most upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> golf injuries can be successfully treated with appropriate cessation or modification of play, anti-inflammatory modalities, and rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is rarely required, but if needed can prove successful in a high percentage of patients. PMID:15766435</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xg7ZFSuNrFA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xg7ZFSuNrFA"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA Measures <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation From Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>From Jan. 25 through Feb. 3, IMERG data estimated that the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation over the United States during this period was over 200mm (7.9 inches) in an area where stormy weather frequentl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714330L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714330L"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecaster's dilemma: <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events and forecast evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lerch, Sebastian; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Gneiting, Tilmann</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In discussions of the quality of forecasts in the media and public, attention often focuses on the predictive performance in the case of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Intuitively, accurate predictions on the subset of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events seem to suggest better predictive ability. However, it can be demonstrated that restricting conventional forecast verification methods to subsets of observations might have unexpected and undesired effects and may discredit even the most skillful forecasters. Hand-picking <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is incompatible with the theoretical assumptions of established forecast verification methods, thus confronting forecasters with what we refer to as the forecaster's dilemma. For probabilistic forecasts, weighted proper scoring rules provide suitable alternatives for forecast evaluation with an emphasis on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Using theoretical arguments, simulation experiments and a case study on probabilistic forecasts of wind speed over Germany, we illustrate the forecaster's dilemma and the use of weighted proper scoring rules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040122041&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040122041&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Astronomy and the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bowyer, S.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet wave band (100 to 912 angstroms) was thought until recently to be useless to astronomy, primarily because the opacity of the interstellar medium would prevent observations at these wavelengths. However, the interstellar medium has been found to be markedly inhomogeneous in both density and ionization state and the sun is fortunately located in a region of low <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet opacity. The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer, launched in June 1992, has surveyed the sky in this wave band and has detected a wide variety of astronomical sources at considerable distances, including some extragalactic objects. Studies in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet band have already begun to increase our understanding of the contents of the universe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815245','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815245"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Investigations of the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Pisin</p> <p>2003-08-06</p> <p>Recent years have seen tremendous progress in our understanding of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> universe, which in turn points to even deeper questions to be further addressed. History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory investigation is instrumental in the progress of astrophysics. Current frontier astrophysical phenomena related to particle astrophysics and cosmology typically involve one or more of the following conditions: (1) <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high energy events; (2) very high density, high temperature processes; (3) super strong field environments. Laboratory experiments using high intensity lasers and particle beams can calibrate astrophysical observation or detection processes, investigate the underlying dynamics of astrophysical phenomena, and probe into fundamental physics in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> limits. We give examples of possible laboratory experiments that investigate into the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> universe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503628','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503628"><span id="translatedtitle">Hidden conformal symmetry of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>We study the hidden conformal symmetry of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS{sub 3}, and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PhyA..221..168S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PhyA..221..168S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> dynamics and punctuated co-evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sneppen, Kim</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> dynamics opens up a new way for understanding the coherence that is observed in some large non-equilibrium systems. <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> dynamics is characterized by quasistatic motion where only one part of the large system is active at a given instant: the part where a local variable assumes a global extremum value. <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> dynamics may apply when the parts of the system nearly always are caught in metastable states. Examples from physics may include earthquakes, fluid invasion in porous media and possibly also dynamical roughening of interfaces. We discuss a simple model of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dynamics and its application to biological macroevolution. The model can be formulated as an ecology of adapting interacting species. The environment of any given species is affected by other species; hence it may change with time. For low mutation rate the model ecology expands at a self-organized critical state where periods of statis alternate with avalanches of evolutionary changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H53A1638R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H53A1638R"><span id="translatedtitle">Hierarchical Spatial Analysis of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation in Urban Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajulapati, C. R.; Mujumdar, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Quantification of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is <span class="hlt">important</span> for hydrologic designs. Due to lack of availability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation data for sufficiently large number of years, estimating the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is difficult and extrapolating the distributions to locations where observations are not available is challenging. In an urban setting, the spatial variation of precipitation can be high; the precipitation amounts and patterns often vary within short distances of less than 10 km. Therefore it is crucial to study the uncertainties in the spatial variation of precipitation in urban areas. In this work, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is modeled spatially using the Bayesian hierarchical spatial analysis and the spatial variation of return levels is studied. The analysis is carried out with both the Peak over Threshold (PoT) and the Block Maxima approaches for defining the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. The study area is Bangalore city, India. Daily data for seventeen stations in and around Bangalore city are considered in the study. The threshold exceedences are modeled using a Generalized Pareto (GP) distribution and the block maxima are modeled using Generalized <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value (GEV) distribution. In the hierarchical analysis, the statistical model is specified in three layers. The data layer models the data (either block maxima or the threshold exceedences) at each station. In the process layer, the latent spatial process characterized by geographical and climatological covariates (lat-lon, elevation, mean temperature etc.) which drives the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is modeled and in the prior level, the prior distributions that govern the latent process are modeled. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to obtain the samples of parameters from the posterior distribution of parameters. The spatial maps of return levels for specified return periods, along with the associated uncertainties, are obtained. The results show that there is significant variation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6686M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6686M"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible future changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events over Northern Eurasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Scott, Jeffery</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate possible future climate change over Northern Eurasia and its impact on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Northern Eurasia is a major player in the global carbon budget because of boreal forests and peatlands. Circumpolar boreal forests alone contain more than five times the amount of carbon of temperate forests and almost double the amount of carbon of the world's tropical forests. Furthermore, severe permafrost degradation associated with climate change could result in peatlands releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide and methane. Meanwhile, changes in the frequency and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, such as <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation, heat waves or frost days are likely to have substantial impacts on Northern Eurasia ecosystems. For this reason, it is very <span class="hlt">important</span> to quantify the possible climate change over Northern Eurasia under different emissions scenarios, while accounting for the uncertainty in the climate response and changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. For several decades, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change has been investigating uncertainty in climate change using the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework, an integrated assessment model that couples an earth system model of intermediate complexity (with a 2D zonal-mean atmosphere) to a human activity model. In this study, regional change is investigated using the MIT IGSM-CAM framework that links the IGSM to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). New modules were developed and implemented in CAM to allow climate parameters to be changed to match those of the IGSM. The simulations presented in this paper were carried out for two emission scenarios, a "business as usual" scenario and a 660 ppm of CO2-equivalent stabilization, which are similar to, respectively, the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. Values of climate sensitivity and net aerosol</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8780K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8780K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events monitoring from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerr, Yann; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mahmoodi, Ali; Richaume, Philippe; Al-Yaari, Amen; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite was successfully launched in November 2009. This ESA led mission for Earth Observation is dedicated to provide soil moisture over continental surface (with an accuracy goal of 0.04 m3/m3), vegetation water content over land, and ocean salinity. These geophysical features are <span class="hlt">important</span> as they control the energy balance between the surface and the atmosphere. Their knowledge at a global scale is of interest for climatic and weather researches, and in particular in improving model forecasts. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission has now been collecting data for 6 years. The whole data set has just been reprocessed (Version 620 for levels 1 and 2 and version 3 for level 3 CATDS). After 6 years it seems <span class="hlt">important</span> to start using data for having a look at anomalies and see how they can relate to large scale events The purpose of this communication is to present the mission results after more than six years in orbit in a climatic trend perspective, as through such a period anomalies can be detected. Thereby we benefit from consistent datasets provided through the latest reprocessing using most recent algorithm enhancements. Using the above mentioned products it is possible to follow large events such as the evolution of the droughts in North America, or water fraction evolution over the Amazonian basin. In this occasion we will focus on the analysis of SMOS and ancillary products anomalies to reveal two climatic trends, the temporal evolution of water storage over the Indian continent in relation to rainfall anomalies, and the global impact of El Nino types of events on the general water storage distribution. This presentation shows in detail the use of long term data sets of L-band microwave radiometry in two specific cases, namely droughts and water budget over a large basin. Several other analyses are under way currently. Obviously, vegetation water content, but also dielectric constant, are carrying a wealth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6878C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6878C"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonstationary risk analysis of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chavez-Demoulin, V.; Davison, A. C.; Suveges, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>There is growing interest in the modelling of the size and frequency of rare events in a changing climate. Standard models for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are based on the modelling of annual maxima or exceedances over high or under low thresholds: in either case appropriate probability distributions are fitted to the data, and extrapolation to rare events is based on the fitted models. Very often, however, <span class="hlt">extremal</span> models do not take full advantage of techniques that are standard in other domains of statistics. Smoothing methods are now well-established in many domains of statistics, and are increasingly used in analysis of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> data. The crucial idea of smoothing is to replace a simple linear or quadratic form of dependence of one variable on another by a more flexible form, and thus to 'allow the data to speak for themselves,ánd thus, perhaps, to reveal unexpected features. There are many approaches to smoothing in the context of linear regression, of which the use of spline smoothing and of local polynomial modelling are perhaps the most common. Under the first, a basis of spline functions is used to represent the dependence; often this is called generalised additive modelling. Under the second, polynomial models are fitted locally to the data, resulting in a more flexible overall fit. The selection of the degree of smoothing is crucial, and there are automatic ways to do this. The talk will describe some applications of smoothing to data on temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, elucidating the relation between cold winter weather in the Alps and the North Atlantic Oscillation, and changes in the lengths of usually hot and cold spells in Britain. The work mixes classical models for <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, generalised additive modelling, local polynomial smoothing, and the bootstrap. References Chavez-Demoulin, V. and Davison, A. C. (2005) Generalized additive modelling of sample <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Applied Statistics, 54, 207-222. Süveges, M. (2007) Likelihood estimation of the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> index. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>, 10</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984OrLi...14..809S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984OrLi...14..809S"><span id="translatedtitle">Anaerobic Life at <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> High Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stetter, Karl O.</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>Continental and submarine solfataric fields turned out to contain various <span class="hlt">extremely</span> thermophilic anaerobic organisms which all belong to the archaebacteria. They are living autotrophically on sulphur, hydrogen and CO2 or by methanogenesis or heterotrophically on different organic substrates by sulphur respiration or, less frequently, by fermentation. The most <span class="hlt">extremely</span> thermophilic isolates are growing between 80 and 110°C with an optimum around 105°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/223844','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/223844"><span id="translatedtitle">Preconditioned iterations to calculate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brand, C.W.; Petrova, S.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Common iterative algorithms to calculate a few <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalues of a large, sparse matrix are Lanczos methods or power iterations. They converge at a rate proportional to the separation of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalues from the rest of the spectrum. Appropriate preconditioning improves the separation of the eigenvalues. Davidson`s method and its generalizations exploit this fact. The authors examine a preconditioned iteration that resembles a truncated version of Davidson`s method with a different preconditioning strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9557M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9557M"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrometeorological signatures of global <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morin, Efrat; Kushnir, Yochanan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events are one of the main causes of flooding, a global phenomenon with high ecological and societal impact. The current research is aimed on characterizing space-time features and weather patterns of global <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events and on identifying the most influential parameters controlling the generation of floods from these events. This is an on-going research and results of the first part will be presented. We use the term "global <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation event" to refer to an event producing high precipitation amounts over large areas, with a scale in the order of tens of kilometers, and with a typical time interval of 1 day; further, such events have a low frequency of occurrence in the region in which they are observed. The presented analysis is based on precipitation estimates from the GPCP dataset and on atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim database. A procedure for detecting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events was developed and applied for a 15 years record (1997-2012). Spatial-temporal features, surface characteristics and parameters characterizing the atmospheric environment were computed for all the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Examination of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events according to their seasonal and spatial distribution reveals clustering around cores that follow general circulation systems (e.g., northern and southern winter storm tracks, ITCZ, the Monsoon and others). Moreover, some unique features of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cores are revealed by analyzing their sea vs. land location, comparing southern and northern hemisphere cores and others. The unique meteorological characteristics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event clusters are identified using standard and centered composite analyses. The main finding of this ongoing research will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NHESS..11..659B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NHESS..11..659B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilyay, E.; Ozbahceci, B. O.; Yalciner, A. C.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/Hs ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called <span class="hlt">extreme</span> waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> waves, it is believed that studying these unexpected waves could be interesting. Therefore, detailed statistical and spectral analyses on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> waves were done for the records. The analyses results show that the distribution of surface profiles of the records containing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> waves deviates from Gaussian distribution with the negative skewness changing between -0.01 and -0.4 and with the high kurtosis in the range of 3.1-4.2. Although the probability of occurrence of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> waves is over-predicted by the Rayleigh distribution, a higher ratio of Hs/ηrms indicates that the wave height distribution can be represented by Rayleigh. The average value of the slope of the frequency spectrum at the high frequency range is proportional to f-9 which is much steeper than the typical wind-wave frequency power law, f-4, -5. The directional spreading is measured with the parameter Smax and it is in the range of 5-70 for the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wave records. The wave and current interaction was also investigated and it was found that in most cases, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> waves occur when the wave and the current are almost aligned. Furthermore, it is observed that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> waves appear within a group of high waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012181','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012181"><span id="translatedtitle">Flexible diaphragm-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature usage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lerma, Guillermo (Inventor)</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A diaphragm suitable for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are produced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CQGra..33q5002N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CQGra..33q5002N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Test fields cannot destroy <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge <span class="hlt">extremal</span> Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207464"><span id="translatedtitle">Rod-shaped Nuclei at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Spin and Isospin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, P W; Itagaki, N; Meng, J</p> <p>2015-07-10</p> <p>The anomalous rod shape in carbon isotopes has been investigated in the framework of the cranking covariant density functional theory, and two mechanisms to stabilize such a novel shape with respect to the bending motion, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spin, and isospin are simultaneously discussed for the first time in a self-consistent and microscopic way. By adding valence neutrons and rotating the system, we have found the mechanism stabilizing the rod shape; i.e., the σ orbitals (parallel to the symmetry axis) of the valence neutrons, <span class="hlt">important</span> for the rod shape, are lowered by the rotation due to the Coriolis term. The spin and isospin effects enhance the stability of the rod-shaped configuration. This provides a strong hint that a rod shape could be realized in nuclei towards <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spin and isospin. PMID:26207464</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...130..124E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...130..124E"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating environmental joint <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for the offshore industry using the conditional <span class="hlt">extremes</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ewans, Kevin; Jonathan, Philip</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Understanding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ocean environments and their interaction with fixed and floating structures is critical for the design of offshore and coastal facilities. The joint effect of various ocean variables on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> responses of offshore structures is fundamental in determining the design loads. For example, it is known that mean values of wave periods tend to increase with increasing storm intensity, and a floating system responds in a complex way to both variables. Specification of joint <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in design criteria has often been somewhat ad hoc, being based on fairly arbitrary combinations of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of variables estimated independently. Such approaches are even outlined in design guidelines. Mathematically more consistent estimates of the joint occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental variables fall into two camps in the offshore industry - response-based and response-independent. Both are outlined here, with emphasis on response-independent methods, particularly those based on the conditional <span class="hlt">extremes</span> model recently introduced by (Heffernan and Tawn, 2004), which has a solid theoretical motivation. We illustrate an application of the conditional <span class="hlt">extremes</span> model to joint estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storm peak significant wave height and peak period at a northern North Sea location, incorporating storm direction as a model covariate. We also discuss joint estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> current profiles with depth off the North West Shelf of Australia. Methods such as the conditional <span class="hlt">extremes</span> model provide valuable additions to the metocean engineer's toolkit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810511D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810511D"><span id="translatedtitle">What weather features produce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation globally?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dowdy, Andrew; Catto, Jennifer</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation (defined as above the 99th percentile) has been examined previously in relation to a number of different weather events. Such events include cyclones, fronts, and thunderstorms. However, previous studies have not examined various combinations of these weather events, which highlights the potential for an improved understanding of what causes <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. Here we make use of objective cyclone and front identification methods and a global dataset of lightning strikes, to examine different combinations of cyclone, front and thunderstorm events to provide a comprehensive climatological examination of observed <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events throughout the world. This method allows a number of novel concepts to be explored, with results showing that the highest risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation occurs for a type of "triple storm" event characterised by the simultaneous occurrence of a cyclone, front and thunderstorm. The physical properties of the various different combinations of weather systems are examined in relation to the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. The results presented here are intended to lead to better preparedness for the impacts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation throughout the world including in relation to disaster risk reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5385J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5385J"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and regional variations in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation event frequency using CMIP5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janssen, E.; Sriver, R. L.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Kunkel, K. E.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Understanding how the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events are changing is <span class="hlt">important</span> for regional risk assessments and adaptation planning. Here we use observational data and an ensemble of climate change model experiments (from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5)) to examine past and potential future seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation event frequency over the United States. Using the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation index as a metric for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation change, we find key differences between models and observations. In particular, the CMIP5 models tend to overestimate the number of spring events and underestimate the number of summer events. This seasonal shift in the models is amplified in projections. These results provide a basis for evaluating climate model skill in simulating observed seasonality and changes in regional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. Additionally, we highlight key sources of variability and uncertainty that can potentially inform regional impact analyses and adaptation planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91d2914M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91d2914M"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in a laser diode with phase-conjugate optical feedback</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mercier, Émeric; Even, Armelle; Mirisola, Elodie; Wolfersberger, Delphine; Sciamanna, Marc</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> intensity pulses sharing statistical properties similar to rogue waves have been recently observed in a laser diode with phase-conjugate feedback [A. Karsaklian Dal Bosco, D. Wolfersberger, and M. Sciamanna, Opt. Lett. 38, 703 (2013), 10.1364/OL.38.000703], but remain unexplained. We demonstrate here that a rate equation model of a laser diode that includes an instantaneous phase-conjugate feedback field reproduces qualitatively well the statistical features of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events as identified in the experiment, i.e., the deviation of the intensity statistics to a Gaussian-shape statistics and the statistics of the time separating <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. The numerical simulations confirm the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of the feedback strength in increasing the number of such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and allow us to explain how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events emerge from a sequence of bifurcations on self-pulsating solutions, the so-called external cavity modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/393294','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/393294"><span id="translatedtitle">Lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> finite element model for crash simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schauer, D.A.; Perfect, S.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>A lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> model has been developed to study occupant injury mechanisms of the major bones and ligamentous soft tissues resulting from vehicle collisions. The model is based on anatomically correct digitized bone surfaces of the pelvis, femur, patella and the tibia. Many muscles, tendons and ligaments were incrementally added to the basic bone model. We have simulated two types of occupant loading that occur in a crash environment using a non-linear large deformation finite element code. The modeling approach assumed that the leg was passive during its response to the excitation, that is, no active muscular contraction and therefore no active change in limb stiffness. The approach recognized that the most <span class="hlt">important</span> contributions of the muscles to the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> response are their ability to define and modify the impedance of the limb. When nonlinear material behavior in a component of the leg model was deemed <span class="hlt">important</span> to response, a nonlinear constitutive model was incorporated. The accuracy of these assumptions can be verified only through a review of analysis results and careful comparison with test data. As currently defined, the model meets the objective for which it was created. Much work remains to be done, both from modeling and analysis perspectives, before the model can be considered complete. The model implements a modeling philosophy that can accurately capture both kinematic and kinetic response of the lower limb. We have demonstrated that the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> model is a valuable tool for understanding the injury processes and mechanisms. We are now in a position to extend the computer simulation to investigate the clinical fracture patterns observed in actual crashes. Additional experience with this model will enable us to make a statement on what measures are needed to significantly reduce lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries in vehicle crashes. 6 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1338K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1338K"><span id="translatedtitle">Large Scale Meteorological Pattern of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall in Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuswanto, Heri; Grotjahn, Richard; Rachmi, Arinda; Suhermi, Novri; Oktania, Erma; Wijaya, Yosep</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Weather Events (EWEs) cause negative impacts socially, economically, and environmentally. Considering these facts, forecasting EWEs is crucial work. Indonesia has been identified as being among the countries most vulnerable to the risk of natural disasters, such as floods, heat waves, and droughts. Current forecasting of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in Indonesia is carried out by interpreting synoptic maps for several fields without taking into account the link between the observed events in the 'target' area with remote conditions. This situation may cause misidentification of the event leading to an inaccurate prediction. Grotjahn and Faure (2008) compute composite maps from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events (including heat waves and intense rainfall) to help forecasters identify such events in model output. The composite maps show large scale meteorological patterns (LSMP) that occurred during historical EWEs. Some vital information about the EWEs can be acquired from studying such maps, in addition to providing forecaster guidance. Such maps have robust mid-latitude meteorological patterns (for Sacramento and California Central Valley, USA EWEs). We study the performance of the composite approach for tropical weather condition such as Indonesia. Initially, the composite maps are developed to identify and forecast the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events in Indramayu district- West Java, the main producer of rice in Indonesia and contributes to about 60% of the national total rice production. Studying <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events happening in Indramayu is <span class="hlt">important</span> since EWEs there affect national agricultural and fisheries activities. During a recent EWE more than a thousand houses in Indramayu suffered from serious flooding with each home more than one meter underwater. The flood also destroyed a thousand hectares of rice plantings in 5 regencies. Identifying the dates of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is one of the most <span class="hlt">important</span> steps and has to be carried out carefully. An approach has been applied to identify the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4511820','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4511820"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurodevelopmental problems and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in BMI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define the prevalence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> (low or high) BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2) to analyze whether <span class="hlt">extreme</span> BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3) to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12. Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496) were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in BMI and NDPs. Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high <span class="hlt">extreme</span> BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high <span class="hlt">extreme</span> BMI group and double as much in the low <span class="hlt">extreme</span> BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high <span class="hlt">extreme</span> BMIs. Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high <span class="hlt">extreme</span> BMIs than children</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21D0874G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21D0874G"><span id="translatedtitle">Ongoing climatic <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dynamics in Siberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gordov, E. P.; Shulgina, T. M.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Recent investigations indicate not only large changes in averaged climatic characteristics (Kabanov and Lykosov, 2006, IPCC, 2007; Groisman and Gutman, 2012), but more frequent occurrence and stronger impacts of climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are reported as well (Bulygina et al., 2007; IPCC, 2012: Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>, 2012; Oldenborh et al., 2013). This paper provides the results of daily temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dynamics in Siberia for the last three decades (1979 - 2012). Their seasonal dynamics is assessed using 10th and 90th percentile-based threshold indices that characterize frequency, intensity and duration of climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. To obtain the geographical pattern of these variations with high spatial resolution, the sub-daily temperature data from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily precipitation amounts from APHRODITE JMA dataset were used. All <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices and linear trend coefficients have been calculated using web-GIS information-computational platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) developed to support collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts (Gordov et al., 2012). Obtained results show that seasonal dynamics of daily temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is asymmetric for tails of cold and warm temperature <span class="hlt">extreme</span> distributions. Namely, the intensity of warming during cold nights is higher than during warm nights, especially at high latitudes of Siberia. The similar dynamics is observed for cold and warm day-time temperatures. Slight summer cooling was observed in the central part of Siberia. It is associated with decrease in warm temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In the southern Siberia in winter, we also observe some cooling mostly due to strengthening of the cold temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Changes in daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC22A..07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC22A..07M"><span id="translatedtitle">Projections of Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mastrandrea, M. D.; Tebaldi, C.; Snyder, C.; Schneider, S. H.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>In the next few decades, it is likely that California must face the challenge of coping with increased impacts from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events such as heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, and floods. Such events can cause significant damages, and are responsible for a large fraction of near-term climate-related impacts every year. Some <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have already very likely changed in frequency and intensity over the past several decades, and these changes are expected to continue with relatively small changes in average conditions. We synthesize existing research to characterize current understanding of the direct impacts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events across sectors, as well as the interactions between sectors as they are affected by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We also produce new projections of changes in the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in the future across climate models, emissions scenarios, and downscaling methods for producing regional climate information, for each county in California. We evaluate historical and projected changes for a suite of temperature and precipitation-based climate indicators, and we conduct a return level analysis to investigate projected changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. Finally, we include an analysis of the future likelihood of events similar in magnitude to specific historical events, such as the July 2006 heat wave. Consistent with other studies, we find significant increases in the frequency and magnitude of both maximum and minimum temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in many areas, with the magnitude of change dependent on the magnitude of projected emissions and overall temperature increase. For example, in many regions of California, at least a ten-fold increase in frequency is projected for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures currently estimated to occur once every 100 years, even under a moderate emissions scenario (SRES B1). Under a higher emissions scenario (SRES A2), these temperatures are projected to occur close to annually in most regions. Also consistent with other studies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43A1156T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43A1156T"><span id="translatedtitle">The Pace of Perceivable <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, X.; Gan, T. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>When will the signal of obvious changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate emerge over climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key question for planning and implementing measures to mitigate the potential impact of climate change to natural and human systems that are generally adapted to potential changes from current variability. We estimated ToEs for the magnitude, duration and frequency of global <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate represented by 24 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate indices (16 for temperature and 8 for precipitation) with different thresholds of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio based on projections of CMIP5 global climate models under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 for the 21st century. The uncertainty of ToE is assessed by using 3 different methods to calculate S/N for each <span class="hlt">extreme</span> index. Results show that ToEs of the projected <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate indices based on the RCP4.5 climate scenarios are generally projected to happen about 20 years later than that for the RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Under RCP8.5, the projected magnitude, duration and frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature on Earth will all exceed 2 standard deviations by 2100, and the empirical 50th percentile of the global ToE for the frequency and magnitude of hot (cold) <span class="hlt">extreme</span> are about 2040 and 2054 (2064 and 2054) for S/N > 2, respectively. The 50th percentile of global ToE for the intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is about 2030 and 2058 for S/N >0.5 and S/N >1, respectively. We further evaluated the exposure of ecosystems and human societies to the pace of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate change by determining the year of ToE for various <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate indices projected to occur over terrestrial biomes, marine realms and major urban areas with large populations. This was done by overlaying terrestrial, ecoregions and population maps with maps of ToE derived, to extract ToEs for these regions. Possible relationships between GDP per person and ToE are also investigated by relating the mean ToE for each country and its average value of GDP per person.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004IAUS..213..185K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004IAUS..213..185K"><span id="translatedtitle">Prebiologically <span class="hlt">Important</span> Interstellar Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuan, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-C.; Charnley, S. B.; Tseng, W.-L.; Snyder, L. E.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kisiel, Z.; Thorwirth, S.; Bohn, R. K.; Wilson, T. L.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Understanding the organic chemistry of molecular clouds, particularly the formation of biologically <span class="hlt">important</span> molecules, is fundamental to the study of the processes which lead to the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Galaxy. Determining the level of molecular complexity attainable in the clouds, and the nature of the complex organic material available to protostellar disks and the planetary systems that form from them, requires an understanding of the possible chemical pathways and is therefore a central question in astrochemistry. We have thus searched for prebiologically <span class="hlt">important</span> molecules in the hot molecular cloud cores: Sgr B2(N-LMH), W51 e1/e2 and Orion-KL. Among the molecules searched: Pyrimidine is the unsubstituted ring analogue for three of the DNA and RNA bases. 2H-Azirine and Aziridine are azaheterocyclic compounds. And Glycine is the simplest amino acid. Detections of these interstellar organic molecular species will thus have <span class="hlt">important</span> implications for Astrobiology. Our preliminary results indicate a tentative detection of interstellar glycine. If confirmed, this will be the first detection of an amino acid in interstellar space and will greatly strengthen the thesis that interstellar organic molecules could have played a pivotal role in the prebiotic chemistry of the early Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811726R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811726R"><span id="translatedtitle">Generalized <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value's shape parameter and its nature for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation using long time series and Bayesian approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ragulina, Galina; Reitan, Trond</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Assessing the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events is of great <span class="hlt">importance</span> in civil planning. This requires understanding of how return values change with different return periods, which is essentially described by the Generalized <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value distribution's shape parameter. Some works in the field have suggested a constant shape parameter, while our analysis indicates a non-universal value. We first re-analyse an older precipitation dataset (169 stations) extended by Norwegian data (71 stations). We show that while each set seems to have a constant shape parameter, it differs between the two datasets, indicating regional differences. For a more comprehensive analysis of spatial effects, we examine a global dataset (1495 stations). We provide shape parameter maps for two models. We find clear evidence for the shape parameter being dependent on elevation while the effect of latitude remains uncertain. Our results confirm an explanation in terms of dominating precipitation systems based on a proxy derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........13Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........13Q"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> model reduction of shear layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qawasmeh, Bashar Rafee</p> <p></p> <p>The aim of this research is to develop nonlinear low-dimensional models (LDMs) to describe vortex dynamics in shear layers. A modified Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Galerkin projection method is developed to obtain models at <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low dimension for shear layers. The idea is to dynamically scale the shear layer along y direction to factor out the shear layer growth and capture the dynamics by only a couple of modes. The models are developed for two flows, incompressible spatially developing and weakly compressible temporally developing shear layers, respectively. To capture basic dynamics, the low-dimensional models require only two POD modes for each wavenumber/frequency. Thus, a two-mode model is capable of representing single-wavenumber/frequency dynamics such as vortex roll-up, and a four-mode model is capable of representing the nonlinear dynamics involving a fundamental wavenumber/frequency and its subharmonic, such as vortex pairing/merging. Most of the energy is captured by the first mode of each wavenumber/frequency, the second POD mode, however, plays a critical role and needs to be included. In the thesis, we first apply the approach on temporally developing weakly compressible shear layers. In compressible flows, the thermodynamic variables are dynamically <span class="hlt">important</span>, and must be considered. We choose isentropic Navier-Stokes equations for simplicity, and choose a proper inner product to present both kinetic energy and thermal energy. Two cases of convective Mach numbers are studied for low compressibility and moderate compressibility. Moreover, we study the sensitivity of the compressible four-mode model to several flow parameters: Mach number, the strength of initial perturbations of the fundamental and its subharmonic, and Reynolds number. Secondly we apply the approach on spatially developing incompressible shear layers with periodicity in time. We consider a streamwise parabolic form of the Navier-Stokes equations. When we add arbitrary</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL7b.195O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL7b.195O"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing Spatiotemporal Patterns of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation Events in Southeastern Anatolia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> environmental events, such as floods, droughts, rainstorms, and strong winds have severe consequences for human society. Changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate. The cost of damage caused by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events is rising all over the world. The European Environment Agency (EEA) report ("Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Europe 2012") stated that the cost of damage had increased from € 9 billion in the 1980s to € 13 billions in the 2000s. In the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that 188 billion in damage was caused by the severe weather events in 2011 and 2012. Understanding and identifying hydrometeorologic <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and their changes through time are key in sustaining agriculture and socio-economic development. Planning for weather-related emergencies, agricultural and reservoir management and insurance risk calculations, all rely on knowledge of the frequency of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. The assessment of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is an <span class="hlt">important</span> problem in hydrologic risk analysis and design. Erosion and removal of the fertile soil layer through hydroclimatic <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is also a serious problem in semi-arid to arid regions, especially in mediterranean climates. Accurate measurements of precipitation on a variety of space and time scales are <span class="hlt">important</span> to climate scientists and decision makers, including hydrologists, agriculturalists and emergency managers. The historical record of precipitation observations is limited mostly to land areas where rain gauges can be deployed, and measurements from those instruments are sparse over large and meteorologically <span class="hlt">important</span> regions of the Turkey, such as over the Southeastern Anatolia Region. While rain gauge measurements are often used to tune hydrologic models, they are limited by their spatial coverage. Remote sensing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H21E0875V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H21E0875V"><span id="translatedtitle">Addressing <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> within the WCRP - GEWEX Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Oevelen, P. J.; Stewart, R.; Detemmerman, V.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>For large international coordination programs such as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) as part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) it is difficult to strike a good balance between enabling as much international involvement as is possible and desirable and the achievability of the objectives. WCRP has decided that "<span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Research" is one of several areas where it would like to see its efforts strengthened and scientific research pushed forward. The foci that are being selected should be phrased such that they are practical and achievable within a time span of 1 to 3 years. Preferably these foci build upon the expertise from cross WCRP activities and are not restricted to single core project activities. In this presentation an overview will be given of the various activities within GEWEX that are related to <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and which ones would be most ideal to be addressed as WCRP foci from a GEWEX perspective. The rationale and context of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> research will be presented as well links to other national and international programs. "<span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Research" as a topic is attractive since it has a high societal relevance and impact. However, numerous definitions of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> exist and they are being used in widely varying contexts making it not always clear of what exactly is being addressed. This presentation will give an outlook on what can be expected research wise in the near future based upon the outcomes of the <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Workshop organised last June in Vancouver in the context of the Coordinated Energy and water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) as part of GEWEX. In particular it will be shown how these activities, which will only address certain types of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, can be linked to adaptation and mitigation efforts taking place in other organisations and by national and international bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111417G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111417G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Storm Surges in the North Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goennert, G.; Buß, Th.; Mueller, O.; Thumm, S.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Storm Surges in the North Sea Gabriele Gönnert, Olaf Müller, Thomas Buß and Sigrid Thumm Climate Change will cause a rise of the sea level and probably more frequent and more violent storm surges. This has serious consequences for the safety of people as well as for their values and assets behind the dikes. It is therefore inevitable to first assess how sea level rise and an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storm surge event designes. In a second step it is possible to determine the risk for specific locations and develop strategies. The Project XtremRisk - <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Storm Surges at the North Sea Coast and in Estuaries. Risk calculation and risk strategies, funded by the German Federal Government will help answering these questions. The „Source-Pathway-Receptor" Concept will be used as a basis for risk analysis and development of new strategies. The Project offers methods to assess the development of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events under the conditions of today. Under conditions reflecting the climate change it will be tried to design an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event. For these three main points will be considered: a) Analysis and calculation of each factor, which produce a storm surge and its maximum level occurring in the last 100 years. These are: - maximum surge level: surge (due to the wind), - influence of the tide and the interaction between surge and tide, - influence of external surges , b) The hydrodynamics of a storm surge cause nonlinear effects in the interaction of the named factors. These factors and effects will both be taken into account to calculate the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storm surge. This step is very complex and need additional examination by numerical models. c) Analysis of the different scenarios to mean sea level rise and to the increase of wind speed due to the climate change. The presentation will introduce methods and show first results of the analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and the mean sea level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3547282','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3547282"><span id="translatedtitle">Eukaryotic diversity at pH <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> acidic (pH < 3) and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004PhP.....6..271L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004PhP.....6..271L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A Simultaneous <span class="hlt">Discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">The</span> Case of Johannes Stark and Antonino Lo Surdo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leone, Matteo; Paoletti, Alessandro; Robotti, Nadia</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>In 1913 the German physicist Johannes Stark (1874 1957) and the Italian physicist Antonino Lo Surdo (1880 1949)discovered virtually simultaneously and independently that hydrogen spectral lines are split into components by an external electric field. Both of their discoveries ensued from studies on the same phenomenon, the Doppler effect in canal rays, but they arose in different theoretical contexts. Stark had been working within the context of the emerging quantum theory, following a research program aimed at studying the effect of an electric field on spectral lines. Lo Surdo had been working within the context of the classical theory, and his was an accidental discovery. Both discoveries, however, played <span class="hlt">important</span> roles in the history of physics: Stark’s discovery contributed to the establishment of both the old and the new quantum theories; Lo Surdo’s discovery led Antonio Garbasso (1871 1933)to introduce research on the quantum theory into Italian physics. Ironically, soon after their discoveries, both Stark and Lo Surdo rejected developments in modern physics and allied themselves with the political and racial programs of Hitler and Mussolini.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811603K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811603K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> on Gross Primary Productivity at Multiple Spatial Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Soyoun; Ryu, Youngryel; Jiang, Chongya</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have made significant impacts on terrestrial carbon cycles. Recent studies on detection and attribution of climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and their impact on carbon cycles used coarse spatial resolution data such as 0.5 degree. The coarse resolution data might miss <span class="hlt">important</span> climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and their impacts on GPP. To fill this research gap, we use a new global GPP product derived from a process-based model, the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS). The BESS takes full advantages of MODIS/AVHRR land and atmosphere products, providing global GPP product in 1 km resolution from 2000 to 2015 and 1/12 degree resolution from 1982 to 1999. We first integrate the BESS GPP products to 0.5 degree (1982-2015) and apply the method of Zscheischler et al. (2013). To test the impacts of spatial resolutions on detecting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, we enhance spatial resolutions of the BESS GPP from 0.5 degree to 0.25, 0.125, and 1/12 degrees and quantify the variations of areas which experienced climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We subsequently investigate hotspot regions where the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> occur using fine resolution GPP data at 1/12 degree (1982-2015), then analyze the causes of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events that substantially decreased GPP by using precipitation, air temperature, and frost. This study could improve the understanding of the relationship between climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the carbon cycle at multiple spatial scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26070362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26070362"><span id="translatedtitle">Data quality in drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> role of analytical performance in ligand binding assays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wätzig, Hermann; Oltmann-Norden, Imke; Steinicke, Franziska; Alhazmi, Hassan A; Nachbar, Markus; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Albishri, Hassan M; Baumann, Knut; Exner, Thomas; Böckler, Frank M; El Deeb, Sami</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Despite its <span class="hlt">importance</span> and all the considerable efforts made, the progress in drug discovery is limited. One main reason for this is the partly questionable data quality. Models relating biological activity and structures and in silico predictions rely on precisely and accurately measured binding data. However, these data vary so strongly, such that only variations by orders of magnitude are considered as unreliable. This can certainly be improved considering the high analytical performance in pharmaceutical quality control. Thus the principles, properties and performances of biochemical and cell-based assays are revisited and evaluated. In the part of biochemical assays immunoassays, fluorescence assays, surface plasmon resonance, isothermal calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and affinity capillary electrophoresis are discussed in details, in addition radiation-based ligand binding assays, mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and microscale thermophoresis are briefly evaluated. In addition, general sources of error, such as solvent, dilution, sample pretreatment and the quality of reagents and reference materials are discussed. Biochemical assays can be optimized to provide good accuracy and precision (e.g. percental relative standard deviation <10 %). Cell-based assays are often considered superior related to the biological significance, however, typically they cannot still be considered as really quantitative, in particular when results are compared over longer periods of time or between laboratories. A very careful choice of assays is therefore recommended. Strategies to further optimize assays are outlined, considering the evaluation and the decrease of the relevant error sources. Analytical performance and data quality are still advancing and will further advance the progress in drug development. PMID:26070362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513897W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513897W"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal oscillations in rainfall and hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willems, Patrick</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Many studies have anticipated a worldwide increase in the frequency and intensity of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and floods since the last decade(s). Natural variability by climate oscillations partly determines the observed evolution of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Based on a technique for the identification and analysis of changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> quantiles, it is shown that hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> have oscillatory behaviour at multidecadal time scales. Results are based on nearly independent <span class="hlt">extremes</span> extracted from long-term historical time series of precipitation intensities and river flows. Study regions include Belgium - The Netherlands (Meuse basin), Ethiopia (Blue Nile basin) and Ecuador (Paute basin). For Belgium - The Netherlands, the past 100 years showed larger and more hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> around the 1910s, 1950-1960s, and more recently during the 1990-2000s. Interestingly, the oscillations for southwestern Europe are anti-correlated with these of northwestern Europe, thus with oscillation highs in the 1930-1940s and 1970s. The precipitation oscillation peaks are explained by persistence in atmospheric circulation patterns over the North Atlantic during periods of 10 to 15 years. References: Ntegeka V., Willems P. (2008), 'Trends and multidecadal oscillations in rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, based on a more than 100 years time series of 10 minutes rainfall intensities at Uccle, Belgium', Water Resources Research, 44, W07402, doi:10.1029/2007WR006471 Mora, D., Willems, P. (2012), 'Decadal oscillations in rainfall and air temperature in the Paute River Basin - Southern Andes of Ecuador', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 108(1), 267-282, doi:0.1007/s00704-011-0527-4 Taye, M.T., Willems, P. (2011). 'Influence of climate variability on representative QDF predictions of the upper Blue Nile Basin', Journal of Hydrology, 411, 355-365, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.019 Taye, M.T., Willems, P. (2012). 'Temporal variability of hydro-climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Blue Nile basin', Water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000379','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000379"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Irrigation on Daily <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the Coupled Climate System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Krakauer, Nir; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenka, Larissa; Kelly, Maxwell; Wada, Yoshihide</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Widespread irrigation alters regional climate through changes to the energy and water budgets of the land surface. Within general circulation models, simulation studies have revealed significant changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables. Here we investigate the feedbacks of irrigation with a focus on daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at the global scale. We simulate global climate for the year 2000 with and without irrigation to understand irrigation-induced changes. Our simulations reveal shifts in key climate-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> metrics. These findings indicate that land cover and land use change may be an <span class="hlt">important</span> contributor to climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> both locally and in remote regions including the low-latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSRv..160...45U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSRv..160...45U"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Reconnection in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Astrophysical Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uzdensky, Dmitri A.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma physics process in which ideal-MHD's frozen-in constraints are broken and the magnetic field topology is dramatically re-arranged, which often leads to a violent release of the free magnetic energy. Most of the magnetic reconnection research done to date has been motivated by the applications to systems such as the solar corona, Earth's magnetosphere, and magnetic confinement devices for thermonuclear fusion. These environments have relatively low energy densities and the plasma is adequately described as a mixture of equal numbers of electrons and ions and where the dissipated magnetic energy always stays with the plasma. In contrast, in this paper I would like to introduce a different, new direction of research—reconnection in high energy density radiative plasmas, in which photons play as <span class="hlt">important</span> a role as electrons and ions; in particular, in which radiation pressure and radiative cooling become dominant factors in the pressure and energy balance. This research is motivated in part by rapid theoretical and experimental advances in High Energy Density Physics, and in part by several <span class="hlt">important</span> problems in modern high-energy astrophysics. I first discuss some astrophysical examples of high-energy-density reconnection and then identify the key physical processes that distinguish them from traditional reconnection. Among the most <span class="hlt">important</span> of these processes are: special-relativistic effects; radiative effects (radiative cooling, radiation pressure, and radiative resistivity); and, at the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> end—QED effects, including pair creation. The most notable among the astrophysical applications are situations involving magnetar-strength fields (1014-1015 G, exceeding the quantum critical field B ∗≃4×1013 G). The most <span class="hlt">important</span> examples are giant flares in soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and magnetic models of the central engines and relativistic jets of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The magnetic energy density in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43E1555L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43E1555L"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Cycle <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>: from Observations to Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lawford, R. G.; Unninayar, S.; Berod, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the water cycle (droughts and floods) pose major challenges for water resource managers and emergency services. These challenges arise from observational and prediction systems, advisory services, impact reduction strategies, and cleanup and recovery operations. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) through its Water Strategy ("GEOSS Water Strategy: from observations to decisions") is seeking to provide systems that will enable its members to more effectively meet their information needs prior to and during an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event. This presentation reviews the wide range of impacts that arise from <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the water cycle and the types of data and information needed to plan for and respond to these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. It identifies the capabilities and limitations of current observational and analysis systems in defining the scale, timing, intensity and impacts of water cycle <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and in directing society's response to them. This summary represents an early preliminary assessment of the global and regional information needs of water resource managers and begins to outline a strategy within GEO for using Earth Observations and ancillary information to address these needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4437297','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4437297"><span id="translatedtitle">How does public opinion become <span class="hlt">extreme</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain <span class="hlt">extreme</span> view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties. PMID:25989484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175251','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175251"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Problems in Doner Kebab Masters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taspinar, Ozgur; Kepekci, Muge; Ozaras, Nihal; Aydin, Teoman; Guler, Mustafa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Doner kebab is a food specific to Turkey; it is a cone-shaped meat placed vertically on a high stand. The doner kebab chefs stand against the meat and cut it by using both of their upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. This work style may lead to recurrent trauma and correspondingly the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> disorders of doner chefs. [Subjects and Methods] Doner kebab chefs were selected as the study group, and volunteers who were not doner kebab chefs and didn’t exert intense effort with upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span> their business lives were selected as the control group. A survey form was prepared to obtain data about the participants’ ages, working experience (years), daily work hours, work at a second job, diseases, drug usage, and any musculoskeletal (lasting at least 1 week) complaint in last 6 months. [Results] A total of 164 individuals participated in the study, 82 doner chefs and 82 volunteers. In 20.6% of the study group and 15.6% of the control group, an upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> musculoskeletal system disorder was detected. Lateral epicondylitis was more frequently statistically significant in the work group. [Conclusion] Hand pain and lateral epicondylitis are more frequent in doner chefs than in other forms of business. PMID:25276030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...510032R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...510032R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">How does public opinion become <span class="hlt">extreme</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We investigate the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain <span class="hlt">extreme</span> view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26052277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26052277"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Metal Music and Anger Processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The claim that listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music listeners aged 18-34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners. PMID:26052277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439552','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439552"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Metal Music and Anger Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The claim that listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music listeners aged 18–34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners. PMID:26052277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..1211973M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..1211973M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the amazon basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marengo, José; Mendes, David</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate (CCSP, 2008). Indeed, according to IPCC AR4, confidence has increased that some <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will become more frequent, more widespread and/or more intense during the 21st century . Until recently, there had been little published work on rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in South America, and emphasis has been given to the La Plata Basin, where data coverage is much better. In this study, we use the indices of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> derived by the WMO and used for the IPCC AR4 applied to 100 stations in Amazon Basin for the period from 1971 to 2005, with focus on rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The quality control involved carefully evaluating numerous detailed graphs of daily data to detect evidence of possible quality issues with the data as well as statistically identifying outliers. Each outlier or potential data problem was manually validated using metadata information of our climate data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25989484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25989484"><span id="translatedtitle">How does public opinion become <span class="hlt">extreme</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D S; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain <span class="hlt">extreme</span> view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are "very conservative" versus "moderate to very conservative" ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual "stubbornness" that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people's ties. PMID:25989484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811518V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811518V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in Tropical Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>: Secular or Cyclical?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vuruputur, Venugopal; Sukhatme, Jai</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>An appropriate measure of the wet/dryness of a region is its annual accumulation. Using GPCP and GPCC data, we provide evidence that the probability of encountering very high and very low annual tropical rainfall has increased significantly during 1998-2013, as compared to the preceding warming era (1979-1997). These changes are spatially coherent and comprise of a rearrangement of very wet regions and a systematic expansion of dry zones. While the increased likelihood of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is consistent with a higher average temperature during the pause (as compared to 1979-1997), it is <span class="hlt">important</span> to note that the periods considered are also characterized by a transition from a relatively warm to cold phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To further probe the relation between contrasting phases of ENSO and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in accumulation, a similar comparison is performed between 1960-1978 (another extended cold phase of ENSO) and the aforementioned warming era. Remarkably, in this cold-to-warm transition, a near-exact reversal of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is noted both statistically and geographically. This is despite the average temperature being higher in 1979-1997 as compared to 1960-1978. Thus, in addition to exerting a dominant influence on the wet/dryness of a region, the imprint of changing phases of ENSO is clearly seen in the waxing and waning of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of tropical rainfall accumulation. While the focus of this work is on annual accumulation over the entire tropics, it is interesting to note that a similar analysis over smaller regions (e.g., continental US) clearly shows that previously reported "trends" in short duration <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are in fact a subset of this aforementioned ENSO footprint. This hypothesis is verified using high-resolution TRMM rainfall observations during the past two decades. Finally, taking advantage of the temporal resolution afforded by TRMM, the change in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is seen to go hand in hand with a progressive increase in variance and intensity, and a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3314091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3314091"><span id="translatedtitle">[Indications, methods and results of amputations of the <span class="hlt">extremities</span> in isolated, multiple and associated traumas].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deriabin, I I; Tsagareishvili, E A; Gumanenko, E K; Samokhvalov, I M; Rozhkov, A S; Bobrovkii, N G; Sorokin, E A</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>An analysis of 246 observations has shown that in patients with crushed <span class="hlt">extremities</span> accompanied by shock the amputation is the most <span class="hlt">important</span> antishock measure. The amputation performed by the method of primary surgical treatment of the wound is the method of choice. The amount of postoperative complications can be considerably reduced by using the primarily delayed suture, carbon sorbents on the stump wound, temporary immobilization of the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> stump. PMID:3314091</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6684305','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6684305"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for <span class="hlt">extremely</span> powerful extragalactic water masers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Ying-Cheng; Alcock, C.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>The reasons for the differences between <span class="hlt">extremely</span> powerful extragalatic water masers (EPEWMs) and strong Galactic H/sub 2/O masers are discussed. This model quite successfully explains many <span class="hlt">important</span> characteristics of EPEWMs; the rapid time variations, the broad range and random velocity distribution, the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high luminosities, the various heights or widths of features in spectra, the strong infrared radiation from the galaxies, how an active nucleus contributes to an EPEWM, how some parts of EPEWMs producing strong features are pumped, why this pump mechanism can work, and why EPEWMs are different from strong Galactic H/sub 2/O masers. Recent observations of extragalactic water masers which have <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high luminosities raise the possibility that the stimulated emission rate in the maser emission line in these regions is much higher than in Galactic masers. It is possible that the local stimulated emission rate exceeds the local bandwidth for the radiation. In this case the standard expression relating the photon emission rate to the profile averaged mean intensity does not apply. A new expression for the photon emission rate is derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..317M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..317M"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooling of US Midwest summer temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from cropland intensification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Butler, Ethan E.; McKinnon, Karen A.; Rhines, Andrew; Tingley, Martin; Holbrook, N. Michele; Huybers, Peter</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>High temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify temperatures by altering the surface energy budget. Here we identify centennial trends towards more favourable growing conditions in the US Midwest, including cooler summer temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and increased precipitation, and investigate the origins of these shifts. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an <span class="hlt">important</span> influence on historical temperatures, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that agricultural intensification increases the potential for evapotranspiration, leading to cooler temperatures and contributing to increased precipitation. The tendency for greater evapotranspiration on hotter days is consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest temperature percentiles. Temperatures over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler temperatures revert to historically high <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..401M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..401M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value statistics of cosmic microwave background lensing deflection angles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The smaller the angular scales on which the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are probed the more <span class="hlt">important</span> their distortion due to gravitational lensing becomes. Here we investigate the maxima and minima of the CMB lensing deflection field using general <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value statistics. Since general <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value statistics applies to uncorrelated data in first place, we consider appropriately low-pass-filtered deflection maps. Besides the suppression of correlations filtering is required for another reason: the lensing field itself is not directly observable but needs to be (statistically) reconstructed from the lensed CMB by means of a quadratic estimator. This reconstruction, though, is noise dominated and therefore requires smoothing too. In idealized Gaussian realizations as well as in realistically reconstructed data, we find that both maxima and minima of the deflection angle components follow consistently a general <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution of Weibull type. However, its shape, location and scale parameters vary significantly between different realizations. The statistics' potential power to constrain cosmological models appears, therefore, rather limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11e5007H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11e5007H"><span id="translatedtitle">Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event occurrence is of crucial societal <span class="hlt">importance</span>. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HyPr...12..597S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HyPr...12..597S"><span id="translatedtitle">An analysis of non-normal Markovian <span class="hlt">extremal</span> droughts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharma, T. C.</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>In many arid and semi-arid environments of the world, years of extended droughts are not uncommon. The occurrence of a drought can be reflected by the deficiency of the rainfall or stream flow sequences below the long-term mean value, which is generally taken as the truncation level for the identification of the droughts. The commonly available statistics for the above processes are mean, coefficient of variation and the lag-one serial correlation coefficient, and at times some indication of the probability distribution function (pdf) of the sequences. The <span class="hlt">important</span> elements of a drought phenomenon are the longest duration and the largest severity for a desired return period, which form a basis for designing facilities to meet exigencies arising as a result of droughts. The sequences of drought variable, such as annual rainfall or stream flow, may follow normal, log-normal or gamma distributions, and may evolve in a Markovian fashion and are bound to influence <span class="hlt">extremal</span> values of the duration and severity. The effect of the aforesaid statistical parameters on the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> drought durations and severity have been analysed in the present paper. A formula in terms of the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> severity and the return period T in years has been suggested in parallel to the flood frequency formula, commonly cited in the hydrological texts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503957','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503957"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating merging binary black holes with nearly <span class="hlt">extremal</span> spins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>Astrophysically realistic black holes may have spins that are nearly <span class="hlt">extremal</span> (i.e., close to 1 in dimensionless units). Numerical simulations of binary black holes are <span class="hlt">important</span> tools both for calibrating analytical templates for gravitational-wave detection and for exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. However, all previous simulations of binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown have been limited by an apparently insurmountable barrier: the merging holes' spins could not exceed 0.93, which is still a long way from the maximum possible value in terms of the physical effects of the spin. In this paper, we surpass this limit for the first time, opening the way to explore numerically the behavior of merging, nearly <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes. Specifically, using an improved initial-data method suitable for binary black holes with nearly <span class="hlt">extremal</span> spins, we simulate the inspiral (through 12.5 orbits), merger and ringdown of two equal-mass black holes with equal spins of magnitude 0.95 antialigned with the orbital angular momentum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1245434-extreme_seastate_contour_v1','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1245434-extreme_seastate_contour_v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span>_SeaState_Contour_v1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-19</p> <p>This software generates environmental contours of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea states using buoy observations of significant wave height and energy period or peak period. The code transforms these observations using principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data. The subsequent components are modeled using probability distributions and parameter fitting functions. The inverse first-order reliability method (I-FORM) is then applied to these models in order to generate an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event contour based on amore » given return period (i.e., 100 years).The subsequent contour is then transformed back into the original input space defined by the variables of interest in order to create an environmental contour of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea states.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH21C4129P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH21C4129P"><span id="translatedtitle">Pushing the Envelope of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Space Weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pesnell, W. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what <span class="hlt">extreme</span> should Space Weather go? These are the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of Space Weather explored in this talk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..726V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..726V"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent and future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation over Ukraine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vyshkvarkova, Olena; Voskresenskaya, Elena</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The aim of study is to analyze the parameters of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and inequality over Ukraine in recent climate epoch and their possible changes in the future. Data of observations from 28 hydrometeorological stations over Ukraine and output of GFDL-CM3 model (CMIP5) for XXI century were used in the study. The methods of concentration index (J. Martin-Vide, 2004) for the study of precipitation inequality while the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation indices recommended by the ETCCDI - for the frequency of events. Results. Precipitation inequality on the annual and seasonal scales was studied using estimated CI series for 1951-2005. It was found that annual CI ranges vary from 0.58 to 0.64. They increase southward from the north-west (forest zone) and the north-east (forest steppe zone) of Ukraine. CI maxima are located in the coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Annual CI spatial distribution indicates that the contribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation into annual totals is most significant at the boundary zone between steppe and marine regions. At the same time precipitation pattern at the foothill of Carpathian Mountains is more homogenous. The CI minima (0.54) are typical for the winter season in foothill of Ukrainian Carpathians. The CI maxima reach 0.71 in spring at the steppe zone closed to the Black Sea coast. It should be noted that the greatest ranges of CI maximum and CI minimum deviation are typical for spring. It is associated with patterns of cyclone trajectories in that season. The most territory is characterized by tendency to decrease the contribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation into the total amount (CI linear trends are predominantly negative in all seasons). Decadal and interdecadal variability of precipitation inequality associated with global processes in ocean-atmosphere system are also studied. It was shown that precipitation inequality over Ukraine on 10 - 15 % stronger in negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and in positive phase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH32A..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH32A..01H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Engineering for Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Partnership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holland, G. J.; Tye, M. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hurricane Sandy and the recent floods in Thailand have demonstrated not only how sensitive the urban environment is to the impact of severe weather, but also the associated global reach of the ramifications. These, together with other growing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather impacts and the increasing interdependence of global commercial activities point towards a growing vulnerability to weather and climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The Engineering for Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Partnership brings academia, industry and government together with the goals encouraging joint activities aimed at developing new, robust, and well-communicated responses to this increasing vulnerability. Integral to the approach is the concept of 'graceful failure' in which flexible designs are adopted that protect against failure by combining engineering or network strengths with a plan for efficient and rapid recovery if and when they fail. Such an approach enables optimal planning for both known future scenarios and their assessed uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ESS.....311801T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ESS.....311801T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of Population Estimated from Kepler Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Traub, Wesley A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of exoplanet population (0.5 to 16 Earth radii, 0.5 to 512 days period) are estimated from Kepler observations by comparing the observed numbers of planets at each radius and period against a simulation that accounts for the probability of transit and the estimated instrument sensitivity. By assuming that the population can be modeled as a function of period times a function of radius, and further assuming that these functions are broken power laws, sufficient leverage is gained such that the well-measured short-period <span class="hlt">extreme</span> of the planet distribution can effectively be used as a template for the less-well sampled long-period <span class="hlt">extreme</span>. The resulting population distribution over this full range of radius and period provides a challenge to models of the origin and evolution of planetary systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhRvD..55.7680H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhRvD..55.7680H"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of near-<span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Near-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> black holes can lose their charge and decay by the emission of massive Bogomol'ni-Prasad-Sommerfield charged particles. We calculate the greybody factors for low-energy charged and neutral scalar emission from four- and five-dimensional near <span class="hlt">extremal</span> Reissner-Nordström black holes. We use the corresponding emission rates to obtain ratios of the rates of loss of excess energy by charged and neutral emission, which are moduli independent, depending only on the integral charges and the horizon potentials. We consider scattering experiments, finding that evolution towards a state in which the integral charges are equal is favored, but neutral emission will dominate the decay back to <span class="hlt">extremality</span> except when one charge is much greater than the others. The implications of our results for the agreement between black hole and D-brane emission rates and for the information loss puzzle are then discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872688','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872688"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoresist composition for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1245434','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1245434"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span>_SeaState_Contour_v1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-19</p> <p>This software generates environmental contours of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea states using buoy observations of significant wave height and energy period or peak period. The code transforms these observations using principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data. The subsequent components are modeled using probability distributions and parameter fitting functions. The inverse first-order reliability method (I-FORM) is then applied to these models in order to generate an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event contour based on a given return period (i.e., 100 years).The subsequent contour is then transformed back into the original input space defined by the variables of interest in order to create an environmental contour of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMaPh.336.1167G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMaPh.336.1167G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> Bundles on Calabi-Yau Threefolds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Peng; He, Yang-Hui; Yau, Shing-Tung</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We study constructions of stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau threefolds, especially those with exact anomaly cancellation which we call <span class="hlt">extremal</span>. By going through the known databases we find that such examples are rare in general and can be ruled out for the spectral cover construction for all elliptic threefolds. We then introduce a general Hartshorne-Serre construction and use it to find <span class="hlt">extremal</span> bundles of general ranks and study their stability, as well as computing their Chern numbers. Based on both existing and our new constructions, we revisit the DRY conjecture for the existence of stable sheaves on Calabi-threefolds, and provide theoretical and numerical evidence for its correctness. Our construction can be easily generalized to bundles with no <span class="hlt">extremal</span> conditions imposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19025501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19025501"><span id="translatedtitle">Viper fangs: functional limitations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> teeth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cundall, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The fangs of vipers are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> long, rotating, hollow teeth. Analysis of video records of more than 750 strikes recorded at 60 or 250 frames per second for 285 individuals representing 86 species in 31 genera shows that vipers reposition fangs after initial contact with prey in more than a third of the strikes. Repositioning resulted when fangs missed prey entirely or hit prey regions that did not permit adequate penetration. The prevalence of repositioning, even among species that normally release prey, suggests strong selective pressure for rapid neuromotor response to fang placement error. The rapidity of repositioning suggests the existence of (a) fine-scale sensory detection of fang penetration depth, (b) rapid modulation of contraction of antagonistic muscles, and (c) possibly neurological modifications to shorten transmission time between sensory input and motor output. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> fang length has apparently coevolved with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> functions. PMID:19025501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145313','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145313"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial communities evolve faster in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Sheng-Jin; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Huang, Li-Nan; Li, Jie; Shi, Su-Hua; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Evolutionary analysis of microbes at the community level represents a new research avenue linking ecological patterns to evolutionary processes, but remains insufficiently studied. Here we report a relative evolutionary rates (rERs) analysis of microbial communities from six diverse natural environments based on 40 metagenomic samples. We show that the rERs of microbial communities are mainly shaped by environmental conditions, and the microbes inhabiting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> habitats (acid mine drainage, saline lake and hot spring) evolve faster than those populating benign environments (surface ocean, fresh water and soil). These findings were supported by the observation of more relaxed purifying selection and potentially frequent horizontal gene transfers in communities from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> habitats. The mechanism of high rERs was proposed as high mutation rates imposed by stressful conditions during the evolutionary processes. This study brings us one stage closer to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation of microbes to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments. PMID:25158668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...17S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...17S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremism</span> without extremists: Deffuant model with emotions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sobkowicz, Pawel</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The frequent occurrence of extremist views in many social contexts, often growing from small minorities to almost total majority, poses a significant challenge for democratic societies. The phenomenon can be described within the sociophysical paradigm. We present a modified version of the continuous bounded confidence opinion model, including a simple description of the influence of emotions on tolerances, and eventually on the evolution of opinions. Allowing for psychologically based correlation between the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinions, high emotions and low tolerance for other people's views leads to quick dominance of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views within the studied model, without introducing a special class of agents, as has been done in previous works. This dominance occurs even if the initial numbers of people with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinions is very small. Possible suggestions related to mitigation of the process are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5145H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5145H"><span id="translatedtitle">WETRAX: WEather Patterns, Cyclone TRAcks and related precipitation <span class="hlt">EXtremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hofstätter, Michael; Beck, Christoph; Chimani, Barbara; Ganekind, Manfred; Homan, Markus; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Phillip, Andreas</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Excessive large scale (LS) precipitation entails high risk of related flooding and is therefore of particular significance for subsequent infrastructural damage, financial loss or the direct threat of human life. The potential and <span class="hlt">importance</span> of certain atmospheric cyclone tracks or circulation types for such precipitation events, is well known in the hydro-meteorological community, not least because of the flood events in August 2005 and August 2002 for example. However many <span class="hlt">important</span> questions remain unanswered in this issue. For example, not enough findings are on hand assessing the relevance of certain circulation types or cyclone track types for large scale precipitation characteristics in Central Europe. In particular changes in the risk of LS <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation under future climate change conditions due to an altered atmospheric circulation, remain unknown in fact. In this collaborative study repetitive atmospheric patterns as large-scale circulation types and cyclone track types are investigated in terms of their relevance for non-convective <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation over Southern Germany and Austria. Two different Global Climate Models will be evaluated in their ability to simulate the <span class="hlt">important</span> atmospheric characteristics under current climate conditions, in order to assess the changing probability of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events under future climate conditions. The results of this study will give new insights in the nature of atmospheric cyclones and circulation types as the trigger of large scale precipitation in the study region, hence improving hydro-meteorological knowledge and providing basic essentials for the trans-national water resource management under the aspect of ongoing climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH13B1149G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH13B1149G"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events - Past, Present, and Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gutschick, V. P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Biological <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events span wide ranges temporally and spatially and in type - population dieoffs, extinctions, ecological reorganizations, changes in biogeochemical fluxes, and more. Driving variables consist in meteorology, tectonics, orbital changes, anthropogenic changes (land-use change, species introductions, reactive N injection into the biosphere), and evolution (esp. of diseases). However, the mapping of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the drivers onto biological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> as organismal responses is complex, as laid out originally in the theoretical framework of Gutschick and BassiriRad (New Phytologist [2003] 100:21-42). Responses are nonlinear and dependent on (mostly unknown and) complex temporal sequences - often of multiple environmental variables. The responses are species- and genotype specific. I review <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events over from past to present over wide temporal scales, while noting that they are not wholly informative of responses to the current and near-future drivers for at least two reasons: 1) the current combination of numerous environmental <span class="hlt">extremes</span> - changes in CO2, temperature, precipitation, reactive N, land fragmentation, O3, etc. -is unprecedented in scope, and 2) adaptive genetic variation for organismal responses is constrained by poorly-characterized genetic structures (in organisms and populations) and by loss of genetic variation by genetic drift over long periods. We may expect radical reorganizations of ecosystem and biogeochemical functions. These changes include many ecosystem services in flood control, crop pollination and insect/disease control, C-water-mineral cycling, and more, as well as direct effects on human health. Predictions of such changes will necessarily be very weak in the critical next few decades, given the great deal of observation, experimentation, and theory construction that will be necessary, on both organisms and drivers. To make the research efforts most effective will require extensive, insightful planning, beginning</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350511"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in rare variant study designs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peloso, Gina M; Rader, Daniel J; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Currently, next-generation sequencing studies aim to identify rare and low-frequency variation that may contribute to disease. For a given effect size, as the allele frequency decreases, the power to detect genes or variants of interest also decreases. Although many methods have been proposed for the analysis of such data, study design and analytic issues still persist in data interpretation. In this study we present sequencing data for ABCA1 that has known rare variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We contrast empirical findings from two study designs: a phenotypic <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sample and a population-based random sample. We found differing strengths of association with HDL-C across the two study designs (P=0.0006 with n=701 phenotypic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vs P=0.03 with n=1600 randomly sampled individuals). To explore this apparent difference in evidence for association, we performed a simulation study focused on the impact of phenotypic selection on power. We demonstrate that the power gain for an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> phenotypic selection study design is much greater in rare variant studies than for studies of common variants. Our study confirms that studying phenotypic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is critical in rare variant studies because it boosts power in two ways: the typical increases from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sampling and increasing the proportion of relevant functional variants ascertained and thereby tested for association. Furthermore, we show that when combining statistical evidence through meta-analysis from an <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-selected sample and a second separate population-based random sample, power is lower when a traditional sample size weighting is used compared with weighting by the noncentrality parameter. PMID:26350511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51A0377D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51A0377D"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Nonstationarity in Seasonality of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation Using a New Statistical Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhakal, N.; Jain, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes in seasonality of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation have <span class="hlt">important</span> implications for public safety, stormwater infrastructure and, in general, adaptation strategies in a changing climate. In this context, an understanding of shifts in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event seasons—emerging, weakening or intensification within seasonal windows is an <span class="hlt">important</span> step. In this study, we applied a nonparametric circular method to assess the temporal changes in the seasonality of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation for 10 USHCN stations across the state of Maine. Two 30-year blocks (1951-1980 and 1981-2010) of daily annual maximum precipitation were used for the analysis. