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Sample records for extremely important discovery-the

  1. The importance of range edges for an irruptive species during extreme weather events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, Brooke L.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Allstadt, Andrew J.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    In a changing climate where more frequent extreme weather may be more common, conservation strategies for weather-sensitive species may require consideration of habitat in the edges of species’ ranges, even though non-core areas may be unoccupied in ‘normal’ years. Our results highlight the conservation importance of range edges in providing refuge from extreme events, such as drought, and climate change.

  2. An important Norwegian contribution to the study of the bursae of the upper and lower extremities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the monograph of A.S.D. Synnestvedt (1869) “En anatomisk beskrivelse af de paa over- og underestremiteterne forekommende Bursae mucosae”. The analysis was completed using anatomical information from the historically oldest publications dealing with the bursae of the extremities: Albinus (1734), Monro (1788), Rosenmüller (1799). We are of the opinion that Synnestvedt's publication is important, not only historically but also as a source of information for recent medical practitioners. Synnestvedt's monograph has a wealth of literary citations, unambiguous opinions of seasoned anatomists regarding the structure and function of the synovial membrane, and detailed descriptions of dissections he performed on fetal and adult cadavers. The information in this publication may enhance the diagnosis of bursopathies and enthesopathies of the extremities. PMID:20860444

  3. Upper Extremity Assessment in Tetraplegia: The Importance of Differentiating Between Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Anne M; Hoyen, Harry A; Keith, Michael W; Mejia, Melvin; Kilgore, Kevin L; Nemunaitis, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    Scientific advances are increasing the options for improved upper limb function in people with cervical level spinal cord injury (SCI). Some of these interventions rely on identifying an aspect of paralysis that is not uniformly assessed in SCI: the integrity of the lower motor neuron (LMN). SCI can damage both the upper motor neuron and LMN causing muscle paralysis. Differentiation between these causes of paralysis is not typically believed to be important during SCI rehabilitation because, regardless of the cause, the muscles are no longer under voluntary control by the patient. Emerging treatments designed to restore upper extremity function (eg, rescue microsurgical nerve transfers, motor learning-based interventions, functional electrical stimulation) all require knowledge of LMN status. The LMN is easily evaluated using surface electrical stimulation and does not add significant time to the standard clinical assessment of SCI. This noninvasive evaluation yields information that contributes to the development of a lifetime upper extremity care plan for maximizing function and quality of life. Given the relative simplicity of this assessment and the far-reaching implications for treatment and function, we propose that this assessment should be adopted as standard practice for acute cervical SCI. PMID:27233597

  4. Communicating natural hazards. The case of marine extreme events and the importance of the forecast's errors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    possible to produce short and long term forecasts. While the statistic of extremes is useful for many stakeholders, short term forecasts could be of importance for the whole society. Whatever the case, the prediction errors have to be emphasizes even more than the forecasts. The most common forecast in terms of general public understanding is the weather prediction. Nowadays, general public knows it well enough to properly deal with the uncertainties, because after so many year of not perfect forecasts, society knows the limits. Other coastal hazards deserve to be presented more carefully, and some successful example of the use of the precautionary principle could be observed, for instance, on the Pacific Tsunami alert system. Nowadays, the preparedness of the coastal population is good enough (even in such big and diverse area) not to be bored to run up the hill, most of the times unnecessarily, because they know the uncertainty and accept it. The key issue we, scientists, have to work better at any level, is the need of properly estimate and communicate the uncertainties of our results, cause they are not obvious nor irrelevant.

  5. Importance of Depletion Width on Charge Transport and Interfacial Recombination in Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edley, Michael; Jones, Treavor; Baxter, Jason

    The dynamics of charge carrier transport and recombination and their dependence on physical and electrochemical length scales in extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells is vital to cell design. We used J-V characterization, transient photocurrent / photovoltage, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study electron transport and interfacial recombination in ETA cell. ETA cells were composed of ZnO nanowires coated with an ultrathin (5 nm) CdS buffer layer and CdSe absorbers with thicknesses of 10 - 40 nm, with polysulfide electrolyte. In thinner absorbers near short circuit, the depletion region can extend radially into the nanowire, inhibiting interfacial recombination rate. However, depleting the periphery of the nanowire reduces the cross sectional area for charge transport, resulting in longer characteristic collection times. Thicker absorbers suffered more significant bias-dependent collection, and we conclude that slight radial penetration of the depletion region into the nanowires enhances charge collection. This work highlights the importance of considering the impact of depletion width on charge transport and interfacial recombination in the design of liquid junction, semiconductor-sensitized solar cells.

  6. Importance of temporal and spatial resolution on modelling hydrological extremes in a small catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouhal, L.; Seibert, J.; David, V.

    2012-04-01

    Under the conditions of changing climate the more frequent extremes in hydrological regime are expected. For the small watershed management it is therefore of big interest what the possible range of these changes could be, since it is essential for design of appropriate mitigation measures. An exemplary case study of possible impacts of the climate change was carried out. The conceptual model HBV was applied in a small hilly pre-alpine Rietholzbach catchment with the aim to assess the frequency and magnitude of hydrological extremes under different climatic conditions. The effect of the time and spatial distribution on the model output characteristics was also investigated. For impact evaluation a conceptual lumped model HBV was chosen because of its robustness, easy applicability for long-term simulations and perceptually straight-forward parameters. Two different modelling approaches were used, in the first one the catchment of interest was treated as a lumped system and in the other where it was divided into several subcatchments. As a first step HBV was applied to the historical data set to evaluate his performance and suitability for hydrological predictions. One half of the data time-series was used for HBV parameter calibration, the other one for model validation, wherefore several objective functions were used for goodness of fit evaluation. In order to obtain the range of changes in hydrological characteristics which can be expected due to the changing climate, two extreme scenarios were then applied to the catchment model. A standard daily step was used to obtain data for water balance and long-term droughts analysis and a study of applicability of the model with the hourly computational step was performed, so that occurrance of maximum discharges could be evaluated. The poster presents the model outcomes with focus on flood and long-drought characteristics. The uncertainty of the impacts is illustrated by the range of characteristics obtained from

  7. Socio-Economic Hazards and Impacts of Space Weather: The Important Range Between Mild and Extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.

    2015-09-01

    Society needs to prepare for more severe space weather than it has experienced in the modern technological era. To enable that we must both quantify extreme-event characteristics and analyze impacts of lesser events that are frequent yet severe enough to be informative. Exploratory studies suggest that economic impacts of a century-level space hurricane and of a century of lesser space weather "gales" may turn out to be of the same order of magnitude. The economic benefits of effective mitigation of the impacts of space gales may substantially exceed the required investments, even as these investments provide valuable information to prepare for the worst possible storms.

  8. Importance of an early tissue transfer in the treatment of complicated injuries of lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Nejedlý, A; Tvrdek, M; Kletenský, J; Pros, Z

    1994-01-01

    3rd degree fractures with extensive defects of soft tissues represent a major therapeutical problem. The technique of free tissue transfer makes it possible to adopt an active access to primary treatment to this injuries. Radical necrectomies may be performed without respect to the extent of the defect that will arise. The authors present their experience regarding an early coverage of the defect of the lower extremity by means of a free flap. The time period between the accident and tissue transfer as well as a suitable flap type are taken in consideration. PMID:7618393

  9. Relative importance of ring and tail currents to Dst under extremely disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, V. V.; Makarenkov, E. V.

    2008-02-01

    Relative ring current (RC) and tail current (TC) contributions to Dst were investigated on the basis of the statistical study of 70 magnetic storms of different intensities. Special attention was paid to the extremely disturbed conditions during magnetic storms in October-November 2003. Variations of the magnetic field produced by magnetospheric currents on the Earth's surface were calculated using paraboloid model of the magnetosphere A2000 [Alexeev, I.I., Belenkaya, E.S., Kalegaev, V.V., Feldstein, Y.I., Grafe, A., 1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 101,7737; Alexeev, I.I., Kalegaev, V.V., Belenkaya, E.S., Bobrovnikov, S.Yu., Feldstein, Ya.I., Gromova, L.I., 2001. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 25683], taking into account the effect of terrestrial induced currents. For each magnetic storm we calculated Dst and contributions produced by large-scale magnetospheric current systems. The relative RC and TC contributions for each event at the storm maximum were examined in relationship to the peak pressure-corrected Dst value. Analysis of Dst sources confirms the conclusions of Kalegaev and Ganushkina [2005. In: Pulkkinen, T., Tsyganenko, N.A., Friedel, R.H.W. (Eds.), Physics and Modeling of the Inner Magnetosphere, AGU Geophysical Monograph 155. AGU, Washington, DC, p. 293] and Kalegaev and Makarenkov [2006. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy 46, 570] about saturation of the TC effect under extremely disturbed conditions. The RC becomes the dominant Dst source during severe magnetic storms, but during moderate storms its contribution to Dst is comparable with TC's contribution. The RC injection amplitude increases with the growth of magnetospheric disturbance level.

  10. On the Importance of the Flare's Late Phase for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Hock, Rachel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Bailey, Scott; Tobiska, W. Kent; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Webb, David F.; Warren, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The new solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have revealed a new class of solar flares that are referred to as late phase flares. These flares are characterized by the hot 2-5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) showing large secondary peaks that appear many minutes to hours after an eruptive flare event. In contrast, the cool 0.7-1.5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe IX 17.1 nm) usually dim immediately after the flare onset and do not recover until after the delayed second peak of the hot coronal emissions. We refer to this period of 1-5 hours after the fl amrea sin phase as the late phase, and this late phase is uniquely different than long duration flares associated with 2-ribbon flares or large filament eruptions. Our analysis of the late phase flare events indicates that the late phase involves hot coronal loops near the flaring region, not directly related to the original flaring loop system but rather with the higher post-eruption fields. Another finding is that space weather applications concerning Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere need to consider these late phase flares because they can enhance the total EUV irradiance flare variation by a factor of 2 when the late phase contribution is included.

  11. The importance of interacting climate modes on Australia’s contribution to global carbon cycle extremes

    PubMed Central

    Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Luo, Qunying; Restrepo Coupe, Natalia; Kljun, Natascha; Ma, Xuanlong; Ewenz, Cacilia; Li, Longhui; Yu, Qiang; Huete, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is highly sensitive to climate-driven fluctuations of precipitation, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. This was clearly manifested by a 20% increase of the global terrestrial C sink in 2011 during the strongest sustained La Niña since 1917. However, inconsistencies exist between El Niño/La Niña (ENSO) cycles and precipitation in the historical record; for example, significant ENSO–precipitation correlations were present in only 31% of the last 100 years, and often absent in wet years. To resolve these inconsistencies, we used an advanced temporal scaling method for identifying interactions amongst three key climate modes (El Niño, the Indian Ocean dipole, and the southern annular mode). When these climate modes synchronised (1999–2012), drought and extreme precipitation were observed across Australia. The interaction amongst these climate modes, more than the effect of any single mode, was associated with large fluctuations in precipitation and productivity. The long-term exposure of vegetation to this arid environment has favoured a resilient flora capable of large fluctuations in photosynthetic productivity and explains why Australia was a major contributor not only to the 2011 global C sink anomaly but also to global reductions in photosynthetic C uptake during the previous decade of drought. PMID:26976754

  12. The importance of interacting climate modes on Australia's contribution to global carbon cycle extremes.

    PubMed

    Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Luo, Qunying; Restrepo Coupe, Natalia; Kljun, Natascha; Ma, Xuanlong; Ewenz, Cacilia; Li, Longhui; Yu, Qiang; Huete, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is highly sensitive to climate-driven fluctuations of precipitation, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. This was clearly manifested by a 20% increase of the global terrestrial C sink in 2011 during the strongest sustained La Niña since 1917. However, inconsistencies exist between El Niño/La Niña (ENSO) cycles and precipitation in the historical record; for example, significant ENSO-precipitation correlations were present in only 31% of the last 100 years, and often absent in wet years. To resolve these inconsistencies, we used an advanced temporal scaling method for identifying interactions amongst three key climate modes (El Niño, the Indian Ocean dipole, and the southern annular mode). When these climate modes synchronised (1999-2012), drought and extreme precipitation were observed across Australia. The interaction amongst these climate modes, more than the effect of any single mode, was associated with large fluctuations in precipitation and productivity. The long-term exposure of vegetation to this arid environment has favoured a resilient flora capable of large fluctuations in photosynthetic productivity and explains why Australia was a major contributor not only to the 2011 global C sink anomaly but also to global reductions in photosynthetic C uptake during the previous decade of drought. PMID:26976754

  13. The importance of interacting climate modes on Australia’s contribution to global carbon cycle extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Luo, Qunying; Restrepo Coupe, Natalia; Kljun, Natascha; Ma, Xuanlong; Ewenz, Cacilia; Li, Longhui; Yu, Qiang; Huete, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    The global carbon cycle is highly sensitive to climate-driven fluctuations of precipitation, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. This was clearly manifested by a 20% increase of the global terrestrial C sink in 2011 during the strongest sustained La Niña since 1917. However, inconsistencies exist between El Niño/La Niña (ENSO) cycles and precipitation in the historical record; for example, significant ENSO–precipitation correlations were present in only 31% of the last 100 years, and often absent in wet years. To resolve these inconsistencies, we used an advanced temporal scaling method for identifying interactions amongst three key climate modes (El Niño, the Indian Ocean dipole, and the southern annular mode). When these climate modes synchronised (1999–2012), drought and extreme precipitation were observed across Australia. The interaction amongst these climate modes, more than the effect of any single mode, was associated with large fluctuations in precipitation and productivity. The long-term exposure of vegetation to this arid environment has favoured a resilient flora capable of large fluctuations in photosynthetic productivity and explains why Australia was a major contributor not only to the 2011 global C sink anomaly but also to global reductions in photosynthetic C uptake during the previous decade of drought.

  14. Representing ozone extremes in European megacities: the importance of resolution in a global chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Z. S.; Russo, M. R.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    The continuing growth of the world's urban population has led to an increasing number of cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. The higher emissions of pollutants, coupled to higher population density, makes predictions of air quality in these megacities of particular importance from both a science and a policy perspective. Global climate models are typically run at coarse resolution to enable both the efficient running of long time integrations, and the ability to run multiple future climate scenarios. However, when considering surface ozone concentrations at the local scale, coarse resolution can lead to inaccuracies arising from the highly nonlinear ozone chemistry and the sensitivity of ozone to the distribution of its precursors on smaller scales. In this study, we use UM-UKCA, a global atmospheric chemistry model, coupled to the UK Met Office Unified Model, to investigate the impact of model resolution on tropospheric ozone, ranging from global to local scales. We focus on the model's ability to represent the probability of high ozone concentrations in the summer and low ozone concentrations, associated with polluted megacity environments, in the winter, and how this varies with horizontal resolution. We perform time-slice integrations with two model configurations at typical climate resolution (CR, ~150 km) and at a higher resolution (HR, ~40 km). The CR configuration leads to overestimation of ozone concentrations on both regional and local scales, while it gives broadly similar results to the HR configuration on the global scale. The HR configuration is found to produce a more realistic diurnal cycle of ozone concentrations and to give a better representation of the probability density function of ozone values in urban areas such as the megacities of London and Paris. We find the observed differences in model behaviour between CR and HR configurations to be largely caused by chemical differences during the winter and meteorological differences

  15. Representing ozone extremes in European megacities: the importance of resolution in a global chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Z. S.; Russo, M. R.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The continuing growth of the world's urban population has led to an increasing number of cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. The higher emissions of pollutants, coupled to higher population density, makes predictions of air quality in these megacities of particular importance from both a science and a policy perspective. Global climate models are typically run at coarse resolution to enable both the efficient running of long time integrations, and the ability to run multiple future climate scenarios. However, when considering surface ozone concentrations at the local scale, coarse resolution can lead to inaccuracies arising from the highly non-linear ozone chemistry and the sensitivity of ozone to the distribution of its precursors on smaller scales. In this study, we use UM-UKCA, a global atmospheric chemistry model, coupled to the UK Met Office Unified Model, to investigate the impact of model resolution on tropospheric ozone, ranging from global to local scales. We focus on the model's ability to represent the probability of high ozone concentrations in the summer and low ozone concentrations, associated with polluted megacity environments, in the winter, and how this varies with horizontal resolution. We perform time-slice integrations with two model configurations at typical climate resolution (CR, ~150 km) and at a higher resolution (HR, ~40 km). The CR configuration leads to overestimation of ozone concentrations on both regional and local scales, while it gives broadly similar results to the HR configuration on the global scale. The HR configuration is found to produce a more realistic diurnal cycle of ozone concentrations and to give a better representation of the probability density function of ozone values in urban areas such as the megacities of London and Paris. We discuss the possible causes for the observed difference in model behaviour between CR and HR configurations and estimate the relative contribution of chemical and meteorological

  16. PHASER 2.10 methodology for dependence, importance, and sensitivity: The role of scale factors, confidence factors, and extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    PHASER (Probabilistic Hybrid Analytical System Evaluation Routine) is a software tool that has the capability of incorporating subjective expert judgment into probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) along with conventional data inputs. An earlier report described the PHASER methodology, but only gave a cursory explanation about how dependence was incorporated in Version 1.10 and about how ``Importance`` and ``Sensitivity`` measures were to be incorporated in Version 2.00. A more detailed description is given in this report. The basic concepts involve scale factors and confidence factors that are associated with the stochastic variability and subjective uncertainty (which are common adjuncts used in PSA), and the safety risk extremes that are crucial to safety assessment. These are all utilized to illustrate methodology for incorporating dependence among analysis variables in generating PSA results, and for Importance and Sensitivity measures associated with the results that help point out where any major sources of safety concern arise and where any major sources of uncertainty reside, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of Concepts in Disturbance Hydrology and the Importance for Hydrologic Response to Extreme Hydroclimatic Events in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, B. A.; Mirus, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    The watersheds we rely on for water resources, ecosystem services, and protection from hydrologically driven natural hazards are increasingly impacted by landscape disturbance. Abrupt alterations of hydrologic processes resulting from wildfires, urban development, resource extraction, deforestation, hurricanes, tsunamis, and landslides change the storage or buffering capacity as well as the hydrologic functional connectivity in watersheds. We highlight some of the critical issues and major challenges to predicting disturbance impacts on water resources and natural hazards and outline some of the opportunities for improved mechanistic understanding of how disturbances propagate through landscape hydrological processes. In particular, we emphasize synthesis of conceptual commonalities and opportunities from other disciplines, primarily ecologic sciences, which are well versed in the study of disturbed landscapes. Cross scale interactions and complex adaptive systems theory are examples of useful concepts for synthesis across different disturbance effects. We also highlight the importance of improved understanding of disturbance hydrology for predicting the effects of extreme hydroclimatic events on the hydrologic response of the Critical Zone. An example from the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, USA of a watershed with multiple disturbances subjected to a low frequency extreme rainfall event is presented to show the diversity of runoff generation mechanisms and the implications for watershed scale impacts.