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation dates were used to compute the circular probability distribution. <span class="hlt">Important</span> information regarding the multimodality in the seasonal distribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation dates were obtained from the probabilistic assessment of seasonality using the kernel circular density estimates. Nonstationarity in seasonality was observed for most of the stations; some stations exhibit shifting of significant mode towards Spring season for the recent time period while some stations exhibit multimodality for both the time periods. Despite the limitation of being sensitive to the smoothing parameter, the kernel circular density estimates method is clearly superior and robust when dealing with diverse seasonal pattern of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall comprising of multiple seasonal modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27517758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27517758"><span id="translatedtitle">No Quantum Realization of <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> No-Signaling Boxes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Tuziemski, Jan; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł</p> <p>2016-07-29</p> <p>The study of quantum correlations is <span class="hlt">important</span> for fundamental reasons as well as for quantum communication and information processing tasks. On the one hand, it is of tremendous interest to derive the correlations produced by measurements on separated composite quantum systems from within the set of all correlations obeying the no-signaling principle of relativity, by means of information-theoretic principles. On the other hand, an <span class="hlt">important</span> ongoing research program concerns the formulation of device-independent cryptographic protocols based on quantum nonlocal correlations for the generation of secure keys, and the amplification and expansion of random bits against general no-signaling adversaries. In both these research programs, a fundamental question arises: Can any measurements on quantum states realize the correlations present in pure <span class="hlt">extremal</span> no-signaling boxes? Here, we answer this question in full generality showing that no nontrivial (not local realistic) <span class="hlt">extremal</span> boxes of general no-signaling theories can be realized in quantum theory. We then explore some <span class="hlt">important</span> consequences of this fact. PMID:27517758</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvL.117e0401R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvL.117e0401R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">No Quantum Realization of <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> No-Signaling Boxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Tuziemski, Jan; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The study of quantum correlations is <span class="hlt">important</span> for fundamental reasons as well as for quantum communication and information processing tasks. On the one hand, it is of tremendous interest to derive the correlations produced by measurements on separated composite quantum systems from within the set of all correlations obeying the no-signaling principle of relativity, by means of information-theoretic principles. On the other hand, an <span class="hlt">important</span> ongoing research program concerns the formulation of device-independent cryptographic protocols based on quantum nonlocal correlations for the generation of secure keys, and the amplification and expansion of random bits against general no-signaling adversaries. In both these research programs, a fundamental question arises: Can any measurements on quantum states realize the correlations present in pure <span class="hlt">extremal</span> no-signaling boxes? Here, we answer this question in full generality showing that no nontrivial (not local realistic) <span class="hlt">extremal</span> boxes of general no-signaling theories can be realized in quantum theory. We then explore some <span class="hlt">important</span> consequences of this fact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004eso..pres...11.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004eso..pres...11."><span id="translatedtitle">Two <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Hot Exoplanets Caught in Transit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p> PR 03/03). However, the radial-velocity technique is not the only tool for the detection of exoplanets. When a planet happens to pass in front of its parent star (as seen from the Earth), it blocks a small fraction of the star's light from our view. The larger the planet is, relative to the star, the larger is the fraction of the light that is blocked. It is exactly the same effect when Venus transits the Solar disc on June 8, 2004, cf. ESO PR 03/04 and the VT-2004 programme website. In the past centuries such events were used to estimate the Sun-Earth distance, with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> useful implications for astrophysics and celestial mechanics. Nowadays, planetary transits are gaining renewed <span class="hlt">importance</span>. Several surveys are attempting to find the faint signatures of other worlds, by means of stellar photometric measurements, searching for the periodic dimming of a star as a planet passes in front of its disc. One of these, the OGLE survey, was originally devised to detect microlensing events by monitoring the brightness of a very large number of stars at regular intervals. For the past four years, it has also included a search for periodical shallow "dips" of the brightness of stars, caused by the regular transit of small orbiting objects (small stars, brown dwarfs or Jupiter-size planets). The OGLE team has since announced 137 "planetary transit candidates" from their survey of about 155,000 stars in two southern sky fields, one in the direction of the Galactic Centre, the other within the Carina constellation. Resolving the nature of the OGLE transits ESO PR Photo 14a/04 ESO PR Photo 14a/04 Sky Field with OGLE-TR-113 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 476 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 952 pix - 575k] ESO PR Photo 14b/04 ESO PR Photo 14b/04 Sky Field with OGLE-TR-132 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 475 pix - 357k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 950 pix - 935k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 14a/04 and ESO PR Photo 14b/04 show the sky fields in the southern constellation Carina (The Ship Keel) with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN41C..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN41C..03P"><span id="translatedtitle">Pattern Detection and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Analysis on Large Climate Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prabhat, M.; Byna, S.; Paciorek, C.; Weber, G.; Wu, K.; Yopes, T.; Wehner, M. F.; Ostrouchov, G.; Pugmire, D.; Strelitz, R.; Collins, W.; Bethel, W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We consider several challenging problems in climate that require quantitative analysis of very large data volumes generated by modern climate simulations. We demonstrate new software capable of addressing these challenges that is designed to exploit petascale platforms using state-of-the-art methods in high performance computing. Atmospheric rivers and Hurricanes are <span class="hlt">important</span> classes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather phenomena. Developing analysis tools that can automatically detect these events in large climate datasets can provide us with invaluable information about the frequency of these events. Application of these tools to different climate model outputs can provide us with quality metrics that evaluate whether models produce this <span class="hlt">important</span> class of phenomena and how the statistics of these events will likely vary in the future. In this work, we present an automatic technique for detecting atmospheric rivers. We use techniques from image processing and topological analysis to extract these features. We implement this technique in a massively parallel fashion on modern supercomputing platforms, and apply the resulting software to both observational data and various models from the CMIP-3 archive. We have successfully completed atmospheric river detections on 1TB of data on 10000 hopper cores in 10 seconds. For hurricane tracking, we have adapted code from GFDL to run in parallel on large datasets. We present results from the application of this code to some recent high resolution CAM5 simulations. Our code is capable of processing 1TB of data in 10 seconds. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value analysis involves statistical techniques for estimating the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and variations in the probabilities over time and space. Because of their rarity, there is a high degree of uncertainty when estimating the behavior of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from data at any one location. We are developing a local likelihood approach to borrow strength from multiple locations, with uncertainty estimated using the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413322T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413322T"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifractal Geophysical <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>: Nonstationarity and Long Range Correlations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Throughout the world, <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in environmental sciences are of prime <span class="hlt">importance</span>. They are key variables not only for risk assessments and engineering designs (e.g. of dams and bridges), but also for resource management (e.g. water and energy) and for land use. A better understanding of them is more and more indispensable in settling the debate on their possible climatological evolution. Whereas it took decades before a uniform technique for estimating flow frequencies within a stationary framework, it is often claimed that « stationarity is dead ! ». The fact that geophysical and environmental fields are variable over a wider range of scales than previously thought require to go beyond the limits of the (classical) <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory (EVT). Indeed, long-range correlations are beyond the scope of the classical EVT theory. We show that multifractal concepts and techniques are particularly appealing because they can effectively deal with a cascade of interactions concentrating for instance energy, liquid water, etc. into smaller and smaller space-time domains. Furthermore, a general outcome of these cascade processes -which surprisingly was realized only rather recently- is that rather independently of their details they yield probability distributions with power-law fall-offs, often called (asymptotic) Pareto or Zipf laws. We discuss the corresponding probability distributions of their maxima and its relationship with the Frechet law. We use these multifractal techniques to investigate the possibility of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In particular we assess the multifractal parameter uncertainty with the help of long synthetic multifractal series and their sub-samples, in particular to obtain an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly <span class="hlt">important</span> for the predictions of multifractal <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We finally illustrate the efficiency of this approach with its application to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JHyd..273...35C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JHyd..273...35C"><span id="translatedtitle">A fully probabilistic approach to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coles, Stuart; Pericchi, Luis Raúl; Sisson, Scott</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>It is an embarrassingly frequent experience that statistical practice fails to foresee historical disasters. It is all too easy to blame global trends or some sort of external intervention, but in this article we argue that statistical methods that do not take comprehensive account of the uncertainties involved in both model and predictions, are bound to produce an over-optimistic appraisal of future <span class="hlt">extremes</span> that is often contradicted by observed hydrological events. Based on the annual and daily rainfall data on the central coast of Venezuela, different modeling strategies and inference approaches show that the 1999 rainfall which caused the worst environmentally related tragedy in Venezuelan history was <span class="hlt">extreme</span>, but not implausible given the historical evidence. We follow in turn a classical likelihood and Bayesian approach, arguing that the latter is the most natural approach for taking into account all uncertainties. In each case we emphasize the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of making inference on predicted levels of the process rather than model parameters. Our most detailed model comprises of seasons with unknown starting points and durations for the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of daily rainfall whose behavior is described using a standard threshold model. Based on a Bayesian analysis of this model, so that both prediction uncertainty and process heterogeneity are properly modeled, we find that the 1999 event has a sizeable probability which implies that such an occurrence within a reasonably short time horizon could have been anticipated. Finally, since accumulation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall over several days is an additional difficulty—and indeed, the catastrophe of 1999 was exaggerated by heavy rainfall on successive days—we examine the effect of timescale on our broad conclusions, finding results to be broadly similar across different choices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1995IJBm...39...17B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1995IJBm...39...17B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Free and total thyroid hormones in humans at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basu, Minakshi; Pal, K.; Malhotra, A. S.; Prasad, R.; Sawhney, R. C.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>Alterations in circulatory levels of total T4 (TT4), total T3 (TT3), free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and T3 uptake (T3U) were studied in male and female sea-level residents (SLR) at sea level, in Armed forces personnel staying at high altitude (3750 m) for prolonged duration (acclimatized lowlanders, ALL) and in high-altitude natives (HAN). Identical studies were also performed on male ALL who trekked to an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude of 5080 m and stayed at an altitude of more than 6300 m for about 6 months. The total as well as free thyroid hormones were found to be significantly higher in ALL and HAN as compared to SLR values. Both male as well as female HAN had higher levels of thyroid hormones. The rise in hormone levels in different ALL ethnic groups drawn from amongst the southern and northern parts of the country was more or less identical. In both HAN and ALL a decline in FT3 and FT4 occurred when these subjects trekked at subzero temperatures to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude of 5080 m but the levels were found to be higher in ALL who stayed at 6300 m for a prolonged duration. Plasma TSH did not show any appreciable change at lower altitudes but was found to be decreased at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude. The increase in thyroid hormones at high altitude was not due to an increase in hormone binding proteins, since T3U was found to be higher at high altitudes. A decline in TSH and hormone binding proteins and an increase in the free moiety of the hormones is indicative of a subtle degree of tissue hyperthyroidism which may be playing an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in combating the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold and hypoxic environment of high altitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H51L0776M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H51L0776M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Frequency and Uncertainty Analysis of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation in Bangladesh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mortuza, M. R.; Demissie, Y.; Li, H. Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Increased frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitations, especially those with multiday durations, are responsible for recent urban floods and associated significant losses of lives and infrastructures in Bangladesh. Reliable and routinely updated estimation of the frequency of occurrence of such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events are thus <span class="hlt">important</span> for developing up-to-date hydraulic structures and stormwater drainage system that can effectively minimize future risk from similar events. In this study, we have updated the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for Bangladesh using daily precipitation data from 1961 to 2010 and quantified associated uncertainties. Regional frequency analysis based on L-moments is applied on 1-day, 2-day and 5-day annual maximum precipitation series due to its advantages over at-site estimation. The regional frequency approach pools the information from climatologically similar sites to make reliable estimates of quantiles given that the pooling group is homogeneous and of reasonable size. We have used Region of influence (ROI) approach along with homogeneity measure based on L-moments to identify the homogenous pooling groups for each site. Five 3-parameter distributions (i.e., Generalized Logistic, Generalized <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value, Generalized Normal, Pearson Type Three, and Generalized Pareto) are used for a thorough selection of appropriate models that fit the sample data. Uncertainties related to the selection of the distributions and historical data are quantified using the Bayesian Model Averaging and Balanced Bootstrap approaches respectively. The results from this study can be used to update the current design and management of hydraulic structures as well as in exploring spatio-temporal variations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and associated risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LaPhy..21.1243R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LaPhy..21.1243R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> short pulses via resonantly induced transparency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radeonychev, Y. V.; Polovinkin, V. A.; Kocharovskaya, O.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We study a novel method to produce <span class="hlt">extremely</span> short pulses of radiation in a resonant medium via induced transparency by means of adiabatic periodic modulation of atomic transition frequencies by far-off-resonant laser field, which causes linear Stark splitting of atomic energy levels resulting in partial transparency of an optically deep medium and drastic spectral modification of an incident resonant radiation. We find the regimes where the output spectrum corresponds to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> short pulses and discuss several possible experimental realizations of generation of attosecond pulses in Li2+ ions and femtosecond pulses in atomic hydrogen with commercially available facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B24B..03G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B24B..03G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Overview of the biology of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gutschick, V. P.; Bassirirad, H.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events have, variously, meteorological origins as in heat waves or precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, or biological origins as in pest and disease eruptions (or tectonic, earth-orbital, or impact-body origins). Despite growing recognition that these events are changing in frequency and intensity, a universal model of ecological responses to these events is slow to emerge. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events, negative and positive, contrast with normal events in terms of their effects on the physiology, ecology, and evolution of organisms, hence also on water, carbon, and nutrient cycles. They structure biogeographic ranges and biomes, almost surely more than mean values often used to define biogeography. They are challenging to study for obvious reasons of field-readiness but also because they are defined by sequences of driving variables such as temperature, not point events. As sequences, their statistics (return times, for example) are challenging to develop, as also from the involvement of multiple environmental variables. These statistics are not captured well by climate models. They are expected to change with climate and land-use change but our predictive capacity is currently limited. A number of tools for description and analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are available, if not widely applied to date. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> for organisms are defined by their fitness effects on those organisms, and are specific to genotypes, making them major agents of natural selection. There is evidence that effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events may be concentrated in an extended recovery phase. We review selected events covering ranges of time and magnitude, from Snowball Earth to leaf functional loss in weather events. A number of events, such as the 2003 European heat wave, evidence effects on water and carbon cycles over large regions. Rising CO2 is the recent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> of note, for its climatic effects and consequences for growing seasons, transpiration, etc., but also directly in its action as a substrate of photosynthesis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070019317','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070019317"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust, Thin Optical Films for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The environment of space presents scientists and engineers with the challenges of a harsh, unforgiving laboratory in which to conduct their scientific research. Solar astronomy and X-ray astronomy are two of the more challenging areas into which NASA scientists delve, as the optics for this high-tech work must be <span class="hlt">extremely</span> sensitive and accurate, yet also be able to withstand the battering dished out by radiation, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature swings, and flying debris. Recent NASA work on this rugged equipment has led to the development of a strong, thin film for both space and laboratory use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1041403','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1041403"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Science (LBNL Science at the Theater)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ajo-Franklin, Caroline; Klein, Spencer; Minor, Andrew; Torok, Tamas</p> <p>2012-02-27</p> <p>On Feb. 27, 2012 at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, four Berkeley Lab scientists presented talks related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> science - and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039417&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039417&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Far and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet astronomy with ORFEUS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kraemer, G.; Barnstedt, J.; Eberhard, N.; Grewing, M.; Gringel, W.; Haas, C.; Kaelble, A.; Kappelmann, N.; Petrik, J.; Appenzeller, I.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Spectrometer) is a 1 m normal incidence telescope for spectroscopic investigations of cosmic sources in the far and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet spectral range. The instrument will be integrated into the freeflyer platform ASTRO-SPAS. ORFEUS-SPAS is scheduled with STS ENDEAVOUR in September 1992. We describe the telescope with its two spectrometer and their capabilities i.e., spectral range, resolution and overall sensitivity. The main classes of objects to be observed with the instrument are discussed and two examples of simulated spectra for the white dwarf HZ43 and an O9-star in LMC are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EOSTr..90..131X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EOSTr..90..131X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate on Mediterranean Societies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xoplaki, Elena</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> During Recent Millennia and Their Impact on Mediterranean Societies; Athens, Greece, 13-16 September 2008; Climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the past few thousand years have severely affected societies throughout the Mediterranean region and have changed the outcome of historical events in some instances. Climatic extremes—droughts, floods, prolonged cold and heat—affect society in a variety of ways, operating through famine, disease, and social upheaval. These topics were discussed at an interdisciplinary symposium at the National and Kapodistrian University, in Greece, that brought together climatologists, paleoclimatologists, anthropologists, geologists, archaeologists, and historians working in the greater Mediterranean region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177028"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> neuropathies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simmons, Zachary</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>This article describes the normal anatomy of the brachial plexus and its major terminal branches, as well as the major causes and clinical presentations of lesions of these structures. An approach to electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> neuropathies is provided, with an emphasis on those nerve conduction studies and portions of the needle examination, which permit localization of lesions to specific trunks, cords, and terminal branches. The <span class="hlt">importance</span> of specific sensory nerve conduction studies for differentiating plexopathies from radiculopathies and mononeuropathies is emphasized. PMID:23177028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Msngr.146...28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Msngr.146...28C"><span id="translatedtitle">X-shooter Finds an <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Primitive Star</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; François, P.; Sbordone, L.; Monaco, L.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Cayrel, R.; Zaggia, S.; Hammer, F.; Randich, S.; Molaro, P.; Hill, V.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Low-mass <span class="hlt">extremely</span> metal-poor (EMP) stars hold the fossil record of the chemical composition of the early phases of the Universe in their atmospheres. Chemical analysis of such objects provides <span class="hlt">important</span> constraints on these early phases. EMP stars are rather rare objects: to dig them out, large amounts of data have to be considered. We have analysed stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using an automatic procedure and selected a sample of good candidate EMP stars, which we observed with the spectrographs X-shooter and UVES. We could confirm the low metallicity of our sample of stars, and we succeeded in finding a record metal-poor star.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7358E..06W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7358E..06W"><span id="translatedtitle">Sub-50nm <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet holographic imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wachulak, P. W.; Marconi, M. C.; Bartels, R. A.; Menoni, C. S.; Rocca, J. J.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Imaging tools for nanoscicence involving sub-100-nm scale objects have been dominated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). These imaging techniques have contributed substantially to the development of nanoscience, providing a very powerful diagnostic tool capable of obtaining images with atomic resolution or as a subsidiary mechanism to arrange or modify surfaces also at the atomic scale [1,2]. However, some <span class="hlt">important</span> problems have persisted traditional nanoscale imaging techniques. For example when scanning a nanometer size object that is not attached rigidly to a surface the interaction with the tip significantly perturbs the specimen degrading or eventually precluding the image acquisition. Electron microscopy often requires surface preparation, consisting of metallization of the sample to avoid surface charging. Additionally the metallization of the sample may alter its characteristics and also limits the resolution. In both cases, if the sample is large (millimeters in size) due to the limited field of view, the image obtained with these conventional methods is only representative of a very small portion of the object. Wavelength-limited holographic imaging using carbon nanotubes as the test object with a table-top <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) laser operating at 46.9 nm will be discussed. The resolution achieved in this imaging is evaluated with a rigorous correlation image analysis and confirmed with the conventional knife-edge test. The nano-holography presented requires no optics or critical beam alignment; thus the hologram recording scheme is very simple and does not need special sample preparation. In holography, image contrast requires absorption to provide scattering by the illuminating beam. The EUV laser wavelength employed in this experiment (46.9nm) is advantageous because carbon based materials typically exhibit very small attenuation lengths, around 25 nm. The high absorption of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/935741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/935741"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomics of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> psychrophile, Psychromonas ingrahamii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riley, Monica; Staley, James T.; Danchin, Antoine; Wang, T.; Brettin, Tom; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Thompson, Linda S</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Background: The genome sequence of the sea-ice bacterium Psychromonas ingrahamii 37, which grows exponentially at -12C, may reveal features that help to explain how this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> psychrophile is able to grow at such low temperatures. Determination of the whole genome sequence allows comparison with genes of other psychrophiles and mesophiles. Results: Correspondence analysis of the composition of all P. ingrahamii proteins showed that (1) there are 6 classes of proteins, at least one more than other bacteria, (2) integral inner membrane proteins are not sharply separated from bulk proteins suggesting that, overall, they may have a lower hydrophobic character, and (3) there is strong opposition between asparagine and the oxygen-sensitive amino acids methionine, arginine, cysteine and histidine and (4) one of the previously unseen clusters of proteins has a high proportion of "orphan" hypothetical proteins, raising the possibility these are cold-specific proteins. Based on annotation of proteins by sequence similarity, (1) P. ingrahamii has a large number (61) of regulators of cyclic GDP, suggesting that this bacterium produces an extracellular polysaccharide that may help sequester water or lower the freezing point in the vicinity of the cell. (2) P. ingrahamii has genes for production of the osmolyte, betaine choline, which may balance the osmotic pressure as sea ice freezes. (3) P. ingrahamii has a large number (11) of three-subunit TRAP systems that may play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in the transport of nutrients into the cell at low temperatures. (4) Chaperones and stress proteins may play a critical role in transforming nascent polypeptides into 3-dimensional configurations that permit low temperature growth. (5) Metabolic properties of P. ingrahamii were deduced. Finally, a few small sets of proteins of unknown function which may play a role in psychrophily have been singled out as worthy of future study. Conclusion: The results of this genomic analysis provide a</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2405808','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2405808"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomics of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> psychrophile, Psychromonas ingrahamii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Riley, Monica; Staley, James T; Danchin, Antoine; Wang, Ting Zhang; Brettin, Thomas S; Hauser, Loren J; Land, Miriam L; Thompson, Linda S</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background The genome sequence of the sea-ice bacterium Psychromonas ingrahamii 37, which grows exponentially at -12C, may reveal features that help to explain how this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> psychrophile is able to grow at such low temperatures. Determination of the whole genome sequence allows comparison with genes of other psychrophiles and mesophiles. Results Correspondence analysis of the composition of all P. ingrahamii proteins showed that (1) there are 6 classes of proteins, at least one more than other bacteria, (2) integral inner membrane proteins are not sharply separated from bulk proteins suggesting that, overall, they may have a lower hydrophobic character, and (3) there is strong opposition between asparagine and the oxygen-sensitive amino acids methionine, arginine, cysteine and histidine and (4) one of the previously unseen clusters of proteins has a high proportion of "orphan" hypothetical proteins, raising the possibility these are cold-specific proteins. Based on annotation of proteins by sequence similarity, (1) P. ingrahamii has a large number (61) of regulators of cyclic GDP, suggesting that this bacterium produces an extracellular polysaccharide that may help sequester water or lower the freezing point in the vicinity of the cell. (2) P. ingrahamii has genes for production of the osmolyte, betaine choline, which may balance the osmotic pressure as sea ice freezes. (3) P. ingrahamii has a large number (11) of three-subunit TRAP systems that may play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in the transport of nutrients into the cell at low temperatures. (4) Chaperones and stress proteins may play a critical role in transforming nascent polypeptides into 3-dimensional configurations that permit low temperature growth. (5) Metabolic properties of P. ingrahamii were deduced. Finally, a few small sets of proteins of unknown function which may play a role in psychrophily have been singled out as worthy of future study. Conclusion The results of this genomic analysis provide a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011338','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011338"><span id="translatedtitle">Core Noise - Increasing <span class="hlt">Importance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hultgren, Lennart S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging <span class="hlt">importance</span> of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bacon%2c+AND+Francis&id=EJ1004364','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bacon%2c+AND+Francis&id=EJ1004364"><span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Bold" in the Faculty Ranks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kuusisto, Stephen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Boldness, defense, and the necessity of talking back remain as central to life with disability in one's time as in Francis Bacon's age. "Therefore all deformed persons are <span class="hlt">extreme</span> bold," Bacon wrote, "first, as in their own defence, as being exposed to scorn, but in process of time, by a general habit." Perhaps no word carries more weight in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91l6011N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91l6011N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> surfaces in de Sitter spacetime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narayan, K.