  18. Revealing rate-limiting steps in complex disease biology: The crucial importance of studying rare, extreme-phenotype families.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Aravinda; Turner, Tychele N

    2016-06-01

    The major challenge in complex disease genetics is to understand the fundamental features of this complexity and why functional alterations at multiple independent genes conspire to lead to an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesize that the various genes involved are all functionally united through gene regulatory networks (GRN), and that mutant phenotypes arise from the consequent perturbation of one or more rate-limiting steps that affect the function of the entire GRN. Understanding a complex phenotype thus entails unraveling the details of each GRN, namely, the transcription factors that bind to cis regulatory elements affected by sequence variants altering transcription of specific genes, and their mutual feedback relationships. These GRNs can be identified through their rate-limiting steps and are best uncovered by genomic analyses of rare, extreme phenotype families, thus providing a coherent molecular basis to complex traits and disorders. PMID:27062178

  19. On the use of ocean-atmosphere-wave models during an extreme CAO event: the importance of being coupled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniel, Sandro; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Miglietta, Mario M.; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    During winter 2012 an extreme meteorological event stroke the whole Europe and particularly its central-southern sector. A strong and persistent spit of cold air coming from Siberian region (a Cold Air Outbreak, CAO) insisted on northern Italy and the Adriatic sea basin, leading to decreases in the sea temperatures up to 6 °C in less than two weeks, ice formation on the Venice lagoon and an exceptional snow fall in the Apennine region. In the sea the CAO was associated to a significant episode of dense water formation (DWF), a crucial phenomenon that heavily impacts the whole Adriatic Sea (from the sinking of water masses and associated ventilation of the northernmost shelf, to the flow along the western coast, until the flushing of southern Adriatic open slope and submarine canyons, with associated sediment transport and bottom reshaping). The extent of the DWF event in the Northern Adriatic sub-basin was estimated by means of coastal observatories, ad hoc measurements and, until now, results from existing one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean models. These are characterized by no SST feedback from the ocean to the atmosphere, and therefore by turbulent heat fluxes that may heavily reflect a non-consistent ocean state. The study proposes an investigation of the 2012 CAO using a fully coupled, three components, ocean-atmosphere-wave system (COAWST). Results highlight that, although the energy interplays between air and sea do not seem to significantly impact the wind forecasts, when providing heat fluxes that are consistent with the ocean temperature we find modified heat fluxes and air sea temperatures figures. Moreover, the consistent description of thermal exchanges adopted in the fully coupled model can affect the basin circulation, the quantification of dense water produced mass, and the description of its migration pathways and rates of off-shelf descent.

  20. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  1. The Importance of Moral Construal: Moral versus Non-Moral Construal Elicits Faster, More Extreme, Universal Evaluations of the Same Actions

    PubMed Central

    Van Bavel, Jay J.; Packer, Dominic J.; Haas, Ingrid Johnsen; Cunningham, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, intuitionist models of morality have challenged the view that moral reasoning is the sole or even primary means by which moral judgments are made. Rather, intuitionist models posit that certain situations automatically elicit moral intuitions, which guide moral judgments. We present three experiments showing that evaluations are also susceptible to the influence of moral versus non-moral construal. We had participants make moral evaluations (rating whether actions were morally good or bad) or non-moral evaluations (rating whether actions were pragmatically or hedonically good or bad) of a wide variety of actions. As predicted, moral evaluations were faster, more extreme, and more strongly associated with universal prescriptions—the belief that absolutely nobody or everybody should engage in an action—than non-moral (pragmatic or hedonic) evaluations of the same actions. Further, we show that people are capable of flexibly shifting from moral to non-moral evaluations on a trial-by-trial basis. Taken together, these experiments provide evidence that moral versus non-moral construal has an important influence on evaluation and suggests that effects of construal are highly flexible. We discuss the implications of these experiments for models of moral judgment and decision-making. PMID:23209557

  2. The importance of the anterior longitudinal ligament in lumbar disc arthroplasty: 36-Month follow-up experience in extreme lateral total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luis; Oliveira, Leonardo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Current total disc replacement (TDR) for lumbar spine requires an anterior approach for implantation but presents inherent limitations, including risks to the abdominal structures, as well as resection of the anterior longitudinal ligament. By approaching the spine laterally, it is possible to preserve the stabilizing ligaments, which are a natural restraint to excessive rotations and translations, and thereby help to minimize facet stresses. This less invasive approach also offers a biomechanical advantage of placement of the device over the ring apophysis bilaterally; importantly, it also offers a greater opportunity for safer revision surgery, if necessary, by avoiding scarring of the anterior vasculature. We present the clinical and radiologic results of a lateral TDR device from a prospective single-center study. Methods A new metal-on-metal TDR device designed for implantation through a true lateral, retroperitoneal, transpsoatic approach (extreme lateral interbody fusion) was implanted in 36 patients with discography-confirmed 1- or 2-level degenerative disc disease. Clinical (pain and function) and radiographic (range of motion) outcome assessments were prospectively collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and serially up to a minimum of 36 months’ follow-up. Results Between December 2005 and December 2006, 36 surgeries were performed in 16 men and 20 women (mean age, 42.6 years). These included 15 single-level TDR procedures at L3-4 or L4-5, 3 2-level TDR procedures spanning L3-4 and L4-5, and 18 hybrid procedures (anterior lumbar interbody fusion) at L5-S1 and TDR at L4-5 (17) or L3-4 (1). Operative time averaged 130 minutes, with mean blood loss of 60 mL and no intraoperative complications. Postoperative X-rays showed good device placement, with restoration of disc height, foraminal volume, and sagittal balance. All patients were up and walking within 12 hours of surgery, and all but 9 were discharged the next day (7 of those 9 were

  3. Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of risks posed by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis or cyclones, is often based on short-term historical records that may not reflect the full range or magnitude of events possible. As human populations grow, especially in hazard-prone areas, methods for accurately assessing natural hazard risks are becoming increasingly important. In Extreme Events Jonathan Nott describes the many methods used to reconstruct such hazards from natural long-term records. He demonstrates how long-term (multi-century to millennial) records are essential in gaining a realistic understanding of the variability of natural hazards, and how short-term historical records can often misrepresent the likely risks associated with natural hazards. This book will form a useful resource for students taking courses covering natural hazards and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for urban planners, policy makers and non-specialists as a guide to understanding and reconstructing long-term records of natural hazards. Explains mechanisms that cause extreme events and discusses their prehistoric records Describes how to reconstruct long-term records of natural hazards in order to make accurate risk assessments Demonstrates that natural hazards can follow cycles over time and do not occur randomly

  4. Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeff; Larsen, Jon

    2013-11-01

    Acknowledgements; 1. Extreme environments: what, where, how; 2. Properties of dense and classical plasmas; 3. Laser energy absorption in matter; 4. Hydrodynamic motion; 5. Shocks; 6. Equation of state; 7. Ionization; 8. Thermal energy transport; 9. Radiation energy transport; 10. Magnetohydrodynamics; 11. Considerations for constructing radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes; 12. Numerical simulations; Appendix: units and constants, glossary of symbols; References; Bibliography; Index.

  5. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  6. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  7. Penetrating extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Ivatury, Rao R; Anand, Rahul; Ordonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Penetrating extremity trauma (PET) usually becomes less important when present along with multiple truncal injuries. The middle eastern wars documented the terrible mortality and morbidity resulting from PET. Even in civilian trauma, PET can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. There are now well-established principles in the evaluation and management of vascular, bony, soft tissue, and neurologic lesions that will lead to a reduction of the poor outcomes. This review will summarize some of these recent concepts. PMID:25413177

  8. Workshop on Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, Carole; Sullivan, Mark

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryNever before has there been such a wealth of versatile ground- and space-based facilities with which to detect variable emission across the electromagnetic spectrum and beyond, to non-EM signals such as neutrinos and gravitational waves, to probe the most extreme phenomena in the Universe. The variable sky is already providing a wealth of new and surprising observations of phenomena such as GRBs, SNe and AGN that are pushing current theories beyond the state of the art. Multi-messenger follow-up will soon become de rigeur, and upcoming radio and optical all-sky transient surveys will revolutionise the study of the transient Universe. In addition to the technical and data challenges presented by such surveys, a major new challenge will be the interpretation of the wealth of available data and the identification of the underlying physics of new classes of variable (and potentially exotic) objects. Theoretical predictions will be vital for interpreting these future transient discoveries. The goal of this workshop was to bring together theorists and observers in order to identify unexplored synergies across three main research areas of extreme physics: gamma-ray bursts, supernovæ and, more generically, relativistic jets. It aimed to discuss key outstanding questions in these rapidly moving fields, such as the composition and acceleration of GRB and AGN jets, GRB progenitors and central engines, the origin of the wide range of observed variability time-scales in GRB prompt and after-glow light curves and related cosmological applications, the physics of the newly-discovered ultra-luminous SN-like optical transients-as well as to speculate on what we might hope to discover with future technology. The workshop absorbed two 90-minute sessions, selecting 3 main science topics (Relativistic Jets, GRBs and SNe) which it organised as structured discussions driven by a series of short but provocative questions. The final session featured a panel

  9. "A discovery! The Higgs? Why is this important? How it was done"

    SciTech Connect

    Sally Dawson; Howard Gordan

    2012-06-26

    Data collected during 2011 and 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland, the world's highest-energy proton collider, has culminated in the discovery of a new particle that is about 135 times heavier than a proton. But is it really the Higgs particle predicted by the theory that explains the origin of the mass of most elementary particles in the universe? The discovery and its possible identity is discussed by two Brookhaven Lab physicists, Sally Dawson and Howard Gordon, with deep roots in the hunt for the Higgs.

  10. "A discovery! The Higgs? Why is this important? How it was done"

    ScienceCinema

    Sally Dawson; Howard Gordan

    2013-07-18

    Data collected during 2011 and 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland, the world's highest-energy proton collider, has culminated in the discovery of a new particle that is about 135 times heavier than a proton. But is it really the Higgs particle predicted by the theory that explains the origin of the mass of most elementary particles in the universe? The discovery and its possible identity is discussed by two Brookhaven Lab physicists, Sally Dawson and Howard Gordon, with deep roots in the hunt for the Higgs.

  11. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  12. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  13. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    PubMed

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks. PMID:22817845

  14. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra M; White, Piran C L; Ewertowski, Marek W

    2016-01-15

    A continued supply of ecosystem services (ES) from a system depends on the resilience of that system to withstand shocks and perturbations. In many parts of the world, climate change is leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather events, potentially influencing ES provision. Our study of the effects of an intense rainfall event in Gorce National Park, Poland, shows: (1) the intense rainfall event impacted heavily on the supply of ES by limiting potential recreation opportunities and reducing erosion prevention; (2) these negative impacts were not only restricted to the period of the extreme event but persisted for up to several years, depending on the pre-event trail conditions and post-event management activities; (3) to restore the pre-event supply of ES, economic investments were required in the form of active repairs to trails, which, in Gorce National Park, were an order of magnitude higher than the costs of normal trail maintenance; and (4) when recreational trails were left to natural restoration, loss of biodiversity was observed, and recovery rates of ES (recreation opportunities and soil erosion prevention) were reduced in comparison to their pre-event state. We conclude that proper trail design and construction provides a good solution to avoid some of the negative impacts of extreme events on recreation, as well as offering co-benefits in terms of protecting biodiversity and enhancing the supply of regulating services such as erosion prevention. PMID:26496846

  15. Lower extremity muscle perforator flaps for lower extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2004-10-01

    A true muscle perforator flap is distinguished by the requisite intramuscular dissection of its musculocutaneous perforator to capture the same musculocutaneous territory but with total exclusion of the muscle, and thereby results in minimal functional impairment. Adhering to this definition, several lower extremity donor sites now are available, each with specific attributes especially useful for consideration in the treatment of lower extremity defects. In this author's experience over the past two decades, 20 lower extremity muscle perforator flaps using multiple donor sites proved advantageous for lower extremity coverage problems as either a local pedicled flap or as a microsurgical tissue transfer. Significant complications occurred in 30 percent of flaps (six of 20) in that further intervention was required. Venous insufficiency and bulkiness were found to be the major inherent shortcomings. However, giant flaps, lengthy and large-caliber vascular pedicles, and the possibility for combined flaps were important assets. The choice of a lower extremity muscle perforator flap for lower extremity reconstruction limited the surgical intervention and morbidity to a single body region. PMID:15457022

  16. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  17. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  18. Evolutions from extremality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    We examine the evolution of extremal spherically symmetric black holes, developing both general theory as well as the specific cases of (charged) null dust and massless scalar field spacetimes. As matter accretes onto extremal marginally trapped tubes, they generically evolve to become nonextremal, with the initial extremal horizon bifurcating into inner and outer nonextremal horizons. At the start of this process arbitrarily slow matter accretion can cause a geometrically invariant measure of horizon growth to jump from zero to infinity. We also consider dynamical horizons that are extremal throughout their evolution and see that such spacetimes contain two extremal black hole horizons: an inner isolated one and an outer dynamical one. We compare these extremal dynamical horizons with the dynamical extreme event horizon spacetimes of Murata, Reall and Tanahashi.

  19. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Imray, Christopher H E; Grocott, Michael P W; Wilson, Mark H; Hughes, Amy; Auerbach, Paul S

    2015-12-19

    Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine are modern and rapidly evolving specialties that address the spirit of adventure and exploration. The relevance of and interest in these specialties are changing rapidly to match the underlying activities, which include global exploration, adventure travel, and military deployments. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine share themes of providing best available medical care in the outdoors, especially in austere or remote settings. Early clinical and logistics decision making can often have important effects on subsequent outcomes. There are lessons to be learned from out-of-hospital care, military medicine, humanitarian medicine, and disaster medicine that can inform in-hospital medicine, and vice-versa. The future of extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine will be defined by both recipients and practitioners, and empirical observations will be transformed by evidence-based practice. PMID:26738718

  20. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network ``mobile'' can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

  1. Quorum Sensing in Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kate; Charlesworth, James C.; LeBard, Rebecca; Visscher, Pieter T.; Burns, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communication, particularly that of quorum sensing, plays an important role in regulating gene expression in a range of organisms. Although this phenomenon has been well studied in relation to, for example, virulence gene regulation, the focus of this article is to review our understanding of the role of microbial communication in extreme environments. Cell signaling regulates many important microbial processes and may play a pivotal role in driving microbial functional diversity and ultimately ecosystem function in extreme environments. Several recent studies have characterized cell signaling in modern analogs to early Earth communities (microbial mats), and characterization of cell signaling systems in these communities may provide unique insights in understanding the microbial interactions involved in function and survival in extreme environments. Cell signaling is a fundamental process that may have co-evolved with communities and environmental conditions on the early Earth. Without cell signaling, evolutionary pressures may have even resulted in the extinction rather than evolution of certain microbial groups. One of the biggest challenges in extremophile biology is understanding how and why some microbial functional groups are located where logically they would not be expected to survive, and tightly regulated communication may be key. Finally, quorum sensing has been recently identified for the first time in archaea, and thus communication at multiple levels (potentially even inter-domain) may be fundamental in extreme environments. PMID:25371335

  2. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  3. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C‑1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  4. Characteristics of Extreme Auroral Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Today’s presentation describes preliminary results from a study of extreme auroral charging in low Earth orbit. Goal of study is to document characteristics of auroral charging events of importance to spacecraft design, operations, and anomaly investigations.

  5. Extremity x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  6. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  7. A Millennial Challenge: Extremism in Uncertain Times

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    This comment highlights the relevance and importance of the uncertainty-extremism topic, both scientifically and societally, identifies common themes, locates this work in a wider scientific and social context, describes what we now know and what we still do not, acknowledges some limitations, foreshadowing future directions, and discusses some potential policy relevance. Common themes emerge around the importance of social justice as sound anti-extremism policy. PMID:24511155

  8. Computed Tomography Angiography of the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tessa Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) of the lower extremities is an important and versatile, noninvasive tool for diagnosis as well as surgical or endovascular interventional planning. Although lower extremity CTA is most commonly performed in patients with peripheral artery disease or trauma affecting the lower extremities, it also plays a role in the workup of nonischemic etiologies such as vasculitis, aneurysms, and congenital vascular malformations. CT scan protocols should adjust bolus timing and multiphasic imaging to account for the clinical question of interest, and 3-dimensional postprocessing plays an important role in the visualization and interpretation of these high-resolution imaging examinations. PMID:26654395

  9. Generalized extreme gust wind speeds distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, E.; Yeung, C.

    2002-01-01

    Since summer 1996, the US wind engineers are using the extreme gust (or 3-s gust) as the basic wind speed to quantify the destruction of extreme winds. In order to better understand these destructive wind forces, it is important to know the appropriate representations of these extreme gust wind speeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable extreme value distributions for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded in large selected areas. To achieve this objective, we are using the generalized Pareto distribution as the diagnostic tool for determining the types of extreme gust wind speed distributions. The three-parameter generalized extreme value distribution function is, thus, reduced to either Type I Gumbel, Type II Frechet or Type III reverse Weibull distribution function for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded at a specific site.With the considerations of the quality and homogeneity of gust wind data collected at more than 750 weather stations throughout the United States, annual extreme gust wind speeds at selected 143 stations in the contiguous United States were used in the study. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extreme environments and exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  11. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007644.htm Hardware removal - extremity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help ...

  12. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  13. Improving extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni

    2014-11-01

    The rate of convergence in extreme value statistics is nonuniversal and can be arbitrarily slow. Further, the relative error can be unbounded in the tail of the approximation, leading to difficulty in extrapolating the extreme value fit beyond the available data. We introduce the T method, and show that by using simple nonlinear transformations the extreme value approximation can be rendered rapidly convergent in the bulk, and asymptotic in the tail, thus fixing both issues. The transformations are often parametrized by just one parameter, which can be estimated numerically. The classical extreme value method is shown to be a special case of the proposed method. We demonstrate that vastly improved results can be obtained with almost no extra cost. PMID:25493780

  14. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    PubMed

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  15. Extreme horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.

  16. Recent Developments in Statistical Downscaling of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertig, E.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the output of general circulation models (GCMs) regionalization techniques are usually applied to obtain fine-scale climate change information. Different types of regionalization techniques have been developed which comprise regional climate models and statistical downscaling approaches such as conditional weather generators, artificial neural networks, synoptic studies, and transfer functions. In the scope of climate variability and climate change the variations and changes of extremes are of special importance. Extreme events are not only of scientific interest but also have a profound impact on society. For the statistical downscaling of extremes, promising approaches have been introduced and/or developed further in the last few years. Aspects of recent developments in the scope of statistical downscaling of extremes will be presented. In this context, various approaches to downscale extremes, particularly those associated with extreme precipitation events, will be discussed. Key problems related to statistical downscaling of extremes will be addressed. Furthermore, information on Working Group 4 "Extremes" of the EU COST action VALUE (www.value-cost.eu) will be provided. VALUE systematically validates and develops downscaling methods for climate change research in order to improve regional climate change scenarios for use in climate impact studies.

  17. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  18. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  19. Upper extremity injuries in golf.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Matthew C; Wadsworth, L Tyler

    2009-04-01

    Golf is an asymmetric sport with unique patterns of injury depending upon the skill level. Higher handicap players typically experience injuries that result from swing mechanics, whereas lower handicap and professional players have overuse as the major cause of their injuries. The majority of shoulder injuries affecting golfers occur in the nondominant shoulder. Common shoulder injuries include subacromial impingement, rotator cuff pathology, glenohumeral instability, and arthritis involving the acromioclavicular and/or glenohumeral joints. Lead arm elbow pain resulting from lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow) is the leading upper extremity injury in amateur golfers. Tendon injury is the most common problem seen in the wrist and forearm of the golfer. Rehabilitation emphasizing improvement in core muscle streng is important in the treatment of golf injury. Emerging treatments for tendinopathy include topical nitrates, ultrasound-guided injection of therapeutic substances, and eccentric rehabilitation. There is evidence supporting physiotherapy, and swing modification directed by a teaching professional, for treatment of upper extremity golf injuries. This article focuses on upper extremity injuries in golf, including a discussion of the epidemiology, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of injuries occurring in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. PMID:20048492

  20. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  1. Book review: New concepts and discoveries: the Geological Society of Nevada 2015 Symposium Proceedings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.