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We study <span class="hlt">extremal</span> surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary I+, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focusing on strip subregions). We find real <span class="hlt">extremal</span> surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past light-cone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We also find complex <span class="hlt">extremal</span> surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real valued. In dS4 the area is real. The area has structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual conformal field theory. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in anti-de Sitter. We also discuss <span class="hlt">extremal</span> surfaces in the de Sitter (dS) black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The dS4 black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surfaces that go from one asymptotic universe to the other through the Cauchy horizons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ZNatA..60..335E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ZNatA..60..335E"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiobjective Optimization Of An <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> Evolution Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elettreby, Mohamed Fathey</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>We propose a two-dimensional model for a co-evolving ecosystem that generalizes the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> coupled map lattice model. The model takes into account the concept of multiobjective optimization. We find that the system is self-organized into a critical state. The distribution of avalanche sizes follows a power law.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title8-vol1-sec1240-58.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title8-vol1-sec1240-58.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8 CFR 1240.58 - <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> hardship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... deportation would result in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hardship to the alien or to the alien's spouse, parent, or child, who is a... health condition of the alien or the alien's children, spouse, or parents and the availability of any... violence or have taken steps to leave an abusive household; and (6) The abuser's ability to travel to......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814308G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814308G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Convective Weather in Future Decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gadian, Alan; Burton, Ralph; Groves, James; Blyth, Alan; Warner, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Done, James; Thielen, Jutta</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>WISER (Weather Climate Change Impact Study at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Resolution) is a project designed to analyse changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events in a future climate, using a weather model (WRF) which is able to resolve small scale processes. Use of a weather model is specifically designed to look at convection which is of a scale which cannot be resolved by climate models. The regional meso-scale precipitation events, which are critical in understanding climate change impacts will be analysed. A channel domain outer model, with a resolution of ~ 20km in the outer domain drives an inner domain of ~ 3 km resolution. Results from 1989-1994 and 2020-2024 and 2030-2034 will be presented to show the effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> convective events over Western Europe. This presentation will provide details of the project. It will present data from the 1989-1994 ERA-interim and CCSM driven simulations, with analysis of the future years as defined above. The representation of pdfs of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation, Outgoing Longwave Radiation and wind speeds, with preliminary comparison with observations will be discussed. It is also planned to use the output to drive the EFAS (European Flood model) to examine the predicted changes in quantity and frequency of severe and hazardous convective rainfall events and leading to the frequency of flash flooding due to heavy convective precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711802S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711802S"><span id="translatedtitle">Multimodel Combination of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation Projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwartz Madsen, Bo; Ditlevsen, Peter; Feng, Tao</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study seeks to combine projections of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation from several RCMs into one single projection. Ensembles of models are increasingly used in climate science. Combining information from several models is a non-trivial task. Most often the models are averaged with equal weights, i.e. "one model, one vote". We seek a combination of models that exploits the strengths of each model. Here we fit a bayesian spatial model (BSM) to the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Denmark, both with data from observations and from RCMs. The parameters of the different BSMs are compared to evaluate the RCMs ability to represent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in Denmark. A BSM is also fitted to future RCM projections in the time periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. The parameters of the BSM from each RCM are weighted with respect to that RCM's internal variability, consensus with other RCMs, the variability of the real climate and the collective deviation of all RCMs from reality. With this weighting the combined BSM projects the future <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the basis of all the models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51D1004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51D1004B"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-model analysis of <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barsugli, J. J.; Brekke, L. D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This is a simple study that attempts to accomplish a decomposition of variance among emissions scenario, model, and internal variability for precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, analogous to what Hawkins and Sutton's work did for temperature and precipitation mean changes. Working with the CMIP3 multi model archive as a template for CMIP5 analysis, and proceeding with the GEV framework, we find striking differences among the climate models, investigate the independence of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at nearby gridcells, the relationship between mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In addition we explore a regionalization technique to improve sampling, and to effectively separate sampling of noisy local conditions from sampling due to coherent large scale, long period climate variability. To investigate the role of internal variability we compare this analysis to a GEV analysis of a 40-member ensemble performed by scientists at NCAR. Presentation will focus on methodological issues in characterizing uncertainty in the multi-model ensemble. (For an overview of other findings from this study, see Brekke et al. submitted to the Hydrology session on "Uncertainties of Assessing Projected Changes in Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>")</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN53B1568P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN53B1568P"><span id="translatedtitle">TECA: <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Analytics on Petascale Platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prabhat, M.; Byna, S.; Vishwanath, V.; Bethel, W.; Collins, W.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We will cover recent developments under the TECA (Toolkit for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Analysis) project. We have developed capabilities to automatically detect and track Tropical Cyclones, Extra-Tropical Cyclones, Atmospheric Rivers and Blocking events in large climate datasets. The TECA framework enables such feature tracking codes to run at scale on modern petascale-class HPC platforms. We will review recent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> scale TECA runs: 150,000 cores on NERSC Cray XE6 Hopper and 300,000 cores of ALCF IBM BG/Q Mira. These runs were able to process TBs of simulation output, and extract statistics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather phenomena in a 10s of minutes. This presentation will highlight Big Data management, Parallel I/O and optimization issues which need to be considered carefully when running jobs at these concurrencies. We will also present scientific results from running the TECA Tropical Cyclone detection code on a CAM5 multi-resolution dataset; these results have enabled us to characterize and assess the effect of resolution on reproducing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather statistics.We will also present Extra-Tropical Cyclone detection results on the CAM5 CliVAR runs; these results indicate that the frequency of ETCs will decrease under future climate change scenarios. Time permitting, we will discuss novel feature detection capabilities (Blocking events) being incorporated into the TECA framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH53B..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH53B..05C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnitude Earthquakes and their Economical Consequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Ashworth, M.; Perea, N.; Emerson, D.; Salazar, A.; Moulinec, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnitude earthquakes varies from tens to thousands of years, depending on the considered seismotectonic region of the world. However, the human and economic losses when their hypocenters are located in the neighborhood of heavily populated and/or industrialized regions, can be very large, as recently observed for the 1985 Mw 8.01 Michoacan, Mexico and the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes. Herewith, a methodology is proposed in order to estimate the probability of exceedance of: the intensities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnitude earthquakes, PEI and of their direct economical consequences PEDEC. The PEI are obtained by using supercomputing facilities to generate samples of the 3D propagation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> earthquake plausible scenarios, and enlarge those samples by Monte Carlo simulation. The PEDEC are computed by using appropriate vulnerability functions combined with the scenario intensity samples, and Monte Carlo simulation. An example of the application of the methodology due to the potential occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Mw 8.5 subduction earthquakes on Mexico City is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014890','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014890"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DokES.468..514B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DokES.468..514B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> morphogenesis in the central caucasus mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulanov, S. A.; Karavaev, V. A.; Seminozhenko, S. S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The results of field observations on exogenic morphogenesis in the upper reaches of the Cherek Balkarskii River (Kabardino-Balkaria) are presented. It is established that different components of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> morphogenetic process confined to the distribution area of unconsolidated Quaternary sediments are closely interrelated to form a peculiar geomorphological mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global warming and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storm surges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grinsted, Aslak</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security&pg=2&id=EJ1091390','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security&pg=2&id=EJ1091390"><span id="translatedtitle">Security, <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Education: Safeguarding or Surveillance?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article analyses how education is positioned in the current concerns about security and <span class="hlt">extremism</span>. This means firstly examining the different meanings of security (national, human and societal) and who provides security for whom. Initially, a central dilemma is acknowledged: that schooling appears to be simultaneously irrelevant to the huge…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021934','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021934"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface atmospheric <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (launch and transportation areas)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Criteria are provided on atmospheric <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from the surface to 150 meters for geographical locations of interest to NASA. Thermal parameters (temperature and solar radiation), humidity, precipitation, pressure, and atmospheric electricity (lightning and static) are presented. Available data are also provided for the entire continental United States for use in future space programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flooding&pg=6&id=ED526753','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flooding&pg=6&id=ED526753"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Lifestyles through Mangrove Transcriptomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dassanayake, Maheshi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Mangroves represent phylogenetically diverse taxa in tropical coastal terrestrial habitats. They are extremophiles, evolutionarily adapted to tolerate flooding, anoxia, high temperatures, wind, and high and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> variable salt conditions in typically resource-poor environments. The genetic basis for these adaptations is, however, virtually…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bolt&pg=3&id=EJ941223','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bolt&pg=3&id=EJ941223"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale Measurement of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Response Style</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bolt, Daniel M.; Newton, Joseph R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article extends a methodological approach considered by Bolt and Johnson for the measurement and control of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response style (ERS) to the analysis of rating data from multiple scales. Specifically, it is shown how the simultaneous analysis of item responses across scales allows for more accurate identification of ERS, and more effective…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violent&pg=6&id=EJ1009917','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violent&pg=6&id=EJ1009917"><span id="translatedtitle">"REsilience," Violent <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Religious Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Joyce</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article is an attempt to provide an educational justification for the British Government-funded project, "REsilience," on addressing contentious issues through religious education (RE) which was carried out by the RE Council of England and Wales. A number of issues relating to the inclusion of religiously inspired violent <span class="hlt">extremism</span> in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705733','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705733"><span id="translatedtitle">Reliability of the mangled <span class="hlt">extremity</span> severity score in combat-related upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ege, Tolga; Unlu, Aytekin; Tas, Huseyin; Bek, Dogan; Turkan, Selim; Cetinkaya, Aytac</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Decision of limb salvage or amputation is generally aided with several trauma scoring systems such as the mangled <span class="hlt">extremity</span> severity score (MESS). However, the reliability of the injury scores in the settling of open fractures due to explosives and missiles is challenging. Mortality and morbidity of the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> trauma due to firearms are generally associated with time delay in revascularization, injury mechanism, anatomy of the injured site, associated injuries, age and the environmental circumstance. The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the extent of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries due to ballistic missiles and to detect the reliability of mangled <span class="hlt">extremity</span> severity score (MESS) in both upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. Materials and Methods: Between 2004 and 2014, 139 Gustillo Anderson Type III open fractures of both the upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> were enrolled in the study. Data for patient age, fire arm type, transporting time from the field to the hospital (and the method), injury severity scores, MESS scores, fracture types, amputation levels, bone fixation methods and postoperative infections and complications retrieved from the two level-2 trauma center's data base. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the MESS were calculated to detect the ability in deciding amputation in the mangled limb. Results: Amputation was performed in 39 <span class="hlt">extremities</span> and limb salvage attempted in 100 <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. The mean followup time was 14.6 months (range 6–32 months). In the amputated group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> were 8.8 (range 6–11) and 9.24 (range 6–11), respectively. In the limb salvage group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> were 5.29 (range 4–7) and 5.19 (range 3–8), respectively. Sensitivity of MESS in upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> were calculated as 80% and 79.4% and positive predictive values detected as 55.55% and 83.3%, respectively. Specificity of MESS score for</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086498','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086498"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Importance</span> of Nuclear Physics to NASA's Space Missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We show that nuclear physics is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span> for accurate risk assessments for space missions. Due to paucity of experimental input radiation interaction information it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models for the interaction of radiation with matter. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center and are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=skills+AND+drive&pg=5&id=EJ602899','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=skills+AND+drive&pg=5&id=EJ602899"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirically Assessing the <span class="hlt">Importance</span> of Characteristics of Accounting Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baker, William M.; McGregor, Calvert C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Three employer groups (n=117), 47 accounting faculty, and 63 students rated the following characteristics of potential employees: master's degree, overall and accounting grade point average, personal integrity, communication skills, energy/drive/enthusiasm, and appearance. Employers and faculty considered integrity <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span>; students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.8118P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.8118P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Geohazards: Reducing the Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Marsh, Stuart; Campus, Paola</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> knowledge, particularly during the early warning phase, can reduce disasters. This suggests that a strong global monitoring system for geohazards is needed, not least to support the early detection of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hazards. Secondly, low risk awareness combined with poverty, corruption, and a lack of building codes and informed land use management creates the conditions to turn hazards into disasters throughout much of the developing world. Democratizing knowledge about <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geohazards is very <span class="hlt">important</span> in order to inform deliberations of disaster risks and community strategies that can reduce the disaster risk by increasing resilience and adaptive capacities without compromising the livelihood of communities. We use a four-order scheme to define disaster risk outcomes and associated societal processes. This framework can be implemented in the context of deliberative democracy and governance with participation of the community. The current dialog between science and society is not fully capable of supporting deliberative governance and a democratizing of knowledge. Most scientific knowledge is created independent of those who could put it to use, and a transition to co-design and co-development of knowledge involving a broad stakeholder base is necessary to address the disaster risk associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This transition may have the consequence of more responsibility and even liability for science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813933T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813933T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical influence of irrigation on climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Land irrigation is an essential practice sustaining global food production and many regional economies. During the last decades, irrigation amounts have been growing rapidly. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that land irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. However, a thorough understanding of the impact of irrigation on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climatic conditions, such as heat waves, droughts or intense precipitation, is currently still lacking. In this context, we aim to assess the historical influence of irrigation on the occurrence of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. To this end, two simulations are conducted over the period 1910-2010 with a state-of-the-art global climate model (the Community Earth System Model, CESM): a control simulation including all major anthropogenic and natural external forcings except for irrigation and a second experiment with transient irrigation enabled. The two simulations are evaluated for their ability to represent (i) hot, dry and wet <span class="hlt">extremes</span> using the HadEX2 and ERA-Interim datasets as a reference, and (ii) latent heat fluxes using LandFlux-EVAL. Assuming a linear combination of climatic responses to different forcings, the difference between both experiments approximates the influence of irrigation. We will analyse the impact of irrigation on a number of climate indices reflecting the intensity and duration of heat waves. Thereby, particular attention is given to the role of soil moisture changes in modulating climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Furthermore, the contribution of individual biogeophysical processes to the total impact of irrigation on hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is quantified by application of a surface energy balance decomposition technique to the 90th and 99th percentile surface temperature changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdG.....7...91H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdG.....7...91H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events in NW Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houssos, E. E.; Bartzokas, A.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>In this work, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in NW Greece are studied. The data used are daily precipitation totals recorded at the meteorological station of Ioannina University for the period 1970-2002. 156 days with precipitation totals above 35 mm (5% upper limit) are only considered. It is seen that, a minimum frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events appears in the period 1986-1991, which is characterized by a high positive NAO index. For each of the 156 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation days, at first, the mean sea level pressure pattern over Europe is constructed by using 273 grid point values. Using Factor Analysis, the dimensionality of the 156×273 data matrix is reduced to 156×5 (84% of the total variance) and then, Cluster Analysis is applied on the results of Factor Analysis. Thus, the 156 cases are grouped objectively to 11 clusters, revealing the main pressure patterns, which favour <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in NW Greece. Seven of the patterns are encountered in winter and autumn, while three of them cover a period from autumn to spring and one appears mainly in summer. In all of them the cause of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation event is a low pressure system centred west of Greece or a low pressure trough extended eastwards or southwards up to Greece. In some cases the depression is so strong and extended that it covers the whole Europe and the Mediterranean. In the single summer pattern, rainfall is caused by an extension of the SW Asia thermal low up to the central Mediterranean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..642K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..642K"><span id="translatedtitle">Changing monsoon intraseasonal variability and its relation with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events over India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karmakar, Nirupam; Chakraborty, Arindam; Nanjundiah, Ravi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) possesses a prominent and unique intraseasonal character manifested by active and break phases associated with certain oscillatory modes (intraseasonal oscillations, ISOs). Understanding the changing nature of these ISO modes and their relationship with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events are necessary for better prediction and essential in dealing with the climate-related risks in a warming environment. Here, using comprehensive mathematical and statistical techniques, we show that the relative strength of the dominant northward propagating low-frequency intraseasonal (20-60 days) modes have a significant decreasing trend possibly attributed to the weakening of vertical shear of zonal winds in the monsoon region. This reduction is compensated by a gain in synoptic-scale variability. Using a percentile-based threshold for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, we find a significant increasing trend of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events over India. Preferentially, these <span class="hlt">extremes</span> occur in tandem with the active phase of low-frequency ISO modes. However, we show that there exists a significant decreasing trend in the percentage of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events that occur in active phase. Consequently, significant increasing trends are present in break and transition periods counterparts. The changes of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in different phases of ISO is most prominent over central India and monsoon trough region. The observed trends are <span class="hlt">important</span> for medium- to long-range forecasts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and relevant for hydrological planning and disaster management in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51A0383B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51A0383B"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing moisture delivery mechanisms for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in large geographic regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bracken, C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Understanding dominant moisture delivery sources for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span> for characterizing their statistical behavior and behavior under specific climate regimes. Typically, for a given region, the largest <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events occur in specific seasons but events occurring in off seasons can be just as socio-economically devastating. A complete picture of how and where events originate in all seasons paves the way for statistical forecasting and simulation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. We present a data driven methodology applicable to large geographic regions that can partition heterogeneous areas into subregions and then characterize the moisture delivery mechanisms for each subregion under specific climate regimes (e.g., ENSO phases, PDO, etc.) and in each season. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> subregions are defined using a new nonparametric <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value clustering method and moisture delivery characterization is done using the HYSPLIT storm backtracking algorithm. We apply this methodology to the Western United States where the nature of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events varies widely due to complex terrain, teleconnections and climate interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810958H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810958H"><span id="translatedtitle">The non-Gaussianity and spatial asymmetry of temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relative to the jet: the role of horizontal advection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harnik, Nili; Garfinkel, Chaim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global warming is expected raise the number of warm spells and lower the number of cold spells, by simply shifting of the near-surface temperature probability distribution to warmer temperatures. However, changes in the shape of distribution strongly affect how the occurrence of temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will change. Hence, understanding the processes shaping the spatial and statistical distribution of temperature variations and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the present climate is central to understanding how temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> might vary in the future. Using meteorological reanalyses data we show that the distribution of near-surface temperature variability is non-Gaussian, and consistent with this, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm anomalies occur preferentially poleward of the location of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold anomalies. The non-Guassianity evident in reanalysis data is also found in a set of dry General Circulation Model runs in which the jet is forced at different latitudes, and the location of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is influenced by the location of the jet stream. Using a simple model of Lagrangian temperature advection, we investigate the role of synoptic dynamics in causing this non Gaussianity. The meridional shifting between cold and warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and the related non-Gaussianity are traced back to the synoptic evolution leading up to cold and warm <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We find that the meridional movement of synotpic systems, as well as nonlinear temperature advection are both of crucial <span class="hlt">importance</span> for the warm/cold asymmetry in the latitudinal distribution of the temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The possible implications for future changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will be briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gary&pg=7&id=EJ822206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gary&pg=7&id=EJ822206"><span id="translatedtitle">Excerpts from "The Lewis and Clark Journals: An Epic of <span class="hlt">Discovery</span>, <span class="hlt">the</span> Abridgment of the Definitive Nebraska Edition": The Journey across the Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moulton, Gary E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This article contains excerpts from "The Lewis and Clark Journals: An Epic of <span class="hlt">Discovery</span>, <span class="hlt">The</span> Abridgment of the Definitive Nebraska Edition," published by the University of Nebraska Press in 2003. Editor Gary E. Moulton chose a few daily entries from the journals to highlight the expedition from May 14-October 12, 1804.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457707"><span id="translatedtitle">[Comparison of phantom limb pain or phantom <span class="hlt">extremity</span> sensation of upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputations].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uğur, Fatih; Akin, Aynur; Esmaoğlu, Aliye; Doğru, Kudret; Ors, Sevgi; Aydoğan, Harun; Gülcü, Nebahat; Boyaci, Adem</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the upper and the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputations with regard to phantom pain, phantom sensation and stump pain. A questionnaire consisting of 23 questions was send to the patients who underwent upper or lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputation surgery between 1996- 2005. The patients were questioned for the presence of phantom pain and sensations and if they existed for the frequency, intensity, cause of amputation, pre-amputation pain, stump pain, usage of artificial limb. Totally 147 patients were included and the response rate was 70 %. The incidence of phantom pain in Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Group was 60 % and 65.8% in Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Group. The incidence of phantom sensations was 70.7% in Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Group and 75.6% in Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Group. There was no significant difference between two groups considering in phantom pain and phantom sensations. The phantom pain was significantly higher in patients who lost dominant hand, experienced pre amputation pain and suffered stump pain. There were no significant differences in regard to phantom pain and sensation between upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputations. However the presence of preamputation pain, stump pain and amputation of dominant hand were found as risk factors for the development of phantom pain. PMID:17457707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=idealism&pg=4&id=EJ830767','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=idealism&pg=4&id=EJ830767"><span id="translatedtitle">Educating against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span>: Towards a Critical Politicisation of Young People</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper is based on a recently published book, "Educating Against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span>" (Davies, "Educating Against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span>," 2008), which explores the potential role of schools in averting the more negative and violent forms of <span class="hlt">extremism</span> in a country. It examines the nature of <span class="hlt">extremism</span>; identity formation and radicalisation; religious belief, faith…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813861P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813861P"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Index: a novel and multi-hazard index for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro; Cucchi, Marco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this work we introduce the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Index (ECI): an objective, multi-hazard index capable of tracking changes in the frequency or magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events, thus indicating that a shift to a new climate regime is underway in a particular area. The main hazards covered by ECI are <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry, wet and heat events, with the possibility of adding region-specific risk events such as tropical cyclones for the most vulnerable areas. It is on data coming from consistent, sufficiently long, high quality historical records and is standardized across broad geographical regions, so that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events occurring under different climatic regimes in Africa can be comparable. The first step to construct such an index is to define single hazard indicators. In this first study we focused on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry/wet and heat events, using for their description respectively the well-known SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) and an index developed by us, called SHI (Standardized Heat-waves Index). The second step consists in the development of a computational strategy to combine these, and possibly other indices, so that the ECI can describe, by means of a single indicator, different types of climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. According to the methodology proposed in this paper, the ECI is defined by two statistical components: the ECI intensity, which indicates whether an event is <span class="hlt">extreme</span> or not; the angular component, which represent the contribution of each hazard to the overall intensity of the index. The ECI can thus be used to identify "<span class="hlt">extremes</span>" after defining a suitable threshold above which the events can be held as <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In this paper, after describing the methodology we used for the construction of the ECI, we present results obtained on different African regions, using NCEP Reanalysis dataset for air temperature at sigma 0.995 level and CHIRP dataset for precipitations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84...92.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84...92."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Important</span> from the Fellows Committee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Union Fellows Committee is scientifically very heterogeneous by necessity simply because of the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> wide range of scientific activities encompassed by the AGU. Since the Committee must read up to 100 or more dossiers, the following guidelines are provided to help nominators present the strongest package possible: The most eminent, outstanding, and deserving members of our community must first be identified and nominated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..530...51S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..530...51S"><span id="translatedtitle">A global analysis of the asymmetric effect of ENSO on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Xun; Renard, Benjamin; Thyer, Mark; Westra, Seth; Lang, Michel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The global and regional influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation was analyzed using a global database comprising over 7000 high quality observation sites. To better quantify possible changes in relatively rare design-relevant precipitation quantiles (e.g. the 1 in 10 year event), a Bayesian regional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value model was used, which employed the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) - a measure of ENSO - as a covariate. Regions found to be influenced by ENSO include parts of North and South America, southern and eastern Asia, South Africa, Australia and Europe. The season experiencing the greatest ENSO effect varies regionally, but in most of the ENSO-affected regions the strongest effect happens in boreal winter, during which time the 10-year precipitation for |SOI| = 20 (corresponding to either a strong El Niño or La Niña episode) can be up to 50% higher or lower than for SOI = 0 (a neutral phase). <span class="hlt">Importantly</span>, the effect of ENSO on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is asymmetric, with most parts of the world experiencing a significant effect only for a single ENSO phase. This finding has <span class="hlt">important</span> implications on the current understanding of how ENSO influences <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation, and will enable a more rigorous theoretical foundation for providing quantitative <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation intensity predictions at seasonal timescales. We anticipate that incorporating asymmetric impacts of ENSO on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation will help lead to better-informed climate-adaptive design of flood-sensitive infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712039B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712039B"><span id="translatedtitle">A new index quantifying the precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Busuioc, Aristita; Baciu, Madalina; Stoica, Cerasela</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Events of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation have a great impact on society. They are associated with flooding, erosion and landslides.Various indices have been proposed to quantify these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and they are mainly related to daily precipitation amount, which are usually available for long periods in many places over the world. The climate signal related to changes in the characteristics of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is different over various regions and it is dependent on the season and the index used to quantify the precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The climate model simulations and empirical evidence suggest that warmer climates, due to increased water vapour, lead to more intense precipitation events, even when the total annual precipitation is slightly reduced. It was suggested that there is a shift in the nature of precipitation events towards more intense and less frequent rains and increases in heavy rains are expected to occur in most places, even when the mean precipitation is not increasing. This conclusion was also proved for the Romanian territory in a recent study, showing a significant increasing trend of the rain shower frequency in the warm season over the entire country, despite no significant changes in the seasonal amount and the daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The shower events counted in that paper refer to all convective rains, including torrential ones giving high rainfall amount in very short time. The problem is to find an appropriate index to quantify such events in terms of their highest intensity in order to extract the maximum climate signal. In the present paper, a new index is proposed to quantify the maximum precipitation intensity in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation event, which could be directly related to the torrential rain intensity. This index is tested at nine Romanian stations (representing various physical-geographical conditions) and it is based on the continuous rainfall records derived from the graphical registrations (pluviograms) available at National</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510094L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510094L"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation of multivariate near shore <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wave conditions based on an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value copula for offshore boundary conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leyssen, Gert; Mercelis, Peter; De Schoesitter, Philippe; Blanckaert, Joris</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Near shore <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wave conditions, used as input for numerical wave agitation simulations and for the dimensioning of coastal defense structures, need to be determined at a harbour entrance situated at the French North Sea coast. To obtain significant wave heights, the numerical wave model SWAN has been used. A multivariate approach was used to account for the joint probabilities. Considered variables are: wind velocity and direction, water level and significant offshore wave height and wave period. In a first step a univariate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution has been determined for the main variables. By means of a technique based on the mean excess function, an appropriate member of the GPD is selected. An optimal threshold for peak over threshold selection is determined by maximum likelihood optimization. Next, the joint dependency structure for the primary random variables is modeled by an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value copula. Eventually the multivariate domain of variables was stratified in different classes, each of which representing a combination of variable quantiles with a joint probability, which are used for model simulation. The main variable is the wind velocity, as in the area of concern <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wave conditions are wind driven. The analysis is repeated for 9 different wind directions. The secondary variable is water level. In shallow waters <span class="hlt">extreme</span> waves will be directly affected by water depth. Hence the joint probability of occurrence for water level and wave height is of major <span class="hlt">importance</span> for design of coastal defense structures. Wind velocity and water levels are only dependent for some wind directions (wind induced setup). Dependent directions are detected using a Kendall and Spearman test and appeared to be those with the longest fetch. For these directions, wind velocity and water level <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions are multivariately linked through a Gumbel Copula. These distributions are stratified into classes of which the frequency of occurrence can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/petroleum/archive/skinner1.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/petroleum/archive/skinner1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Dependence on <span class="hlt">Imported</span> Oil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>U.S. dependence on <span class="hlt">imported</span> oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil <span class="hlt">imports</span> are defined as net <span class="hlt">imports</span> (total <span class="hlt">imports</span> minus exports) or as total <span class="hlt">imports</span>. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on <span class="hlt">imports</span> in terms of both measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1255690','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1255690"><span id="translatedtitle">Reducing Waste in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Scale Systems through Introspective Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bautista-Gomez, Leonardo; Gainaru, Ana; Perarnau, Swann; Engelmann, Christian; Cappello, Franck; Snir, Marc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Resilience is an <span class="hlt">important</span> challenge for <span class="hlt">extreme</span>- scale supercomputers. Today, failures in supercomputers are assumed to be uniformly distributed in time. However, recent studies show that failures in high-performance computing systems are partially correlated in time, generating periods of higher failure density. Our study of the failure logs of multiple supercomputers show that periods of higher failure density occur with up to three times more than the average. We design a monitoring system that listens to hardware events and forwards <span class="hlt">important</span> events to the runtime to detect those regime changes. We implement a runtime capable of receiving notifications and adapt dynamically. In addition, we build an analytical model to predict the gains that such dynamic approach could achieve. We demonstrate that in some systems, our approach can reduce the wasted time by over 30%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol3-sec478-112.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol3-sec478-112.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 478.112 - <span class="hlt">Importation</span> by a licensed <span class="hlt">importer</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Importation</span> § 478.112 <span class="hlt">Importation</span> by a licensed <span class="hlt">importer</span>. (a) No firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition shall... the Director has authorized the <span class="hlt">importation</span> of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition. (b)(1) An application for a permit, ATF Form 6—Part I, to <span class="hlt">import</span> or bring a firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9382P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9382P"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of spatial variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall at radar subpixel scale using IDF curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peleg, Nadav; Marra, Francesco; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> rainfall is quantified in engineering practice using Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves (IDFs) that are traditionally derived from rain-gauges and, more recently, also from weather radars. These instruments measure rainfall at different spatial scales: rain-gauge samples rainfall at the point scale while weather radar averages precipitation over a relatively large area, generally around 1 km2. As such, a radar derived IDF curve is representative of the mean areal rainfall over a given radar pixel and neglects the within-pixel rainfall variability. In this study, we quantify subpixel variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall by using a novel space-time rainfall generator (STREAP model) that downscales in space the rainfall within a given radar pixel. The study was conducted using a long radar data record (23 years) and a very dense rain-gauge network in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Radar-IDF curves, together with an ensemble of point-based IDF curves representing the radar subpixel <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall variability, were developed fitting GEV distributions to annual rainfall maxima. It was found that the mean areal <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall derived from the radar underestimate most of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values computed for point locations within the radar pixel. The subpixel variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall was found to increase with longer return periods and shorter durations. For the longer return periods, a considerable enhancement of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall variability was found when stochastic (natural) climate variability was taken into account. Bounding the range of the subpixel <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall derived from radar-IDF can be of major <span class="hlt">importance</span> for applications that require very local estimates of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9367S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9367S"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Temperature Events and its impact on Wildlife Plant Phenology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siegmund, Jonatan; Donner, Reik</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Besides gradual changes of the mean behaviour of climate variables, global climate change results in higher frequencies and intensities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events. Especially heat waves struck Central Europe during the last decade and are predicted to do so even more frequently during the 21st century. The impact of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on the ecologically <span class="hlt">important</span> flowering dates of wildlife plant species is not yet known precisely, although the temporal displacement or even absolute failure of flowering may lead to the disturbance of sensitive ecological equlibria. In this study, we systematically investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm monthly mean temperature on various wildlife plant flowering dates dur- ing the time period of 1951-2014 for 52 German regions using the Plant Phenology dataset of the German Weather Service. The impact of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is quantified using the coincidence analysis, a method to detect non-random simultaneous appearences of events in two time series. We calculate cumulative coincidence rates between both time series for time- lags between 0 and 16 months in both directions. Our results underline the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of the temperature of the flowering month regarding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and indicate long-term-dependencies between <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high temperatures and very early plant flowering dates with a time-lag of almost one year. On the other hand, the disparity between the re- sults of temperature-phenology and phenology-temperature coincidence rates indicate, that <span class="hlt">extremely</span> warm temperatures only cause very early flowering dates under certain conditions, leading to the notion of conditional coincidence. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis, that more and stronger <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature events have the potential to sus- tainably disturb mid latitude ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6055F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6055F"><span id="translatedtitle">Normal, rare or <span class="hlt">extreme</span>? A recurrence-based technique for the detection of genuine <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faranda, Davide; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Yiou, Pascal</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We analyze several outputs of model simulations and instrumental records of temperatures at different locations by using new techniques originally developed for the analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values of dynamical systems. We show that they have the same recurrence time statistics as a chaotic dynamical system perturbed with dynamical noise and by instrument errors. The technique provides a criterion to discriminate whether the recurrence of a certain temperature belongs to the normal variability or can be considered as a genuine <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event with respect to a specific timescale fixed as parameter. The method gives a self-consistent estimation of the convergence of the statistics of recurrences toward the theoretical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value laws. We focus on Millennium simulations using data from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) and a couple of IPSL simulations with differents climate forcings in order to assess how models simulate the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in the recent past.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4469V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4469V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic forecasting of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events based on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van De Vyver, Hans; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in weather and climate such as high wind gusts, heavy precipitation or <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are commonly associated with high impacts on both environment and society. Forecasting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events is difficult, and very high-resolution models are needed to describe explicitly <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather phenomena. A prediction system for such events should therefore preferably be probabilistic in nature. Probabilistic forecasts and state estimations are nowadays common in the numerical weather prediction community. In this work, we develop a new probabilistic framework based on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory that aims to provide early warnings up to several days in advance. We consider the combined events when an observation variable Y (for instance wind speed) exceeds a high threshold y and its corresponding deterministic forecasts X also exceeds a high forecast threshold y. More specifically two problems are addressed:} We consider pairs (X,Y) of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events where X represents a deterministic forecast, and Y the observation variable (for instance wind speed). More specifically two problems are addressed: Given a high forecast X=x_0, what is the probability that Y>y? In other words: provide inference on the conditional probability: [ Pr{Y>y|X=x_0}. ] Given a probabilistic model for Problem 1, what is the impact on the verification analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. These problems can be solved with bivariate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (Coles, 2001), and the verification analysis in (Ferro, 2007). We apply the Ramos and Ledford (2009) parametric model for bivariate tail estimation of the pair (X,Y). The model accommodates different types of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dependence and asymmetry within a parsimonious representation. Results are presented using the ensemble reforecast system of the European Centre of Weather Forecasts (Hagedorn, 2008). Coles, S. (2001) An Introduction to Statistical modelling of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Values. Springer-Verlag.Ferro, C.A.T. (2007) A probability model for verifying deterministic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3030870','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3030870"><span id="translatedtitle">Immune defence under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ambient temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seppälä, Otto; Jokela, Jukka</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Owing to global climate change, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather conditions are predicted to become more frequent, which is suggested to have an even greater impact on ecological interactions than the gradual increase in average temperatures. Here, we examined whether exposure to high ambient temperature affects immune function of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). We quantified the levels of several immune traits from snails maintained in a non-stressful temperature (15°C) and in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature (30°C) that occurs in small ponds during hot summers. We found that snails exposed to high temperature had weaker immune defence, which potentially predisposes them to infections. However, while phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of snail haemolymph were reduced at high temperature, haemocyte concentration was not affected. This suggests that the effect of high temperature on snail susceptibility to infections may vary across different pathogens because different components of invertebrate immune defence have different roles in resistance. PMID:20610417</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084095','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084095"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of molecules in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rotational states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yuan, Liwei; Teitelbaum, Samuel W.; Robinson, Allison; Mullin, Amy S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We have constructed an optical centrifuge with a pulse energy that is more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than previously reported instruments. This high pulse energy enables us to create large enough number densities of molecules in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rotational states to perform high-resolution state-resolved transient IR absorption measurements. Here we report the first studies of energy transfer dynamics involving molecules in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rotational states. In these studies, the optical centrifuge drives CO2 molecules into states with J ∼ 220 and we use transient IR probing to monitor the subsequent rotational, translational, and vibrational energy flow dynamics. The results reported here provide the first molecular insights into the relaxation of molecules with rotational energy that is comparable to that of a chemical bond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PASP..121..866D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PASP..121..866D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Faint Flux Imaging with an EMCCD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Lessard, Simon; Fortin, Charles-Anthony; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>An EMCCD camera, designed from the ground up for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> faint flux imaging, is presented. CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons, has been integrated with a CCD97 EMCCD from e2v technologies into a scientific camera at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Expérimentale (LAE), Université de Montréal. This new camera achieves subelectron readout noise and very low clock-induced charge (CIC) levels, which are mandatory for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> faint flux imaging. It has been characterized in laboratory and used on the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic 1.6 m telescope. The performance of the camera is discussed and experimental data with the first scientific data are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9654591','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9654591"><span id="translatedtitle">Disorders of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Azouz, E M; Oudjhane, K</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>This article presents a brief overview of the indications of MR imaging in a variety of disorders of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> of the pediatric patient. This covers congenital anomalies: Sprengel shoulder, Poland sequence, arthrogryposis; posttraumatic lesions of cartilage, bone, tendon, muscle and nerve including the brachial plexus injury; inflammatory arthritis and synovitis; bone and joint infection; osteochondritis dissecans, bone necrosis and infarcts in sickle cell anemia and juvenile Gaucher disease, as well as tumors. In this last category, the authors briefly describe the appearances of cysts and tumors of bones and soft tissues of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span>. Indications for the intravenous administration of Gadolinium are given throughout the article with emphasis on the synovial enhancement seen in active arthritis and synovitis. PMID:9654591</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013510','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013510"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> low frequency acoustic measurement system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present invention is an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low frequency (ELF) microphone and acoustic measurement system capable of infrasound detection in a portable and easily deployable form factor. In one embodiment of the invention, an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low frequency electret microphone comprises a membrane, a backplate, and a backchamber. The backchamber is sealed to allow substantially no air exchange between the backchamber and outside the microphone. Compliance of the membrane may be less than ambient air compliance. The backplate may define a plurality of holes and a slot may be defined between an outer diameter of the backplate and an inner wall of the microphone. The locations and sizes of the holes, the size of the slot, and the volume of the backchamber may be selected such that membrane motion is substantially critically damped.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4219754','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4219754"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictability of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events in Social Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miotto, José M.; Altmann, Eduardo G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It is part of our daily social-media experience that seemingly ordinary items (videos, news, publications, etc.) unexpectedly gain an enormous amount of attention. Here we investigate how unexpected these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are. We propose a method that, given some information on the items, quantifies the predictability of events, i.e., the potential of identifying in advance the most successful items. Applying this method to different data, ranging from views in YouTube videos to posts in Usenet discussion groups, we invariantly find that the predictability increases for the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This indicates that, despite the inherently stochastic collective dynamics of users, efficient prediction is possible for the most successful items. PMID:25369138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25369138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25369138"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in social media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miotto, José M; Altmann, Eduardo G</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It is part of our daily social-media experience that seemingly ordinary items (videos, news, publications, etc.) unexpectedly gain an enormous amount of attention. Here we investigate how unexpected these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are. We propose a method that, given some information on the items, quantifies the predictability of events, i.e., the potential of identifying in advance the most successful items. Applying this method to different data, ranging from views in YouTube videos to posts in Usenet discussion groups, we invariantly find that the predictability increases for the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This indicates that, despite the inherently stochastic collective dynamics of users, efficient prediction is possible for the most successful items. PMID:25369138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A21A0828F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A21A0828F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value wind analysis in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francis-Chythlook, O.; Atkinson, D. E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Our study focuses on estimating return frequencies for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> occurrences of on-shore wind events for the coastal and marine regions surrounding the towns of Barrow, Homer, and Nome in Alaska. Strong winds drive wind setup surges and wave action that inundate and damage coastal towns and infrastructure. This is of particular concern in Alaska, where very few coastal villages are connected by land transportation links. Six- hourly wind data from both the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis as well as the North America Regional Reanalysis are used. Gumbel, or <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value, distribution curves are indicated in the literature as being most appropriate for this task and are here fit to wind data without thresholding. Results to date will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.9701F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.9701F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Isolated Galaxies in the Nearby Universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanelli, Michael N.; Marcum, P. M.; Fuse, C.; Aars, C.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Highly isolated systems provide a framwork for exploring the role of interactions within galaxy evolution. We use the spectroscopic component of the Sloan Sky Survey to select <span class="hlt">extremely</span> isolated galaxies in the nearby universe. Redshifts derived from the Sloan spectra permit a three-dimensional assessment of the local environment surrounding candidate isolated systems. The lack of redshifts has strongly limited prior searches for isolated systems. We have constructed a searchable database for the 600K objects contained in the Sloan Survey.. Isolated systems are chosen utilizing a range of criteria, including projected physical separations, differential velocities, and luminosity limits for potential dwarf companions. We describe the morphological, photometric and star formation properties of the most isolated systems found within the SDSS footprint. Highly isolated systems are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> rare, most are blue, and exhibit ongoing star formation. One object appears to be a merging compact group. We acknowledge support from NASA's Astrophysical Data Program, grant #NNG05C53G.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18e2001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18e2001P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> fluctuations of active Brownian motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pietzonka, Patrick; Kleinbeck, Kevin; Seifert, Udo</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In active Brownian motion, an internal propulsion mechanism interacts with translational and rotational thermal noise and other internal fluctuations to produce directed motion. We derive the distribution of its <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fluctuations and identify its universal properties using large deviation theory. The limits of slow and fast internal dynamics give rise to a kink-like and parabolic behavior of the corresponding rate functions, respectively. For dipolar Janus particles in two- and three-dimensions interacting with a field, we predict a novel symmetry akin to, but different from, the one related to entropy production. Measurements of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fluctuations could thus be used to infer properties of the underlying, often hidden, network of states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhyA..316..615G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhyA..316..615G"><span id="translatedtitle">Football goal distributions and <span class="hlt">extremal</span> statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenhough, J.; Birch, P. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>We analyse the distributions of the number of goals scored by home teams, away teams, and the total scored in the match, in domestic football games from 169 countries between 1999 and 2001. The probability density functions (PDFs) of goals scored are too heavy-tailed to be fitted over their entire ranges by Poisson or negative binomial distributions which would be expected for uncorrelated processes. Log-normal distributions cannot include zero scores and here we find that the PDFs are consistent with those arising from <span class="hlt">extremal</span> statistics. In addition, we show that it is sufficient to model English top division and FA Cup matches in the seasons of 1970/71-2000/01 on Poisson or negative binomial distributions, as reported in analyses of earlier seasons, and that these are not consistent with <span class="hlt">extremal</span> statistics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610285L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610285L"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal variability in Floods and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lall, Upmanu; Cioffi, Francesco; Devineni, Naresh; Lu, Mengqian</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Decadal variability in climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> associated with floods is of particular interest for infrastructure development and for insurance programs. From an analysis of US data we note that changes in insurance rates and in the construction of flood control infrastructure emerge soon after a period where there is a high incidence of regional flooding. This leads to the question of whether there is clustering in the incidence of anomalous flooding (or its absence) at decadal scales. The direct examination of this question from streamflow data is often clouded by the modification of flows by the construction of dams and other infrastructure to control floods, especially over a large river basin. Consequently, we explore the answer to this question through the analysis of both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall and flood records. Spectral and time domain methods are used to identify the nature of decadal variability and its potential links to large scale climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21607939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21607939"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> high energy neutrinos from cosmic strings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berezinsky, Veniamin; Sabancilar, Eray; Vilenkin, Alexander</p> <p>2011-10-15</p> <p>Superstring theory and other supersymmetric theories predict the existence of relatively light, weakly interacting scalar particles, called moduli, with a universal form of coupling to matter. Such particles can be emitted from cusps of cosmic strings, where <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large Lorentz factors are achieved momentarily. Highly boosted modulus bursts emanating from cusps subsequently decay into gluons; they generate parton cascades which in turn produce large numbers of pions and then neutrinos. Because of very large Lorentz factors, <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high energy neutrinos, up to the Planck scale and above, are produced. For some model parameters, the predicted flux of neutrinos with energies > or approx. 