    2016-01-01

    The Nevada Geological Society has a long history of convening meetings and workshops focused on the geology and metallogeny of the western United States relevant to the mineral exploration and mining community across the Great Basin. One outgrowth of the Geological Society of Nevada’s 2015 Symposium is a two-volume set, edited by W.M. Pennell and L.J. Garside, entitled New Concepts and Discoveries. The symposium was held in Sparks, Nevada, May 14–23, 2015, with more than 1,000 attendees, 59 talks in 10 thematic sessions, 7 field trips, and 10 short courses, all focused on serving the geologic, exploration, and mining community. The attractively produced, hardbound, two-volume set includes a CD-ROM containing all the manuscripts as well as numerous abstracts from presentations arranged by the thematic session in which they were presented. The papers range from detailed case study descriptions of individual deposits to important syntheses covering the geologic evolution and resulting metallogeny of the Great Basin and beyond.

  2. Extremal entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Leif Ove; Hauge, Andreas; Myrheim, Jan; Sollid, Per Øyvind

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of extremal entanglement witnesses on a bipartite composite quantum system. We define the cone of witnesses as the dual of the set of separable density matrices, thus TrΩρ≥0 when Ω is a witness and ρ is a pure product state, ρ=ψψ† with ψ=ϕ⊗χ. The set of witnesses of unit trace is a compact convex set, uniquely defined by its extremal points. The expectation value f(ϕ,χ)=TrΩρ as a function of vectors ϕ and χ is a positive semidefinite biquadratic form. Every zero of f(ϕ,χ) imposes strong real-linear constraints on f and Ω. The real and symmetric Hessian matrix at the zero must be positive semidefinite. Its eigenvectors with zero eigenvalue, if such exist, we call Hessian zeros. A zero of f(ϕ,χ) is quadratic if it has no Hessian zeros, otherwise it is quartic. We call a witness quadratic if it has only quadratic zeros, and quartic if it has at least one quartic zero. A main result we prove is that a witness is extremal if and only if no other witness has the same, or a larger, set of zeros and Hessian zeros. A quadratic extremal witness has a minimum number of isolated zeros depending on dimensions. If a witness is not extremal, then the constraints defined by its zeros and Hessian zeros determine all directions in which we may search for witnesses having more zeros or Hessian zeros. A finite number of iterated searches in random directions, by numerical methods, leads to an extremal witness which is nearly always quadratic and has the minimum number of zeros. We discuss briefly some topics related to extremal witnesses, in particular the relation between the facial structures of the dual sets of witnesses and separable states. We discuss the relation between extremality and optimality of witnesses, and a conjecture of separability of the so-called structural physical approximation (SPA) of an optimal witness. Finally, we discuss how to treat the entanglement witnesses on a complex Hilbert space as a subset of the

  3. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. PMID:26900120

  4. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the

  5. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example there are ultra strong magnetic fields in neutron stars) relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynold`s numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. I will describe one of the more exciting examples. I will attempt to convey the excitement I felt when I was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics, which have not been so easily resolved. In fact a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. I will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma-astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynold`s-number MHD dynamos.

  6. Going to Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project which gave students a chance to explore the idea of using "extreme" materials in a sculpture. While the process was, at times, challenging and stressful for teacher and student alike, the results proved that, with proper planning, even young students can independently demonstrate multiple solutions…

  7. Optimization using Extremal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    We explore a new heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to NP-hard optimization problems which we have recently introduced [see ``Nature's Way of Optimizing," Artificial Intelligence 119, 275-286 (2000) and cond-mat/0010337]. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively replaces extremely undesirable elements of a single sub-optimal solution with new, random ones. Large fluctuations ensue that efficiently explore many local optima. With only one adjustable parameter, its performance has proved competitive with more elaborate methods, especially near phase transitions which are believed to contain the hardest instances. In particular, extremal optimization is superior to simulated annealing in the partitioning of sparse graphs, it finds the overlap of all ground-states at the phase transition of the 3-coloring problem, and it provides independent confirmation for the ground-state energy of spin glasses, previously obtained with elaborate genetic algorithms.

  8. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M. D.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Zscheischler, J.

    2013-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Ongoing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that rare climate extremes can lead to a decrease in ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate the expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, and propose a pathway to improve our understanding of present and future impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon budget. In addition to direct impact on the carbon fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration via extreme temperature and (or) drought, effects of extreme events may also lead to lagged responses, such as wildfires triggered by heat waves and droughts, or pest and pathogen outbreaks following wind-throw caused by heavy storms, reduced plant health due to drought stress or due to less frequent cold extremes in presently cold regions. One extreme event can potentially override accumulated previous carbon sinks, as shown by the Western European 2003 heat wave.. Extreme events have the potential to affect the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance through a single factor, or as a combination of factors. Climate extremes can cause carbon losses from accumulated stocks, as well as long-lasting impacts on (e.g. lagged effects) on plant growth and mortality, extending beyond the duration of the extreme event itself. The sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon balance to climate change and extreme events varies according to the type of extreme, the climatic region, the land cover, and the land management. Extreme event impacts are very relevant in forests due to the importance of lagged and memory effects on tree growth and mortality, the longevity of tree species, the large forest carbon stocks and their vulnerability, as well as the