10{sup 21} eV is observable by JEM-EUSO and by the future large radio detectors LOFAR and SKA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890017423','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890017423"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravitational radiation from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr black hole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Misao; Nakamura, Takashi</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Gravitational radiation induced by a test particle falling into an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr black hole was investigated analytically. Assuming the radiation is dominated by the infinite sequence of quasi-normal modes which has the limiting frequency m/(2M), where m is an azimuthal eigenvalue and M is the mass of the black hole, it was found that the radiated energy diverges logarithmically in time. Then the back reaction to the black hole was evaluated by appealing to the energy and angular momentum conservation laws. It was found that the radiation has a tendency to increase the ratio of the angular momentum to mass of the black hole, which is completely different from non-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> case, while the contribution of the test particle is to decrease it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27605694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27605694"><span id="translatedtitle">Bone Lengthening in the Pediatric Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farr, Sebastian; Mindler, Gabriel; Ganger, Rudolf; Girsch, Werner</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>➤Bone lengthening has been used successfully for several congenital and acquired conditions in the pediatric clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, and phalanges.➤Common indications for bone lengthening include achondroplasia, radial longitudinal deficiency, multiple hereditary exostosis, brachymetacarpia, symbrachydactyly, and posttraumatic and postinfectious growth arrest.➤Most authors prefer distraction rates of <1 mm/day for each bone in the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> except the humerus, which can safely be lengthened by 1 mm/day.➤Most authors define success by the amount of radiographic bone lengthening, joint motion after lengthening, and subjective patient satisfaction rather than validated patient-related outcome measures.➤Bone lengthening of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> is associated with a high complication rate, with complications including pin-track infections, fixation device failure, nerve lesions, nonunion, fracture of regenerate bone, and joint dislocations. PMID:27605694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26257052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26257052"><span id="translatedtitle">Lower-<span class="hlt">extremity</span> ulcers: diagnosis and management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kirsner, R S; Vivas, A C</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Chronic wounds of the lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> are occurring with increasing prevalence. They affect millions of individuals annually, representing both a significant health risk and a large economic burden. Chronic wounds are associated with increased mortality and substantial morbidity due to infection, pain, limitation of daily activities, and psychosocial consequences. To manage these wounds effectively, clinicians must be able to diagnose and manage their aetiology. Diagnosis starts with determining whether the wound is one of the four most common chronic wounds: venous leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers and arterial ulcers. Moreover, despite many recent advances in wound care, the challenge of managing chronic wounds is complicated by the lack of consistently accepted diagnostic methods and wound-care standards. We present a comprehensive yet condensed approach to managing lower-<span class="hlt">extremity</span> ulcers, from diagnosis to basic management. PMID:26257052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27500244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27500244"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservative Pancreas Graft Preservation at the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laurence, Jerome Martin; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Selzner, Markus; Norgate, Andrea; Kumar, Deepali; McGilvary, Ian D; Preig, Paul D; Schiff, Jeffrey; Cattral, Mark S</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Because of the value some patients place in remaining insulin-independent after pancreas transplantation, they may be reluctant to undergo graft pancreatectomy, even in the face of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> complications, such as graft thrombosis and duodenal segment leak. Partly, for this reason, a variety of complex salvage techniques have been described to save the graft in such circumstances. We report a case of a series of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> complications related to a leak from the duodenal segment after a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant. These included infected thrombosis of the inferior vena cava associated with a graft venous thrombosis and a retroperitoneal fistula. The patient retained graft function with insulin independence and repeatedly declined graft pancreatectomy against the advice of the transplant team. Conservative treatment with percutaneous drainage, antibiotics, and anticoagulation was eventually successful. This outcome is unique in our experience and may be instructive to teams caring for pancreas transplant recipients. PMID:27500244</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1012765R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1012765R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in total ozone over Arosa - Part 1: Application of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Peter, T.; Ribatet, M.; Davison, A. C.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In this study ideas from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We show that statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value methods are appropriate to identify ozone <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland) total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) provides an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus providing a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima), and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds). Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds provides deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO) and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss), and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> provides more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1010021R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1010021R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in total ozone over Arosa - Part 1: Application of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Peter, T.; Ribatet, M.; Davison, A. C.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In this study ideas from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We show that statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value methods are appropriate to identify ozone <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland) total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) provides an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus providing a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima), and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds). Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds provides deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO) and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss), and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> provides more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13C2631C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13C2631C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Earthquake Risk Estimation by Hybrid Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Ashworth, M.; Garcia, S.; Emerson, D.; Perea, N.; Salazar, A.; Moulinec, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The estimation of the hazard and the economical consequences i.e. the risk associated to the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnitude earthquakes in the neighborhood of urban or lifeline infrastructure, such as the 11 March 2011 Mw 9, Tohoku, Japan, represents a complex challenge as it involves the propagation of seismic waves in large volumes of the earth crust, from unusually large seismic source ruptures up to the infrastructure location. The large number of casualties and huge economic losses observed for those earthquakes, some of which have a frequency of occurrence of hundreds or thousands of years, calls for the development of new paradigms and methodologies in order to generate better estimates, both of the seismic hazard, as well as of its consequences, and if possible, to estimate the probability distributions of their ground intensities and of their economical impacts (direct and indirect losses), this in order to implement technological and economical policies to mitigate and reduce, as much as possible, the mentioned consequences. Herewith, we propose a hybrid modeling which uses 3D seismic wave propagation (3DWP) and neural network (NN) modeling in order to estimate the seismic risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> earthquakes. The 3DWP modeling is achieved by using a 3D finite difference code run in the ~100 thousands cores Blue Gene Q supercomputer of the STFC Daresbury Laboratory of UK, combined with empirical Green function (EGF) techniques and NN algorithms. In particular the 3DWP is used to generate broadband samples of the 3D wave propagation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> earthquakes (plausible) scenarios corresponding to synthetic seismic sources and to enlarge those samples by using feed-forward NN. We present the results of the validation of the proposed hybrid modeling for Mw 8 subduction events, and show examples of its application for the estimation of the hazard and the economical consequences, for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Mw 8.5 subduction earthquake scenarios with seismic sources in the Mexican</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000812"><span id="translatedtitle">Glenn <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments Rig (GEER) Independent Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smiles, Michael D.; George, Mark A.; Ton, Mimi C.; Le, Son K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Chief of the Space Science Project Office at Glenn Research Center (GRC) requested support from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to satisfy a request from the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Associate Administrator and the Planetary Science Division Chief to obtain an independent review of the Glenn <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments Rig (GEER) and the operational controls in place for mitigating any hazard associated with its operation. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513306T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513306T"><span id="translatedtitle">A Bayesian Approach to Multifractal <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Lovejoy, Shaun</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Drivers such as climate change and rapid urbanisation will result in increasing flood problems in urban environments through this century. Problems encountered in existing flood defence strategies are often related to the data non-stationary, long range dependencies and the clustering of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> often resulting in fat tailed (i.e., a power-law tail) probability distributions. We discuss how to better predict the floods by using a physically based approach established on systems that respect a scale symmetry over a wide range of space-time scales to determine the relationship between flood magnitude and return period for a wide range of aggregation periods. The classical quantile distributions unfortunately rely on two hypotheses that are questionable: stationarity and independency of the components of the time series. We pointed out that beyond the classical sampling of the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and its limitations, there is the possibility to eliminate long-range dependency by uncovering a white-noise process whose fractional integration generates the observed long-range dependent process. The results were obtained during the CEATI Project "Multifractals and physically based estimates of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> floods". The ambition of this project was to investigate very large data sets of reasonable quality (e.g., daily stream flow data recorded for at least 20 years for several thousands of gages distributed all over Canada and the USA). The multifractal parameters such as the mean intermittency parameter and the multifractality index were estimated on 8332 time series. The results confirm the dependence of multifractal parameter estimates on the length of available data. Then developing a metric for parameter estimation error became a principal step in uncertainty evaluation with respect to the multifractal estimates. A technique for estimating confidence intervals with the help of a Bayesian approach was developed. A detailed comparison of multifractal quantile plots and paleoflood data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH13A1369G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH13A1369G"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Likelihood of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Seismogenic Tsunamis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geist, E. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Because of high levels of destruction to coastal communities and critical facilities from recent tsunamis, estimating the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> seismogenic tsunamis has gained increased attention. Seismogenic tsunami generating capacity is directly related to the scalar seismic moment of the earthquake. As such, earthquake size distributions and recurrence can inform the likelihood of tsunami occurrence. The probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> tsunamis is dependent on how the right-hand tail of the earthquake size distribution is specified. As evidenced by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, it is likely that there is insufficient historical information to estimate the maximum earthquake magnitude (Mmax) for any specific subduction zone. Mmax may in fact not be a useful concept for subduction zones of significant length. Earthquake size distributions with a soft corner moment appear more consistent with global observations. Estimating the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> local tsunami runup is complicated by the fact that there is significant uncertainty in the scaling relationship between seismic moment and maximum local tsunami runup. This uncertainty arises from variations in source parameters specific to tsunami generation and the near-shore hydrodynamic response. The primary source effect is how slip is distributed along the fault relative to the overlying water depth. For high slip beneath deep water, shoaling amplification of the tsunami increases substantially according to Green's Law, compared to an equivalent amount of slip beneath shallow water. Both stochastic slip models and dynamic rupture models of tsunamigenic earthquakes are explored in a probabilistic context. The nearshore hydrodynamic response includes attenuating mechanisms, such as wave breaking, and amplifying mechanisms, such as constructive interference of trapped and non-trapped modes. Probabilistic estimates of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> tsunamis are therefore site specific, as indicated by significant variations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27542648','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27542648"><span id="translatedtitle">Local Recurrence of <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Soft Tissue Sarcoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guerrero, Whitney M; Deneve, Jeremiah L</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The management of recurrent soft tissue sarcoma is a challenging problem for clinicians and has a significant physical, mental, emotional, and oncologic impact for the patient. Despite excellent limb-preservation therapies, approximately one-quarter of patients may eventually develop recurrence of disease. How to most appropriately manage these patients is a matter of debate. Several treatment options exist, including surgical resection, irradiation, systemic chemotherapy, amputation, and regional therapies. This article highlights the management of recurrent <span class="hlt">extremity</span> soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:27542648</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930072390&hterms=History+science&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DHistory%2Bscience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930072390&hterms=History+science&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DHistory%2Bscience"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer Science Operation Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wong, G. S.; Kronberg, F. A.; Meriwether, H. D.; Wong, L. S.; Grassi, C. L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The EUVE Science Operations Center (ESOC) is a satellite payload operations center for the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer project, located on the Berkeley campus of the University of California. The ESOC has the primary responsibility for commanding the EUVE telescopes and monitoring their telemetry. The ESOC is one of a very few university-based satellite operations facilities operating with NASA. This article describes the history, operation, and advantages of the ESOC as an on-campus operations center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16046325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16046325"><span id="translatedtitle">Soccer injury in the lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, P; Hong, Y</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Information about soccer injuries is required to develop prevention and rehabilitation programmes. Most soccer injuries occur in the lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. This type of injury is reviewed here. Definitions of injury, injury rate, injury percentage, mechanism of injury, anatomical region of injury, type of injury, and severity of injury are summarised. In each section, a description and summary of the data are provided. Finally, the limitations of the studies and suggestions to improve the investigation of soccer injuries are provided. PMID:16046325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1018594','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1018594"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Modulation Properties of Aromatic Fluorine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burnett, Michael N; Gakh, Andrei A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Thorough examination of the current literature as well as publicly available databases allowed us to qualify aromatic fluorine as a unique modulator of biological properties of organic compounds. In some rare cases, introduction of fluorine increased biological activity 100,000 times and even higher. We have also identified several examples where aromatic fluorine substantially reduced biological activity. Selected individual cases of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> modulation are presented and discussed in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5850354','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5850354"><span id="translatedtitle">Sets of states and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> points</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, K.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The natural embedding of orthoposets and quantum logics, equipped with certain sets of states, into their corresponding order-unit normed vector space is investigated. Necessary (resp, sufficient) conditions are stated for the case that the image of the embedding and the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> points of the order interval, bounded by 0 and the order unit, coincide. Modifications of the state space are discussed from this point of view and the special case of a Boolean algebra is characterized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24267207','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24267207"><span id="translatedtitle">Perioperative lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> peripheral nerve traction injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plastaras, Christopher T; Chhatre, Akhil; Kotcharian, Ashot S</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Peripheral nerve traction injuries may occur after surgical care and can involve any of the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> large peripheral nerves. In this review, the authors discuss injuries after knee or hip surgical intervention. The diagnosis, including electrodiagnostic studies, is time sensitive and also relies on a detailed history and physical examination. Successful prevention and treatment involve familiarity with risk and predisposing factors as well as prophylactic measures. PMID:24267207</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811971I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811971I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Relating Regional Arctic Sea Ice and climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Patrick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The potential increase of temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under climate change is a major threat to society, as temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> have a deep impact on environment, hydrology, agriculture, society and economy. Hence, the analysis of the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, including their relationships with the large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea ice concentration, is of major <span class="hlt">importance</span>. At the same time, the decline in Arctic sea ice cover during the last 30 years has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts at regional as well as planetary scale. As such, this study aims to investigate the relation between the autumn regional sea ice concentration variability and cold winters in Europe, as identified by the numbers of cold nights (TN10p), cold days (TX10p), ice days (ID) and consecutive frost days (CFD). We analyze the relationship between Arctic sea ice variation in autumn (September-October-November) averaged over eight different Arctic regions (Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi/Bering Seas, Central Arctic, Greenland Sea, Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay, Laptev/East Siberian Seas and Northern Hemisphere) and variations in atmospheric circulation and climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices in the following winter season over Europe using composite map analysis. Based on the composite map analysis it is shown that the response of the winter <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures over Europe is highly correlated/connected to changes in Arctic sea ice variability. However, this signal is not symmetrical for the case of high and low sea ice years. Moreover, the response of temperatures <span class="hlt">extreme</span> over Europe to sea ice variability over the different Arctic regions differs substantially. The regions which have the strongest impact on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winter temperature over Europe are: Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Central Arctic and the Northern Hemisphere. For the years of high sea ice concentration in the Barents/Kara Seas there is a reduction in the number</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031810&hterms=converters+electronic+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dconverters%2Belectronic%2Bpower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031810&hterms=converters+electronic+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dconverters%2Belectronic%2Bpower"><span id="translatedtitle">Data Converters Performance at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rejeshuni, Rarnesham; Kumar, Nikil; Mao, James; Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Stoica, Adrian</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Space missions often require radiation and <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-temperature hardened electronics to survive the harsh environments beyond earth's atmosphere. Traditional approaches to preserve electronics incorporate shielding, insulation and redundancy at the expense of power and weight. However, a novel way of bypassing these problems is the concept of evolutionary hardware. A reconfgurable device, consisting of several switches interconnected with analog/digital parts, is controlled by an evolutionary processor (EP). When the EP detects degradation in the circuit it sends signals to reconfgure the switches, thus forming a new circuit with the desired output. This concept has been developed since the mid-90s, but one problem remains - the EP cannot degrade substantially. For this reason, extensive testing at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures (-180' to 120(deg)C) has been done on devices found on FPGA boards (taking the role of the EP) such as the Analog to Digital and the Digital to Analog Converter. Analysis of the results has shown that FPGA boards implementing EP with some compensation may be a practical solution to evolving circuits. This paper describes results on the tests of data converters at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH31D..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH31D..08B"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing Effective Communications about <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Weather Risks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruine de Bruin, W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Members of the general public often face complex decisions about the risks that they face, including those associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather and climate change adaptation. Scientific experts may be asked to develop communications with the goal of improving people's understanding of weather and climate risks, and informing people's decisions about how to protect against these risks. Unfortunately, scientific experts' communication efforts may fail if they lack information about what people need or want to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people prefer use to describe relevant concepts. This presentation provides general principles for developing effective risk communication materials that aim for widespread dissemination, such as brochures and websites. After a brief review of the social science evidence on how to design effective risk communication materials, examples will focus on communications about <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events and climate change. Specifically, data will be presented from ongoing projects on flood risk perception, public preparedness for heat waves, and public perceptions of climate change. The presentation will end with specific recommendations about how to improve recipients' understanding about risks and inform decisions. These recommendations should be useful to scientific experts who aim to communicate about <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather, climate change, or other risks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21413416','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21413416"><span id="translatedtitle">Chiral gravity, log gravity, and <span class="hlt">extremal</span> CFT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic <span class="hlt">extremal</span> CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic <span class="hlt">extremal</span> CFT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11624123S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11624123S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value indicators in highly resolved climate change simulations for the Jordan River area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samuels, R.; Smiatek, G.; Krichak, S.; Kunstmann, H.; Alpert, P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Understanding changing trends and frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall and temperature events is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span> for optimal planning in many sectors, including agriculture, water resource management, health, and even economics. For people living in the Jordan River region of the Middle East such changes can have immediate devastating impacts as water resources are already scarce and overexploited and summer temperatures in the desert regions can reach 45°C or higher. Understanding shifts in frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events can provide crucial information for planning and adaptation. In this paper we present results from regional climate model simulations with RegCM3 and MM5 centered on the eastern Mediterranean region. Our analysis focuses on changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature and rainfall events. We show that maximum daily summer temperature is expected to increase by between 2.5°C and 3°C, with an increase in warm spell length. Precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are expected to increase with longer dry spells, shorter wet spells, and increases in heavy rainfall. Model agreement for the control period 1961-1990 is higher in the southern region than in the north, perhaps because of the complex topography, suggesting that even small differences in spatial scale play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role. In addition, we notice that the chosen global model plays an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in determining future temperature trends, while the choice of regional climate model is critical for understanding how precipitation is expected to evolve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9560A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9560A"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic models for assessment of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures and relative humidity in Lithuania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alzbutas, Robertas; Šeputytė, Ilona</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> temperatures are fairly common natural phenomenon in Lithuania. They have mainly negative effects both on the environment and humans. Thus there are <span class="hlt">important</span> to perform probabilistic and statistical analyzes of possibly <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature values and their time-dependant changes. This is especially <span class="hlt">important</span> in areas where technical objects (sensitive to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures) are foreseen to be constructed. In order to estimate the frequencies and consequences of possible <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures, the probabilistic analysis of the event occurrence and its uncertainty has been performed: statistical data have been collected and analyzed. The probabilistic analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures in Lithuanian territory is based on historical data taken from Lithuanian Hydrometeorology Service, Dūkštas Meteorological Station, Lithuanian Energy Institute and Ignalina NNP Environmental Protection Department of Environmental Monitoring Service. The main objective of performed work was the probabilistic assessment of occurrence and impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature and relative humidity occurring in whole Lithuania and specifically in Dūkštas region where Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is closed for decommissioning. In addition, the other purpose of this work was to analyze the changes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. The probabilistic analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures increase in Lithuanian territory was based on more than 50 years historical data. The probabilistic assessment was focused on the application and comparison of Gumbel, Weibull and Generalized Value (GEV) distributions, enabling to select a distribution, which has the best fit for data of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. In order to assess the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures different probabilistic models were applied to evaluate the probability of exeedance of different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. According to the statistics and the relationship between return period and probabilities of temperatures the return period for 30</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712270T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712270T"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfalls observed globally with 17 years of the Tropical Precipitation Measurement Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takayabu, Yukari; Hamada, Atsushi; Mori, Yuki; Murayama, Yuki; Liu, Chuntao; Zipser, Edward</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> heavy precipitation from <span class="hlt">extremely</span> tall convection is found to be quite universal, irrespective of regions. Rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions both indicate the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of warm-rain processes in producing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall rates. Thus it is demonstrated that, even in regions where severe convective storms are representative <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events, the heaviest rainfall events are mostly associated with less intense convection. Third, the size effect of rainfall events on the precipitation intensity is investigated. Comparisons of normalized PDFs of foot-print size rainfall intensity for different sizes of rainfall events show that footprint-scale <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall becomes stronger as the rainfall events get larger. At the same time, stratiform ratio in area as well as in rainfall amount increases with the size, confirming larger sized features are more organized systems. After all, it is statistically shown that organization of precipitation not only brings about an increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> volumetric rainfall but also an increase in probability of the satellite footprint scale <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2762616','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2762616"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Extended neoteny and late stage allometric growth increase morphological disparity between growth stages in at least some dinosaurs. Coupled with relatively low dinosaur density in the Upper Cretaceous of North America, ontogenetic transformational representatives are often difficult to distinguish. For example, many hadrosaurids previously reported to represent relatively small lambeosaurine species were demonstrated to be juveniles of the larger taxa. Marginocephalians (pachycephalosaurids + ceratopsids) undergo comparable and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cranial morphological change during ontogeny. Methodology/Principal Findings Cranial histology, morphology and computer tomography reveal patterns of internal skull development that show the purported diagnostic characters for the pachycephalosaurids Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer are ontogenetically derived features. Coronal histological sections of the frontoparietal dome of an adult Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis reveal a dense structure composed of metaplastic bone with a variety of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> fibrous and acellular tissue. Coronal histological sections and computer tomography of a skull and frontoparietal dome of Stygimoloch spinifer reveal an open intrafrontal suture indicative of a subadult stage of development. These dinosaurs employed metaplasia to rapidly grow and change the size and shape of their horns, cranial ornaments and frontoparietal domes, resulting in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cranial alterations during late stages of growth. We propose that Dracorex hogwartsia, Stygimoloch spinifer and Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis are the same taxon and represent an ontogenetic series united by shared morphology and increasing skull length. Conclusions/Significance Dracorex hogwartsia (juvenile) and Stygimoloch spinifer (subadult) are reinterpreted as younger growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis (adult). This synonymy reduces the number of pachycephalosaurid taxa from the Upper Cretaceous of North America</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1043244','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1043244"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Scale Computing for First-Principles Plasma Physics Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, Choogn-Seock</p> <p>2011-10-12</p> <p>World superpowers are in the middle of the “Computnik” race. US Department of Energy (and National Nuclear Security Administration) wishes to launch exascale computer systems into the scientific (and national security) world by 2018. The objective is to solve <span class="hlt">important</span> scientific problems and to predict the outcomes using the most fundamental scientific laws, which would not be possible otherwise. Being chosen into the next “frontier” group can be of great benefit to a scientific discipline. An <span class="hlt">extreme</span> scale computer system requires different types of algorithms and programming philosophy from those we have been accustomed to. Only a handful of scientific codes are blessed to be capable of scalable usage of today’s largest computers in operation at petascale (using more than 100,000 cores concurrently). Fortunately, a few magnetic fusion codes are competing well in this race using the “first principles” gyrokinetic equations.These codes are beginning to study the fusion plasma dynamics in full-scale realistic diverted device geometry in natural nonlinear multiscale, including the large scale neoclassical and small scale turbulence physics, but excluding some ultra fast dynamics. In this talk, most of the above mentioned topics will be introduced at executive level. Representative properties of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> scale computers, modern programming exercises to take advantage of them, and different philosophies in the data flows and analyses will be presented. Examples of the multi-scale multi-physics scientific discoveries made possible by solving the gyrokinetic equations on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> scale computers will be described. Future directions into “virtual tokamak experiments” will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3398492','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3398492"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> varied phenotypes in granular corneal dystrophy type 2 heterozygotes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Han, Kyung Eun; Choi, Seung-il; Chung, Woo Suk; Jung, Se Hwan; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kim, Tae-im</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To investigate the phenotypic variability of patients bearing the heterozygous R124H mutation in the TGFBI (transforming growth factor-beta-induced) gene that causes granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Methods We describe the phenotypic range of GCD2 heterozygotes for the common R124H mutation in TGFBI; seven with an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> mild phenotype and six with an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> severe phenotype. Detailed slit-lamp photographs of these patients were generated. All patients had no history of ocular surgery and were diagnosed as being heterozygous for GCD2 by DNA analysis from peripheral blood. Expression levels of transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) were compared among cultured corneal fibroblasts from ten normal donors. Results We report profound differences in the severity of the phenotype across our case series. Two patients with a mild phenotype were diagnosed as unaffected at presentation; however follow-up examinations revealed granular deposits. <span class="hlt">Importantly</span>, we also observed familial clustering of phenotypic variance; five patients from two families with a mild phenotype showed a similarly mild phenotype within family members. Similarly, six patients from two families with severe phenotypes showed corneal deposits with similar patterns and severity within each distinct family, but distinct patterns between families. TGFBIp expressions from different donor derived cultured corneal fibroblasts were different between one another. Conclusions GCD2 heterozygotes have <span class="hlt">extremely</span> varied phenotypes between individual patients. However phenotypes were broadly consistent within families, suggesting that the observed variable expressivity might be regulated by other genetic factors that could influence the abundance of TGFBIp or the function of the pathway. From a clinical perspective, our data also highlighted that genetic analysis and meticulous slit-lamp examination in both eyes at multiple time intervals is necessary. PMID:22815629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H41J1364J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H41J1364J"><span id="translatedtitle">Event Detection and Spatial Analysis for Characterizing <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeon, S.; Prabhat, M.; Byna, S.; Collins, W.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are large spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor that often cause severe downpours and flooding over western coastal United States. With the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming, we expect ARs to play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role as a potential cause of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. We have recently developed TECA software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate datasets. In particular, we are able to identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. This detection tool examines integrated water vapor field above a certain threshold and performs geometric analysis. Based on the detection procedure, we investigate impacts of ARs by exploring spatial extent of AR precipitation for CMIP5 simulations, and characterize spatial pattern of dependence for future projections under climate change within the framework of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory. The results show that AR events in RCP8.5 scenario (2076-2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer duration than the events from historical run (1981-2005). Range of spatial dependence between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitations is concentrated on smaller localized area in California under the highest emission scenario than present day. Preliminary results are illustrated in Figure 1 and 2. Fig 1: Boxplot of annual max precipitation (left two) and max AR precipitation (right two) from GFDL-ESM2M during 25-year time period by station in California, US. Fig 2: Spatial dependence of max AR precipitation calculated from Station 4 (triangle) for historical run (left) and for future projections of RCP8.5 (right) from GFDL-ESM2M. Green and orange colors represent complete dependence and independence between two stations respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485106"><span id="translatedtitle">Robot-aided assessment of lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> functions: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maggioni, Serena; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Lünenburger, Lars; Riener, Robert; van der Kooij, Herman</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The assessment of sensorimotor functions is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span> to understand the health status of a patient and its change over time. Assessments are necessary to plan and adjust the therapy in order to maximize the chances of individual recovery. Nowadays, however, assessments are seldom used in clinical practice due to administrative constraints or to inadequate validity, reliability and responsiveness. In clinical trials, more sensitive and reliable measurement scales could unmask changes in physiological variables that would not be visible with existing clinical scores.In the last decades robotic devices have become available for neurorehabilitation training in clinical centers. Besides training, robotic devices can overcome some of the limitations in traditional clinical assessments by providing more objective, sensitive, reliable and time-efficient measurements. However, it is necessary to understand the clinical needs to be able to develop novel robot-aided assessment methods that can be integrated in clinical practice.This paper aims at providing researchers and developers in the field of robotic neurorehabilitation with a comprehensive review of assessment methods for the lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. Among the ICF domains, we included those related to lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> sensorimotor functions and walking; for each chapter we present and discuss existing assessments used in routine clinical practice and contrast those to state-of-the-art instrumented and robot-aided technologies. Based on the shortcomings of current assessments, on the identified clinical needs and on the opportunities offered by robotic devices, we propose future directions for research in rehabilitation robotics. The review and recommendations provided in this paper aim to guide the design of the next generation of robot-aided functional assessments, their validation and their translation to clinical practice. PMID:27485106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27408455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27408455"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary Gingival Melanoma: An <span class="hlt">Important</span> Entity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben Kridis, Wala; Feki, Jihène; Ayedi, Lobna; Khanfir, Afef; Toumi, Nabil; Abdelmoula, Mohamed; Boudawra, Tahia; Daoud, Jamel; Frikha, Mounir</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Primary melanoma of the mandibular gingiva is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> rare. It is often misinterpreted as a benign pigmented process. The prognosis of this entity is very poor. We report here the first case of primary gingival melanoma described in the Tunisian literature about a 55-year-old smoker having cerebral and pulmonary metastases from gingival melanoma at diagnosis. Our patient underwent brain radiotherapy at a dose of 18 Gy in three sessions but he died with a decline of 3 months before starting systemic therapy. Therefore, each new case should be illustrated to make clinicians aware about the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of the early diagnosis to improve the poor diagnosis of this entity. PMID:27408455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.3041H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.3041H"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies in the life cycle of summer rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over South America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirata, Fernando E.; Grimm, Alice M.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The main goal of this study is to describe the role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies during the life cycle of summer rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over South America. Eastward-propagating synoptic-scale midlatitude waves are the main drivers of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events south of the Amazon and their interaction with intraseasonal anomalies over South America is <span class="hlt">important</span> for heavy rainfall over the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) region and the La Plata basin. Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convective activity in the western Pacific (phases 6 and 7) leads 31 out of 81 <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the SACZ region by nearly 10 days. The connection between the MJO and rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in other regions is less robust. During El Niño seasons <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are more frequent in the La Plata basin, with decreased <span class="hlt">importance</span> of intraseasonal anomalies. Precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the La Plata basin tend to be less frequent and also shorter during La Niña summers and, consequently, less hazardous. In the SACZ and the southeastern Brazilian coast, heavy rainfall is also more frequent under El Niño conditions, while La Niña episodes also increase <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in the southeastern coast. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> over the southeastern coast during El Niños are favored by strong intraseasonal anomalies flanking the subtropical jet, while during La Niñas intraseasonal anomalies are not significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4278S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4278S"><span id="translatedtitle">Do climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events foster violent civil conflicts? A coincidence analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Civil conflicts promoted by adverse environmental conditions represent one of the most <span class="hlt">important</span> potential feedbacks in the global socio-environmental nexus. While the role of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> as a triggering factor is often discussed, no consensus is yet reached about the cause-and-effect relation in the observed data record. Here we present results of a rigorous statistical coincidence analysis based on the Munich Re Inc. <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events database and the Uppsala conflict data program. We report evidence for statistically significant synchronicity between climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with high economic impact and violent conflicts for various regions, although no coherent global signal emerges from our analysis. Our results indicate the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of regional vulnerability and might aid to identify hot-spot regions for potential climate-triggered violent social conflicts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244795','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244795"><span id="translatedtitle">North American <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, Jr., William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun -Young; Lim, Young -Kwon; Prabhat, -</p> <p>2015-05-22</p> <p>This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Our specific focus is upon <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. Overall, modeling studies have identified <span class="hlt">important</span> mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244795-north-american-extreme-temperature-events-related-large-scale-meteorological-patterns-review-statistical-methods-dynamics-modeling-trends','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244795-north-american-extreme-temperature-events-related-large-scale-meteorological-patterns-review-statistical-methods-dynamics-modeling-trends"><span id="translatedtitle">North American <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, Jr., William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; et al</p> <p>2015-05-22</p> <p>This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Our specific focus is upon <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic tomore » planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. Overall, modeling studies have identified <span class="hlt">important</span> mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613644T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613644T"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on US agricultural production and the buffering impacts of irrigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troy, Tara J.; Kipgen, Chinpihoi; Pal, Indrani</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In recent years, droughts and floods have occurred over many of the major growing regions of the world, resulting in decreased agricultural production and increased global food prices. Many climate projections call for more frequent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, which could have significant impacts on agricultural yields and water resources in irrigated agricultural regions. In order to better understand the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the spatial heterogeneity of those impacts, we examine the associations between climate and irrigated and rain fed crop yields, focusing on four main staple crops: wheat, rice, soy, and maize. Because the United States has high spatial resolution data for both yields and weather variables, the analysis focuses on the impact of multiple <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over these four crops in the US using statistical methods that do not require any assumptions of functional relationships between yields and weather variables. Irrigated and rain fed agricultural yields are analyzed separately to understand the role irrigation plays either as a buffering against climate variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> such as drought, heat waves, and extended dry spells or a mechanism that leads to varied relationships between <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of climate and yield fluctuations. These results demonstrate that irrigation has varying effects depending on the region, growing season timing, crop type, and type of climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span>. This work has <span class="hlt">important</span> implications for future planning of the coupled water-food system and its vulnerabilities to climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPA31A0811T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPA31A0811T"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events: from GCM Output to Social, Economic and Ecological Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tebaldi, C.; Meehl, G. A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events can deeply affect social and natural systems. The current generation of global climate model is producing information that can be directly used to characterize future changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, and through a further step their impacts, despite their still relatively coarse resolution. It is <span class="hlt">important</span> to define <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indicators consistently with what we expect GCM to be able to represent reliably. We use two examples from our work, heat waves and frost days, that well describe different aspects of the analysis of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from GCM output. Frost days are "mild <span class="hlt">extremes</span>" and their definition and computation is straightforward. GCMs can represent them accurately and display a strong consistent signal of change. The impacts of these changes will be <span class="hlt">extremely</span> relevant for ecosystems and agriculture. Heat waves do not have a standard definition. On the basis of historical episodes we isolate characteristics that were responsible for the worst effects on human health, for example, and analyze these characteristics in model simulations, validating the model's historical simulations. The changes in these characteristics can then be easily translated in expected differential impacts on public health. Work in progress goes in the direction of better characterization of "heat waves" taking into account jointly a set of variables like maximum and minimum temperatures and humidity, better addressing the biological vulnerabilities of the populations at risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..452C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..452C"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating regional climate models for simulating sub-daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cortés-Hernández, Virginia Edith; Zheng, Feifei; Evans, Jason; Lambert, Martin; Sharma, Ashish; Westra, Seth</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Sub-daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are of significant societal interest, with implications for flash flooding and the design of urban stormwater systems. It is increasingly recognised that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> subdaily rainfall will intensify as a result of global temperature increases, with regional climate models (RCMs) representing one of the principal lines of evidence on the likely magnitude and spatiotemporal characteristics of these changes. To evaluate the ability of RCMs to simulate subdaily <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, it is common to compare the simulated statistical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events with those from observational records. While such analyses are <span class="hlt">important</span>, they provide insufficient insight into whether the RCM reproduces the correct underlying physical processes; in other words, whether the model "gets the right answers for the right reasons". This paper develops a range of metrics to assess the performance of RCMs in capturing the physical mechanisms that produce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall. These metrics include the diurnal and seasonal cycles, relationship between rainfall intensity and temperature, temporal scaling, and the spatial structure of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events. We evaluate a high resolution RCM—the Weather Research Forecasting model—over the Greater Sydney region, using three alternative parametrization schemes. The model shows consistency with the observations for most of the proposed metrics. Where differences exist, these are dependent on both the rainfall duration and model parameterization strategy. The use of physically meaningful performance metrics not only enhances the confidence in model simulations, but also provides better diagnostic power to assist with future model improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.124..855Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.124..855Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal variations of temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Poyang Lake basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Wang, Yeqiao</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Daily temperature and precipitation data from 15 rain gauges covering a period of 1957-2011 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall trend test with the aim to investigate changing characteristics of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Poyang Lake basin, the largest freshwater lake in China. Also, the connection between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is analyzed and possible causes for the connection are briefly discussed. Results indicate that (1) warming, characterized by a decreasing trend in frost days and a significant decrease of temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> defined by lower temperature, in the Poyang Lake basin is observed. Temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, defined by higher temperature indices such as hot days, exhibit moderate changes with no significant trends. Moreover, warming occurs mainly in the northern part of the Poyang Lake basin; (2) precipitation changes are intensifying as reflected by increasing precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. However, these changes are different from 1 month to another and the intensification is found mainly in winter and/or summer months; (3) the influence of ENSO on precipitation changes in the Poyang Lake basin is evident with a time lag of longer than 3 months. This should be due to the fact that higher sea surface temperature tends to trigger the occurrence of convective precipitation regimes. Results of this study are <span class="hlt">important</span> for modeling the occurrence of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a changing climate and regional climatic responses to global climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..116.2115A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..116.2115A"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of satellite-retrieved <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation rates across the central United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aghakouchak, A.; Behrangi, A.; Sorooshian, S.; Hsu, K.; Amitai, E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Water resources management, forecasting, and decision making require reliable estimates of precipitation. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events are of particular <span class="hlt">importance</span> because of their severe impact on the economy, the environment, and the society. In recent years, the emergence of various satellite-retrieved precipitation products with high spatial resolutions and global coverage have resulted in new sources of uninterrupted precipitation estimates. However, satellite-based estimates are not well integrated into operational and decision-making applications because of a lack of information regarding the associated uncertainties and reliability of these products. In this study, four satellite-derived precipitation products (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TMPA-RT, and TMPA-V6) are evaluated with respect to their performance in capturing precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The Stage IV (radar-based, gauge-adjusted) precipitation estimates are used as reference data. The results show that with respect to the probability of detecting <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the volume of correctly identified precipitation, CMORPH and PERSIANN data sets lead to better estimates. However, their false alarm ratio and volume are higher than those of TMPA-RT and TMPA-V6. Overall, no single precipitation product can be considered ideal for detecting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. In fact, all precipitation products tend to miss a significant volume of rainfall. With respect to verification metrics used in this study, the performance of all satellite products tended to worsen as the choice of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation threshold increased. The analyses suggest that extensive efforts are necessary to develop algorithms that can capture <span class="hlt">extremes</span> more reliably.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4563311','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4563311"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictive factors of hypertonia in the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> of chronic stroke survivors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, GyuChang; An, SeungHeon; Lee, YunBok; Lee, DongGeon; Park, Dong-sik</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Muscle tone is known to predict the motor function of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> within 12 months after onset in stroke survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether motor function of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> can predict the risk of hypertonia in chronic stroke survivors, and to analyze the correlation between the two variables to determine the predictive validity. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three chronic stroke survivors were assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for elbow flexor tone, the Fugl-Meyer assessment of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> (FM-UE), and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) for upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> motor recovery and function. [Results] Elbow flexor tone (MAS≥1+) increased by 0.246 compared with the baseline muscle tone even at month 12 and appeared to negatively affect the motor function of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span>. The cutoff value for predicting muscle tone (MAS≥1+) was 24 for FM-UE and 15.5 for ARAT. FM-UE had the biggest impact on elbow flexor tone (MAS≥1+), and the risk of elbow flexor hypertonia (MAS≥1+) increased 0.764-fold for a cutoff value of FM-UE≤24 compared with a cutoff value of FM-UE>24. [Conclusion] The results show that the most <span class="hlt">important</span> variable for predicting muscle tone of the elbow flexor in stroke survivors is the FM assessment of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span>. PMID:26357437</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817825M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817825M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>: The OptiBarn project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menz, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One <span class="hlt">important</span> aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815157L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815157L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events in China under Climate Change: Uncertainty and related impacts (CSSP-FOREX)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Hodges, Kevin I.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Suitable adaptation strategies or the timely initiation of related mitigation efforts in East Asia will strongly depend on robust and comprehensive information about future near-term as well as long-term potential changes in the climate system. Therefore, understanding the driving mechanisms associated with the East Asian climate is of major <span class="hlt">importance</span>. The FOREX project (Fostering Regional Decision Making by the Assessment of Uncertainties of Future Regional <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> and their Linkage to Global Climate System Variability for China and East Asia) focuses on the investigation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind and rainfall related events over Eastern Asia and their possible future changes. Here, analyses focus on the link between local <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and their driving weather systems. This includes the coupling between local rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and tropical cyclones, the Meiyu frontal system, extra-tropical teleconnections and monsoonal activity. Furthermore, the relation between these driving weather systems and large-scale variability modes, e.g. NAO, PDO, ENSO is analysed. Thus, beside analysing future changes of local <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, the temporal variability of their driving weather systems and related large-scale variability modes will be assessed in current CMIP5 global model simulations to obtain more robust results. Beyond an overview of FOREX itself, first results regarding the link between local <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and their steering weather systems based on observational and reanalysis data are shown. Special focus is laid on the contribution of monsoonal activity, tropical cyclones and the Meiyu frontal system on the inter-annual variability of the East Asian summer rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130003217','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130003217"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Spacecraft Charging in Polar Low Earth Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Colson, Andrew D.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, L. Neergaard</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Spacecraft in low altitude, high inclination (including sun -synchronous) orbits are widely used for remote sensing of the Earth fs land surface and oceans, monitoring weather and climate, communications, scientific studies of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, and a variety of other scientific, commercial, and military applications. These systems episodically charge to frame potentials in the kilovolt range when exposed to space weather environments characterized by a high flux of energetic (approx.10 fs kilovolt) electrons in regions of low background plasma density. Auroral charging conditions are similar in some ways to the space weather conditions in geostationary orbit responsible for spacecraft charging to kilovolt levels. We first review the physics of space environment interactions with spacecraft materials that control auroral charging rates and the anticipated maximum potentials that should be observed on spacecraft surfaces during disturbed space weather conditions. We then describe how the theoretical values compare to the observational history of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> charging in auroral environments. Finally, a set of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> DMSP charging events are described varying in maximum negative frame potential from approx.0.6 kV to approx.2 kV, focusing on the characteristics of the charging events that are of <span class="hlt">importance</span> both to the space system designer and to spacecraft operators. The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between scientific studies of auroral charging and the need for engineering teams to understand how space weather impacts both spacecraft design and operations for vehicles on orbital trajectories that traverse auroral charging environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259511"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase Transformation in Tantalum under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Laser Deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lu, C. -H.; Hahn, E. N.; Remington, B. A.; Maddox, B. R.; Bringa, E. M.; Meyers, M. A.</p> <p>2015-10-19</p> <p>The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and <span class="hlt">important</span> structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centered cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. Lastly, molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478106"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase Transformation in Tantalum under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Laser Deformation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, C-H; Hahn, E N; Remington, B A; Maddox, B R; Bringa, E M; Meyers, M A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The structural and mechanical response of metals is intimately connected to phase transformations. For instance, the product of a phase transformation (martensite) is responsible for the extraordinary range of strength and toughness of steel, making it a versatile and <span class="hlt">important</span> structural material. Although abundant in metals and alloys, the discovery of new phase transformations is not currently a common event and often requires a mix of experimentation, predictive computations, and luck. High-energy pulsed lasers enable the exploration of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures and temperatures, where such discoveries may lie. The formation of a hexagonal (omega) phase was observed in recovered monocrystalline body-centered cubic tantalum of four crystallographic orientations subjected to an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regime of pressure, temperature, and strain-rate. This was accomplished using high-energy pulsed lasers. The omega phase and twinning were identified by transmission electron microscopy at 70 GPa (determined by a corresponding VISAR experiment). It is proposed that the shear stresses generated by the uniaxial strain state of shock compression play an essential role in the transformation. Molecular dynamics simulations show the transformation of small nodules from body-centered cubic to a hexagonal close-packed structure under the same stress state (pressure and shear). 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