  9. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  10. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  11. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution analysis approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily temperature data set for Australia to assess changes in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from 1910 to 2010. Changes in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low minimum temperature are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high maximum temperatures, but it is weaker than that for minimum temperatures, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are broadly consistent with observed changes in mean temperatures and in the frequency of temperatures above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices). The GEV tree analysis provides insight into behavior of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of <span class="hlt">importance</span> to engineering design/applications, while <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices represent moderately <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...55..519T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...55..519T"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospect for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> field science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tajima, T.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The kind of laser <span class="hlt">extreme</span> light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the “material” property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other <span class="hlt">extreme</span> lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most <span class="hlt">important</span> features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. Finally, as the last lecture of this workshop the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21567625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21567625"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> HOSTS OF <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> SUPERNOVAE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Neill, James D.; Quimby, Robert; Ofek, Eran; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Sullivan, Mark; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter; Seibert, Mark; Overzier, Roderik; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M.</p> <p>2011-01-20</p> <p>We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of 17 luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M{sub V} < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26, 000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSN hosts on the galaxy NUV - r versus M{sub r} color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low-luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M{sub *}) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M{sub *} in the area having higher sSFR and lower M{sub *}. This preference for low M{sub *}, high sSFR hosts implies that the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M{sub sun}), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4135339','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4135339"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlling <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on complex networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is of fundamental <span class="hlt">importance</span> and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network “mobile” can effectively suppress <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131344"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlling <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on complex networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is of fundamental <span class="hlt">importance</span> and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network "mobile" can effectively suppress <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.U13B..01N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.U13B..01N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> space weather studies: Addressing societal needs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngwira, C. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very <span class="hlt">important</span> component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20718729','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20718729"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> quantum cloning machines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.</p> <p>2005-10-15</p> <p>We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are <span class="hlt">extremal</span> in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all <span class="hlt">extremal</span> cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405898"><span id="translatedtitle">MicroRNA in neurodegenerative drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> way forward?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campbell, Kristyn; Booth, Stephanie A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Neurodegenerative diseases occur when neuronal cells in the brain or spinal cord progressively lose function and eventually die. Pathological analysis of these tissues reveals changes that include the loss of synapses, tangles of misfolded protein and immune cell activation, even during very early stages of disease well before debilitating clinical signs are apparent. This suggests that if neurodegeneration is treated early enough, drugs designed to delay the progress of these diseases by either repairing the early damage and loss of neurons, or protecting neuron functionality from further insult, may be efficacious. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. They are particularly numerous within neurons where many are expressed with high specificity, which suggests that they have <span class="hlt">important</span> roles in the healthy brain. Indeed, miRNAs are essential for the post-mitotic survival of neurons, implying a crucial role in survival and neuroprotection. This has focused attention on exploring the use of miRNA-based drugs as a means to correct cellular abnormalities and maintain neuronal function in neurodegenerative diseases. These efforts are spurred on by the rapid progress to clinical trials for a number of miRNA-based therapies for other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, fibrosis and cancer. PMID:25405898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464107','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464107"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient transformation meets gene function <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> strawberry fruit case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guidarelli, Michela; Baraldi, Elena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Beside the well known nutritional and health benefits, strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa) crop draws increasing attention as plant model system for the Rosaceae family, due to the short generation time, the rapid in vitro regeneration, and to the availability of the genome sequence of F. X ananassa and F. vesca species. In the last years, the use of high-throughput sequence technologies provided large amounts of molecular information on the genes possibly related to several biological processes of this crop. Nevertheless, the function of most genes or gene products is still poorly understood and needs investigation. Transient transformation technology provides a powerful tool to study gene function in vivo, avoiding difficult drawbacks that typically affect the stable transformation protocols, such as transformation efficiency, transformants selection, and regeneration. In this review we provide an overview of the use of transient expression in the investigation of the function of genes <span class="hlt">important</span> for strawberry fruit development, defense and nutritional properties. The technical aspects related to an efficient use of this technique are described, and the possible impact and application in strawberry crop improvement are discussed. PMID:26124771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124771"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient transformation meets gene function <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> strawberry fruit case.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guidarelli, Michela; Baraldi, Elena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Beside the well known nutritional and health benefits, strawberry (FragariaXananassa) crop draws increasing attention as plant model system for the Rosaceae family, due to the short generation time, the rapid in vitro regeneration, and to the availability of the genome sequence of F.Xananassa and F. vesca species. In the last years, the use of high-throughput sequence technologies provided large amounts of molecular information on the genes possibly related to several biological processes of this crop. Nevertheless, the function of most genes or gene products is still poorly understood and needs investigation. Transient transformation technology provides a powerful tool to study gene function in vivo, avoiding difficult drawbacks that typically affect the stable transformation protocols, such as transformation efficiency, transformants selection, and regeneration. In this review we provide an overview of the use of transient expression in the investigation of the function of genes <span class="hlt">important</span> for strawberry fruit development, defense and nutritional properties. The technical aspects related to an efficient use of this technique are described, and the possible impact and application in strawberry crop improvement are discussed. PMID:26124771</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5094S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5094S"><span id="translatedtitle">Near future changes of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and compound <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the regional scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sedlmeier, Katrin; Feldmann, Hendrik; Schädler, Gerd</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Reliable knowledge of near future changes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and compound <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on the regional scale is of great <span class="hlt">importance</span> for impact studies and planning of adaptation/mitigation strategies. Different types of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> might intensify each other, e.g. heat waves and droughts via evapotranspiration and heat flux. Compared to projections for the end of the century, the climate change and variation signals for the near future are weaker and more contaminated by to natural variations. On the other hand several studies (e.g. Feldmann et al. [1]) have shown that <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are likely to undergo more pronounced changes than mean values. To derive reliable estimates of these changes, ensembles of simulations are a useful method since the larger number of data allows for a better estimate of probability density function parameters and higher signal-to-noise ratios which are especially needed for the analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and compound <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Furthermore, using ensembles enables an assessment of the uncertainty of the deduced changes. Our work is based on an ensemble of high resolution regional climate simulations with a resolution of 7 km with the COSMO-CLM regional climate model using different global driving data. Our ensemble is enlarged by results from the ENSEMBLES project, thus also including different regional and global driving models. Changes between a control period (1971-200) and the near future (2011-2040) are assessed with a special focus on central Europe. The analysis focuses on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events related to temperature and precipitation such as heat and cold waves or dry spells with a subsequent examination of compound <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Compound <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are defined as the simultaneous or successive occurrence of two or more <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events (IPCC Special Report on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, 2012), e.g. the simultaneous occurrence of dry periods and heat waves or cold spells and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> are expressed in terms of return values and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1114932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1114932"><span id="translatedtitle">Rehabilitation in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moskowitz, E</p> <p>1975-03-01</p> <p>General principles in the rehabilitation of a patient with an <span class="hlt">extremity</span> fracture include: treat the patient, not the x-ray; move all joints not immobilized; prevent disuse atrophy; use gravity to assist in mobilizing a joint; stabilize proximal joints to avoid reverse action of biarticular muscles; permit early protected weight bearing until adequate joint mobility is achieved; appropriately instruct the patient in a home program, and avoid all stretching. PMID:1114932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geomagnetic storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..75a2074S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..75a2074S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> wind turbine response during operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sørensen, John D.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response values is very <span class="hlt">important</span> for structural design of wind turbines. Due to the influence of control system and nonlinear structural behavior the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response is usually assessed based on simulation of turbulence time series. In this paper the problem of statistical load extrapolation is considered using techniques from structural reliability theory. Different simulation techniques to estimate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response characteristics are described and compared, including crude Monte Carlo simulation, <span class="hlt">Importance</span> Sampling, and splitting methods such as the Russian Roulette and the Double and Clump algorithm. A statistically consistent technique is described for including statistical uncertainty and assessing the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 50-year response using simulated time series and conditioned on the model parameters. The peak over threshold method together with the Maximum Likelihood Method provides a tool to obtain consistent estimates incl. the statistical uncertainty. An illustrative example indicates that the statistical uncertainty is <span class="hlt">important</span> compared to the coefficient of variation of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response when the number of 10 minutes simulations at each mean wind speed is limited to 10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090102&hterms=Barometric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBarometric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090102&hterms=Barometric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBarometric"><span id="translatedtitle">Acclimatization and tolerance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>West, J. B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>During the last ten years, two major experiments have elucidated the factors determining acclimatization and tolerance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude (over 7000 m). These were the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest, and the low pressure chamber simulation, Operation Everest II. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> hyperventilation is one of the most <span class="hlt">important</span> responses to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude. Its chief value is that it allows the climber to maintain an alveolar PO2 which keeps the arterial PO2 above dangerously low levels. Even so, there is evidence of residual impairment of central nervous system function after ascents to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude, and maximal oxygen consumption falls precipitously above 7000 m. The term 'acclimatization' is probably not appropriate for altitudes above 8000 m, because the body steadily deteriorates at these altitudes. Tolerance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude is critically dependent on barometric pressure, and even seasonal changes in pressure probably affect climbing performance near the summit of Mt Everest. Supplementary oxygen always improves exercise tolerance at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitudes, and rescue oxygen should be available on climbing expeditions to 8000 m peaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048196"><span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Whether they are exposed to <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles. PMID:26048196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779737','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779737"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Regional Anesthesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1032651','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1032651"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shu, Jinfu</p> <p>2012-02-07</p> <p>We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ858952.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ858952.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming" in a Bioinformatics Class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelley, Scott; Alger, Christianna; Deutschman, Douglas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">importance</span> of Bioinformatics tools and methodology in modern biological research underscores the need for robust and effective courses at the college level. This paper describes such a course designed on the principles of cooperative learning based on a computer software industry production model called "<span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming" (EP). The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861339"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> luminosity imaging conical spectrograph</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Mitchell, M. D.; Chandler, K. M.; Douglass, J. D.; McBride, R. D.; Jackson, D. P.; Hammer, D. A.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>A new configuration for a two-dimensional (2D) imaging x-ray spectrograph based on a conically bent crystal is introduced: <span class="hlt">extreme</span> luminosity imaging conical spectrograph (ELICS). The ELICS configuration has <span class="hlt">important</span> advantages over spectrographs that are based on cylindrically and spherically bent crystals. The main advantages are that a wide variety of large-aperture crystals can be used, and any desired magnification in the spatial direction (the direction orthogonal to spectral dispersion) can be achieved by the use of different experimental arrangements. The ELICS can be set up so that the detector plane is almost perpendicular to the incident rays, a good configuration for time-resolved spectroscopy. ELICSs with mica crystals of 45x90 mm{sup 2} aperture have been successfully used for imaging on the XP and COBRA pulsed power generators, yielding spectra with spatial resolution in 2D of Z pinches and X pinches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.632a2058H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.632a2058H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hudson, Hugh S.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “<span class="hlt">extreme</span> events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLB..743...87G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLB..743...87G"><span id="translatedtitle">"Triangular" <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dilatonic dyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Khramtsov, Mikhail; Orlov, Dmitri</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Explicit dyonic solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for three particular values of the dilaton coupling constant: a = 0 , 1 ,√{ 3}. However, numerical evidence was presented on existence of dyons admitting an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> limit in theories with more general sequence of dilaton couplings a =√{ n (n + 1) / 2 } labeled by an integer n. Apart from the lower members n = 0 , 1 , 2, this family of theories does not have motivation from supergravity/string theory, and analytical origin of the above sequence remained unclear so far. We fill the gap showing that this formula follows from analyticity of the dilaton function at the AdS2 ×S2 event horizon of the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dyonic black hole, with n being the leading dilaton power in the Taylor expansion. We also derive generalization of this rule for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, planar and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113513T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113513T"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of victims in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very <span class="hlt">important</span> problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea wave events are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SES.EB004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SES.EB004S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Scale Computational Astrophysics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shoemaker, Deirdre</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.H43N..02W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.H43N..02W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> via Bivariate <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We introduce methodology from statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6148E..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6148E..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">New solutions for innovative <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large telescopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco; Salinari, Piero</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The new generation of <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Telescopes, may require the identification of new construction technologies, in order to improve the stiffness to weight ratio of the structure, to introduce higher damping while maintaining under control the construction and maintenance costs. The identification of new construction technologies and the consequent development of the materials used, may allow to obtain a leading technological instrument able to meet also the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> scientific requests, and able to adapt to the new requests that might be raised along the life of the telescope. The control of the weight of the structure is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span> also for the dimensioning of the auxiliary structures such as drives, bearings, shafts, hard stops, counterweight, stow pins, hydrostatics support systems, etc., for energy management, and for the problems related to pre-assembly, disassembly in factory and erection on site. In this preliminary study we consider a light weight floating telescope structure made of composite materials and plastic foams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC13C..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC13C..01G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events: dynamics, statistics and prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghil, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In this talk, I will review work on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, their causes and consequences, by a group of European and American researchers involved in a three-year project on these topics. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two <span class="hlt">important</span> results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NPGeo..18..295G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NPGeo..18..295G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events: dynamics, statistics and prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghil, M.; Yiou, P.; Hallegatte, S.; Malamud, B. D.; Naveau, P.; Soloviev, A.; Friederichs, P.; Keilis-Borok, V.; Kondrashov, D.; Kossobokov, V.; Mestre, O.; Nicolis, C.; Rust, H. W.; Shebalin, P.; Vrac, M.; Witt, A.; Zaliapin, I.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>We review work on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, their causes and consequences, by a group of European and American researchers involved in a three-year project on these topics. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two <span class="hlt">important</span> results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..153N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..153N"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral electrojet indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Masao; Yoneda, Asato; Oda, Mitsunobu; Tsubouchi, Ken</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> auroral electrojet activities can damage electrical power grids due to large induced currents in the Earth, degrade radio communications and navigation systems due to the ionospheric disturbances and cause polar-orbiting satellite anomalies due to the enhanced auroral electron precipitation. Statistical estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral electrojet activities is an <span class="hlt">important</span> factor in space weather research. For this estimation, we utilize <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory (EVT), which focuses on the statistical behavior in the tail of a distribution. As a measure of auroral electrojet activities, auroral electrojet indices AL, AU, and AE, are used, which describe the maximum current strength of the westward and eastward auroral electrojets and the sum of the two oppositely directed in the auroral latitude ionosphere, respectively. We provide statistical evidence for finite upper limits to AL and AU and estimate the annual expected number and probable intensity of their <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We detect two different types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> AE events; therefore, application of the appropriate EVT analysis to AE is difficult.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..01I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..01I"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872884','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography machine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361517"><span id="translatedtitle">Stacked <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Learning Machines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed. PMID:25361517</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212295"><span id="translatedtitle">Detectors in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blaj, G.; Carini, G.; Carron, S.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.</p> <p>2015-08-06</p> <p>Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 10<sup>12</sup> - 10<sup>13</sup> photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This <span class="hlt">extreme</span> detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..652J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..652J"><span id="translatedtitle">Future population exposure to US heat <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Bryan; O'Neill, Brian C.; McDaniel, Larry; McGinnis, Seth; Mearns, Linda O.; Tebaldi, Claudia</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> heat events are likely to become more frequent in the coming decades owing to climate change. Exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat depends not only on changing climate, but also on changes in the size and spatial distribution of the human population. Here we provide a new projection of population exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat for the continental United States that takes into account both of these factors. Using projections from a suite of regional climate models driven by global climate models and forced with the SRES A2 scenario and a spatially explicit population projection consistent with the socioeconomic assumptions of that scenario, we project changes in exposure into the latter half of the twenty-first century. We find that US population exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat increases four- to sixfold over observed levels in the late twentieth century, and that changes in population are as <span class="hlt">important</span> as changes in climate in driving this outcome. Aggregate population growth, as well as redistribution of the population across larger US regions, strongly affects outcomes whereas smaller-scale spatial patterns of population change have smaller effects. The relative <span class="hlt">importance</span> of population and climate as drivers of exposure varies across regions of the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738d0006S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738d0006S"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding water <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with caution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stehlík, Milan; Stehlíková, Silvia; Torres, Sebastián</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We discuss a sensitive topic, how to scientifically estimate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in water quality managements. Such <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are incorporating establishment of thresholds or levels of certain chemicals in the drinking water. In particular, we address the water fluoridation and quality of drinking water in Chile. Statistical approaches demonstrating the necessary background of water manager will be given in a survey exposition to establish link between statistics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613307H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613307H"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather disasters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Single disasters related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain <span class="hlt">important</span> challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather event, and the associated consequences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.B71B0741M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.B71B0741M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments: Why NASA?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, M. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Life on our planet is the only known example in the universe and so we are relegated to this planet for the study of life. However, life may be a natural consequence of planet formation, and so the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life may be greatly informed by planetary exploration. Astrobiology has adopted several approaches to study life on Earth, for deducing our origins, for determining the likelihood of life elsewhere, and for enabling the search for evidence of past or present life. The first approach has been the Exobiology Program, centered around understanding the origins of life and which supports individual investigator research. Second has been the construction of consortia-type research in which researchers from different disciplines focus on a larger problem. This structure began with NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training and has grown to include the Astrobiology Institute - a collection of competitively selected groups of researchers attacking problems in Astrobiology as individual teams and as a consolidated Institute. With the formation of an intellectual basis for exploring for life elsewhere, Astrobiology has initiated the competitive research and development program in instrument development (Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development [ASTID] Program) that would enable future mission instruments for the exploration of planetary bodies in the search for prebiotic chemistry, habitable environments (past or present), biomarkers, and possibly life itself. However, the act of exploring requires robust instrumentation, mobile robotic platforms, efficient operations, and a high level of autonomy. To this end, Astrobiology has started a new research activity that promotes scientifically-driven robotic exploration of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments on Earth that are analogous to suspected habitable environments on other planetary bodies. The program is called Astrobiology Science and Technology for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.2909Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.2909Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zscheischler, J.; Reichstein, M.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Mahecha, M. D.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are still not well documented and in the focus of this paper. Specifically, we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (i.e., statistically unusual increases in carbon uptake rates) and negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (i.e., statistically unusual decreases in carbon uptake rates) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are power-law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more <span class="hlt">important</span> role for the overall impact of GPP <span class="hlt">extremes</span> compared to the durations or maximal GPP. An analysis of possible causes across continents indicates that most negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in GPP can be attributed clearly to water scarcity, whereas <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures play a secondary role. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we also identify fire as an <span class="hlt">important</span> driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events supports our results to a large extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1869Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1869Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zscheischler, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Reichstein, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake) and negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (decrease in uptake) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more <span class="hlt">important</span> role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an <span class="hlt">important</span> driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events supports our results to a large extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC11A0123W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC11A0123W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall Events Over Southern Africa: Assessment of a Climate Model to Reproduce Daily <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. This issue is of particular <span class="hlt">importance</span> for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of a state-of-the-art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. Once the model's ability to reproduce <span class="hlt">extremes</span> has been assessed, idealised regions of SST anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over southern Africa. In this paper, results from sensitivity testing of the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model's domain size are firstly presented. Then simulations of current climate from the model, operating in both regional and global mode, are compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. Thirdly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will be assessed, again by a comparison with <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from the MIRA dataset. Finally, the results from the idealised SST experiments are briefly presented, suggesting associations between rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and both local and remote SST anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43N..05R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43N..05R"><span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate Bayesian Models of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahill-Marier, B.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.; Farnham, D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Accounting for spatial heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall has <span class="hlt">important</span> ramifications in hydrological design and climate models alike. Traditional methods, including areal reduction factors and kriging, are sensitive to catchment shape assumptions and return periods, and do not explicitly model spatial dependence between between data points. More recent spatially dense rainfall simulators depend on newer data sources such as radar and may struggle to reproduce <span class="hlt">extremes</span> because of physical assumptions in the model and short historical records. Rain gauges offer the longest historical record, key when considering rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and changes over time, and particularly relevant in today's environment of designing for climate change. In this paper we propose a probabilistic approach of accounting for spatial dependence using the lengthy but spatially disparate hourly rainfall network in the greater New York City area. We build a hierarchical Bayesian model allowing <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at one station to co-vary with concurrent rainfall fields occurring at other stations. Subsequently we pool across the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall fields of all stations, and demonstrate that the expected catchment-wide events are significantly lower when considering spatial fields instead of maxima-only fields. We additionally demonstrate the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of using concurrent spatial fields, rather than annual maxima, in producing covariance matrices that describe true storm dynamics. This approach is also unique in that it considers short duration storms - from one hour to twenty-four hours - rather than the daily values typically derived from rainfall gauges. The same methodology can be extended to include the radar fields available in the past decade. The hierarchical multilevel approach lends itself easily to integration of long-record parameters and short-record parameters at a station or regional level. In addition climate covariates can be introduced to support the relationship of spatial covariance with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850062617&hterms=nitrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnitrite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850062617&hterms=nitrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnitrite"><span id="translatedtitle">Denitrification by <span class="hlt">extremely</span> halophilic bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+violence&pg=6&id=EJ813794','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+violence&pg=6&id=EJ813794"><span id="translatedtitle">Gender, Education, <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, <span class="hlt">extremism</span> and security. After defining <span class="hlt">extremism</span> and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005607','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005607"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Mean and Its Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swaroop, R.; Brownlow, J. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value statistics obtained from normally distributed data are considered. An <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean is defined as the mean of p-th probability truncated normal distribution. An unbiased estimate of this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean and its large sample distribution are derived. The distribution of this estimate even for very large samples is found to be nonnormal. Further, as the sample size increases, the variance of the unbiased estimate converges to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. The computer program used to obtain the density and distribution functions of the standardized unbiased estimate, and the confidence intervals of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean for any data are included for ready application. An example is included to demonstrate the usefulness of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018280','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018280"><span id="translatedtitle">Representing <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in Agricultural Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruane, Alex</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AgMIP and related projects are conducting several activities to understand and improve crop model response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This involves crop model studies as well as the generation of climate datasets and scenarios more capable of capturing <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Models are typically less responsive to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events than we observe, and miss several forms of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Models also can capture interactive effects between climate change and climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Additional work is needed to understand response of markets and economic systems to food shocks. AgMIP is planning a Coordinated Global and Regional Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Production and Food Security with an aim to inform the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64c5101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64c5101B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> properties of random trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Majumdar, Satya N.</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>We investigate <span class="hlt">extremal</span> statistical properties such as the maximal and the minimal heights of randomly generated binary trees. By analyzing the master evolution equations we show that the cumulative distribution of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> heights approaches a traveling wave form. The wave front in the minimal case is governed by the small-<span class="hlt">extremal</span>-height tail of the distribution, and conversely, the front in the maximal case is governed by the large-<span class="hlt">extremal</span>-height tail of the distribution. We determine several statistical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> height distribution analytically. In particular, the expected minimal and maximal heights grow logarithmically with the tree size, N, hmin~vmin ln N, and hmax~vmax ln N, with vmin=0.373365... and vmax=4.31107..., respectively. Corrections to this asymptotic behavior are of order O(ln ln N).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012sptz.prop90192R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012sptz.prop90192R"><span id="translatedtitle">Lightcurves of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Debris Disks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieke, George; Meng, Huan; Su, Kate</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We have recently discovered that some planetary debris disks with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fractional luminosities are variable on the timescale of a few years. This behavior opens a new possibility to understand planet building. Two of the known variable disks are around solar-like stars in the age range of 30 to 100+ Myr, which is the expected era of the final stages of terrestrial planet building. Such variability can be attributed to violent collisions (up to ones on the scale of the Moon-forming event between the proto-Earth and another proto-planet). The collisional cascades that are the aftermaths of these events can produce large clouds of tiny dust grains, possibly even condensed from silica vapor. A Spitzer pilot program has obtained the lightcurve of such a debris disk and caught two minor outbursts. Here we propose to continue the lightcurve monitoring with higher sampling rates and to expand it to more disks. The proposed time domain observations are a new dimension of debris disk studies that can bring unique insight to their evolution, providing <span class="hlt">important</span> constraints on the collisional and dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A45A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A45A..01G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events: Dynamics, Statistics and Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghil, M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>In this talk, I will review some recent work on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, their causes and consequences. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two <span class="hlt">important</span> results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts. US GDP data used in validating the vulnerability paradox found in a Non-Equilibrium Dynamical Model (NEDyM) for studying the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on a dynamic economy. The paradoxical result is that natural hazards affect more strongly an economy in expansion than when it is in a recession. The connection to the macroeconomic data is given by fluctuation-dissipation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..864N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..864N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall In A City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nkemdirim, Lawrence</p> <p></p> <p> industrialization. The development of small cloud droplets into larger particles requires time. A single thunderstorm cell has a mean development time of about 20 minutes and a life time of around 45 minutes with a mean mind of 10m/s, an air parcel would travel 12 km from the beginning of droplet formation to the first precipitation. That means that the precipitation field is shifted downwind of settlements. It could also explain the the higher frequency of the trace to small amounts observed in Calgary since those events occur under relatively calm weather. Whereas the majority of studies have focused on summer convectional type events, little appears to have been done on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events on which most structural designs are based. Is there a detectable urban bias in these events? Do urban areas intensify them? What are the implications of point distribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events on flood frequency across a city. This paper examines the spatial distribution of the mean annual maximum rainfall event in Calgary, Canada, with a view to determining the relative contribution of geographical setting and urbanisation to point patterns. The data are subsequently maximized to produce maps of probable maximum precipitation for the city. The major results are as follows: (a) position along storm path is the most <span class="hlt">important</span> variable determining maximum rainfall hazard, (b) higher grounds receive up to seventy percent more maximum rainfall than values based on spatial trend, (c) urban structure and geometry correlate negatively with maximum rainfall intensity, however, (d) zones of maximum flood peaks are found down slope of areas of maximum precipitation increasing flood hazard in the inner city in spite of its lower precipitation. Drainage networks based on point rainfall patterns have proved grossly inadequate for flood mitigation. The new design based on this study recognizes the strong moisture gradients caused by rapid movement of water and other elements down slope. Snow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058280"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonparametric Spatial Models for <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>: Application to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fuentes, Montserrat; Henry, John; Reich, Brian</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Estimating the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature events is difficult because of limited records across time and the need to extrapolate the distributions of these events, as opposed to just the mean, to locations where observations are not available. Another related issue is the need to characterize the uncertainty in the estimated probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events at different locations. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are well-developed, extending these tools to model spatial <span class="hlt">extreme</span> data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order to make inference about spatial <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, we introduce a new nonparametric model for <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We present a Dirichlet-based copula model that is a flexible alternative to parametric copula models such as the normal and t-copula. The proposed modelling approach is fitted using a Bayesian framework that allow us to take into account different sources of uncertainty in the data and models. We apply our methods to annual maximum temperature values in the east-south-central United States. PMID:24058280</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38..447D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38..447D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitability in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre</p> <p></p> <p>A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than <span class="hlt">important</span> to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most <span class="hlt">important</span>. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to <span class="hlt">important</span> conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..1112731O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..1112731O"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">extremes</span> modeling applied to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation data in the state of Paraná</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olinda, R. A.; Blanchet, J.; dos Santos, C. A. C.; Ozaki, V. A.; Ribeiro, P. J., Jr.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Most of the mathematical models developed for rare events are based on probabilistic models for <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate and multivariate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are well developed, the extension of these tools to model spatial <span class="hlt">extremes</span> includes an area of very active research nowadays. A natural approach to such a modeling is the theory of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spatial and the max-stable process, characterized by the extension of infinite dimensions of multivariate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, and making it possible then to incorporate the existing correlation functions in geostatistics and therefore verify the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dependence by means of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> coefficient and the Madogram. This work describes the application of such processes in modeling the spatial maximum dependence of maximum monthly rainfall from the state of Paraná, based on historical series observed in weather stations. The proposed models consider the Euclidean space and a transformation referred to as space weather, which may explain the presence of directional effects resulting from synoptic weather patterns. This method is based on the theorem proposed for de Haan and on the models of Smith and Schlather. The isotropic and anisotropic behavior of these models is also verified via Monte Carlo simulation. Estimates are made through pairwise likelihood maximum and the models are compared using the Takeuchi Information Criterion. By modeling the dependence of spatial maxima, applied to maximum monthly rainfall data from the state of Paraná, it was possible to identify directional effects resulting from meteorological phenomena, which, in turn, are <span class="hlt">important</span> for proper management of risks and environmental disasters in countries with its economy heavily dependent on agribusiness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710997P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710997P"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> into discharge <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a changing climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piras, Monica; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Deidda, Roberto; Vivoni, Enrique R.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> sub-basins with loamy soils. Hence, both soil properties and topography play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in the basin response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/groups/lower.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/groups/lower.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Muscles of the Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611667','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611667"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in computational turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yeung, P. K.; Zhai, X. M.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We have performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box with 8,1923 grid points. These are the largest simulations performed, to date, aimed at improving our understanding of turbulence small-scale structure. We present some basic statistical results and focus on “extreme” events (whose magnitudes are several tens of thousands the mean value). The structure of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is quite different from that of moderately large events (of the order of 10 times the mean value). In particular, intense vorticity occurs primarily in the form of tubes for moderately large events whereas it is much more “chunky” for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events (though probably overlaid on the traditional vortex tubes). We track the temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and find that they are generally short-lived. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy occur simultaneously in space and remain nearly colocated during their evolution. PMID:26424452</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...54W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...54W"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of dynamically downscaled <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature using a spatially-aggregated generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jiali; Han, Yuefeng; Stein, Michael L.; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Huang, Whitney K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The weather research and forecast (WRF) model downscaling skill in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum daily temperature is evaluated by using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution. While the GEV distribution has been used extensively in climatology and meteorology for estimating probabilities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, accurately estimating GEV parameters based on data from a single pixel can be difficult, even with fairly long data records. This work proposes a simple method assuming that the shape parameter, the most difficult of the three parameters to estimate, does not vary over a relatively large region. This approach is applied to evaluate 31-year WRF-downscaled <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum temperature through comparison with North American regional reanalysis (NARR) data. Uncertainty in GEV parameter estimates and the statistical significance in the differences of estimates between WRF and NARR are accounted for by conducting a novel bootstrap procedure that makes no assumption of temporal or spatial independence within a year, which is especially <span class="hlt">important</span> for climate data. Despite certain biases over parts of the United States, overall, WRF shows good agreement with NARR in the spatial pattern and magnitudes of GEV parameter estimates. Both WRF and NARR show a significant increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum temperature over the southern Great Plains and southeastern United States in January and over the western United States in July. The GEV model shows clear benefits from the regionally constant shape parameter assumption, for example, leading to estimates of the location and scale parameters of the model that show coherent spatial patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1228081','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1228081"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Energy in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David; Cai, Lixue</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on <span class="hlt">imports</span>. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Prama..53..405.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Prama..53..405."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of nuclear structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>With the advent of medium and large gamma detector arrays, it is now possible to look at nuclear structure at high rotational forces. The role of pairing correlations and their eventual breakdown, along with the shell effects have showed us the interesting physics for nuclei at high spins - superdeformation, shape co-existence, yrast traps, alignments and their dramatic effects on nuclear structure and so on. Nuclear structure studies have recently become even more exciting, due to efforts and possibilities to reach nuclei far off from the stability valley. Coupling of gamma ray arrays with 'filters', like neutron wall, charged particle detector array, gamma ray total energy and multiplicity castles, conversion electron spectrometers etc gives a great handle to study nuclei produced online with 'low' cross-sections. Recently we studied, nuclei in mass region 80 using an array of 8 germanium detectors in conjunction with the recoil mass analyser, HIRA at the Nuclear Science Centre and, most unexpectedly came across the phenomenon of identical bands, with two quasi-particle difference. The discovery of magnetic rotation is another highlight. Our study of light In nucleus, 107In brought us face to face with the 'dipole' bands. I plan to discuss some of these aspects. There is also an immensely <span class="hlt">important</span> development - that of the 'radioactive ion beams'. The availability of RIB, will probably very dramatically influence our 'conventional' concept of nuclear structure. The exotic shapes of these exotic nuclei and some of their expected properties will also be touched upon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....85...64L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....85...64L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Learning Machines for spatial environmental data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The use of machine learning algorithms has increased in a wide variety of domains (from finance to biocomputing and astronomy), and nowadays has a significant impact on the geoscience community. In most real cases geoscience data modelling problems are multivariate, high dimensional, variable at several spatial scales, and are generated by non-linear processes. For such complex data, the spatial prediction of continuous (or categorical) variables is a challenging task. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of the recently developed <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Learning Machine (ELM) for environmental data analysis, modelling and spatial prediction purposes. An <span class="hlt">important</span> contribution of this study deals with an application of a generic self-consistent methodology for environmental data driven modelling based on <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Learning Machine. Both real and simulated data are used to demonstrate applicability of ELM at different stages of the study to understand and justify the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4857228','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4857228"><span id="translatedtitle">Resuscitation of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants - controversies and current evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, <span class="hlt">importance</span> of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170925"><span id="translatedtitle">Resuscitation of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants - controversies and current evidence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, <span class="hlt">importance</span> of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51C1632P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH51C1632P"><span id="translatedtitle">Disaster Risks Reduction for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Natural Hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>. Integration of these low-probability, high-impact events in DRR requires an approach focused on resilience and antifragility, as well as the ability to cope with, and recover from failure of infrastructure and social systems. Resilience does not primarily result from the robustness of infrastructure but mainly is a function of the social capital. While it is <span class="hlt">important</span> to understand the hazards (the contribution of geosciences), it is equally <span class="hlt">important</span> to understand the processes that let us cope with the hazards, or lead to failure (the contribution of social sciences and engineering). For the latter, we need a joint effort of social sciences and engineering and a revised science-policy relationship. Democratizing knowledge about <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geohazards is very <span class="hlt">important</span> in order to inform deliberations of DRR through increased resilience and reduced fragility. The current science-society dialog is not fully capable of supporting deliberative governance. Most scientific knowledge is created independent of those who could put it to use, and a transition to co-design and co-development of knowledge involving a broad stakeholder base is necessary for DRR, particularly for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This transition may have the consequence of more responsibility and even liability for science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC44A..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC44A..02P"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Weather Events and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> ENSO States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perlwitz, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Xu, T.; Hoell, A.; Cheng, L.; Wolter, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To what extent are the risks of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events over the contiguous US, such as heavy precipitation, heat and cold waves, conditioned by the state of tropical east Pacific SSTs? Further, do <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnitudes of El Niño and La Niña events exert a unique and particularly strong controlling effect on weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>? Here, we utilize both observations and multi-model large ensemble historical simulations to characterize the behavior of 5-day maximum precipitation distributions. We focus on relations between ENSO impacts on seasonal means and weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and explore the distinction between effects based on ENSO phase and intensity. For the cold season (November to April), overall ENSO impacts on mean precipitation are shown to be consistent with observations. This signal includes enhanced seasonal mean precipitation over the southern part of the U.S. and central Great Plains during El Niño, and enhanced seasonal mean precipitation over the Midwest during La Nina. We further demonstrate how these signals change under the influence of the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ENSO events, conditions that are difficult to verify from observations owing to small sample sizes, but are modeled via large ensemble methods. The statistics of 5-day maximum precipitation, with a focus on 20-year return levels that characterizes rare but potentially damaging events, are examined. We demonstrate substantial differences in changes in the risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 5-day precipitation and the seasonal mean precipitation signal, especially in such regions as California, and the western Great Plains including the Front Range of the Rockies from Montana to New Mexico. The plausibility of such behavior is discussed via physical considerations and by examining the structural uncertainty in such outcomes across three different climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308435"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan</p> <p>2014-08-14</p> <p>Studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1609...34B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1609...34B"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17568257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17568257"><span id="translatedtitle">The incidence of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries in endoscopy nurses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drysdale, Susan A</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Endoscopy nurses are at risk for upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injury because of the nature of their work, yet there has been little attention to this problem in the literature. The purpose of this study was to explore whether endoscopy nurses commonly experience upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries and to identify factors associated with upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries in this population. Results reveal that for this sample, endoscopy nurses working full-time are at the highest risk for injury, suggesting the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of ergonomics in the endoscopy suite. PMID:17568257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6428P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6428P"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winds in Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petersen, Gudrun Nina</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Iceland is a fairly windy country, due to it's location adjacent the North Atlantic storm track. The orography of the island is rugged, mountains are steep and fjords and valleys narrow, and this impacts local winds. Thus, mountain wind phenomena such as low level jets, gap winds, down-slope wind storms, mountain waves and wind wakes are common. To increase our knowledge of the behaviour of wind in Iceland an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value analysis was conducted based on observations from 61 automatic weather stations, applying the Peak Over Threshold technique on maximum daily wind speed and maximum daily wind gust at each site. The time series included at least 10 years of data and the threshold was chosen as the 0.9 quantile of maximum mean wind speed/maximum wind gust at each location. Among the results is the larger impact the local orography has on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind gusts compared to the mean wind. With <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value models in place, a few significant weather events were selected from recent years and the observed wind speeds compared to the models in order to evaluate how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> the events were and how large area they impacted. Actually, in most of these events the observed wind speed only turned out to be <span class="hlt">extreme</span> at a few stations, emphasising the local effects. However, in an event from December 2007, when the observed maximum wind speed exceeded 23 m/s in most of western Iceland, the event was estimated as rare at a number of weather stations. Clearly this gives indication for further studying this particular weather event. An automatic system has been set up, running once an hour, comparing observed wind measurements to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value models and producing maps of the return periods for all sites. This system gives us the possibility to, on a daily basis, evaluate the <span class="hlt">extremeness</span> of each situation and simultaneously increase our knowledge of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind behaviour in Iceland. This work is a foundation for studying changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winds in Iceland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33g5015L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33g5015L"><span id="translatedtitle">Transverse deformations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> horizons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We consider the inverse problem of determining all <span class="hlt">extreme</span> black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124695"><span id="translatedtitle">Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed <span class="hlt">extremities</span>: a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed <span class="hlt">extremities</span> that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very <span class="hlt">important</span> and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology. PMID:12124695</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112317W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112317W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over southern Africa: assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular <span class="hlt">importance</span> for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000044331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000044331"><span id="translatedtitle">On The Bimodality of ENSO Cycle <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Robert M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>On the basis of sea surface temperature in the El Nino 3.4 region (5N.-5S., 120-170W.) during the interval of 1950-1997, Kevin Trenberth previously has identified some 16 El Nino and 10 La Nina, these 26 events representing the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the quasi-periodic El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Runs testing shows that the duration, recurrence period, and sequencing of these <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vary randomly. Hence, the decade of the 1990's, especially for El Nino, is not significantly different from that of previous decadal epochs, at least, on the basis of the frequency of onsets of ENSO <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Additionally, the distribution of duration for both El Nino and La Nina looks strikingly bimodal, each consisting of two preferred modes, about 8- and 16-months long for El Nino and about 9- and 18-months long for La Nina, as does the distribution of the recurrence period for El Nino, consisting of two preferred modes about 21- and 50- mo long. Scatterplots of the recurrence period versus duration for El Nino are found to be statistically <span class="hlt">important</span>, displaying preferential associations that link shorter (longer) duration with shorter (longer) recurrence periods. Because the last onset of El Nino occurred in April 1997 and the event was of longer than average duration, onset of the next anticipated El Nino is not expected until February 2000 or later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032525','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032525"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Bimodality of ENSO Cycle <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Robert M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>On the basis of sea surface temperature in the El Nino 3.4 region (5 deg. N.,-5 deg. S., 120-170 deg. W.) during the interval of 1950-1997, Kevin Trenberth previously has identified some 16 El Nino and 10 La Nina, these 26 events representing the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the quasi-periodic El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Runs testing shows that the duration, recurrence period, and sequencing of these <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vary randomly. Hence, the decade of the 1990's, especially for El Nino, is not significantly different from that of previous decadal epochs, at least, on the basis of the frequency of onsets of ENSO <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Additionally, the distribution of duration for both El Nino and La Nina looks strikingly bimodal, each consisting of two preferred modes, about 8- and 16-mo long for El Nino and about 9- and 18-mo long for La Nina, as does the distribution of the recurrence period for El Nino, consisting of two preferred modes about 21- and 50-mo long. Scatterplots of the recurrence period versus duration for El Nino are found to be statistically <span class="hlt">important</span>, displaying preferential associations that link shorter (longer) duration with shorter (longer) recurrence periods. Because the last onset of El Nino occurred in April 1997 and the event was of longer than average duration, onset of the next anticipated El Nino is not expected until February 2000 or later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6730W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6730W"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic similarity, comparative hydrology and hydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagener, T.; Laaha, G.; Koffler, D.; Singh, R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Recent years have brought a renewed focus on the issue of hydrologic similarity. What makes two catchments similar and what can we do with this understanding? The reason for this issue being so <span class="hlt">important</span> lies at least partially in the need for generalization of results in a scientific field, which is limited through the large heterogeneity in our environment. The issue of hydrologic similarity is of course as old as hydrology itself, however, we believe that taking stock is needed from time to time to guide comparative hydrology efforts that have the potential to bring structure into the field of catchment hydrology. Apart from that, catchment similarity is the rational behind any attempt of predicting streamflow at ungauged basins, and a better understanding and definition of hydrologic similarity will enhance our ability to estimate water resources in absence of stream gauges. In this talk we focus on signatures of hydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, i.e. flood and low flow characteristics of streamflow. Can similarity concepts relate catchment behavior under both high and low flow <span class="hlt">extremes</span>? In how far do our understanding and our predictive capability regarding hydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> benefit from a holistic few of individual catchments, and from a comparative analysis between catchment? We will review different studies and present a meta analysis to highlight the proven and the potential benefit of taking a broader view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901403"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional metagenomics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mirete, Salvador; Morgante, Verónica; González-Pastor, José Eduardo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The bioprospecting of enzymes that operate under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions is of particular interest for many biotechnological and industrial processes. Nevertheless, there is a considerable limitation to retrieve novel enzymes as only a small fraction of microorganisms derived from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions. Functional metagenomics has the advantage of not requiring the cultivation of microorganisms or previous sequence information to known genes, thus representing a valuable approach for mining enzymes with new features. In this review, we summarize studies showing how functional metagenomics was employed to retrieve genes encoding for proteins involved not only in molecular adaptation and resistance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental conditions but also in other enzymatic activities of biotechnological interest. PMID:26901403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.369..181K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.369..181K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> hydrological events and security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Economic losses caused by hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> - floods and droughts - have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security - the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011675','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011675"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Auroral Charging Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Parker, Linda Neergard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The highest level spacecraft charging observed in low Earth orbit (LEO) occurs when spacecraft are exposed to energetic auroral electrons. Since auroral charging has been identified as a mechanism responsible for on-orbit anomalies and even possible satellite failures it is <span class="hlt">important</span> to consider <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral charging events as design and test environments for spacecraft to be used in high inclination LEO orbits. This paper will report on studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral charging events using data from the SSJ/4 and SSJ/5 precipitating electron and ion sensors on the Defense Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. Early studies of DMSP charging to negative potentials =100 V focused on statistics of the electron environment responsible for charging. Later statistical studies of auroral charging have generally focused on solar cycle dependence of charging behavior and magnitude of the maximum potential and duration of the charging events. We extend these studies to focus on more detailed investigations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> charging event characteristics that are required to evaluate potential threats to spacecraft systems. A collection of example auroral charging events is assembled from the DMSP data set using the criteria that "<span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral charging" is defined as periods with spacecraft negative potentials =400 V. Specific characteristics to be treated include (but are not limited to) maximum and mean potentials, time history of spacecraft potentials through the events, total charging duration and the time potentials exceed voltage thresholds, frame charging/discharging rates, and information on geographic and geomagnetic latitudes at which the events are observed. Finally, we will comment on the implications of these studies for potential auroral charging risks to the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3217424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3217424"><span id="translatedtitle">Consequences and Costs of Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Injuries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dischinger, PC; Read, KM; Kufera, JA; Kerns, TJ; Burch, CA; Jawed, N; Ho, SM; Burgess, AR</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes are common and have become relatively more <span class="hlt">important</span> as more drivers with newer occupant restraints survive high-energy crashes. CIREN data provide a greater level of clinical detail based on coding guidelines from the Orthopedic Trauma Association. These detailed data, in conjunction with long-term follow-up data obtained from patient interviews, reveal that the most costly and disabling injuries are those involving articular (joint) surfaces, especially those of the ankle/foot. Patients with such injuries exhibit residual physical and psychosocial problems, even at one year post-trauma. PMID:15319134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149224','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149224"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions Modeling Workshop Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26429298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26429298"><span id="translatedtitle">Expansion of chemical space for collaborative lead generation and drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">the</span> European Lead Factory Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karawajczyk, Anna; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Benningshof, Jorg; Hamza, Daniel; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Pouwer, Kees; Morgentin, Remy; Nelson, Adam; Müller, Gerhard; Piechot, Alexander; Tzalis, Dimitrios</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>High-throughput screening (HTS) represents a major cornerstone of drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>. <span class="hlt">The</span> availability of an innovative, relevant and high-quality compound collection to be screened often dictates the final fate of a drug discovery campaign. Given that the chemical space to be sampled in research programs is practically infinite and sparsely populated, significant efforts and resources need to be invested in the generation and maintenance of a competitive compound collection. The European Lead Factory (ELF) project is addressing this challenge by leveraging the diverse experience and know-how of academic groups and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) engaged in synthetic and/or medicinal chemistry. Here, we describe the novelty, diversity, structural complexity, physicochemical characteristics and overall attractiveness of this first batch of ELF compounds for HTS purposes. PMID:26429298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC22D..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC22D..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Representing <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Events and Resolving Their Implications for Yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huybers, P. J.; Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although it is well recognized that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures occurring at particular growth stages are destructive to yield, there appears substantial scope for improved empirical assessment and simulation of the relationship between temperature and yield. Several anecdotes are discussed. First, a statistical analysis of historical U.S. <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures is provided. It is demonstrated that both reanalysis and model simulations significantly differ from near-surface temperature observations in the frequency and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. This finding supports empirical assessment using near-surface instrumental records and underscores present difficulties in simulating past and predicting future changes. Second, an analysis of the implications of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures on U.S. maize yield is provided where the response is resolved regionally and according to growth stage. Sensitivity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures during silking is found to be uniformly high across the U.S., but the response during grain filling varies spatially, with higher sensitivity in the North. This regional and growth-stage dependent sensitivity implies the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of representing cultivar, planting times, and development rates, and is also indicative of the potential for future changes according to the combined effects of climate and technology. Finally, interaction between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures and agriculture is indicated by analysis showing that historical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures in the U.S. Midwest have cooled in relation to changes in regional productivity, possibly because of greater potential for cooling through evapotranspiration. This interpretation is consistent with changes in crop physiology and management, though also noteworthy is that the moderating influence of increased evapotranspiration on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures appears to be lost during severe drought. Together, these findings indicate that a more accurate assessment of the historical relationship between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures and yield</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651739','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651739"><span id="translatedtitle">Removing obstacles in neuroscience drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>: <span class="hlt">The</span> future path for animal models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Markou, Athina; Chiamulera, Christian; Geyer, Mark A.; Tricklebank, Mark; Steckler, Thomas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Despite great advances in basic neuroscience knowledge, the improved understanding of brain functioning has not yet led to the introduction of truly novel pharmacological approaches to the treatment of central nervous system disorders. This situation has been partly attributed to the difficulty of predicting efficacy in patients based on results from preclinical studies. To address these issues, this review critically discusses the traditional role of animal models in drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>, <span class="hlt">the</span> difficulties encountered, and the reasons why this approach has led to suboptimal utilization of the information animal models provide. The discussion focuses on how animal models can contribute most effectively to translational medicine and drug discovery and the changes needed to increase the probability of achieving clinical benefit. Emphasis is placed on the need to improve the flow of information from the clinical/human domain to the preclinical domain and the benefits of using truly translational measures in both preclinical and clinical testing. Few would dispute the need to move away from the concept of modeling CNS diseases in their entirety using animals. However, the current emphasis on specific dimensions of psychopathology that can be objectively assessed in both clinical populations and animal models has not yet provided concrete examples of successful preclinical-clinical translation in CNS drug <span class="hlt">discovery</span>. <span class="hlt">The</span> purpose of this review is to strongly encourage ever more intensive clinical and preclinical interactions to ensure that basic science knowledge gained from improved animal models with good predictive and construct validity readily becomes available to the pharmaceutical industry and clinical researchers to benefit patients as quickly as possible. PMID:18830240</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.7378M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.7378M"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent spatiotemporal patterns in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> across conterminous United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutiibwa, Denis; Vavrus, Steven J.; McAfee, Stephanie A.; Albright, Thomas P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>With a warming climate, understanding the physical dynamics of hot and cold <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events has taken on increased <span class="hlt">importance</span> for public health, infrastructure, ecosystems, food security, and other domains. Here we use a high-resolution spatial and temporal seamless gridded land surface forcing data set to provide an assessment of recent spatiotemporal patterns in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the conterminous United States (CONUS). We asked the following: (1) How are temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> changing across the different regions of CONUS? (2) How do changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vary on seasonal, annual, and decadal scales? (3) How do changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relate to changes in mean conditions? And (4) do <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relate to major modes of ocean-atmosphere variability? We derive a subset of the CLIMDEX <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices from the North American Land Data Assimilation phase 2 forcing data set. While there were warming trends in all indices, daytime temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> warmed more than nighttime. Spring warming was the strongest and most extensive across CONUS, and summer experienced the strongest and most extensive decrease in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Increase in winter warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> appeared weakening relative to the rapid 1950-1990 increase found in previous studies. The Northeast and Midwest experienced the most warming, while the Northwest and North Great Plains saw the least. We found changes in average temperatures were more associated with changes in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Since 2006 there have been 5 years when more than 5% of the U.S. experienced at least 90 warm days, something not observed in the previous 25 years. The unusually warm first decade of 21st century could have been associated with the warm conditions of near El Niño-Southern Oscillation-neutral phase of the decade, and possibly amplified by anthropogenic forcing. The widespread, lengthy, and severe <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hot events documented here during the past three decades underscore the need to implement thoughtful</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844819"><span id="translatedtitle">Tetrasulfide <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure lubricant additives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.</p> <p>1980-08-19</p> <p>A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6045789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6045789"><span id="translatedtitle">Applied <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-value statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kinnison, R.R.</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>The statistical theory of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047465"><span id="translatedtitle">How Cells Endure <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>One of natures most gripping feats of survival is now better understood. For the first time, Berkeley Lab scientists observed the chemical changes in individual cells that enable them to survive in conditions that should kill them. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/07/cells-endure-<span class="hlt">extremes</span>/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..443I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..443I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation: Increases all round</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ingram, William</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Globally, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall is expected to increase with warming, but regional changes over land have been less certain. Now research shows that this intense precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..077B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...04..077B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> higher spin black holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole <span class="hlt">extremality</span> which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of <span class="hlt">extremality</span> does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all <span class="hlt">extremal</span> solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-<span class="hlt">extremal</span> supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to <span class="hlt">extremal</span> black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNG14A..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNG14A..06K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Networks and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurths, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We analyse some climate dynamics from a complex network approach. This leads to an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. Moreover, we evaluate different regional climate models from this aspect. This concept is also applied to Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rain events and its impact on predictability. Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in magnitude and frequency of spatially extensive <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events in the eastern Central Andes of South America. These events impose substantial natural hazards for population, economy, and ecology by floods and landslides. For example, heavy floods in Bolivia in early 2007 affected more than 133.000 households and produced estimated costs of 443 Mio. USD. Here, we develop a general framework to predict <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events by combining a non-linear synchronization technique with complex networks. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and are able to predict a large amount of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events. Our study reveals a linkage between polar and subtropical regimes as responsible mechanism: <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> rainfall in the eastern Central Andes is caused by the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics, providing additional moisture. Frontal systems from the Antarctic thus play a key role for sub-seasonal variability of the South American Monsoon System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6352251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6352251"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance testing of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harty, R.; Reece, W.D.; Hooker, C.D.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>The Health Physics Society Standing Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the <span class="hlt">extremities</span> and the performance criterion used to determine compliance. The draft standard has been evaluated by testing the performance of existing processors of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters against the standard's proposed criterion. The proposed performance criterion is: absolute value of B + S less than or equal to 0.35, where B is the bias (calculated as the average of the performance quotients) of 15 dosimeter measurements and S is the standard deviation of the performance quotients. Dosimeter performance was tested in seven irradiation categories: low-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), high-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), beta particles, neutrons, and a mixture category. Twenty-one types of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters (both finger ring and wrist/ankle dosimeters) were received from 11 processors. The dosimeters were irradiated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to specific dose levels in one or more of the seven categories as specified in the draft standard and were returned to the processors. The processors evaluated the doses and returned the results to PNL for analysis. The results were evaluated against the performance criterion specified in the draft standard. The results indicate that approximately 60% of both the finger ring and the wrist/ankle dosimeters met the performance criterion. Two-thirds of the dosimeters that did not meet the performance criterion had large biases (ranging from 0.25 to 0.80) but small standard deviations (less than 0.15). 21 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046955&hterms=Big+bang+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Big%2Bbang%2529%2Btheory%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046955&hterms=Big+bang+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Big%2Bbang%2529%2Btheory%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Universe Space Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This talk will describe the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Lorentz factors.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1484F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1484F"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events in the North Atlantic Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franzke, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">important</span> part of European weather and climate are storms. European winter storms cause economic damage and insurance losses on the order of billions of Euro per year. European winter storms rank as the second highest cause of global natural catastrophe insurance loss. Many of these hazard events are not independent; for instance, severe storms can occur in trains of storms. Recent examples of such subsequently occurring storms include January 2008 (Paula and Resi) and March 2008 (Emma, Johanna and Kirsten). Each of these trains of storms caused damages on the order of ~€1bn. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value statistics are based on the premise that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are iid but this is rarely the case in natural systems where <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events tend to cluster. Thus, no account is taken of memory and correlation that characterise many natural time series; this fundamentally limits our ability to forecast and to estimate return periods of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. In my presentation I will discuss two possible causes of this clustering: (i) The propensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events to depend on large-scale circulation regimes and (ii) the long-range correlation properties of surface windspeeds enhances the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events to cluster. These two characteristics affect the return periods of atmospheric <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and thus insurance pricing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111548B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111548B"><span id="translatedtitle">The Meteorological and Fire <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of California 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, T.; Abatzoglou, J.; Snook, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The California wildfires beginning in June 2008 were historic in the way that four <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events synergized to cause the most geographically extensive, lengthy, and costly fire and smoke event to impact a single state to date. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> dry conditions during the spring and early summer produced plentiful dry fuels. Then beginning on 20 June, an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event of over 5,500 lightning strikes occurred--rare for both the sheer number and time of year. These strikes caused more than 1000 fire starts over a two-day period, an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> number of starts for a limited geographic area and the short period of time. Because of limited suppression resources available in the face of an overwhelming number of natural caused fires, many fires became large conflagrations and produced substantial amounts of smoke. Shortly after the fires began, a persistent atmospheric circulation pattern led to long sequences of non-mixing days, which also was a rare condition for the time of year. This situation led to substantial surface smoke, and subsequent visibility and human health impacts. The <span class="hlt">importance</span> of identifying and discussing this event in part is the nature of these <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and how they fit into the emerging global picture of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fire and societal impacts. This presentation provides details on the climate and weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> related to the California fires of 2008, and a discussion of impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468855','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468855"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> multifunctional proteins identified from a human protein interaction network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chapple, Charles E.; Robisson, Benoit; Spinelli, Lionel; Guien, Céline; Becker, Emmanuelle; Brun, Christine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Moonlighting proteins are a subclass of multifunctional proteins whose functions are unrelated. Although they may play <span class="hlt">important</span> roles in cells, there has been no large-scale method to identify them, nor any effort to characterize them as a group. Here, we propose the first method for the identification of ‘<span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional' proteins from an interactome as a first step to characterize moonlighting proteins. By combining network topological information with protein annotations, we identify 430 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional proteins (3% of the human interactome). We show that the candidates form a distinct sub-group of proteins, characterized by specific features, which form a signature of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctionality. Overall, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional proteins are enriched in linear motifs and less intrinsically disordered than network hubs. We also provide MoonDB, a database containing information on all the candidates identified in the analysis and a set of manually curated human moonlighting proteins. PMID:26054620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.7709M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.7709M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A global quantification of compound precipitation and wind <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martius, Olivia; Pfahl, Stephan; Chevalier, Clément</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The concomitant occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and winds can have severe impacts. Here this concomitant occurrence is quantified globally using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. A logistic regression model is used to determine significant changes in the odds of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> given a wind <span class="hlt">extreme</span> that occurs on the same day, the day before, or the day after. High percentages of cooccurring wind and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are found in coastal regions and in areas with frequent tropical cyclones, with maxima of more than 50% of concomitant events. Strong regional-scale variations in this percentage are related to the interaction of weather systems with topography resulting in Föhn winds, gap winds, and orographic drying and the structure and tracks of extratropical and tropical cyclones. The percentage of concomitant events increases substantially if spatial shifts by one grid point are taken into account. Such spatially shifted but cooccurring events are <span class="hlt">important</span> in insurance applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Chaos..22a3139C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Chaos..22a3139C"><span id="translatedtitle">Network <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalue: From mutimodal to scale-free networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.; Lai, C. H.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalues of adjacency matrices are <span class="hlt">important</span> indicators on the influence of topological structures to the collective dynamical behavior of complex networks. Recent findings on the ensemble averageability of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalue have further authenticated its applicability to the study of network dynamics. However, the ensemble average of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalue has only been solved analytically up to the second order correction. Here, we determine the ensemble average of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> eigenvalue and characterize its deviation across the ensemble through the discrete form of random scale-free network. Remarkably, the analytical approximation derived from the discrete form shows significant improvement over previous results, which implies a more accurate prediction of the epidemic threshold. In addition, we show that bimodal networks, which are more robust against both random and targeted removal of nodes, are more vulnerable to the spreading of diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22165585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22165585"><span id="translatedtitle">[Prehospital care in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> major vascular injuries].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samokhvallov, I M; Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Seleznev, A B</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The problem of temporary hemorrhage control is one of the most <span class="hlt">important</span> issues of modern war surgery and surgery of trauma. It is a review of literature devoted to prehospital care in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> major vascular injuries, embraced up-to-date domestic materials as well as the modern foreign papers in this area. The most <span class="hlt">important</span> historical landmarks of temporary hemorrhage control system are considered. We paid special attention to the most usable methods and means of hemorrhage control which are utilized at the modern time: pressure bandages, tourniquets, local haemostatic agents. The comprehensive analysis of the contamporary haemostatic means concerning U.S. Army has done. The experience of foreign colleagues in development of prehospital care for the injured, creation and progress of new haemostatic methods, application of temporary hemorrhage control system is analyzed. PMID:22165585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.288P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.288P"><span id="translatedtitle">Credibility of statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pop, L.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>This paper deals with credibility of statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed. The work has been done in the framework of Project KJB300420905 - Analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed in the Czech Republic (2009-2011, AV0/KJ). Statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed is based on the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> types theorem. The theorem states that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values converge to so-called Generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV). Depending on one parameter, usually called k, the distribution is usually called Fréchet (k > 0), Gumbel (k = 0) or Weibull (k < 0). Using upper tail of these distributions, it is simple to estimate wind speed with return period N years. The most <span class="hlt">important</span> value for technical applications is the case N = 50. Fréchet distribution has an upper limit, while Gumbel and Weibull distributions have not. Consequently, Fréchet distribution is considered not to be suitable for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed applications, because there is no physical reason for such an upper limit However, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed based on Fréchet distribution enables arbitrary high upper tail of distribution, so the previous reason is by not sufficient for excllusion of the distribution from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind modeling by some authors. The most applied method is Gumbel distribution. There is not any theoretical reason for this fact. But the value of wind speed with return period of 50 years is strongly affected by thickness of right tail of GEV distribution and, consequently, by value of parameter k. Limitation of Gumbell distribution is keeping this value equal to zero, so estimated values of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind are expected to be less scattered. <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> types theorem has two presumptions: stationarity and <span class="hlt">extremity</span> of modeled data. Stationarity strongly depends on quality of the measured data, however this issue will not be addressed here. Instead we will suppose that all measured data are of good quality Other problems preventing stationarity are due to time correlations of wind speed. Possible reasons are as follows: 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872784','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872784"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4906649','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4906649"><span id="translatedtitle">On causality of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in one element correspond to the appearance of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873452','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873452"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713888R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713888R"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2014 Silba Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extreme</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasol, Dubravka; Ólafsson, Haraldur</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>On 30 July 2014 a 24 h precipitation record of 218 mm was set at the island of Silba in the N-Adriatic Sea. The precipitation was of convective nature and significantly less precipitation was recorded only small distances away, at the coast of mainland Croatia. The event is reproduced numerically and discussed in terms of dynamics and predictability. On a large scale, the precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> was associated with a slow-moving upper tropospheric low that formed over the N-Atlantic several days earlier. At lower levels, there were humid mediterranean airmasses. On a smaller scale, there are indications that the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> convection may have been triggered by an orographic disturbance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920034468&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920034468&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welsh, Barry Y.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) is a NASA astronomy mission which will operate in the 70-760A spectral band. The science payload consists of three grazing incidence scanning telescopes and an EUV spectrometer/deep survey instrument. An overview of the planned mission profile is given, and the instrumentation which comprises the science payload is discussed. The EUVE is scheduled for launch in late August 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658738"><span id="translatedtitle">[Genes for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violent behaviour?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jordan, Bertrand</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new genetic study focussing on the degree of violence in criminals and using both candidate gene and GWAS approaches finds statistically significant associations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violent behaviour with low activity alleles of monoamine oxydase A (MAOA) and with the CD13 gene. However, the alleles implicated are common in the general population, thus they cannot be causal, and only represent potential indicators of increased risk. PMID:25658738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..725T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..725T"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven <span class="hlt">extremes</span> because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such <span class="hlt">extremes</span> unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11932219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11932219"><span id="translatedtitle">Paediatric personnel <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dose study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallet, J M C; Reed, M H</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Concern has been expressed in paediatric radiology regarding the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dose received by attending personnel during routine fluoroscopic procedures and CT. Common procedures that may be of short duration in adults can be quite the opposite in paediatric patients. The <span class="hlt">extremities</span> of attending personnel are more likely to be exposed to the primary beam and for a longer period of time owing to a variety of reasons such as assisting in the procedure or physically restraining the patient during the examination. During the period mid 1998 to mid 2000, two paediatric radiologists, four senior radiographers and two paediatric nurses were monitored using ring thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Each participant wore the ring TLD on either the left or right ring finger, depending on which hand the individual favoured. Left/right asymmetrical studies were not conducted, nor were records kept of whether an examination used a grid or gridless technique. Initial apprehension about higher paediatric fluoroscopic and CT <span class="hlt">extremity</span> doses was dispelled as a result of this quantitative dosimetric study. PMID:11932219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..04R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events and global crop production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ray, D. K.; Gerber, J. S.; West, P. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events can lead to significant loss in crop production and even trigger global price spikes. However it is still not clear where exactly and what types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have resulted in sharp declines in crop production. Neither is it clear how frequently such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have resulted in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> crop production losses. Using <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event metrics with a newly developed high resolution and long time series of crop statistics database we identify the frequency and type of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event driven crop production losses globally at high resolutions. In this presentation we will present our results as global maps identifying the frequency and type of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events that resulted in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> crop production losses and quantify the losses. Understanding how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events affects crop production is critical for managing risk in the global food system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1086639','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1086639"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Instrumentation for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger; Fugate, David L</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988638"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcomes for <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110357"><span id="translatedtitle">Moving in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments: <span class="hlt">extreme</span> loading; carriage versus distance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W; Goldman, Ralph F; Cotter, James D</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses <span class="hlt">extreme</span> duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may be at least as problematic, and are therefore included as a reference, e.g. when considering exposure, dangers and (mal)adaptations. As per the other reviews in this series, we describe the nature of the stress and the associated consequences; illustrate relevant regulations, including why and how they are set; present the pros and cons for self versus prescribed acute and chronic exposure; describe humans' (mal)adaptations; and finally suggest future directions for practice and research. In summary, we describe adaptation patterns that are often U or J shaped and that over time minimal or no load carriage decreases the global load carrying capacity and eventually leads to severe adverse effects and manifest disease under minimal absolute but high relative loads. We advocate that further understanding of load carrying capacity and the inherent mechanisms leading to adverse effects may advantageously be studied in this perspective. With improved access to insightful and portable technologies, there are some exciting possibilities to explore these questions in this context. PMID:27110357</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESS.....320204R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESS.....320204R"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> planetary system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raetz, Stefanie; Schmidt, Tobias O. B.; Briceno, Cesar; Neuhäuser, Ralph</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Almost 500 planet host stars are already known to be surrounded by more than one planet. Most of them (except HR8799) are old and all planets were found with the same or similar detection method.We present an unique planetary system. For the first time, a close in transiting and a wide directly imaged planet are found to orbit a common host star which is a low mass member of a young open cluster. The inner candidate is the first possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star and was detected in our international monitoring campaign of young stellar clusters. The transit shape is changing between different observations and the transit even disappears and reappears. This unusual transit behaviour can be explained by a precessing planet transiting a gravity-darkened star.The outer candidate was discovered in the course of our direct imaging survey with NACO at ESO/VLT. Both objects are consistent with a <5 Jupiter mass planet. With ~2.4 Myrs it is among the youngest exoplanet systems. Both planets orbit its star in very <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. The inner planet is very close to its Roche limiting orbital radius while the outer planet is far away from its host star at a distance of ~660 au. The detailed analysis will provide <span class="hlt">important</span> constraints on planet formation and migration time-scales and their relation to protoplanetary disc lifetimes. Furthermore, this system with two planets on such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> orbits gives us the opportunity to study the possible outcome of planet-planet scattering theories for the first time by observations.I will report on our monitoring and photometric follow-up observations as well as on the direct detection and the integral field spectroscopy of this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> planetary system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..537..117T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..537..117T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating multimodal seasonality in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tye, Mari R.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.; Stephenson, David B.; Kilsby, Christopher G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Floods pose multi-dimensional hazards to critical infrastructure and society and these hazards may increase under climate change. While flood conditions are dependent on catchment type and soil conditions, seasonal precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> also play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role. The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events driving flood occurrence may arrive non-uniformly in time. In addition, their seasonal and inter-annual patterns may also cause sequences of several events and enhance likely flood responses. Spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrence are characterized across the UK. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> and very heavy daily precipitation is not uniformly distributed throughout the year, but exhibits spatial differences, arising from the relative proximity to the North Atlantic Ocean or North Sea. Periods of weeks or months are identified during which <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrences are most likely to occur, with some regions of the UK displaying multimodal seasonality. A Generalized Additive Model is employed to simulate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrences over the UK from 1901 to 2010 and to allow robust statistical testing of temporal changes in the seasonal distribution. Simulations show that seasonality has the strongest correlation with intra-annual variations in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event occurrence, while Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) have the strongest correlation with inter-annual variations. The north and west of the UK are dominated by MSLP in the mid-North Atlantic and the south and east are dominated by local SST. All regions now have a higher likelihood of autumnal <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation than earlier in the twentieth century. This equates to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurring earlier in the autumn in the north and west, and later in the autumn in the south and east. The change in timing is accompanied by increases in the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation occurrences during the autumn, and in the number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4754907','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4754907"><span id="translatedtitle">A universal mechanism of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and critical phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, J. H.; Jia, Q.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and critical phenomena is of <span class="hlt">importance</span> because they can have inquisitive scientific impact and profound socio-economic consequences. Here we show a universal mechanism describing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events along with critical phenomena and derive a general expression of the probability distribution without concerning the physical details of individual events or critical properties. The general probability distribution unifies most <span class="hlt">important</span> distributions in the field and demonstrates improved performance. The shape and symmetry of the general distribution is determined by the parameters of the fluctuations. Our work sheds judicious insights into the dynamical processes of complex systems with practical significance and provides a general approach of studying <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and critical episodes in a combined and multidisciplinary scheme. PMID:26880219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4544S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4544S"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex network analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation over the Indian subcontinent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stolbova, Veronika; Kurths, Jürgen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Indian monsoon is a large scale pattern in the climate system of the Earth. The motivation of our work was to reveal spatial structures in strong precipitation over the Indian subcontinent, and their evolution during the year, because it is crucial as for understanding of monsoon regularities as well for India's agriculture and economy. We present an analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall over the Indian peninsula and Sri Lanka. Using the method of event synchronization we constructed networks of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events(heavier than the 90-th percentile) for three time periods: during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM, June-September), the Northeast monsoon (NEM, October - December, so called winter monsoon) and period before the summer monsoon (January - May). Obtained networks show how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall for specific areas in India is synchronized with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall for other areas in India. Analysis of degree centrality of the networks reveals clusters of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events in India which are strongly connected to maximal number of other areas with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events, e.g., North Pakistan and the Eastern Ghats. Additionally, betweenness centrality shows areas that are <span class="hlt">important</span> in the sense of water transport in the networks (e.g. the Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats etc.). By comparison of networks before the summer monsoon, during summer and winter monsoon season we determined how spatial patterns of rainfalls synchronization change during the year. These changes play a crucial role in the organization of the rainfall all over the Indian subcontinent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24601952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24601952"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant volatiles in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> terrestrial and marine environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have <span class="hlt">important</span> roles in stress resistance and adaptation to <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. PMID:24601952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520917"><span id="translatedtitle">To the limit of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> malnutrition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frølich, Jacob; Palm, Camilla Viola Buskbjerg; Støving, Rene K</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> malnutrition with body mass index (BMI) as low as 10 kg/m(2) is not uncommon in anorexia nervosa, with survival enabled through complex metabolic adaptations. In contrast, outcomes from hunger strikes and famines are usually fatal after weight loss to about 40% below expected body weight, corresponding to BMI 12 to 13 kg/m(2) in adults. Thus, many years of adaptation in adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa, supported by supplements of vitamins and treatment of intercurrent diseases, may allow survival at a much lower BMI. However, in the literature only a few cases of survival in patients with BMI <9 kg/m(2) have been described. We report on the case of a 29-y-old woman who was successfully treated in a specialized unit. She had a BMI of 7.8 kg/m(2). To our knowledge, this level of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> malnutrition has not previously been reported. The present case emphasizes the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of adherence to guidelines to decrease refeeding complications. PMID:26520917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B23A0926S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B23A0926S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, C.; D'Antoni, H.; Burgess, S.; Zamora, J.; Skiles, J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The upper timberline of the Andes Cordillera on the island of Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America is an environment subject to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In order to further understand this environment, ecosystem parameters were measured within two transects of the Andes at Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco. The measurements included pH, soil temperature, soil moisture, nitrogen, sodium and potassium concentration, chlorophyll absorbance, and irradiance in the ultraviolet range (200-400 nm). These data comprise a survey that serves as a baseline for an intensive research program. Chlorophyll concentration and soil data were within the range of our observations at several other sites, from Lapataia Bay on the southwestern boundary with Chile, through the eastern end of Lake Fagnano. However, unusual levels of solar irradiance were found in the open sites of both transects while those in the forest exhibited lower UV values, suggesting strong absorption and/or reflection by the forest canopy. High levels of UV radiation damage <span class="hlt">important</span> biomolecules and may be partially responsible for the presence of life forms such as the krummholz belt in the upper timberline. These UV values may be due to the effects of global ozone depletion and the ozone hole. The low temperatures, strong winds, snow and ice-covered soil and especially the exposure to UV radiation make this area an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environment for life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3448M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3448M"><span id="translatedtitle">Is climate change modifying precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanari, Alberto; Papalexiou, Simon Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The title of the present contribution is a relevant question that is frequently posed to scientists, technicians and managers of local authorities. Although several research efforts were recently dedicated to rainfall observation, analysis and modelling, the above question remains essentially unanswered. The question comes from the awareness that the frequency of floods and the related socio-economic impacts are increasing in many countries, and climate change is deemed to be the main trigger. Indeed, identifying the real reasons for the observed increase of flood risk is necessary in order to plan effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. While mitigation of climate change is an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> <span class="hlt">important</span> issue at the global level, at small spatial scales several other triggers may interact with it, therefore requiring different mitigation strategies. Similarly, the responsibilities of administrators are radically different at local and global scales. This talk aims to provide insights and information to address the question expressed by its title. High resolution and long term rainfall data will be presented, as well as an analysis of the frequency of their <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and its progress in time. The results will provide pragmatic indications for the sake of better planning flood risk mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010460','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010460"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiberoptic characteristics for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> operating environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delcher, R. C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Fiberoptics could offer several major benefits for cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines, including lightning immunity, weight reduction, and the possibility of implementing a number of new measurements for engine condition monitoring. The technical feasibility of using fiberoptics in the severe environments posed by cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines was determined. The issues of <span class="hlt">importance</span> and subsequent requirements for this use of fiberoptics were compiled. These included temperature ranges, moisture embrittlement succeptability, and the ability to withstand <span class="hlt">extreme</span> shock and vibration levels. Different types of optical fibers were evaluated and several types of optical fibers' ability to withstand use in cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines was demonstrated through environmental testing of samples. This testing included: cold-bend testing, moisture embrittlement testing, temperature cycling, temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> testing, vibration testing, and shock testing. Three of five fiber samples withstood the tests to a level proving feasibility, and two of these remained intact in all six of the tests. A fiberoptic bundle was also tested, and completed testing without breakage. Preliminary cabling and harnessing for fiber protection was also demonstrated. According to cable manufacturers, the successful -300 F cold bend, vibration, and shock tests are the first instance of any major fiberoptic cable testing below roughly -55 F. This program has demonstrated the basic technical feasibility of implementing optical fibers on cryogenic liquid-fueled rocket engines, and a development plan is included highlighting requirements and issues for such an implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.7746G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.7746G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of WRF <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation over Alaska using self-organizing maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glisan, Justin M.; Gutowski, William J.; Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Seefeldt, Mark W.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We analyze daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from simulations of a polar-optimized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Simulations cover 19 years and use the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) domain. We focus on Alaska because of its proximity to the Pacific and Arctic oceans; both provide large moisture fetch inland. Alaska's topography also has <span class="hlt">important</span> impacts on orographically forced precipitation. We use self-organizing maps (SOMs) to understand circulation characteristics conducive for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. The SOM algorithm employs an artificial neural network that uses an unsupervised training process, which results in finding general patterns of circulation behavior. The SOM is trained with mean sea level pressure (MSLP) anomalies. Widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, defined as at least 25 grid points experiencing 99th percentile precipitation, are examined using SOMs. Widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days are mapped onto the SOM of MSLP anomalies, indicating circulation patterns. SOMs aid in determining high-frequency nodes, and hence, circulations are conducive to <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Multiple circulation patterns are responsible for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days, which are differentiated by where <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events occur in Alaska. Additionally, several meteorological fields are composited for nodes accessed by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and nonextreme events to determine specific conditions necessary for a widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event. Individual and adjacent node composites produce more physically reasonable circulations as opposed to composites of all <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, which include multiple synoptic regimes. Temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is also traced through SOM space. Thus, this analysis lays the groundwork for diagnosing differences in atmospheric circulations and their associated widespread, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885374','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885374"><span id="translatedtitle">Materials Response under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Remington, B A; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S; McNaney, J M</p> <p>2005-10-06</p> <p>Solid state experiments at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures, 10-100 GPa (0.1-1 Mbar) and strain rates (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities. The goal is an experimental capability to test constitutive models for high-pressure, solid-state strength for a variety of materials. Relevant constitutive models are discussed, and our progress in developing a quasi-isentropic, ramped-pressure, shockless drive is given. Designs to test the constitutive models with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042320','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042320"><span id="translatedtitle">Communication path for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002012','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002012"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..06M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events: The Indian Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murty, K. S.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The geographical situation of India is such that it experiences varied types of climate in different parts of the country and invariably the natural events, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and normal, would affect such areas that are prone to them. Cyclones hit the eastern coast, while floods affect mostly northern India, while earthquakes hit any part of the country, particuarly when itbecame evident after the 1967 earthquake of Koyna that the peninsular part toois prone to seismic events. The National Commission on Floods estimated that nearly 40 millionn hectares of land is prone to flooding, which could rise to60 million soon. The cropped area thus affected annually is about 10 millionhectares. On an average 1500 lives are lost during floods annually, while the damage to property could run into billions of dollars. The total loss on account of floods damage to crops is estimated at about Rs 53,000 crores(crore= 100 lakhs), during the period 1953-1998. The other <span class="hlt">extreme</span> natural event is drought which affects large parts of the country, except the northeast. Both floods and droughts can hit different parts of the country during the same period. The 2001 earthquake that hit Gujarat is perhaps the severest and studies on that event are still in progress. The 2004 tsunami which hit large parts of southeast Asia did not spare India. Its southern coast was battered and many lives were lost. In fact some geogrphic landmarks were lost, while some of the cities have suffered a shift in their position. It was estimated that about 1.2 billion dollars were required ro meet the rehabilitation and relief measures. The seismic zone map of India thus had to be revised more often than before. Apart from these, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall has also caused floods in urban areas as in Mumbai in 2005, but this was mostly because of lack of proper drainage system and the existing system proved ineffective. Human hand in such cases is evident. There are systems working to forecast floods, cyclones, and droughts, though</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SoPh..291.1447V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SoPh..291.1447V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present the first large statistical study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113664W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113664W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over southern Africa: Assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C. J. R.; Kniveton, D. R.; Layberry, R.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular <span class="hlt">importance</span> for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate provides some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270539','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270539"><span id="translatedtitle">Will <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climatic events facilitate biological invasions?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27065539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27065539"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of RFID technology-upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation training.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation after an injury is very <span class="hlt">important</span>. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span> to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> show that the RFID-based upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034288','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034288"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zimmermann, N.E.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Meier, E.S.; Thuiller, W.; Guisan, A.; Schmatz, D.R.; Pearman, P.B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Understanding niche evolution, dynamics, and the response of species to climate change requires knowledge of the determinants of the environmental niche and species range limits. Mean values of climatic variables are often used in such analyses. In contrast, the increasing frequency of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> suggests the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (i.e., interannual variability in climate parameters) explain and predict spatial patterns of 11 tree species in Switzerland. We find clear, although comparably small, improvement (+20% in adjusted D2, +8% and +3% in cross-validated True Skill Statistic and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values) in models that use measures of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in addition to means. The primary effect of including information on climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a correction of local overprediction and underprediction. Our results demonstrate that measures of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are <span class="hlt">important</span> for understanding the climatic limits of tree species and assessing species niche characteristics. The inclusion of climate variability likely will improve models of species range limits under future conditions, where changes in mean climate and increased variability are expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4793003','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4793003"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of RFID technology—upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation training</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation after an injury is very <span class="hlt">important</span>. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span> to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> show that the RFID-based upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=waterfall&pg=2&id=EJ870658','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=waterfall&pg=2&id=EJ870658"><span id="translatedtitle">Dancing with Nature: Rhythm and Harmony in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Sport Participation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brymer, Eric; Gray, Tonia</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Research on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sports has downplayed the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of the athletes' connection to the natural world. This neglect stems, in part, from the assumption that these activities derive their meaning primarily from risk. The authors' long-term research reveals that the interplay between adventure athletes and the natural world is, in fact, crucial…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.3138C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.3138C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> wave runup on a vertical cliff</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carbone, Francesco; Dutykh, Denys; Dudley, John M.; Dias, FréDéRic</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Wave impact and runup onto vertical obstacles are among the most <span class="hlt">important</span> phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know that the wave amplitude on a vertical wall is twice the incident wave amplitude with weakly nonlinear theories bringing small corrections to this result. In this present study, however, we show that certain simple wave groups may produce much higher runups than previously predicted, with particular incident wave frequencies resulting in runup heights exceeding the initial wave amplitude by a factor of 5, suggesting that the notion of the design wave used in coastal structure design may need to be revisited. The results presented in this study can be considered as a note of caution for practitioners, on one side, and as a challenging novel material for theoreticians who work in the field of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wave-coastal structure interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..964A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..964A"><span id="translatedtitle">Two Architectural Practices for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azim Sharifloo, Amir; Saffarian, Amir S.; Shams, Fereidoon</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> programming (XP) is one of the <span class="hlt">important</span> agile methods and is being used widely. Although XP itself is quite new, many of the practices utilized by it have been around for some time. The most controversial aspect of XP is the change management aspect of the process. In XP, the on-site customer requests the changes informally, often by verbally informing the development team. In spite of all benefits known about XP, it does not involve architectural techniques that are necessary to expect acceptable level of quality for the system being developed. This paper introduces two practices in order to empower XP's development process toward improving system's architecture. The main characteristic of proposed solution is that it is derived from values and practices of XP so as to be compatible with this process model and to keep its agility intact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6444709','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6444709"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital subtraction angiography in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> trauma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goodman, P.C.; Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) may have considerable impact on the work-up of patients who have suffered trauma. The angiographic evaluation of vascular injuries can be accomplished rapidly and with minimal catheter use and manipulation, which is particularly <span class="hlt">important</span> for those critically ill patients who have significant immobility because of multiple fractures. The authors retrospectively reviewed the digital subtraction angiograms in 50 consecutive cases of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> trauma. The quality of the images in 44 of these permitted a confident diagnosis, the accuracy of which was confirmed by surgical or clinical follow-up. DSA reduces the time required to perform the procedure, the amount of contrast material injected, patient discomfort, and film cost. Its major disadvantage is the limited field size of the image intensifier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992seit.proc..284L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992seit.proc..284L"><span id="translatedtitle">Dome cities for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leonard, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Milton</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> environments whether they be the frigid nights of the polar regions, the burning sands of the desert, or the harsh environment of space pose interesting challenges to the architect, the engineer, and the constructor in their efforts to create habitats for mankind. In space, the goals are to provide radiation protection while also providing an aesthetic living environment for long duration missions. Because of the need to provide both radiation protection and options for expansion of base facilities, a unique structural system which separates the radiation protection systems from the pressure envelope of the habitats was created. The system uses cable networks in a tensioned structural system, which supports the lunar regolith used for shielding above the facilities. The system is modular, easily expandable, and simple to construct. Additional innovations include the use of rock melting perpetrators for piles and anchoring deadmen, and various sized craters to provide side shielding. The reflective properties of the fabric used in the membrane are utilized to provide diffuse illumination. The use of craters along with the suspended shielding allows the dome to be utilized in fashions similar to those proposed by various designers unaware of the Moon's hostile radiation environment. Additional topics addressed deal with construction techniques for large domes, i.e., on the order of 100's to 1000's of meters, thermal control, the integration of tertiary water treatment schemes with architectural design, human factors, and its implications for the design of habitats for long term use in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1510624S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1510624S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of Quasar Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, Daniel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Variability is one of the key observational properties of quasars, and it can be used as a probe of their fueling, physics, and evolution. A new generation of synoptic sky surveys, in combination with the novel data analytics tools, offers unprecedented data sets for the studies of quasars in the time domain. I will illustrate this with examples from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), which has an open and growing archive of 500 million light curves, including 350,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars, with the time baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 10 years. I will discuss a new approach to discover quasars using a combination of variability and mid-IR colors from WISE, which results in a catalog of over a million quasar candidates. I will then discuss quasars with <span class="hlt">extreme</span>, anomolous light curves, including quasars that have gone through <span class="hlt">extreme</span> brightening events over the past decade with concordant large changes in their spectroscopic properties. I will also discuss a small subset of quasars with periodic light curves which we interpret as a signature of close (milliparsec scale) supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237847"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical homicide and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> negligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duncanson, Emily; Richards, Virginia; Luce, Kasey M; Gill, James R</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Deaths that occur during medical care for the treatment of a disease are rarely certified as homicides. Some "medical" deaths, however, have been criminally prosecuted for manslaughter, reckless endangerment, or reckless homicide. We describe 5 deaths due to medical complications that underwent criminal prosecution. Three of the deaths were certified as homicides. Deaths certified as homicides due to the actions (or inactions) of a caregiver occur in 3 circumstances. The first is when the medical caregiver intentionally causes the death of the patient. The second is a death due to treatment by an unlicensed fraud or quack. The final circumstance is due to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> medical negligence that involves a gross and wanton disregard for the well-being of the patient and is the most controversial in the medical community. The law defines reckless endangerment as the conscious disregard of a known substantial likelihood of injury to the patient. Criminal neglect typically is defined as the failure to provide timely, safe, adequate, and appropriate services, treatment, and/or care to a patient. In instances of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> medical negligence, a homicide manner of death is appropriate because the fatality is due to the criminal acts (or inactions) of another. It also furthers one of the major goals of the medicolegal death investigation system, which is to safeguard the public health. PMID:19237847</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920024082&hterms=living+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dliving%2Benvironment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920024082&hterms=living+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dliving%2Benvironment"><span id="translatedtitle">Dome cities for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leonard, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Milton</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> environments whether they be the frigid nights of the polar regions, the burning sands of the desert, or the harsh environment of space pose interesting challenges to the architect, the engineer, and the constructor in their efforts to create habitats for mankind. In space, the goals are to provide radiation protection while also providing an aesthetic living environment for long duration missions. Because of the need to provide both radiation protection and options for expansion of base facilities, a unique structural system which separates the radiation protection systems from the pressure envelope of the habitats was created. The system uses cable networks in a tensioned structural system, which supports the lunar regolith used for shielding above the facilities. The system is modular, easily expandable, and simple to construct. Additional innovations include the use of rock melting perpetrators for piles and anchoring deadmen, and various sized craters to provide side shielding. The reflective properties of the fabric used in the membrane are utilized to provide diffuse illumination. The use of craters along with the suspended shielding allows the dome to be utilized in fashions similar to those proposed by various designers unaware of the Moon's hostile radiation environment. Additional topics addressed deal with construction techniques for large domes, i.e., on the order of 100's to 1000's of meters, thermal control, the integration of tertiary water treatment schemes with architectural design, human factors, and its implications for the design of habitats for long term use in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DPPhTP120M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DPPhTP120M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Low Aspect Ratio Stellarators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moroz, Paul</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Recently proposed Spherical Stellarator (SS) concept [1] includes the devices with stellarator features and low aspect ratio, A <= 3.5, which is very unusual for stellarators (typical stellarators have A ≈ 7-10 or above). Strong bootstrap current and high-β equilibria are two distinguished elements of the SS concept leading to compact, steady-state, and efficient fusion reactor. Different coil configurations advantageous for the SS have been identified and analyzed [1-6]. In this report, we will present results on novel stellarator configurations which are unusual even for the SS approach. These are the <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-low-aspect-ratio-stellarators (ELARS), with the aspect ratio A ≈ 1. We succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform (ι ≈ 0.1 - 0.15), large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Stellarator News 48, 2 (1996); [5] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 8 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1056633.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1056633.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Min and Max <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Interval Values</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The paper shows how to find the min and max <span class="hlt">extreme</span> interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform <span class="hlt">extreme</span> interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max <span class="hlt">extreme</span> interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3382921','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3382921"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcome Trajectories in <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Preterm Infants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carlo, Waldemar A.; Tyson, Jon E.; Langer, John C.; Walsh, Michele C.; Parikh, Nehal A.; Das, Abhik; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: Methods are required to predict prognosis with changes in clinical course. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature neonates can be predicted at birth/admission to the ICU by considering gender, antenatal steroids, multiple birth, birth weight, and gestational age. Predictions may be improved by using additional information available later during the clinical course. Our objective was to develop serial predictions of outcome by using prognostic factors available over the course of NICU hospitalization. METHODS: Data on infants with birth weight ≤1.0 kg admitted to 18 large academic tertiary NICUs during 1998–2005 were used to develop multivariable regression models following stepwise variable selection. Models were developed by using all survivors at specific times during hospitalization (in delivery room [n = 8713], 7-day [n = 6996], 28-day [n = 6241], and 36-week postmenstrual age [n = 5118]) to predict death or death/neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months. RESULTS: Prediction of death or neurodevelopmental impairment in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> premature infants is improved by using information available later during the clinical course. The <span class="hlt">importance</span> of birth weight declines, whereas the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of respiratory illness severity increases with advancing postnatal age. The c-statistic in validation models ranged from 0.74 to 0.80 with misclassification rates ranging from 0.28 to 0.30. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic models of the changing probability of individual outcome can improve outcome predictions in preterm infants. Various current and future scenarios can be modeled by input of different clinical possibilities to develop individual “outcome trajectories” and evaluate impact of possible morbidities on outcome. PMID:22689874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RPPh...77c6902U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RPPh...77c6902U"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma physics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> astrophysical environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Rightley, Shane</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very <span class="hlt">extreme</span> physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)—the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems <span class="hlt">important</span> to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595053"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma physics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> astrophysical environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uzdensky, Dmitri A; Rightley, Shane</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very <span class="hlt">extreme</span> physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems <span class="hlt">important</span> to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254855"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon tetrachloride under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pravica, Michael Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella</p> <p>2014-05-21</p> <p>We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl{sub 4} were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl{sub 4} above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl{sub 4} using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl{sub 4}+ hν → C + 2Cl{sub 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23101609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23101609"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> prosthetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Until recently, upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. PMID:23101609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EOSTr..93..194B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EOSTr..93..194B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> could affect agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1189918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1189918"><span id="translatedtitle">Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized <span class="hlt">extremities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenquist, J B</p> <p>1975-11-01</p> <p>The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852546"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon tetrachloride under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella</p> <p>2014-05-21</p> <p>We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl4 were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl4 above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl4 using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl4+ hν → C + 2Cl2. PMID:24852546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013xmm..prop..179B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013xmm..prop..179B"><span id="translatedtitle">Observing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> SFXTs with XMM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bozzo, Enrico</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We propose a 130 ks-long XMM-Newton observation of the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> among the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient, IGR J17544 2619, to unveil the mechanism regulating the unique behavior of these objects in the X-ray domain. This deep observation with XMM will secure: (i) enough sensitivity to study with the required accuracy soft spectral components, which are the most reliable tracers of the donor wind structure and can be used to efficiently probe the accretion flow geometry in wind-fed systems; (ii) catch at least one bright burst and 7-10 smaller flares, permitting an accurate spectral and statistical analysis of the triggering mechanism; (iii) measure pulsations down to pulsed fractions of 4-5% and spin periods of 3-4 ks, expected for magnetars in binaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhA...49oLT01E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhA...49oLT01E"><span id="translatedtitle">Zipf law: an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eliazar, Iddo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7965V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7965V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> solar energetic particle events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vainio, Rami; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Properties of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar energetic particle (SEP) events, here defined as those leading to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays, are reviewed. We review recent efforts on modeling SEP acceleration to relativistic energies and present simulation results on particle acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in different types of coronal magnetic structures and turbulent downstream compression regions. Based on these modeling results, we discuss the possible role of solar and CME parameters in the lack of GLEs during the present sunspot cycle. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354372','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354372"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> deep vein thrombosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saseedharan, Sanjith; Bhargava, Sunil</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011. PMID:22624098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185560"><span id="translatedtitle">Gut Microbiota and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Longevity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biagi, Elena; Franceschi, Claudio; Rampelli, Simone; Severgnini, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Turroni, Silvia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Quercia, Sara; Scurti, Maria; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The study of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae). PMID:27185560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMGC21A0857W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMGC21A0857W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Pineapple Express phenomenon via Multivariate <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weller, G.; Cooley, D. S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The pineapple express (PE) phenomenon is responsible for producing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winter precipitation events in the coastal and mountainous regions of the western United States. Because the PE phenomenon is also associated with warm temperatures, the heavy precipitation and associated snowmelt can cause destructive flooding. In order to study impacts, it is <span class="hlt">important</span> that regional climate models from NARCCAP are able to reproduce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events produced by PE. We define a daily precipitation quantity which captures the spatial extent and intensity of precipitation events produced by the PE phenomenon. We then use statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory to model the tail dependence of this quantity as seen in an observational data set and each of the six NARCCAP regional models driven by NCEP reanalysis. We find that most NCEP-driven NARCCAP models do exhibit tail dependence between daily model output and observations. Furthermore, we find that not all <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events are pineapple express events, as identified by Dettinger et al. (2011). The synoptic-scale atmospheric processes that drive <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events produced by PE have only recently begun to be examined. Much of the current work has focused on pattern recognition, rather than quantitative analysis. We use daily mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) fields from NCEP to develop a "pineapple express index" for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation, which exhibits tail dependence with our observed precipitation quantity for pineapple express events. We build a statistical model that connects daily precipitation output from the WRFG model, daily MSLP fields from NCEP, and daily observed precipitation in the western US. Finally, we use this model to simulate future observed precipitation based on WRFG output driven by the CCSM model, and our pineapple express index derived from future CCSM output. Our aim is to use this model to develop a better understanding of the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22817779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22817779"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> losses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease <span class="hlt">extreme</span> flood losses. Increased return periods of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the <span class="hlt">importance</span> of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy. PMID:22817779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1218389S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1218389S"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on wildlife plant flowering over Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how <span class="hlt">extremes</span> specifically impact the timing of this <span class="hlt">important</span> phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3898U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3898U"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> solar particle events: The worst case scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Usoskin, Ilya; Kovaltsov, Gennady</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sporadic eruptive energetic events on the Sun may occur during periods of high solar activity. Sometimes such events can be strong or even <span class="hlt">extreme</span> posing serious hazards for the modern technology and communication dependent society. It is <span class="hlt">important</span> to asses the worst case scenario for an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar particle event and what the probability of its occurrence. The era of direct scientific exploration of the Sun is short - from few decades to a century, and yet several strong harmful events took place during that time. Can we expect even greater events? How often? What shall we prepare for? In order to answer these questions, one has to rely upon indirect methods by analyzing natural proxy archives. Here we present an overview of the history of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar events in the past, from hundreds to millions of year, based on an analysis of cosmogenic isotopes in terrestrial archives (polar ice cores and tree rings) and in lunar rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........20D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........20D"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low-temperature event using nonparametric methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Silva, Anisha</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis presents a new method of estimating the one-in-N low temperature threshold using a non-parametric statistical method called kernel density estimation applied to daily average wind-adjusted temperatures. We apply our One-in-N Algorithm to local gas distribution companies (LDCs), as they have to forecast the daily natural gas needs of their consumers. In winter, demand for natural gas is high. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> low temperature events are not directly related to an LDCs gas demand forecasting, but knowledge of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low temperatures is <span class="hlt">important</span> to ensure that an LDC has enough capacity to meet customer demands when <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low temperatures are experienced. We present a detailed explanation of our One-in-N Algorithm and compare it to the methods using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution, the normal distribution, and the variance-weighted composite distribution. We show that our One-in-N Algorithm estimates the one-in- N low temperature threshold more accurately than the methods using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution, the normal distribution, and the variance-weighted composite distribution according to root mean square error (RMSE) measure at a 5% level of significance. The One-in- N Algorithm is tested by counting the number of times the daily average wind-adjusted temperature is less than or equal to the one-in- N low temperature threshold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290542','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290542"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptome and Network Changes in Climbers at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guojie; Zhou, Bing; Yi, Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hang; Xu, Xiaohong; Shen, Feng; Qu, Ning; Wang, Yading; Gao, Guoyi; San, A.; JiangBai, LuoSang; Sang, Hua; Fang, Xiangdong; Kristiansen, Karsten; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Jian</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m), and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an <span class="hlt">important</span> regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples. PMID:22393366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712647M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712647M"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational early warning platform for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> meteorological events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Operational early warning platform for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> meteorological events Most natural disasters are related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events (e.g. typhoons); weather conditions, however, are also highly relevant for humanitarian and disaster relief operations during and after other natural disaster like earthquakes. The internet service "Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung" (WF) provides various information on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events, especially when these events are associated with a high potential for large damage. The main focus of the platform is on Central Europe, but major events are also monitored worldwide on a daily routine. WF provides high-resolution forecast maps for many weather parameters which allow detailed and reliable predictions about weather conditions during the next days in the affected areas. The WF service became operational in February 2004 and is part of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) since 2007. At the end of 2011, CEDIM embarked a new type of interdisciplinary disaster research termed as forensic disaster analysis (FDA) in near real time. In case of an imminent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather event WF plays an <span class="hlt">important</span> role in CEDIM's FDA group. It provides early and precise information which are always available and updated several times during a day and gives advice and assists with articles and reports on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..08U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..08U"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures: soil water supply and yield variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urban, D.; Lobell, D. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events have profound consequences for both the mean and interannual variability of agricultural production, but while the role of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat has been convincingly demonstrated, soil water supply has received less attention. In particular, there is debate over the extent to which damages attributed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat are confounded with drought conditions. In a pair of studies, we examine the effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> moisture conditions, both wet and dry, on maize and soybean yields in the U.S. We find significant effects of waterlogging during the planting season, when crops are most vulnerable to excess moisture, as well as evidence for a strong interaction between high temperatures and low moisture during during the critical stages of the summer growing season. Using both precipitation and model-derived soil moisture data, our results suggest that considering temperature and moisture independently will underestimate yield damages during hot, dry conditions. Many warming scenarios project increases in both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> summer temperatures and soil dryness, and considering these effects jointly can be <span class="hlt">important</span> in estimating future yield variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASCMO...1...45J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASCMO...1...45J"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation within atmospheric river events over California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeon, S.; Prabhat; Byna, S.; Gu, J.; Collins, W. D.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are large, spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor. These systems often cause severe downpours and flooding over the western coastal United States - and with the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming we expect ARs to play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role as potential causes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation changes. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation properties correlated with AR events in a warmer climate, which are large-scale meteorological patterns affecting the weather and climate of California. We have recently developed the TECA (Toolkit for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Analysis) software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate data sets. Specifically, we can now identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. Based on this detection procedure, we can investigate the impact of ARs by exploring the spatial extent of AR precipitation using climate model (CMIP5) simulations and characterize spatial patterns of dependence for future projections between AR precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under climate change within the statistical framework. Our results show that AR events in the future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway)8.5 scenario (2076-2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer days than events from the historical run (1981-2005). We also find that the dependence between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events has a shorter spatial range, within localized areas in California, under the high future emissions scenario than under the historical run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1226108-characterization-extreme-precipitation-within-atmospheric-river-events-over-california','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1226108-characterization-extreme-precipitation-within-atmospheric-river-events-over-california"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation within atmospheric river events over California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Jeon, S.; Prabhat,; Byna, S.; Gu, J.; Collins, W. D.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are large, spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor. These systems often cause severe downpours and flooding over the western coastal United States – and with the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming we expect ARs to play an <span class="hlt">important</span> role as potential causes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation changes. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation properties correlated with AR events in a warmer climate, which are large-scale meteorological patterns affecting the weather and climate of California. We have recently developed the TECA (Toolkit for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climatemore » Analysis) software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate data sets. Specifically, we can now identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. Based on this detection procedure, we can investigate the impact of ARs by exploring the spatial extent of AR precipitation using climate model (CMIP5) simulations and characterize spatial patterns of dependence for future projections between AR precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under climate change within the statistical framework. Our results show that AR events in the future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway)8.5 scenario (2076–2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer days than events from the historical run (1981–2005). We also find that the dependence between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events has a shorter spatial range, within localized areas in California, under the high future emissions scenario than under the historical run.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9549V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9549V"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial regression models for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in Belgium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van de Vyver, H.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Quantification of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is <span class="hlt">important</span> for flood planning purposes, and a common measure of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is the T year return level. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation depths in Belgium are analyzed for accumulation durations ranging from 10 min to 30 days. Spatial generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) models are presented by considering multisite data and relating GEV parameters to geographical/climatological covariates through a common regression relationship. Methods of combining data from several sites are in common use, and in such cases, there is likely to be nonnegligible intersite dependence. However, parameter estimation in GEV models is generally done with the maximum likelihood estimation method (MLE) that assumes independence. Estimates of uncertainty are adjusted for spatial dependence using methodologies proposed earlier. Consistency of GEV distributions for various durations is obtained by fitting a smooth function to the preliminary estimations of the shape parameter. Model quality has been assessed by various statistical tests and indicates the relevance of our approach. In addition, a methodology is applied to account for the fact that measurements have been made in fixed intervals (usually 09:00 UTC-09:00 UTC). The distribution of the annual sliding 24 h maxima was specified through <span class="hlt">extremal</span> indices of a more than 110 year time series of 24 h aggregated 10 min rainfall and daily rainfall. Finally, the selected models are used for producing maps of precipitation return levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPCS...84....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPCS...84....1S"><span id="translatedtitle">Focus issue on the Study of Matter at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saini, Naurang L.; Saxena, Surendra K.; Bansil, Arun</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Study of matter at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions encompasses many different approaches for understanding the physics, chemistry and materials science underlying processes, products and technologies <span class="hlt">important</span> for society. Although <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions have been associated traditionally with research in areas of geology, mineral and earth sciences, the field has expanded in the recent years to include work on energy related materials and quantum functional materials from hard to soft matter. With the motivation to engage a large number of scientists with various disciplinary interests, ranging from physics, chemistry, geophysics to materials science, the study of matter at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions has been the theme of a series of conferences hosted by the High Pressure Science Society of America (HiPSSA) and the Center for the Study of Matter at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions (CeSMEC) of Florida International University (FIU), Miami. These SMEC (Study of Matter at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions) conferences are aimed at providing a unique platform for leading researchers to meet and share cutting-edge developments, and to bridge established fields under this interdisciplinary umbrella for research on materials. The seventh meeting in the SMEC series was held during March 23-30, 2013, while sailing from Miami to the Caribbean Islands, and concluded with great enthusiasm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6484M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6484M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical phenomena: implications for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event attribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Dann; Davini, Paolo; Harvey, Ben; Massey, Neil; Haustein, Karsten; Woollings, Tim; Jones, Richard; Otto, Fredi; Guillod, Benoit; Sparrow, Sarah; Wallom, David; Allen, Myles</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric modes of variability relevant for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature and precipitation events are evaluated in models currently being used for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event attribution. A multi-thousand initial condition ensemble of the global circulation model HadAM3P is compared with both the multi-model ensemble from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP-5) and the CMIP-5 atmosphere-only counterparts (AMIP-5). The analysis focuses on mid Northern Latitudes (primarily Europe) during winter, and is compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis. The tri-modal Atlantic Eddy-driven jet distribution is remarkably well captured in HadAM3P, but not so in CMIP-5 or AMIP-5. The well known underestimation of blocking in the Atlantic region is apparent in CMIP-5 and AMIP-5, and to a lesser extent in HadAM3P. Pacific blocking features are well produced in all modeling initiatives. Blocking duration is generally biased towards models reproducing too many short-lived events. Associated storm tracks are too zonal over the Atlantic in the CMIP-5 ensemble, but well simulated in HadAM3P with the exception of being too weak over Western Europe. In all cases, the CMIP-5 and AMIP-5 performances were almost identical, suggesting that the atmospheric modes considered here are not strongly coupled to SSTs, and perhaps other model characteristics such as resolution are more <span class="hlt">important</span>. It is recommended that only models capable of producing the necessary dynamical phenomena be used for event attribution analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090039389','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090039389"><span id="translatedtitle">Polyimide Resins Resist <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51J..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51J..02B"><span id="translatedtitle">Remembrance of ecohydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> past</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Band, L. E.; Hwang, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Ecohydrological systems operate at time scales that span several orders of magnitude. Significant processes and feedbacks range from subdaily physiologic response to meteorological drivers, to soil forming and geomorphic processes ranging up through 10^3-10^4 years. While much attention in ecohydrology has focused on ecosystem optimization paradigms, these systems can show significant transience in structure and function, with apparent memory of hydroclimate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and regime shifts. While optimization feedbacks can be reconciled with system transience, a better understanding of the time scales and mechanisms of adjustment to increased hydroclimate variability and to specific events is required to understand and predict dynamics and vulnerability of ecosystems. Under certain circumstances of slowly varying hydroclimate, we hypothesize that ecosystems can remain adjusted to changing climate regimes, without displaying apparent system memory. Alternatively, rapid changes in hydroclimate and increased hydroclimate variability, amplified with well expressed non-linearity in the processes controlling feedbacks between water, carbon and nutrients, can move ecosystems far from adjusted states. The Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory is typical of humid, broadleaf forests in eastern North America, with a range of forest biomes from northern hardwoods at higher elevations, to oak-pine assemblages at lower elevations. The site provides almost 80 years of rainfall-runoff records for a set of watersheds under different management, along with multi-decadal forest plot structural information, soil moisture conditions and stream chemistry. An initial period of multi-decadal cooling, was followed by three decades of warming and increased hydroclimate variability. While mean temperature has risen over this time period, precipitation shows no long term trends in the mean, but has had a significant rise in variability with repeated <span class="hlt">extreme</span> drought and wet periods. Over this latter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMAA..338..675R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMAA..338..675R"><span id="translatedtitle">Semistable <span class="hlt">extremal</span> ground states for nonlinear evolution equations in unbounded domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Bernal, Aníbal; Vidal-López, Alejandro</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>In this paper we show that dissipative reaction-diffusion equations in unbounded domains posses <span class="hlt">extremal</span> semistable ground states equilibria, which bound asymptotically the global dynamics. Uniqueness of such positive ground state and their approximation by <span class="hlt">extremal</span> equilibria in bounded domains is also studied. The results are then applied to the <span class="hlt">important</span> case of logistic equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001478','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001478"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Case of Magnetars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kouveliotou, Chryssa</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 18) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11, 2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from four magnetar sources. Two of these were brand new sources, SGR J0501+4516, discovered with Swift and extensively monitored with Swift and GBM, SGR J0418+5729, discovered with GBM and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). A third was SGR J1550-5418, a source originally classified as an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP 1E1547.0-5408), but exhibiting a very prolific outburst with over 400 events recorded in January 2009. In my talk I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts. Finally, I will describe the exciting new results of Fermi in this field and the current status of our knowledge of the magnetar population properties and magnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6181"><span id="translatedtitle">Masks for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080043956&hterms=Magnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080043956&hterms=Magnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swank, Jean; Kallman, Timothy R.; Jahoda, Keith M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Gas accreting ont,o black holes and neutron stars form a dynamic system generating X-rays with spectroscopic signatures and varying on time scales determined by the system. The radiation from various parts of these systems is surely polarized and compact sources have been calculated to give rise to net polarization from the unresolved sum of the radiation from the systems. Polarization has been looked to for some time as also bearing the imprint of strong gravity and providing complementary information that could resolve ambiguities between the physical models that can give rise to frequencies, time delays, and spectra. In the cases of both stellar black holes and supermassive black holes the net polarizations predicted for probable disk and corona models are less than 10 needed. This sensitivity can be achieved, even for sources as faint as 1 milliCrab, in the Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission that uses foil mirrors and Time Projection Chamber detectors. Similarities have been pointed out between the timing and the spectral characteristics of low mass X-ray binaries and stellar black hole sources. Polarization measurements for these sources could play a role in determining the configuration of the disk and the neutron star.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARW28006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARW28006K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Mechanics of Growing Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhl, Ellen</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Growth is a distinguishing feature of all living things. Unlike standard materials, living matter can autonomously respond to alterations in its environment. As a result of a continuous ultrastructural turnover and renewal of cells and extracellular matrix, living matter can undergo <span class="hlt">extreme</span> changes in composition, size, and shape within the order of months, weeks, or days. While hard matter typically adapts by increasing its density to grow strong, soft matter adapts by increasing its volume to grow large. Here we provide a state-of-the-art review of growing matter, and compare existing mathematical models for growth and remodeling of living systems. Applications are plentiful ranging from plant growth to tumor growth, from asthma in the lungs to restenosis in the vasculature, from plastic to reconstructive surgery, and from skeletal muscle adaptation to heart failure. Using these examples, we discuss current challenges and potential future directions. We hope to initiate critical discussions around the biophysical modeling of growing matter as a powerful tool to better understand biological systems in health and disease. This research has been supported by the NSF CAREER award CMMI 0952021.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75d6110M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75d6110M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> times for volatility processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masoliver, Jaume; Perelló, Josep</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> times techniques, generally applied to nonequilibrium statistical mechanical processes, are also useful for a better understanding of financial markets. We present a detailed study on the mean first-passage time for the volatility of return time series. The empirical results extracted from daily data of major indices seem to follow the same law regardless of the kind of index thus suggesting an universal pattern. The empirical mean first-passage time to a certain level L is fairly different from that of the Wiener process showing a dissimilar behavior depending on whether L is higher or lower than the average volatility. All of this indicates a more complex dynamics in which a reverting force drives volatility toward its mean value. We thus present the mean first-passage time expressions of the most common stochastic volatility models whose approach is comparable to the random diffusion description. We discuss asymptotic approximations of these models and confront them to empirical results with a good agreement with the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSMSM32C..04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSMSM32C..04C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD (or ISM) models, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash, which provides a challenge to the existing MHD (or ISM) models. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. During high solar wind pressure period on April 21, 1999, the POLAR spacecraft observed lower ion flux in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighbouring cusp cavities. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1288C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1288C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large cusp diamagnetic cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, J.; Fritz, T.; Siscoe, G.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities have been observed in the morningside during intervals when the IMF By component was positive (duskward), suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity to the entire magnetopause may have significant global impacts on the geospace environment. They will possibly be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in the regions upstream of the subsolar magnetopause where energetic ion events frequently are observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..APRE17002G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..APRE17002G"><span id="translatedtitle">Driving <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Efficiency to Market</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garbesi, Karina</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The rapid development of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030012934','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030012934"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming in a Research Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the applicability of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming in a scientific research context. The cultural environment at a government research center differs from the customer-centric business view. The chief theoretical difficulty lies in defining the customer to developer relationship. Specifically, can <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming be utilized when the developer and customer are the same person? Eight of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming's 12 practices are perceived to be incompatible with the existing research culture. Further, six of the nine 'environments that I know don't do well with XP' apply. A pilot project explores the use of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming in scientific research. The applicability issues are addressed and it is concluded that <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming can function successfully in situations for which it appears to be ill-suited. A strong discipline for mentally separating the customer and developer roles is found to be key for applying <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming in a field that lacks a clear distinction between the customer and the developer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1810547P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1810547P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and wet precipitation spell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Onof, Chris</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global warming is expected to alter the behavior of hydroclimatic variables in various ways. Therefore, it is of great <span class="hlt">importance</span> not only to identify which hydroclimatic variables are going through changes but also which of their specific characteristics change and in what way. For example the major focus regarding precipitation has been on changes or trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events or in annual totals, obviously, not without a reason. Yet one of the aspects of precipitation we believe is of equal <span class="hlt">importance</span> and has not been extensively studied is <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and wet spells. Changes in dry and wet spells can severely impact all aspects of human lives, ranging from infrastructure planning and water resources management to agriculture and infectious disease spread. In this study we perform an extensive analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and wet precipitation spells using tenths of thousands of daily precipitation records in order to identify trends or variability changes in the maximum number of consecutive dry or wet days of each year. Our final goal is to evaluate the percentage of stations globally with positive/negative trends either in the mean value or in variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and wet spells and assess if this percentage is statistically justifiable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27036670"><span id="translatedtitle">[Injury mechanisms in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violence settings].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arcaute-Velazquez, Fernando Federico; García-Núñez, Luis Manuel; Noyola-Vilallobos, Héctor Faustino; Espinoza-Mercado, Fernando; Rodríguez-Vega, Carlos Eynar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> violence events are consequence of current world-wide economic, political and social conditions. Injury patterns found among victims of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violence events are very complex, obeying several high-energy injury mechanisms. In this article, we present the basic concepts of trauma kinematics that regulate the clinical approach to victims of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violence events, in the hope that clinicians increase their theoretical armamentarium, and reflecting on obtaining better outcomes. PMID:27036670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/the-importance-of-corneal-thickness.php','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/the-importance-of-corneal-thickness.php"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Importance</span> of Corneal Thickness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... News About Us Donate In This Section The <span class="hlt">Importance</span> of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is <span class="hlt">important</span> because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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